CN114931074A - Water supply pipeline and corresponding culture system - Google Patents

Water supply pipeline and corresponding culture system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN114931074A
CN114931074A CN202210599190.8A CN202210599190A CN114931074A CN 114931074 A CN114931074 A CN 114931074A CN 202210599190 A CN202210599190 A CN 202210599190A CN 114931074 A CN114931074 A CN 114931074A
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China
Prior art keywords
water
water outlet
pipe body
area
rice
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CN202210599190.8A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
蔡艾铿
蔡宗谕
蔡宗霈
蔡克光
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Shenzhen Houpu Culture Media Co ltd
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Shenzhen Houpu Culture Media Co ltd
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Priority to CN202210599190.8A priority Critical patent/CN114931074A/en
Publication of CN114931074A publication Critical patent/CN114931074A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/20Cereals
    • A01G22/22Rice
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; AVICULTURE; APICULTURE; PISCICULTURE; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/50Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish
    • A01K61/59Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish of crustaceans, e.g. lobsters or shrimps
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; AVICULTURE; APICULTURE; PISCICULTURE; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K63/00Receptacles for live fish, e.g. aquaria; Terraria
    • A01K63/003Aquaria; Terraria
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; AVICULTURE; APICULTURE; PISCICULTURE; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K63/00Receptacles for live fish, e.g. aquaria; Terraria
    • A01K63/04Arrangements for treating water specially adapted to receptacles for live fish
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

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  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Environmental Sciences (AREA)
  • Marine Sciences & Fisheries (AREA)
  • Animal Husbandry (AREA)
  • Biodiversity & Conservation Biology (AREA)
  • Botany (AREA)
  • Zoology (AREA)
  • Farming Of Fish And Shellfish (AREA)
  • Cultivation Receptacles Or Flower-Pots, Or Pots For Seedlings (AREA)

Abstract

The invention provides a water replenishing pipeline which comprises a pipe body, a first water outlet plate arranged at the top of the pipe body, a second water outlet plate arranged at the bottom of the pipe body and soil fixing parts arranged at two sides of the pipe body, wherein the first water outlet plate is arranged at the top of the pipe body; the pipe body comprises a first pipe body water outlet arranged at the top and a second pipe body water outlet arranged at the bottom, the first water outlet plate is connected with the first pipe body water outlet, and the second water outlet plate is connected with the second pipe body water outlet. The invention also provides a culture system.

Description

Water supply pipeline and corresponding culture system
The application is a divisional application of a patent application with the patent application number of '201910889152.4' with the application date of '09.19.2019' and the name of 'a symbiotic cultivation system for immortal grass, crayfish and rice'.
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of biological cultivation, in particular to a symbiotic cultivation system for mesona chinensis, crayfish and rice.
Background
The freshwater crayfish has the characteristics of strong adaptability, high reproductive capacity, less diseases, poor feeding quality, fast growth and hypoxia resistance. The crayfish has high protein content in the body, has soft meat, is easy to digest, and is a good food for people who are weak and need to be recuperated after illness; the shrimp meat is rich in magnesium, zinc, iodine, selenium, etc., and magnesium has important regulating effect on heart activity, can protect cardiovascular system, reduce cholesterol content in blood, prevent arteriosclerosis, and dilate coronary artery, and is beneficial to preventing hypertension and myocardial infarction.
The existing crayfish breeding mode is generally pond breeding, water plants are needed to be planted as feed for crayfish, and if the quality of the planted water plants is not good, the yield of the crayfish and the proportion of high-quality crayfish are possibly reduced.
Therefore, the invention provides the symbiotic cultivation system for the mesona chinensis, the crayfishes and the rice, which can effectively improve the yield of the crayfishes in a unit area and the proportion of high-quality crayfishes.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention provides a mesona chinensis, crayfish and rice symbiotic cultivation system capable of effectively improving the yield of crayfish in a unit area and the proportion of high-quality crayfish, and aims to solve the technical problem that the existing crayfish cultivation system is poor in crayfish cultivation quality.
The invention provides a symbiotic cultivation system for mesona chinensis, crayfish and rice, which comprises:
a paddy field cultivation area which comprises a field surface with a similar rectangular or S-shaped design and is used for planting paddy rice;
a circular ditch area including a circular ditch arranged around the paddy field cultivation area for cultivating crayfish;
the outer ridge area comprises outer ridges arranged around the annular ditch area and is used for cultivating the Mesona chinensis Benth;
wherein, a water inlet pipeline is arranged at one end of the annular ditch close to the top, and a water outlet pipeline is arranged at the other end of the annular ditch close to the bottom;
an escape-preventing net for preventing the crayfishes from escaping is arranged on the inner side of the outer ridge area;
still be provided with the moisturizing pipeline of the rivers direction of the approximate perpendicular to ring ditch of extending direction in the ring ditch region, moisturizing pipeline protrusion in the ring ditch bottom for breed water in the ring ditch carries out the moisturizing operation.
In the symbiotic cultivation system of the mesona chinensis, the crayfish and the rice, the water replenishing pipeline comprises a pipe body, a first water outlet plate arranged at the top of the pipe body, a second water outlet plate arranged at the bottom of the pipe body and soil fixing parts arranged at two sides of the pipe body; the pipe body comprises a first pipe body water outlet arranged at the top and a second pipe body water outlet arranged at the bottom, the first water outlet plate is connected with the first pipe body water outlet, and the second water outlet plate is connected with the second pipe body water outlet.
In the symbiotic cultivation system for the mesona chinensis, the crayfish and the rice, the first water outlet plate comprises a first water inlet connected with the water outlet of the first pipe body, a first buffer channel used for performing buffer operation on top water supplement and a first water outlet used for uniformly guiding the top water supplement out of the top of the pipe body, and the first water outlet faces the top of the pipe body.
In the symbiotic cultivation system for the mesona chinensis, the crayfish and the rice, the second water outlet plate comprises a second water inlet connected with the water outlet of the second pipe body, a second buffer channel used for performing buffer operation on bottom water supplement, and second water outlets used for uniformly guiding the bottom water supplement out of the bottom of the pipe body, and the second water outlets face to two sides of the pipe body.
In the symbiotic cultivation system for the mesona chinensis, the crayfish and the rice, after the feeding operation is carried out in the feeding area, the water supplementing pipeline is used for supplementing water to the cultivation water in the circular ditch.
In the symbiotic cultivation system of the mesona chinensis, the crayfish and the rice, the water outlet pipeline is rotatably arranged at the position close to the bottom of the circular ditch so as to adjust the height of the water outlet pipeline.
In the symbiotic cultivation system of the mesona chinensis, the crayfish and the rice, the escape-proof net is buried 10cm to 15cm underground, the top end of the escape-proof net is 40 cm to 50 cm higher than the plane of the outer ridge, and the escape-proof net is black oilcloth, a glass plate or asbestos tiles.
In the system for symbiotic cultivation of mesona chinensis, crayfish and rice, a plurality of aquatic plant throwing areas are arranged in the annular ditch and used for throwing waterweed, hydrilla verticillata and alternanthera philoxeroides.
In the system for cultivating the sianchau, the crayfish and the rice in the symbiosis, a floating block for increasing the inhabitation area of the crayfish is further arranged in the middle of the annular ditch, and the floating block is arranged at a set height in the annular ditch through a bracket or a floating anchor.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects that: the symbiotic cultivation system for the mesona chinensis, the crayfishes and the rice is used for cultivating the rice in the rice field cultivation area, cultivating the crayfishes in the annular ditch area and cultivating the mesona chinensis in the outer ridge area, so that the cyclic cultivation of the mesona chinensis, the crayfishes and the rice is realized, the cultivation quality of the crayfishes is improved, and the technical problem that the existing crayfish cultivation system is poor in cultivation quality of the crayfishes is effectively solved.
Drawings
In order to more clearly illustrate the embodiments of the present invention or the technical solutions in the prior art, the drawings required in the embodiments are briefly introduced below, and the drawings in the following description are only corresponding to some embodiments of the present invention.
FIG. 1 is a schematic plan view of an embodiment of the symbiotic cultivation system for Mesona chinensis, crawfish and paddy rice of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional view of an embodiment of the symbiotic cultivation system for Mesona chinensis, crawfish and paddy rice of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic plan view of another embodiment of the symbiotic cultivation system for Mesona chinensis, crawfish and rice according to the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a schematic cross-sectional view of another embodiment of the symbiotic cultivation system for Mesona chinensis, crawfish and paddy rice of the present invention;
FIG. 5 is an enlarged view of area a of FIG. 3;
FIG. 6 is a sectional view taken along section line A-A' of FIG. 5;
FIG. 7 is a flow chart of the architecture of the field facilities corresponding to the symbiotic cultivation system for Mesona chinensis, crayfish and rice of the present invention;
FIG. 8 is a rice cultivation flow chart corresponding to the symbiotic cultivation system of Mesona chinensis, crayfish and rice of the invention;
FIG. 9 is a flow chart of crayfish breeding corresponding to the symbiotic cultivation system for immortal grass, crayfish and rice.
Detailed Description
The technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the drawings in the embodiments of the present invention, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, and not all of the embodiments. All other embodiments, which can be obtained by a person skilled in the art without making any creative effort based on the embodiments in the present invention, belong to the protection scope of the present invention.
The three cultivated plants and animals to which the present invention relates will be described first.
Rice: the south-to-north mountain range of Guangdong province, south-to-south sea, from the tidal field on the open sea surface to the terrace of mountain areas with kilometers of elevation, rice is planted in the paddy field, and the paddy field is in the Liaoning area. The Guangdong belongs to the climates of monsoon subtropics and tropical climate, the rainfall is abundant, the sunshine duration is long, the conditions are favorable for the growth of rice, the early rice is generally transplanted in late 3 months, and the early rice is harvested in middle 7 months; transplanting late rice in late 7 th month, and harvesting in middle 11 th month.
Crayfish: the growth of the crayfish is suitable for the water temperature of 18-31 ℃ and the optimum water temperature of 22-31 ℃. Under the natural conditions of proper temperature and sufficient feed, the crayfish fries with the body length of 5cm can reach sexual maturity after being fed for 2-3 months, the body length is more than 12cm, and the weight reaches 30 g. Under the condition of artificial feeding, the growth speed is obviously accelerated, and if the shrimp larvae with the same body length of 5cm are fed with the expanded pellet feed, the shrimp larvae can grow to more than 50g in 28 days.
The crayfish has omnivorous and wide eating property, and vegetable feed such as beans, grains, various dregs, vegetables, various aquatic plants and nontoxic terrestrial grass is the food of the crayfish; animal feed such as aquatic zooplankton, benthonic animals, animal viscera, silkworm pupa, earthworm, etc. are foods which are favored by the animals. The active period of the crayfishes in one year is 3-11 months, namely, the active period of eight nine months, and by the time of winter, the crayfishes enter the holes to pass the winter, and basically no operation is needed.
Crayfish in 3 months have typically begun a cave-out activity; the peak period of crayfish growth is 4-5 months; the 5-6 months are seasons for catching a large amount of finished shrimps; the rest period is generally 7-8 months, and the crayfishes are not too active due to the high temperature; the temperature begins to gradually decrease in 8-10 months, and the crayfish gradually begins to recover the vitality. During the period, the crayfishes are just in the peak period of mating and spawning; 10 months later, when capturing adult shrimps; the weather becomes cold in 11 months, the winter starts gradually, and the last catching of the grown shrimps and the putting of the seed shrimps can be basically carried out in the south.
Mesona chinensis Benth: the air temperature in spring is 10-15 ℃, the perennial roots of the Mesona chinensis begin to sprout a plurality of new seedlings, the plant diseases and insect pests are not easy to happen, and the pesticide is not required to be applied. When the height of the seedling is more than 3 cm, the tillering seedling can be divided into plants and transplanted with roots.
Referring to fig. 1 and 2, fig. 1 is a schematic plan view of an embodiment of a symbiotic cultivation system for immortal grass, crawfish and rice of the present invention, and fig. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional view of an embodiment of the symbiotic cultivation system for immortal grass, crawfish and rice of the present invention.
The symbiotic cultivation system 10 for the mesona chinensis, the crayfishes and the rice comprises a paddy field cultivation area 11, a circular ditch area 12 and an outer ridge area 13.
The paddy field cultivation area 11 comprises a field surface 111 which is designed in a similar rectangle shape or an S shape and is used for planting paddy rice; the circular ditch area 12 includes a circular ditch 121 disposed around the paddy field cultivation area for cultivating crayfish; the outer ridge area bag 13 comprises an outer ridge 131 arranged around the circular trench area and used for cultivating Mesona chinensis.
An inner ridge 112 for storing the water of the rice in the field surface 111 is arranged on the outer side of the rice field culture area 11, and the height of the top plane of the inner ridge 112 relative to the plane of the field surface 111 is 0.3-0.5 m.
The top of the annular ditch 121 in the annular ditch area 12 is 3-5 m wide, the depth of the bottom plane of the annular ditch 121 relative to the plane of the field surface 111 is 0.8-1.5 m, a water inlet pipeline 1211 is arranged at one end of the annular ditch 121 close to the top, a water outlet pipeline 1212 is arranged at the other end of the annular ditch 121 close to the bottom, the water inlet end of the water inlet pipeline 1211 can be arranged on the outer ridge 131, and a water inlet can be sealed by a 80-mesh dense net to prevent trash fish from entering. The outlet pipe 1212 may be designed as an L-shaped pipe, and one end of the L-shaped pipe is rotatably disposed near the bottom of the annular groove 121, so that the height of the outlet of the other end of the outlet pipe 1212 is adjusted by rotating the outlet pipe 1212, thereby controlling the depth of the water level in the annular groove 121.
The first annular groove slope 122 is arranged at the joint of the annular groove area 12 and the paddy field cultivation area 11, the second annular groove slope 123 is arranged at the joint of the annular groove area 12 and the outer ridge area 13, and the slope ratio of the first annular groove slope 122 to the second annular groove slope 123 is 1:2 to 1:3, so that the area of a hole digging area of crayfishes can be effectively increased later, and the cultivation quality of the crayfishes is improved.
Preferably, a plurality of groove stems 1213 are arranged in the middle area of the bottom of the annular groove 121, that is, a plurality of plastic bottles and bamboo tubes are arranged at the bottom of the annular groove 121 to serve as supporting members, soil is filled on the surfaces of the supporting members to serve as the groove stems 1213, so that the crayfish can be conveniently holed to avoid summer heat, breed, sleep and the like.
Preferably, a floating block 1214 is further provided in the middle of the annular groove 121, and the floating block 1214 may be disposed at a set height in the annular groove 121 by a bracket 1215 provided at the bottom of the annular groove 121, or may be disposed at a set height in the annular groove 121 by being connected to a floating anchor (not shown) provided at the bottom of the annular groove 121. The floating block 1214 can further increase the inhabitation area of crayfish and can play a certain role in shading sun, and the floating block 1214 can be made of net-shaped glass or plastic, etc. The set height may be 0.5 meters to 0.8 meters from the bottom of the annular trench 121.
Meanwhile, a plurality of aquatic plant throwing areas 1216 are arranged in the annular ditch 121, the area of each aquatic plant throwing area 1216 is about 50% of the area of the annular ditch area 12, the aquatic plants are planted in a grid mode, the aquatic plants can be waterweeds, hydrilla verticillata, alternaria alternata and the like, the planting time of the aquatic plants is preferably 11 to 1 month late, the aquatic plants are not suitable to be too early, and the pond sealing by aquatic plants is avoided.
In addition, in order to facilitate the detection of the water quality in the annular groove 121, a PH sensor 1217 for detecting the PH value of the annular groove water and a water oxygen content sensor 1218 for detecting the water oxygen content may be further disposed in the annular groove 121, so as to ensure that the PH value of the annular groove water is 7.5 to 8.5, the water source is sufficient, the water quality is good and no pollution is caused.
The top width of the outer ridge 131 is 1.5-2 meters, the height of the top plane of the outer ridge 131 relative to the plane of the field surface 111 is 1-1.5 meters, and the soil of the outer ridge 131 needs to be compacted to prevent collapse.
The inner side of the outer ridge area 13 is provided with an escape-proof net 132 for preventing crayfishes from escaping, the height of the escape-proof net 132 is 0.4-0.5 m, the escape-proof net 132 is made of smooth black oilcloth, glass plates, asbestos tiles and the like, the base part of the escape-proof net 132 is buried 10-15 cm underground, the top end of the escape-proof net 132 is 40-50 cm higher than the plane of the outer ridge 131, and 1 stick or bamboo rod is used for supporting the escape-proof net 1-2 m each. The escape-proof net at the corner can be embedded with a plastic film or a net sheet in the underground outer ridge area 13 due to the proximity of the water source in the circular trench.
An operating platform 14 with the width of 0.5-1 meter is arranged at the joint of the outer ridge area 13 and the annular ditch area 12, and workers can stand on the operating platform 14 to throw food to crayfish or go to a cage to catch crayfish. The outer ridge area 13 is provided with ridge slopes 133 at the junction of the operation platform 14, the slope ratio of the ridge slopes 133 is 1:2 to 1:3, and collapse of the outer ridge is avoided.
In order to further enhance the circulation of the water in the annular trench 121, a part of annular trench pipeline 1219 may be embedded at the bottom of the annular trench 121, which may further enhance the oxygen content of the water at the bottom of the annular trench 1219 by injecting new water into the lower water in the annular trench 1219, and enhance the circulation of the upper and lower water in the annular trench 1219.
Referring to fig. 3 and 4, fig. 3 is a schematic plan view of another embodiment of the symbiotic cultivation system for celestial grass, crayfish and rice of the present invention; FIG. 4 is a schematic cross-sectional view of another embodiment of the symbiotic cultivation system for Mesona chinensis, crawfish and paddy rice of the present invention.
The symbiotic cultivation system 20 for the mesona chinensis, the crayfish and the rice comprises a paddy field cultivation area 21, a circular ditch area 22 and an outer ridge area 23.
The rice field cultivation area 21 comprises a field surface 211 and an inner ridge 212 which are designed in a rectangular-like or S-shaped mode and are used for planting rice; the circular ditch area 22 comprises a circular ditch 221 arranged around the paddy field cultivation area 21 and used for cultivating crayfish; the outer ridge area 23 comprises an outer ridge 231 arranged around the circular trench area 22 and used for cultivating Mesona chinensis.
On the basis of the first embodiment, a water replenishing pipeline 222 extending in a direction substantially perpendicular to the water flow direction of the annular groove 221 is further disposed in the annular groove region 22 of the present embodiment, and the water replenishing pipeline 222 protrudes from the bottom of the annular groove 221 for performing a water replenishing operation on the culture water in the annular groove 221.
Referring to fig. 5 and 6, fig. 5 is an enlarged view of a region a of fig. 3; fig. 6 is a sectional view taken along the sectional line a-a' of fig. 5.
The water replenishing pipeline 222 comprises a pipe body 61, a first water outlet plate 62 arranged at the top of the pipe body 61, a second water outlet plate 63 arranged at the bottom of the pipe body 61 and soil fixing parts 64 arranged at two sides of the pipe body 61.
The tube 61 comprises a first tube water outlet 611 arranged at the top and a second tube water outlet 612 arranged at the bottom, the first water outlet plate 62 is connected with the first tube water outlet 611, and the second water outlet plate 63 is connected with the second tube water outlet 612.
The first water outlet plate 62 includes a first water inlet 621 connected to the first tube water outlet 611, a first buffer channel 622 for buffering the top water supply, and a first water outlet 623 for uniformly guiding the top water supply out of the top of the tube 61, as shown in fig. 5, each first water outlet 62 may be provided with a plurality of first water outlets 621, and each first water outlet 621 faces the top of the tube 61.
The second water outlet plate 63 includes a second water inlet 631 connected to the second pipe outlet 612, a second buffer channel 632 for buffering the bottom water, and a second water outlet 633 for evenly guiding the bottom water from the bottom of the pipe, as shown in fig. 6, each second water outlet 63 may be provided with a plurality of second water outlets 631, and each second water outlet 631 faces two sides of the pipe 61.
The symbiotic cultivation system 20 of the present embodiment further comprises feeding areas 223 arranged between adjacent water replenishing pipes 222.
When the symbiotic cultivation system 20 for celestial grass, crayfish and rice of the embodiment is used, when water needs to be added to the circular ditch 221, water can be added to the circular ditch through the water adding pipeline 222. Because the first water outlet plate 62 and the second water outlet plate 63 of the water replenishing pipe 222 are respectively arranged at the top and the bottom of the circular ditch 221, the water outlet of the first water outlet plate 62 and the second water outlet plate 63 can effectively promote the circulation of the water body in the circular ditch 221 in the vertical direction, and the water quality at the bottom of the circular ditch 221 is prevented from being deteriorated (such as the oxygen content of the water is lowered).
Meanwhile, the soil fixing portions 64 on the two sides of the pipe body 61 can fix the pipe body 61 of the water replenishing pipeline 222 on one hand, and can increase the punching area of the crayfish on the other hand, so that the crayfish breeding quantity and the crayfish breeding quality are improved.
Furthermore, the first water outlet plate 62 comprises a first buffer channel 622 with a bent pipeline, and the second water outlet plate 63 comprises a second buffer channel 632 with a bent pipeline, so that the impact water column caused by excessive water yield can be effectively avoided, and the breeding environment of the crayfish is affected. Meanwhile, the first water outlet 623 faces the top of the tube body 61, and the second water outlet 633 faces the two sides of the tube body 61, so that the influence of water supplement on the soil fixing part 64 is reduced as much as possible, and the activity environment quality of the crayfish is further improved.
In addition, as shown in fig. 3, a fixed feeding area 223 is further provided between adjacent water replenishing pipelines 61, which not only facilitates feeding and residue recovery operations of a feeder, but also avoids the influence of water replenishing operations on feeding. In order to further improve feeding efficiency, after feeding operation is carried out on the feeding area 223, water supplementing operation is carried out on the aquaculture water of the annular ditch 221 through the water supplementing pipeline 61, so that crayfish can be reminded of coming out to forage, the aquaculture environment of the crayfish can be effectively improved, and the activity of the crayfish is improved.
The mesona chinensis benth, crayfish and rice symbiotic cultivation system utilizes the agroecology principle to construct the mesona chinensis benth, crayfish and rice symbiotic cultivation system, and achieves self-reproduction, self-cultivation and self-cultivation of crayfish and improvement of system productivity through matching measures such as artificial planting, cultivation, fertilization, water level regulation, seed reservation and seed preservation.
Digging a circular ditch in the rice field, stocking crayfishes, and planting mesona chinensis on outer ridges. The microorganisms and pests generated in the growth process of the rice provide sufficient bait for the development of the crayfish, and meanwhile, the crayfish is fed by the residues of the immortal grass after the immortal grass is boiled in the immortal grass juice, so that the meat of the crayfish is more fragrant and tender. The excrement generated by the crayfish provides good biological fertilizer for the growth of the rice, and the straws can be returned to the field after the rice is harvested to improve the soil fertility. In the biological chain with complementary advantages, the quality of the mesona chinensis, the crayfish and the rice is guaranteed, and the rice becomes ecological rice which is close to natural growth.
The crawfish cultivation process of the symbiotic cultivation system of celestial grass, crawfish and rice of the invention is explained in detail below. Referring to fig. 7-9, fig. 7-9 are schematic views of crawfish cultivation process of the symbiotic cultivation system for celestial grass, crawfish and rice of the present invention. The cultivation process comprises a field facility construction process, a rice cultivation process, a mesona chinensis cultivation process and a crayfish cultivation process.
Wherein the field facility architecture process comprises:
step S701, excavating a circular ditch around a rice field cultivation area, wherein the width of the circular ditch is 3-5 meters, the depth of the circular ditch is 0.8-1.5 meters, reinforcing and heightening an outer ridge by utilizing soil excavated by excavating the circular ditch, tamping each layer of soil when the ridge is reinforced to prevent the outer ridge from collapsing caused by water seepage or rainstorm, wherein the outer ridge is 1-1.5 meters higher than the field surface, the bottom of the outer ridge is 5-6 meters wide, and the top of the outer ridge is 1.5-2 meters wide. And the outer ridge can also be provided with a ridge slope, so that the outer ridge is further reinforced.
An operating platform is arranged between the outer ridge and the annular ditch, the operating platform is equal to the top of the annular ditch in height, and the width of the operating platform is 0.5-1 meter, so that workers can throw food in the annular ditch and can catch crayfishes when falling into a cage.
An inner ridge for storing water for the rice is arranged around the field surface, and the height of the top plane of the inner ridge relative to the plane of the field surface is 0.3-0.5 m.
Step S702, a first annular groove slope is arranged at the junction of the annular groove and the field surface, a second annular groove slope is arranged at the junction of the annular groove and the outer ridge, and groove stems protruding from the plane of the bottom of the annular groove are arranged in the middle area of the bottom of the annular groove and can be arranged vertically and horizontally at the bottom of the annular groove. Therefore, the hole punching area of the crayfishes in the annular ditch can be increased, and the breeding quantity and the breeding quality of the crayfishes are improved.
In addition, a floating block for increasing the inhabitation area of the crayfishes is arranged in the middle of the circular ditch, and the floating block can be arranged at a set height in the circular ditch through a bracket arranged at the bottom of the circular ditch or connected with a floating anchor arranged at the bottom of the circular ditch. The floating block can further increase the inhabitation area of the crayfishes and can play a certain role in shading sun, and the floating block can be a net-shaped glass piece or a plastic piece and the like. The set height may be 0.5 to 0.8 meters from the bottom of the annular trench. Meanwhile, equipment such as a pH value sensor, a water sample content sensor and the like are also directly arranged on the bottom surface of the floating block so as to ensure the stability and accuracy of the obtained water sample.
Step S703, an anti-escape net is arranged along the inner periphery of the outer ridge region by using asbestos tiles or glass plates, the base of the anti-escape net is buried under the ground by 10cm to 15cm, the height of the anti-escape net is 0.4 m to 0.5 m, the turning part of the anti-escape net is arc-shaped, and a plastic film or a net piece can be buried in the outer ridge region under the ground due to the proximity of a water source in the circular ditch.
Step S704, a water inlet pipeline and a water outlet pipeline are respectively arranged at two ends of the annular ditch, a water inlet of the water inlet pipeline is arranged at the top of one end of the annular ditch, and a long mesh bag of 60 meshes to 80 meshes is arranged to filter water so as to prevent harmful organisms from entering along with water flow.
The water outlet pipeline can be set to be an L-shaped pipeline, a water outlet of the water outlet pipeline is arranged at the bottom of the other end of the annular groove, and water irrigation is guaranteed to be obtained according to a high irrigation and low drainage pattern. And the water outlet pipeline is rotatably arranged at the position close to the bottom of the annular ditch, and the height of one end of the water outlet pipeline can be adjusted through rotating one end of the water outlet pipeline connected with the annular ditch, so that the water level in the annular ditch is adjusted.
Thus, the framework of the field facilities of the symbiotic cultivation system of the mesona chinensis, the crayfish and the rice is completed.
The process of rice cultivation comprises:
step S801, selecting an adaptive rice variety, wherein the rice variety is preferably a high-quality high-yield rice variety which is short in growth period, thick and strong in stem, slightly higher in plant shape, resistant to fertilizer, resistant to diseases, insects and lodging and high and stable in yield.
Step S802, for the rice cultivation in the first year, applying 200-300 kg of farmyard manure and 10-15 kg of urea to each mu 10-15 days before transplanting, uniformly spreading the farmyard manure and the urea on the field surface, and uniformly ploughing and raking the farmyard manure and the urea by using a machine; in a rice field for one year or more in shrimp farming, since rotten rice straws and feces of crawfish are already present in the field surface, the fertilizing amount can be reduced by a proper amount.
And step S803, transplanting the seedlings generally in late 3 months and late 7 months, and adopting a method of shallow water transplanting, strip planting and side-row dense planting.
Step S804, apply the organic fertilizer decomposed into before transplanting rice seedlings into the plough horizon, achieve the lasting long-lasting purpose of fertility. When the top dressing is applied, the shallow field water is preferably drained firstly, the shrimps are concentrated in the circular ditch, then the fertilizer is applied, so that the fertilizer is rapidly deposited in the bottom field mud and absorbed by the field mud and the rice, and the field water is deepened to the normal depth immediately. Chemical fertilizers harmful to crayfish, such as ammonia water and ammonium bicarbonate, are strictly forbidden.
And step S805, performing field drying operation until the water level is reduced to expose the field surface, wherein the time is short. The water slowly flows out, so that most of crayfishes can swim into the ditch, the water level of the ditch is kept, the water quality management is enhanced, and the crayfishes are damaged by the excessively high water quality or the excessively high temperature. After the crayfish is well dried, the water level should be recovered in time, and the crayfish should not be dried for too long as possible, so that the adverse effect of the density of the crayfish in the circular groove caused by too large time is avoided.
And step S806, controlling rice diseases and insect pests by combining a physical method and biological prevention and control. One trap lamp is arranged every 10-20 mu. The peak period of the brown rice planthopper is after 9 months and 20 days every year, and the purpose of insect avoidance can be basically achieved as long as the water level of the rice field is kept about 20 centimeters.
In step S807, the water level of the rice field is rapidly lowered to 5-10cm above the field surface, and then slowly drained to promote crayfishes to dig holes in the small ridges, the annular ditches and the field ditches. Finally, the annular ditch and the field ditch keep the water level of 10cm-15cm, and then the rice can be harvested.
Thus, the cultivation process of rice is completed.
The cultivation process of the mesona chinensis benth comprises the following steps:
and (4) selecting medium-fertility soil which is convenient to drain and irrigate for cultivation, and watering after cultivation. After the immortal grass is planted and survived, the quick-acting fertilizer is applied for 1 time every 10 days, and after 30 days, the grass is intertilled and weeded for 1 time and is applied with fertilizer.
Grass can be mowed for 1 time every 40-45 days, the grass can grow well after leaving 5cm of stubble, but quick-acting fertilizer needs to be applied after cutting. The cut fresh grass can not be piled and retted and should be dried in the sun in time. The dried crayfish can be decocted, and the residue after decocting can be used for feeding crayfish.
Thus, the cultivation process of the Mesona chinensis Benth is completed.
The crayfish breeding process comprises the following steps:
step S901, sterilizing the circular ditches, specifically using 100-150 kg/mu of quick lime with water to sterilize, killing harmful organisms and pathogenic bacteria, preventing crayfish diseases, and selecting derris extract, tea cake juice or chlorine dioxide and peroxide disinfectant to sterilize because parent shrimps are left in the ditches in the next year.
Step S902, after 3-5 days of disinfection, injecting water into the annular ditch, and transplanting aquatic plants such as waterweed, hydrilla verticillata, alternaria alternata and the like into the annular ditch, wherein the planting area is controlled to be about 30 percent. After the rice is harvested and flooded, the field surface should be transplanted with aquatic plants. (before the parent shrimps are put in, aquatic plants with the area of 30-40% are transplanted in the annular ditch and the field ditch). Before and after the shrimp seeds are put in the ditch, some beneficial organisms such as tubificidae (0.3 to 0.5 kilogram per square meter), field snails (8 to 10 per square meter), freshwater mussels (3 to 4 per square meter) and the like are put in the ditch. Not only can purify water quality, but also can provide rich natural bait for crayfish.
In the culture process, water quality can be monitored in real time through equipment such as a PH value sensor and a water oxygen content sensor which are arranged in the annular ditch.
And step S903, putting artificially propagated shrimp fries with the body length of 2-3 cm in 3-4 months per year. Putting parent shrimps from late 8 to middle 9 of each month.
The paddy field for culturing the shrimps for the first time can put parent shrimps into the ring ditch from late 8 months to middle 9 months, and the parent shrimps are added into the paddy field according to the male-female ratio of 2: 1 to 3: 1 putting in water, immersing the shrimp basket in water for 1-2 minutes, lifting and draining, repeating for 2-3 times to enable the breeding shrimps to adapt to the water temperature, and then putting in water. 20 to 30 kilograms of seedlings are thrown in each mu, the seedlings of the shrimp-cultivated rice fields are supplemented properly according to the stock of shrimp seeds in the rice fields, the seedling supplementing amount is 60 to 70 percent of the seed throwing amount of the shrimp-cultivated rice fields in the first year, and 5 to 10 kilograms of seedlings are thrown in each mu.
The selection criteria of parent shrimps are as follows: 1. dark red or deep red, lustrous, smooth body surface and no attachment. 2. The individual is large, and the individual weight of male and female is more than 35 g. 3. The male and female parent shrimps require complete appendages, strong physique and strong mobility. The parent shrimps meeting one of the above standards are standard parent shrimps.
In step S904, the parent shrimps are fed with a small amount of animal feed or pellet feed in addition to natural baits such as organic debris, zooplankton, aquatic insects, periphyton, aquatic weeds, etc. in the rice field. When the water temperature is lower than 12 ℃, feeding is not needed. And after 3 months next year, when the water temperature rises to be more than 16 ℃, feeding the feed according to the conditions of the aquatic weeds and the natural baits in the field, and feeding the plant feed for 1 time in the evening, wherein the feeding amount is 1 to 4 percent of the total weight of the shrimps in the rice field. The feed may be Mesona chinensis residue, cake, bran, testa oryzae, bean dregs, etc.
Meanwhile, after the middle-season rice is harvested, the straw is returned to the field, the circular ditch is disinfected, and after 7 days, water is added to submerge the surface of the field. Meanwhile, applying a proper amount of organic fertilizer and benthonic animal culture medium, and planting aquatic weeds to cultivate palatable natural bait organisms for the juvenile shrimps. The crayfish can well eat land plants such as immortal grass, Chinese cabbage, pumpkin, rape and the like, the three-dimensional space of the rice field is fully utilized, the feed source is provided for the crayfish to the maximum extent, and the breeding feed cost is saved.
The rice field management work during the overwintering period is mainly to control the water temperature of the rice field by increasing and decreasing the water level, so that the rice field environment is more suitable for the survival and breeding of crayfishes. The water level of the rice field before the crayfishes live through the winter (namely 10-11 months) is controlled to be about 20-30 cm, so that part of rice stubble can be regenerated, the situation that the growth of the crayfishes is influenced by over-fertilization and oxygen deficiency of the water quality of the rice field due to the fact that the crayfishes are completely submerged can be avoided, and meanwhile, the water temperature in the rice field can be improved through the action of sunlight, and the growth of the crayfishes is facilitated; during the winter period, the water level is increased for heat preservation, and the temperature is generally controlled to be more than 60 cm.
And step S905, the parent shrimps can be captured and listed after 11 months and before 3 months in the parent shrimp putting mode in 8-9 months. Long-term fishing and large-size fishing are important measures for reducing the cost and increasing the yield. The fishing tool is mainly a ground cage, the specification of meshes of the ground cage is 2.5-3.0 cm, only adult shrimps are captured, and young shrimps can run out through the meshes. The specification of the adult shrimps is preferably controlled to be more than 30 g/tail. When receiving the shrimp cage, should select the crayfish that catches, will reach the crayfish of commodity specification and choose, put into the paddy field with the juvenile shrimp at once to do not make the juvenile shrimp extrusion, avoid hindering the shrimp body. If the shrimp seeds are to be harvested for sale, the harvesting can be started in the last 3 months and the harvesting is finished at the bottom of 4 months. The fishing time in the second season begins from the late 8 months to the end of the late 9 months.
If the seed is reserved from the second year, the rice field self-retaining parent shrimps are about 30 kg/mu. In the middle and late 5 months, when the yield of commercial shrimps in each pot is lower than 0.4kg, the fishing is stopped. The remaining crayfish is used to breed parent shrimp.
In order to avoid the influence of close breeding of the crayfishes left in the field on the yield and the economic benefit of the breeding in the rice field and improve the breeding amount of the crayfish breeding seeds in the rice field, the crayfish parent exchange work can be carried out in 7-9 months after the crayfish breeding seeds are bred for 2-3 years. Generally, more than 40 g of large-size parent shrimps are selected from lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze river or other culture areas and put into the rice field, and the putting amount is about 5 kg/mu.
Thus completing the crayfish breeding process of the symbiotic breeding system for the mesona chinensis, the crayfish and the rice.
The symbiotic cultivation system for the mesona chinensis, the crayfishes and the rice is used for cultivating the rice in the rice field cultivation area, cultivating the crayfishes in the annular ditch area and cultivating the mesona chinensis in the outer ridge area, so that the cyclic cultivation of the mesona chinensis, the crayfishes and the rice is realized, the cultivation quality of the crayfishes is improved, and the technical problem that the existing crayfish cultivation system is poor in cultivation quality of the crayfishes is effectively solved.
In summary, although the present invention has been described with reference to the preferred embodiments, the above-described preferred embodiments are not intended to limit the present invention, and those skilled in the art can make various changes and modifications without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention, therefore, the scope of the present invention shall be determined by the appended claims.

Claims (10)

1. A water replenishing pipe, comprising: the water outlet device comprises a pipe body, a first water outlet plate arranged at the top of the pipe body, a second water outlet plate arranged at the bottom of the pipe body and soil fixing parts arranged at two sides of the pipe body;
the pipe body comprises a first pipe body water outlet arranged at the top and a second pipe body water outlet arranged at the bottom, the first water outlet plate is connected with the first pipe body water outlet, and the second water outlet plate is connected with the second pipe body water outlet.
2. The water replenishing pipeline according to claim 1, wherein the first water outlet plate comprises a first water inlet connected with the first pipe body water outlet, a first buffer channel for performing a buffer operation on the top replenishing water, and a first water outlet for uniformly guiding the top replenishing water out of the top of the pipe body, and the first water outlet faces the top of the pipe body.
3. The water replenishing pipeline according to claim 1, wherein the second water outlet plate comprises a second water inlet connected with the second pipe body water outlet, a second buffer channel for performing a buffer operation on the bottom replenishing water, and a second water outlet for uniformly guiding the bottom replenishing water out of the bottom of the pipe body, and the second water outlet faces to two sides of the pipe body.
4. The water replenishing pipeline according to claim 1, wherein the water replenishing pipeline is arranged in the annular ditch, and the extending direction of the water replenishing pipeline is approximately perpendicular to the water flow direction of the annular ditch.
5. A farming system, comprising:
a paddy field cultivation area which comprises a field surface in a similar rectangular or S-shaped design and is used for planting paddy rice;
a circular ditch area including a circular ditch arranged around the paddy field breeding area for breeding crayfish;
the outer ridge area comprises outer ridges arranged around the annular ditch area and is used for cultivating the Mesona chinensis Benth;
wherein, a water inlet pipeline is arranged at one end of the annular ditch close to the top, and a water outlet pipeline is arranged at the other end of the annular ditch close to the bottom;
an escape-preventing net for preventing the crayfishes from escaping is arranged on the inner side of the outer ridge area;
a water replenishing pipeline for replenishing the culture water in the annular ditch according to any one of claims 1 to 4 is further arranged in the annular ditch area.
6. The farming system of claim 5, wherein the fairy grass, crawfish, and rice symbiotic farming system further comprises a feeding area disposed between adjacent watering lines.
7. The aquaculture system of claim 6 wherein after the feeding operation is performed in the feeding area, the aquaculture water in the annular trench is replenished through the replenishing pipe.
8. The farming system of claim 5 wherein the outlet conduit is rotatably disposed proximate a bottom of the annular channel to adjust a height of an outlet of the outlet conduit.
9. The culture system of claim 5, wherein the escape-proof net is buried 10-15 cm underground, the top end of the escape-proof net is 40-50 cm higher than the plane of the outer ridge, and the escape-proof net is black oilcloth, a glass plate or asbestos tiles.
10. The farming system of claim 5 wherein the intermediate portion of the annular trench is further provided with a flotation block that increases the habitat area for crayfish, the flotation block being disposed at a set height in the annular trench by means of a bracket or a flotation anchor.
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