CN111480604A - Method for cultivating shrimps and crabs in rotation in green and efficient rice field co-farming mode - Google Patents

Method for cultivating shrimps and crabs in rotation in green and efficient rice field co-farming mode Download PDF

Info

Publication number
CN111480604A
CN111480604A CN202010506243.8A CN202010506243A CN111480604A CN 111480604 A CN111480604 A CN 111480604A CN 202010506243 A CN202010506243 A CN 202010506243A CN 111480604 A CN111480604 A CN 111480604A
Authority
CN
China
Prior art keywords
rice
field
crabs
escape
culture
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
CN202010506243.8A
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
Inventor
陈友明
朱延年
朱虹
黄鸿兵
唐建清
黄开忠
万金娟
徐士清
Current Assignee (The listed assignees may be inaccurate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation or warranty as to the accuracy of the list.)
Guannan Agricultural Technology Extension Center
JIANGSU AGRICULTURAL MACHINE DEVELOPMENT APPLICATION CENTER
Freshwater Fisheries Research Institute of Jiangsu Province
Original Assignee
Guannan Agricultural Technology Extension Center
JIANGSU AGRICULTURAL MACHINE DEVELOPMENT APPLICATION CENTER
Freshwater Fisheries Research Institute of Jiangsu Province
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by Guannan Agricultural Technology Extension Center, JIANGSU AGRICULTURAL MACHINE DEVELOPMENT APPLICATION CENTER, Freshwater Fisheries Research Institute of Jiangsu Province filed Critical Guannan Agricultural Technology Extension Center
Priority to CN202010506243.8A priority Critical patent/CN111480604A/en
Publication of CN111480604A publication Critical patent/CN111480604A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

Links

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/50Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish
    • A01K61/59Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish of crustaceans, e.g. lobsters or shrimps
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/20Cereals
    • A01G22/22Rice
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K63/00Receptacles for live fish, e.g. aquaria; Terraria
    • A01K63/003Aquaria; Terraria
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K63/00Receptacles for live fish, e.g. aquaria; Terraria
    • A01K63/003Aquaria; Terraria
    • A01K63/006Accessories for aquaria or terraria
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The invention discloses a green and efficient method for cultivating shrimps and crabs in a rotation mode by rice field co-farming, which comprises the following steps: rice field transformation: excavating annular culture ditches along the inner side of the ridge, widening and deepening one of the culture ditches to form a temporary culture pond, wherein the center of the rice field is a rice planting area, excavating a plurality of field ditches in the rice planting area, and the field ditches are communicated with the culture ditches and the temporary culture pond; transplanting the aquatic weeds; before putting the seedlings in, arranging escape-proof walls around the ridges, arranging escape-proof nets around the temporary culture pond, and arranging protective nets on the adjacent sides of the paddy planting area and the temporary culture pond along the other three sides of the paddy planting area; putting the crab seeds and the crayfish fries; after the crayfish is cultured and fished, reserving the escape-proof nets on the adjacent sides of the temporary culture pond and the rice planting area, removing the escape-proof nets on the other three sides of the temporary culture pond, and allowing the river crabs to enter the culture ditch; cultivating rice, namely removing the protective net of the rice planting area and the escape-proof net at the side adjacent to the temporary culture pond after seedlings turn green, and enabling river crabs to enter the rice field; catching commercial crabs and harvesting rice. The invention realizes the harvest of rice, shrimp and crab.

Description

Method for cultivating shrimps and crabs in rotation in green and efficient rice field co-farming mode
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of rice cultivation and aquaculture, and relates to a green and efficient method for rice field co-cropping shrimp and crab rotation.
Background
In recent years, the crayfish bred in the rice field is widely popularized in various places as an important comprehensive planting and breeding mode of rice and fisheries, and good economic and ecological benefits are obtained. The mode of 'one rice and two shrimps' is mostly adopted in production, namely, one crop of crayfish (crop rotation, one crop of shrimps) is bred before the rice is planted, and one crop of crayfish (co-culture, two crops of shrimps) is bred after the rice is planted, but the two crops of shrimps are influenced by high temperature in summer, the crayfish is easy to be invaded by bacteria to cause diseases, and the crayfish can dig a hole at high temperature to avoid summer heat, so that the commercial shrimp recapture rate is low, the management difficulty is high in the breeding production, the cost is high, and the economic benefit is lower. The long-term mode of 'one rice and two shrimps' can also cause the soil degradation of the rice field, the reduction of soil organic matters of a cultivated layer and the balance damage of a micro-ecosystem of a planting area, and if the mode is not improved, the health of the ecosystem of the rice field and the sustainable development of agriculture can be threatened.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to solve the defects of the current situation of breeding of the rice shrimps and the prior art, reasonably arranges and matches corresponding technologies on the time and space of aquaculture, changes the second-crop shrimps into river crabs, optimizes the mode of one rice and two shrimps into the mode of one rice, one shrimp and one crab, and not only can effectively reduce the management cost because the positive value of the quick growth period of the river crabs is positive, but also the bred river crabs can go into the market in advance and improve the breeding benefit, thereby realizing green, efficient and three-harvest of the rice, the crayfish and the river crabs.
The purpose of the invention is realized by the following technical scheme:
a method for cultivating shrimps and crabs in a rotation way by using a green and efficient rice field co-farming method comprises the following steps:
(1) and rice field transformation: digging annular culture ditches along the inner sides of the ridges, widening and deepening one culture ditch to form a temporary culture pond, wherein the temporary culture pond is used for culturing and temporarily culturing river crab seeds, the center of a rice field is a rice planting area, a plurality of field ditches are dug in the rice planting area, and the field ditches are communicated with the culture ditches and the temporary culture pond so as to facilitate the river crabs to enter the field for movement; a water inlet and a water outlet are respectively arranged on the diagonal line of the rice field, and a 40-mesh screen is arranged at the water inlet to prevent harmful organisms such as wild trash fish from entering the rice field; after the rice field is transformed, the rice field is soaked in water for 7-10 days, harmful substances such as ammonia nitrogen, nitrite, pesticides and heavy metals accumulated in soil due to long-term large-scale fertilization are degraded, and old water after soaking the rice field is drained before new water is filled;
(2) transplanting waterweeds, setting escape-proof facilities: keeping the water level of a rice planting area at 10-20 cm in the middle and last ten days of 1-2 months, transplanting the waterweeds mainly on the slope surface of a temporary culture pond, the slope surface of a culture ditch and the rice planting area, and after the waterweeds are transplanted, sprinkling a proper amount of compound fertilizer (the N-P-K ratio is 15-15-15, the total nutrient is more than or equal to 45%) beside a strawberries to promote the rooting growth of the waterweeds, wherein the application amount of each bundle of waterweeds is not more than 50 g;
before the offspring seeds are put in, escape-proof walls are arranged around the ridges to prevent the offspring seeds from escaping in the breeding period of the crayfishes or river crabs; the escape-proof nets are arranged around the temporary rearing pond to prevent the river crab from escaping when the river crab is temporarily reared; a protective net is arranged along other three sides of the rice planting area except the adjacent side of the rice planting area and the temporary culture pond, so that crayfish or river crab can be prevented from entering the rice field to damage seedlings when the rice seedlings are transplanted; water bodies in the temporary culture pond, the culture ditch and the rice planting area can be freely exchanged; arranging an escape-proof net at a water outlet of the rice field to prevent crayfishes or river crabs from escaping;
(3) and seed putting: 10-15 days before the crab seeds are put in, the elodea aegypti survives, the water level of the field surface of the rice planting area is kept at about 20-30 cm, 100-200 kg/mu of decomposed poultry manure is put in, planktons such as rotifers, cladocerans, copepods and the like are cultivated, in addition, 0.5-1 kg of urea is applied per mu, and the plankton algae are cultivated to serve as basic bait of the crab seeds; putting the crab seeds into a temporary culture pond before shelling the river crab shells at the end of 2 months to the beginning of 3 months, wherein the putting amount is 350-600 crabs per mu (calculated according to the area of a field); 3, the crayfish seedlings are put into the culture ditches at the bottom of 3 months to the beginning of 4 months, and the putting amount is 5000-6000 tails/mu (calculated according to the area of the field);
(4) and catching commercial shrimps: at the end of 4 months, the commercial crayfishes reach the market specification, and are caught and sold;
(5) and removing the temporary rearing pond escape-preventing net: at the bottom of 5 months, after the crayfish is basically fished, the anti-escape nets on the adjacent sides of the temporary culture pond and the rice planting area are reserved, the anti-escape nets on the other three sides of the temporary culture pond are removed, the river crabs enter the culture ditch, and the culture area is increased;
(6) and rice cultivation and management: before transplanting, the rice is subjected to precipitation and field exposure, rotary tillage and weeding are carried out, and base fertilizer is applied during rotary tillage; 5, keeping the water level of the rice field at the bottom of the month, and transplanting rice seedlings with the seedling age of about 30 days in the rice planting area by adopting a rice transplanter; after transplanting for 2-3 days, controlling the water level of the field surface to be 4-6 cm, taking the seedling core not to be flooded as a reference and inhibiting weeds; after the seedlings turn green after about 20 days of transplantation, removing the rice planting area protective net and the escape-proof net adjacent to the temporary culture pond, and enabling the river crabs to enter the rice field;
(7) catching commercial crabs and harvesting rice: generally, before rice is harvested in mid-autumn to 10-month late ten-day, commercial crabs begin to be caught; gradually reducing the water level of the rice field to be level with or slightly lower than the upper opening of the cultivation ditch in the middle and last ten days of 10 months, and harvesting rice by adopting a harvester after soil in the rice planting area is hardened;
(8) removing impurities, disinfecting and drying the fields: after harvesting the rice, gradually reducing the water level of the culture ditch, and completely catching the river crabs in the culture ditch; and (3) disinfecting and removing impurities from the ditch by using quicklime or tea seed dregs, drying the middle field until the middle field is cracked, and starting to supply water to the rice field in the middle and late 12 months to prepare for transplanting waterweeds.
In the step (1), the texture of the rice field is loam or clay loam; the area of the rice field is generally about 20-30 mu, the east-west trend and the length-width ratio are 2.5-4: 1.
The rice field transformation selection is carried out in winter.
The invention properly increases the space and water level depth of the aquaculture water area, and the total area of the culture ditch, the field ditch and the temporary culture pond is not less than 15 percent of the total area of the rice field, and generally accounts for 15 to 20 percent of the total area of the rice field.
The width of the upper opening of the culture ditch is 4-5 m, the depth is 80-100 cm, and the slope ratio is 1: 1.5.
The ridge is higher than the field surface by more than 1 m.
The width of the upper opening of the temporary rearing pond is generally 6m to 8m, the depth is about 1.5m, the temporary rearing pond is mainly used for cultivating and temporarily rearing the crab species of the river crabs, the length depends on the size of the field block, and the area of the temporary rearing pond is 1/8 to 1/10 of the total area of the rice field.
The field ditch is a 'Chuan' shaped ditch, a 'cross' shaped ditch or a 'well' shaped ditch; the width and depth of the field ditch are both 0.5 m.
And leveling the rice planting area in the rice field by using a leveling machine, and keeping the height error not more than 2 cm.
Preferably, a reservoir is established at the side of the water inlet of the rice field to play roles in storing, filtering and transferring water.
In the step (2), 3 rows of elodea nutans are planted along two slope surfaces of the temporary culture pond respectively, the row spacing is 2-3 m, the plant spacing is 1.5m, and water plants form masses when river crabs are put into the water; respectively planting the elodea nuttallii along two slopes of the culture ditch, wherein the planting distance is 5-7 m; the waterweeds are planted on the field surface of the rice planting area, the row spacing is 6-8 m, and the plant spacing is 3-5 m. The waterweeds are forbidden to carry the moss, and are bundled when being transplanted and inserted into the mud for 3-5 cm.
The escape-proof wall is made of toughened glass or an escape-proof net and is 50cm higher than the ridge.
The anti-escape net of the temporary rearing pond is positioned on the temporary rearing pond slope surface which is adjacent to the rice planting area and has the same height with the rice planting area field surface, the anti-escape net is 90-100 cm higher than the rice planting area, four corners of the anti-escape net are arc-shaped, nylon cloth with the height of 50cm is sewed on two sides of the anti-escape net from top to bottom, and meshes of the anti-escape net are 3-5 holes/cm. The escape-proof net can ensure that the water body exchange is carried out between the temporary rearing pond and the rice field, and the shrimps and the crabs can not pass through the escape-proof net.
The protective net is 50 cm-80 cm higher than the field surface.
The drainage port of the paddy field is provided with an anti-escape net with 8 holes/cm (equivalent to 20 meshes).
In the step (3), the decomposed poultry manure is fermented decomposed dry chicken manure.
The river crab species are the Eriocheir sinensis Changjiang No. 1 or the Eriocheir sinensis Changjiang No. 2 selected by the research institute of freshwater aquatic products in Jiangsu province, and the requirements of the crab species are as follows: regular specification, strong physique, pure color, active crawling, complete appendages, no diseases and no injury. The eriocheir sinensis has long growth period, large individual and good appearance. The crab spawns are larval crabs which are cultured in a pond in the last year, and the specification of the crab spawns is about 40 crabs/kg.
The bait and feeding requirements of the eriocheir sinensis are as follows: the common plant baits for adult crab culture comprise bean cakes, peanut cakes, corns, wheat, pumpkins and various aquatic weeds; the animal bait includes small trash fish, snail, freshwater mussel, etc.; the complete bait has compound feed. The time requirement is as follows: after the crab seeds are put in the middle 6 th month, the mass ratio of the animal baits to the plant baits is 6: 4; in the late 6 th to middle 8 th of the month, the mass ratio of the animal baits to the plant baits is 4.5: 5.5; in late 8 months to 10 months, the mass ratio of the animal baits to the plant baits is 6.5: 3.5; daily feeding amount: 3 days to 4 months after the crab seeds are put in, the daily feeding amount is 1 percent of the weight of the crabs; 5-7 months, and the daily feeding amount is 5-8 percent; 8-10 months, the daily feeding amount is 10 percent; feeding twice every day, wherein the feeding amount in the morning accounts for 30% of the daily feeding amount, and the feeding amount in the evening accounts for 70% of the daily feeding amount.
The crayfish fry is 160-200 tails/kg in size, the stocking size is uniform, the vitality of the crayfish fry is strong, and the appearance and the appendages are not damaged.
The crayfish feed and feeding requirements are as follows: feeding a compound feed with 36% of crude protein on the 3 rd day after the shrimp larvae are put in, wherein the feeding time is 15 days; along with the gradual rise of the water temperature, the coarse protein is changed into 32 percent of compound feed in the last 4 th month; feeding a compound feed with 28 percent of crude protein as a main part from the beginning of 5 months to the end of catching the crayfishes; the feeding amount of commercial shrimps in the culture period is the same as that of the conventional main culture mode of the crayfish, and the daily feeding rate is 5-8% of the weight of the crayfish.
The rice variety is selected from rice varieties with high stalks, lodging resistance, disease resistance, good prophase fecundity and the like, and the growth period is about 150 days, such as Nanjing 5718, Nanjing 9108 and the like. The rice is raised in early 5 months, the seedling age is about 30 days, the rice is planted at the bottom of 5 months, and the whole growth period of the rice in the rice and crab combined field is about 170 days.
In the step (6), the weeding of the paddy field is as follows: the paddy is subjected to rainfall and field exposure for 2-3 days before transplantation to induce weeds to germinate, rotary tillage is carried out before transplantation to weed, the water level of the field surface is kept for 4-6 cm after transplantation, and the weeds are inhibited.
The rice base fertilizer mainly comprises decomposed manure and calcium superphosphate, the feeding amount of the decomposed manure is 130 kg-150 kg/mu, and the application amount of the calcium superphosphate is about 10 kg/mu.
The row spacing of the rice is 30-33 cm, the plant spacing is 14cm, the rice transplanting density of each mu of rice field is 1.45-1.7 ten thousand holes, the total number of seedlings is reduced, but the influence on the rice yield is small, so that the ventilation performance of the river crab living environment is good.
According to the growth characteristics of rice and the biological characteristics of river crabs, water temperature regulation or water level regulation is carried out: before planting the rice, the water temperature is controlled to be 22-30 ℃; according to the change of the air temperature, when the water temperature is lower than 22 ℃, the water level is timely lowered to rapidly heat the water body in sunny days, so that the rapid growth of river crabs is promoted, and the river crabs cultured in the rice field can be promoted to appear on the market early; the cultivation period of rice and river crab is 6-10 months, the water temperature is controlled not to exceed 30 ℃, and the water level regulation and control principle during the cultivation period is as follows: the high water level can be kept in sunny and high-temperature weather, the highest water level is based on not submerging the rice leaf center, and the growth of river crabs is promoted; in rainy days or low-temperature days, the water level of the rice field is quickly dried, the rice field is lightly put, the soil environment condition is improved, and the growth of the rice is promoted.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
the invention has the advantages that the advantages of cultivating a batch of river crabs in the rice field are obvious, and the temperature sensing characteristic of the river crabs is utilized, so that the water temperature can be promoted to rise quickly by water level adjustment if the water temperature in the rice field is low before rice is planted; after the rice is planted, the water temperature can be controlled by the water purification and shading effects and water level adjustment of the rice at high temperature in summer, so that the water temperature in the rice field is always maintained in the optimal growth range of the river crabs, and the river crabs can be promoted to grow better and faster. The river crabs cultured in the mode have high yield, large specification and good quality, and compared with the river crab pond main culture mode in the same region, the time of marketing of commercial crabs can be at least advanced by more than 10 days.
The rice field co-cropping and alternate-culturing of the shrimps and the crabs not only ensures that the yield of the rice and the shrimps in one crop is not reduced, but also fully utilizes the later-stage water quality purification and shading and cooling effects of the rice, meets the growth requirements of the river crabs and realizes the harvest of the rice, the shrimps and the crabs. Compared with the mode of two shrimps in one rice, although the yield of the second-crop shrimps is reduced, the yield of river crabs can reach 25 kg-40 kg/mu, the price of commercial crabs is higher in the period, and the pure benefit per mu can be improved by 800-1500 yuan.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of a paddy field;
FIG. 2 is a sectional view taken along line A-A of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view taken along line B-B of FIG. 1;
in the figure, 1-ridge, 2-cultivation ditch, 3-temporary cultivation pond, 4-rice planting area, 5-escape-proof net, 6-escape-proof wall and 7-protective net.
Detailed Description
The technical solution of the present invention is further explained by the following embodiments.
Example 1
A method for cultivating shrimps and crabs in a rotation way by using a green and efficient rice field co-farming method comprises the following steps:
(1) the rice field with the soil or clay soil is selected, so that the ecological environment of the rice field is good, the rice field is far away from pollution sources, the water retention performance is good, water feeding and discharging are convenient, the rice field is not submerged by flood, the environment is quiet, and traffic is convenient. The area of the rice field is 30 mu, the east-west trend and the length-width ratio are 4: 1.
Rice field transformation is carried out: in winter, as shown in figures 1-3, annular culture ditches 2 are dug along the inner sides of ridges 1 (the width of the upper opening of each culture ditch is 4m, the depth of each culture ditch is 1m, and the slope ratio is 1:1.5), one culture ditch is widened and deepened to form a temporary culture pond 3 (the width of the upper opening of the temporary culture pond is generally 6m and the depth of the temporary culture pond is about 1.5 m) for culturing and temporarily culturing river crab seedlings, a rice planting area 4 is arranged in the center of a rice field (the ridge is higher than the field surface by more than 1 m), a leveling machine is used for leveling the rice planting area, and the height error is kept to be not more than 2 cm; a plurality of field ditches are excavated in the rice planting area (the width and the depth of the field ditches are 0.5m, and the field ditches are 'Chuan' -shaped ditches, 'cross' -shaped ditches or 'well' -shaped ditches), the field ditches are communicated with the culture ditches and the temporary culture pond, so that river crabs can conveniently enter the field to move; the total area of the culture ditches, the field ditches and the temporary culture ponds accounts for 15 percent of the total area of the rice field, and the area of the temporary culture ponds is 1/10 percent of the total area of the rice field; set up water inlet and outlet respectively at the diagonal of paddy field, the water inlet sets up 40 meshes of screen cloth, and the cistern is established to the paddy field inlet side, plays retaining, filters and transfers water effect.
After the rice field is transformed, the rice field is soaked in water for one week, harmful substances such as ammonia nitrogen, nitrite, pesticides and heavy metals accumulated in soil due to long-term large-scale fertilization are degraded, and old water after the rice field is soaked is drained before new water is filled;
(2) transplanting the waterweeds: beginning in the middle ten days of 2 months, keeping the water level in the paddy field at about 10cm, and filtering a water inlet by using a 40-mesh screen; respectively planting 3 rows of elodea nutans along two slope surfaces of the temporary culture pond, wherein the row spacing is 2-3 m, and the plant spacing is 1.5 m; respectively planting the elodea nuttallii along two slopes of the culture ditch, wherein the planting distance is 5-7 m; the method comprises the following steps of (1) planting the waterweeds on the field surface, wherein the row spacing is 6-8 m, and the plant spacing is 3-5 m; when the waterweeds are transplanted, the waterweeds are bundled and inserted into the mud for 3-5 cm, and the transplanted waterweeds are forbidden to carry the moss. After the elodea nuttallii is transplanted, compound fertilizer (the N-P-K ratio is 15-15-15, the total nutrient is more than or equal to 45%) is thrown beside the transplanted elodea nuttallii grass bunch, the application amount of each elodea nuttallii is not more than 50g, and the growth of the root of the elodea nuttallii is promoted.
Setting escape-proof facilities: 2, at the bottom of 3 months, before the seedlings are put in, arranging tempered glass or an escape-proof net around the ridge to form an escape-proof wall 6 which is buried in the soil by about 10cm and is 50cm higher than the ridge; arranging an anti-escape net 5 around the temporary culture pond 3 (the temporary culture pond is adjacent to the rice planting area and on the temporary culture pond slope surface with the same height as the rice planting area field surface), supporting and fixing the anti-escape net by using wood piles or bamboo piles, burying the anti-escape net in the soil by about 20cm, enabling the top end of the anti-escape net to be higher than the rice planting area by 90-100 cm, enabling four corners to be arc-shaped, sewing 50 cm-high mud dragon cloth on two sides of the anti-escape net from top to bottom, and enabling the meshes of the anti-escape net to be 3-5 holes/cm; a protective net 7 is arranged along the other three sides of the rice planting area except the adjacent side of the rice planting area and the temporary culture pond, the protective net 7 is supported and fixed by bamboo piles, and the protective net is 50cm higher than the surface of the paddy field, so that river crabs or crayfish are prevented from entering the paddy field to damage seedlings; water bodies in the temporary culture pond, the culture ditch and the rice planting area can be freely exchanged; arranging an escape-proof net with 8 holes/cm at a water outlet of the rice field to prevent crayfishes or river crabs from escaping;
(3) and seed putting: 10 days before crab seeds are put in, keeping the water level of the field surface at 30cm, putting decomposed poultry manure of 100 kg/mu and urea of 1 kg/mu for culturing zooplankton and plankton algae such as rotifer, cladocera, copepods and the like as basic bait of the crab seeds;
in the beginning of 3 months, the Yangtze river No. 1 crab species of the Eriocheir sinensis bred by the fresh water aquatic product research institute in Jiangsu province is selected, and the crab species requirements are as follows: regular specification, strong physique, pure color, active crawling, complete appendages, no diseases and no injury. Putting the crab seeds into a temporary culture pond before shelling the river crabs, wherein the putting amount is 600 crabs per mu (calculated according to the area of a field); the requirements of bait and feeding are as follows: the common plant baits for adult crab culture comprise bean cakes, peanut cakes, corns, wheat, pumpkins and various aquatic weeds; the animal bait includes small trash fish, snail, freshwater mussel, etc.; and also has mixed bait. The time requirement is as follows: putting the crab seedlings in the middle ten days of 6 months, wherein the mass ratio of the animal baits to the plant baits is 6: 4; in the late 6 th to middle 8 th of the month, the mass ratio of the animal baits to the plant baits is 4.5: 5.5; in late 8 months to 10 months, the mass ratio of the animal baits to the plant baits is 6.5: 3.5; daily feeding amount: 3 days to 4 months after the crab seeds are put in, the daily feeding amount is 1 percent of the weight of the crabs; 5-7 months, and the daily feeding amount is 5-8 percent; 8-10 months, the daily feeding amount is 10 percent; feeding twice every day, wherein the feeding amount in the morning accounts for 30% of the daily feeding amount, and the feeding amount in the evening accounts for 70% of the daily feeding amount.
And 3, starting to put crayfish fries at the end of the month, wherein the fry requirements are as follows: the standard is uniform, and the shrimp larvae have strong vitality and no damage to the appearance and the appendages. Putting the crayfish fries into the culture ditch, wherein the putting amount is 6000 fries/mu (calculated according to the field area), and the average size of the crayfish fries is 160 fries/kg; feeding baits on the 3 rd day after the seeds are put in, wherein the basic feeding amount is 5-8% of the total weight of the seeds; the requirements of crayfish feed are as follows: feeding a compound feed with 36% of crude protein on the 3 rd day after the shrimp larvae are put in, wherein the feeding time is 15 days; along with the gradual rise of the water temperature, the coarse protein is changed into 32 percent of compound feed in the last 4 th month; and (3) feeding a compound feed with 28 percent of crude protein mainly from the beginning of 5 months to the end of catching the crayfishes.
Before planting the rice, the water temperature is controlled to be 22-30 ℃; according to the temperature change, when the water temperature is lower than 22 ℃, the water level is timely lowered to rapidly heat the water body;
(4) and catching commercial shrimps: at the end of 4 months, the crayfishes reach the market specification, and are caught and sold;
(5) and removing the temporary rearing pond escape-preventing net: at the bottom of 5 months, after the crayfishes are cultured and caught, the escape-proof nets at the adjacent sides of the temporary culture pond and the rice planting area are reserved, the escape-proof nets at the other three sides of the temporary culture pond are removed, and the river crabs enter the culture ditch to increase the culture area;
(6) and rice cultivation and management: the rice variety is Nanjing 9108, and the rice is raised in the early 5-month falling paddy; before transplanting rice, lowering water and exposing the field for 2-days, carrying out rotary tillage weeding on the field surface, and putting 150kg of decomposed manure and 10kg of calcium superphosphate as base fertilizers in each mu during rotary tillage; keeping the water level of the field surface at the bottom of 5 months, transplanting rice seedlings with the seedling age of about 30 days in a rice planting area by adopting a rice transplanter, wherein the row spacing of the rice is 30cm, the plant spacing is 14cm, and the rice planting density of each mu of rice field is 1.45 ten thousand holes; after transplanting for 3 days, controlling the water level of the field surface to be 4-6 cm, and taking the seedling core not to be flooded as the standard; transplanting for about 20 days, removing the protective net of the rice planting area after the seedlings turn green, and enabling the river crabs to enter the rice field; the cultivation period of rice and river crab is 6-10 months, the water temperature is controlled not to exceed 30 ℃ according to the growth characteristics of rice and the biological characteristics of river crab, and the water level control principle during the cultivation period is as follows: the high water level can be kept in sunny and high-temperature weather, the highest water level is based on not submerging the rice leaf center, and the growth of river crabs is promoted; in rainy days or low-temperature days, the water level of the rice field is quickly dried, and the rice field is lightly put, so that the soil environment condition is improved, and the growth of rice is promoted;
(7) catching commercial crabs and harvesting rice: before the mid-autumn festival, the price of the commercial crabs is higher, and the commercial crabs begin to be caught for sale; gradually reducing the water level of the rice field to a culture ditch in the middle and last 10 months, and harvesting rice by adopting a harvester when the soil in the rice planting area becomes hard;
(8) removing impurities, disinfecting and drying the fields: after harvesting the rice, gradually reducing the water level of the culture ditch again, and completely catching the river crabs in the culture ditch; then, quicklime or tea meal is adopted to disinfect and remove impurities from the culture ditches and the temporary culture ponds, and the middle field is dried to crack. In the middle and late 12 months, the rice field begins to be watered, and preparation is made for transplanting the water plants.
By adopting the method for cultivating the shrimps and the crabs in turn in the rice field, the yield of the crayfishes is 133 kg/mu, the yield of the river crabs is 38 kg/mu, the yield of the rice is 455 kg/mu, the yield value per mu reaches 5600 yuan, and compared with the average benefit of a 'one rice and two shrimps' mode in a local area, the 'one rice-shrimp-crab' mode has 1460 yuan higher pure benefit per mu.

Claims (10)

1. A method for cultivating shrimps and crabs in a rotation way by using a green and efficient rice field co-farming method is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) and rice field transformation: excavating annular culture ditches along the inner side of the ridge, widening and deepening one of the culture ditches to form a temporary culture pond, wherein the center of the rice field is a rice planting area, excavating a plurality of field ditches in the rice planting area, and the field ditches are communicated with the culture ditches and the temporary culture pond; a water inlet and a water outlet are respectively arranged on the diagonal line of the rice field, and the water inlet is provided with a screen; after the rice field is transformed, adding the rice field into a water-soaked field for 7-10 days, and draining old water after soaking the field before adding new water;
(2) transplanting waterweeds, setting escape-proof facilities: keeping the water level of a rice planting area at 10-20 cm in the middle and last ten days of 1-2 months, and transplanting the waterweeds on the slope surface of the temporary culture pond, the slope surface of the culture ditch and the rice planting area;
before putting the seedlings in, arranging escape-proof walls around the ridges, arranging escape-proof nets around the temporary culture pond, arranging protective nets along other three sides of the rice planting area on the adjacent sides of the rice planting area and the temporary culture pond, and enabling water bodies in the temporary culture pond, the culture ditch and the rice planting area to be freely exchanged; arranging an escape-proof net at a water outlet of the rice field;
(3) and seed putting: 10-15 days before crab seed putting, keeping the water level of the field surface of the rice planting area at 20-30 cm, putting 100-200 kg/mu of thoroughly decomposed poultry manure, and applying 0.5-1 kg/mu of urea; at the end of 2 months to the beginning of 3 months, putting the crab seeds into a temporary culture pond before shelling the river crab shells, wherein the putting amount is 350-600 crabs per mu; 3, at the bottom of the month to the beginning of 4 months, putting the crayfish seedlings into the culture ditches, wherein the putting amount is 5000-6000 tails/mu;
(4) and catching commercial shrimps: at the bottom of 4 months, the crayfishes reach the market specification, and the crayfishes begin to be caught;
(5) and removing the temporary rearing pond escape-preventing net: at the bottom of 5 months, after the crayfish is cultured and fished, reserving the escape-proof nets at the adjacent sides of the temporary culture pond and the rice planting area, removing the escape-proof nets at the other three sides of the temporary culture pond, and allowing the river crabs to enter the culture ditch;
(6) and rice cultivation and management: before transplanting, the rice is subjected to precipitation and field exposure, rotary tillage and weeding are carried out, and a rice base fertilizer is applied during rotary tillage; 5, keeping the water level of the rice field to be level ditch water at the bottom of the month, and transplanting rice seedlings in the rice planting area; after transplanting for 2-3 days, controlling the water level of the field surface to be 4-6 cm, and taking the condition of not submerging the seedling core as a reference; after the seedlings turn green, removing the rice planting area protective net and the anti-escape net on the side adjacent to the temporary culture pond, and enabling the river crabs to enter the rice field; in the rice and river crab cultivation co-working period, water level regulation and control work is well done;
(7) catching commercial crabs and harvesting rice: before the rice is harvested, catching commercial crabs; gradually reducing the water level of the rice field to be level with or lower than the upper opening of the cultivation ditch in the middle and last ten days of 10 months, and harvesting the rice after the soil in the rice planting area becomes hard;
(8) removing impurities, disinfecting and drying the fields: after the rice is harvested, the water level of the culture ditch is reduced, and the river crabs in the culture ditch are completely caught; disinfecting the ditch with calcium lime or tea dregs, removing impurities, drying the middle field until it is cracked, and watering the rice field in the middle and late 12 months.
2. The method for intercropping shrimps and crabs in rotation in green and high-efficiency rice fields according to claim 1, wherein in the step (1), the texture of the rice field is loam or clay loam; the area of the rice field is about 20-30 mu, the east-west trend is, and the length-width ratio is 2.5-4: 1; the total area of the culture ditches, the field ditches and the temporary culture ponds is not less than 15 percent of the total area of the paddy field, and preferably 15 to 20 percent of the total area of the paddy field; the area of the temporary rearing pond is 1/8-1/10 of the total area of the rice field.
3. The method for intercropping shrimps and crabs in rotation in green and efficient rice fields according to claim 1, wherein in the step (1), the width of the upper opening of the culture ditch is 4m to 5m, the depth is 0.8m to 1m, and the slope ratio is 1: 1.5;
the width of the upper opening of the temporary rearing pond is 6m to 8m, and the depth is 1.5 m; the ridge is higher than the field surface by more than 1 m;
the field ditch is a 'Chuan' shaped ditch, a 'cross' shaped ditch or a 'well' shaped ditch; the width and depth of the field ditch are both 0.5 m.
4. The method for intercropping shrimps and crabs in rotation in green and high-efficiency rice fields according to claim 1, wherein in the step (2), 3 rows of elodea nuttallii are respectively planted along two slopes of the temporary rearing pond, the row spacing is 2-3 m, and the plant spacing is 1.5 m; respectively planting the elodea nuttallii along two slopes of the culture ditch, wherein the planting distance is 5-7 m; the method comprises the following steps of (1) planting the waterweeds on the field surface of the rice planting area, wherein the row spacing is 6-8 m, and the plant spacing is 3-5 m; and (4) throwing the compound fertilizer beside the grass bundle, wherein the application amount of the waterweeds per bundle is not more than 50 g.
5. The method for intercropping shrimps and crabs in rotation in green and efficient rice fields according to claim 1, wherein in the step (2), the escape-proof walls are made of toughened glass or escape-proof nets and are 50cm higher than ridges of the paddy field;
the escape-proof net of the temporary rearing pond is 90-100 cm higher than the rice planting area, 50cm thick mud dragon cloth is sewn on the two sides of the escape-proof net from top to bottom, and the mesh of the escape-proof net is 3-5 holes/cm;
the protective net is 50 cm-80 cm higher than the field surface;
the water outlet of the rice field is provided with an 8-hole/cm escape-proof net.
6. The method for intercropping and cultivating shrimps and crabs in turn in green and efficient paddy fields according to claim 1, wherein the river crab species are Eriocheir sinensis Yangtze river No. 1 crab species or Eriocheir sinensis Yangtze river No. 2 crab species;
feeding requirements: after the crab seeds are put in the middle 6 th month, the mass ratio of the animal baits to the plant baits is 6: 4; in the late 6 th to middle 8 th of the month, the mass ratio of the animal baits to the plant baits is 4.5: 5.5; in late 8 months to 10 months, the mass ratio of the animal baits to the plant baits is 6.5: 3.5;
daily feeding amount: 3 days to 4 months after the crab seeds are put in, the daily feeding amount is 1 percent of the weight of the crabs; 5-7 months, and the daily feeding amount is 5-8 percent; 8-10 months, the daily feeding amount is 10 percent; feeding twice every day, wherein the feeding amount in the morning accounts for 30% of the daily feeding amount, and the feeding amount in the evening accounts for 70% of the daily feeding amount.
7. The method for intercropping shrimps and crabs in turn in green and efficient paddy fields according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the size of the crayfish fries is 160-200 fries/kg;
the crayfish feed and feeding requirements are as follows: feeding a compound feed with 36% of crude protein on the 3 rd day after the shrimp larvae are put in, wherein the feeding time is 15 days; adding 32% of compound feed with crude protein in late ten months; feeding mixed feed with 28 percent of crude protein from the beginning of 5 months to the end of catching the crayfishes; the daily feeding rate is 5-8% of the weight of the shrimp.
8. The method for intercropping shrimps and crabs in rotation in the green and efficient rice fields according to claim 1, wherein in the step (6), the weeding in the rice field is as follows: before transplanting, the rice is subjected to rainfall and field exposure for 2-3 days, and before transplanting, rotary tillage is carried out for weed removal;
the rice base fertilizer is decomposed manure and calcium superphosphate, the feeding amount of the decomposed manure is 130 kg-150 kg/mu, and the application amount of the calcium superphosphate is 10 kg/mu.
9. The method for intercropping shrimps and crabs according to the green high-efficiency rice field as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that the rice variety is selected from rice varieties with high straw, lodging resistance, disease resistance and good prophase flourishing property; the seedling age of the rice seedlings is 30 days, the rice seedlings are transplanted by adopting a transplanting machine, the row spacing of the rice is 30-33 cm, the plant spacing is 14cm, and the transplanting density of the rice in each mu of rice field is 1.45-1.7 ten thousand holes.
10. The method for intercropping shrimps and crabs in rotation in green and efficient rice fields according to claim 1, which is characterized in that water temperature regulation or water level regulation: before planting rice, controlling the water temperature to be 22-30 ℃; in the rice and river crab cultivation period, the water temperature is not more than 30 ℃, and the highest water level of the rice field is kept to be equal to the rice leaf center without submerging in sunny and high-temperature weather; and (4) rapidly drying the water level of the rice field in rainy days or low-temperature days, and lightly putting the rice field.
CN202010506243.8A 2020-06-05 2020-06-05 Method for cultivating shrimps and crabs in rotation in green and efficient rice field co-farming mode Pending CN111480604A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN202010506243.8A CN111480604A (en) 2020-06-05 2020-06-05 Method for cultivating shrimps and crabs in rotation in green and efficient rice field co-farming mode

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN202010506243.8A CN111480604A (en) 2020-06-05 2020-06-05 Method for cultivating shrimps and crabs in rotation in green and efficient rice field co-farming mode

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
CN111480604A true CN111480604A (en) 2020-08-04

Family

ID=71795423

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CN202010506243.8A Pending CN111480604A (en) 2020-06-05 2020-06-05 Method for cultivating shrimps and crabs in rotation in green and efficient rice field co-farming mode

Country Status (1)

Country Link
CN (1) CN111480604A (en)

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN111972235A (en) * 2020-09-01 2020-11-24 盘锦兴隆润泽农工贸有限公司 Rice and crab symbiosis management platform and detection method thereof
CN113728952A (en) * 2021-09-25 2021-12-03 无为优良农业科技有限公司 Efficient crab breeding method
CN113796305A (en) * 2021-08-27 2021-12-17 江苏省农业科学院 Molecular breeding method for cultivating high-quality rice varieties suitable for comprehensive planting and breeding in rice fields
CN114223483A (en) * 2021-12-14 2022-03-25 中国水产科学研究院淡水渔业研究中心 Method for comprehensively planting and breeding two shrimps in rice field

Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103430877A (en) * 2013-08-02 2013-12-11 江苏农牧科技职业学院 Comprehensive and ecological river crab pond culturing method
CN104145760A (en) * 2014-08-04 2014-11-19 苏州市新泾村农业基地专业合作社 Method for breeding hairy crabs in paddy field
CN104509464A (en) * 2014-12-02 2015-04-15 邱汪洋 Paddy field adult crab breeding technical method
CN105379646A (en) * 2015-10-22 2016-03-09 江苏省淡水水产研究所 Method for planting rice in Procambarus clarkii culture pond
CN106472377A (en) * 2016-10-21 2017-03-08 刘挺 Method supported by a kind of field pool connection of Procambarus clakii
CN108668982A (en) * 2018-04-09 2018-10-19 武汉金禾科技发展有限公司 A kind of rice shrimp makees cultural method altogether
CN110663604A (en) * 2019-10-12 2020-01-10 沈阳农业大学 Paddy field polyculture method for crayfish and river crab juvenile crabs

Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103430877A (en) * 2013-08-02 2013-12-11 江苏农牧科技职业学院 Comprehensive and ecological river crab pond culturing method
CN104145760A (en) * 2014-08-04 2014-11-19 苏州市新泾村农业基地专业合作社 Method for breeding hairy crabs in paddy field
CN104509464A (en) * 2014-12-02 2015-04-15 邱汪洋 Paddy field adult crab breeding technical method
CN105379646A (en) * 2015-10-22 2016-03-09 江苏省淡水水产研究所 Method for planting rice in Procambarus clarkii culture pond
CN106472377A (en) * 2016-10-21 2017-03-08 刘挺 Method supported by a kind of field pool connection of Procambarus clakii
CN108668982A (en) * 2018-04-09 2018-10-19 武汉金禾科技发展有限公司 A kind of rice shrimp makees cultural method altogether
CN110663604A (en) * 2019-10-12 2020-01-10 沈阳农业大学 Paddy field polyculture method for crayfish and river crab juvenile crabs

Non-Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
姜雪照等: "宿迁地区稻虾蟹综合种养产业发展思考", 《科学养鱼》 *
戴海平: "稻虾蟹生态养殖技术总结", 《江西水产科技》 *
杨智景等: "稻-虾与稻-蟹种养模式下的水质及虾、蟹生长动态", 《贵州农业科学》 *

Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN111972235A (en) * 2020-09-01 2020-11-24 盘锦兴隆润泽农工贸有限公司 Rice and crab symbiosis management platform and detection method thereof
CN113796305A (en) * 2021-08-27 2021-12-17 江苏省农业科学院 Molecular breeding method for cultivating high-quality rice varieties suitable for comprehensive planting and breeding in rice fields
CN113728952A (en) * 2021-09-25 2021-12-03 无为优良农业科技有限公司 Efficient crab breeding method
CN114223483A (en) * 2021-12-14 2022-03-25 中国水产科学研究院淡水渔业研究中心 Method for comprehensively planting and breeding two shrimps in rice field

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
CN108718965B (en) Rice and shrimp ecological planting and breeding method for rice and shrimp co-culture
CN105123220A (en) Rice-duck culture method
CN105379646A (en) Method for planting rice in Procambarus clarkii culture pond
CN210900695U (en) Celestial grass, crayfish, rice symbiotic culture system
CN111480604A (en) Method for cultivating shrimps and crabs in rotation in green and efficient rice field co-farming mode
CN111758628B (en) Method for cultivating and removing weed rice of plate-type paddy field crayfishes without ditching and feeding
CN110476753B (en) Celestial grass, crayfish, rice symbiotic culture system
CN112970541B (en) Comprehensive ecological planting and breeding method for rice field shrimps, turtles, fishes and ducks
CN109673436A (en) A kind of plantation of green rice and fish polyculture method
CN108812040A (en) Vineyard set grass poultry zoology breeding technology
CN101755581A (en) Method for three-dimensional planting and breeding of agricultural products
CN111789005A (en) Comprehensive planting and breeding method for rice, rice and shrimp
CN106613595B (en) Industrial rice-livestock-vegetable annual circulation mechanized production method
CN113647349A (en) Rice and shrimp comprehensive planting and breeding method based on non-furrow rice field transformation
CN113016527A (en) Ecological terrace and rice and fish co-farming method
CN112715438B (en) Rice and shrimp rotation method based on double cropping rice
CN112703983B (en) Rice and shrimp crop rotation method based on one-season mid-season rice
CN110896798B (en) Three-dimensional comprehensive planting and breeding method
CN111771648A (en) Method for intercropping crayfish and micropterus salmoides in lotus root pond
CN112042485A (en) Strawberry paddy-upland rotation seedling raising method
CN107094608B (en) Method for intercropping loaches with cress
CN110574650A (en) no-tillage direct seeding method for fish culture in rice field
CN110537465A (en) three-dimensional comprehensive planting and breeding method for rice field
CN113207765B (en) Efficient ecological breeding method for rice field breeding river snails and crayfishes
CN113854211B (en) Method for breeding shrimps in paddy field based on lotus shrimp and bee fish comprehensive breeding mode

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
PB01 Publication
PB01 Publication
SE01 Entry into force of request for substantive examination
SE01 Entry into force of request for substantive examination