CN111758628B - Method for cultivating and removing weed rice of plate-type paddy field crayfishes without ditching and feeding - Google Patents

Method for cultivating and removing weed rice of plate-type paddy field crayfishes without ditching and feeding Download PDF

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CN111758628B
CN111758628B CN202010669182.7A CN202010669182A CN111758628B CN 111758628 B CN111758628 B CN 111758628B CN 202010669182 A CN202010669182 A CN 202010669182A CN 111758628 B CN111758628 B CN 111758628B
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rice
field
crayfish
paddy field
feeding
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CN111758628A (en
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奚业文
朱祖荣
陈虎
王如峰
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HEXIAN COUNTY MINGXIN AQUACULTURE SPECIALIZED COOPERATIVES
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HEXIAN COUNTY MINGXIN AQUACULTURE SPECIALIZED COOPERATIVES
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/50Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish
    • A01K61/59Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish of crustaceans, e.g. lobsters or shrimps
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/20Cereals
    • A01G22/22Rice
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K67/00Rearing or breeding animals, not otherwise provided for; New breeds of animals
    • A01K67/033Rearing or breeding invertebrates; New breeds of invertebrates
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for culturing flat plate type paddy field crayfish without ditching and feeding and removing weed rice, which comprises the following steps: step 1: selecting a suitable flat plate type rice field, and transplanting rice seedlings with water artificially; step 2: after the rice is harvested, the rice is insolated in 10-15 sunny days, the surface of the upright rice stubble slightly yellows, and the water supply to the field surface is started after the crushed straws are completely withered and yellow; and step 3: after the crushed straws are scattered in the field and basically decomposed, fermenting the organic fertilizer in the rice field; raking the organic fertilizer evenly and reserving a base fertilizer for the future growth of the rice; and 4, step 4: introducing tubificidae into the rice field after fertilization; and 5: cultivating elodea nuttallii and eyebright in different areas; step 6: and (4) timely feeding high-quality crayfish fries according to the coverage rate degree of the waterweeds and the number of early fries bred by the crayfish left in the field. According to the invention, rice straws are completely returned to the field after rice is harvested, so that the growth of crayfishes is not influenced; thereby achieving the purposes of culturing crayfish and removing weed rice in the flat-plate rice field without ditching and feeding and improving the culture efficiency of the rice field.

Description

Method for cultivating and removing weed rice of plate-type paddy field crayfishes without ditching and feeding
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of crayfish breeding, and particularly relates to a health-preserving rice dumpling and a preparation method thereof.
Background
The crayfish belongs to the class of the Mycolepsy, the class of crustaceans, the family of crayfish, the genus of Procambrus, the name of crayfish, the academic name of Procambrus clarkii (hereinafter generically referred to as crayfish), has delicious meat taste and rich nutrition, is popular among people, and is a main variety for shrimp culture at present. In recent years, due to the rapid increase of market demand, the natural resources of crayfishes are rapidly reduced, and the price is gradually increased, so that the market demand is met through artificial scientific culture.
At present, the rice and shrimp are mostly adopted for ditching in a rice field, bait is thrown inwards in the process of cultivation, weeds are regenerated, the cost of lobster cultivation is undoubtedly increased, and the growth of rice is influenced.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a method for culturing crayfishes in a flat plate type rice field without ditching and feeding and removing weed rice, which selects the flat plate type rice field; treating the harvested rice straws; 150kg of organic fertilizer which is fully fermented per mu of rice field after the broken straws scattered in the field are basically decomposed; after fertilization, introducing tubificidae into the rice field to provide a high-quality protein bait source; the waterweeds and the eyebright are planted in the strip and block shape in different areas, and the aquatic weed species combination creates better ecological conditions; when the coverage rate of the waterweed and the eyebright reaches 60% -70%, putting high-quality crayfish fries, and fully playing the growth promoting effect of the eyebright on crayfish; checking the biomass variation conditions of the waterweeds, the eyebright and the tubificidae in the rice field; through the comprehensive means, a good ecological system of the rice field is constructed, the productivity of the ecological system of the rice field is fully utilized, no granulated feed is fed, the body surface of the cultured crayfish is clean, the crayfish is high in price and is sold in the market, and the problems in the background art are solved.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention provides the following technical scheme:
the method for culturing the flat plate type paddy field crayfishes without ditching and feeding and removing the weedy rice comprises the following steps:
step 1: selecting a suitable flat-plate rice field, transplanting rice seedlings with water artificially, and selecting naturally to prevent crayfish germplasm from rapidly degrading and breeding earlier crayfish seedlings;
step 2: after the rice is harvested, the rice is insolated in 10-15 sunny days, the surface of the upright rice stubble slightly yellows, and the water supply to the field surface is started after the crushed straws are completely withered and yellow;
and step 3: 150kg of organic fertilizer which is fully fermented per mu of rice field after the crushed straws are scattered in the field and basically decomposed; uniformly raking the organic fertilizer to ensure that the planted waterweeds can grow vigorously and leave a base fertilizer for the growth of the rice in the future;
and 4, step 4: after fertilization, introducing tubificidae into the rice field to provide a high-quality protein bait source;
and 5: the waterweeds and the eyebright are planted in the strip and block shape in different areas, and the combination of the waterweeds and the dryland grass creates better ecological conditions;
step 6: and (4) timely feeding high-quality crayfish fries according to the coverage rate degree of the waterweeds and the number of early fries bred by the crayfish left in the field.
Further, the specific steps of step 1 are as follows:
selecting an idle rice field for planting rice in one season in a water network area, wherein the area of the rice field is 5-15 mu, the original ridges around the rice field are firmer, the average height is 50-60 cm, and the width of the upper part of each ridge is 40-50 cm; one side of the periphery of the rice field, which is close to the ridge, is lower by 20-30 cm than the field, and the original water inlet and outlet of the rice field is provided with a crayfish escape-proof net.
Further, transplanting seedlings with water artificially in the step 1 to breed earlier shrimp seedlings; when the adult crayfishes in 5 months finish fishing and selling, the water level of the rice field is kept at 15 cm-20 cm, and seedlings of about 40 days old are manually planted.
Further, in the step 1, transplanting rice seedlings with water artificially, selecting naturally, and maintaining the water level of the field surface at 15-20 cm during rice transplanting.
Further, in the step 2, when the rice is ripe, the field surface is drained completely and dried in the sun, then the rice is harvested by a harvester, the height of the rice stubble is kept to be more than 45cm, the rice is insolated in 10-15 sunny days after being harvested, the surface of the erected rice stubble is slightly yellow, all broken straws covering the rice stubble are withered and yellow, the rice field is watered completely for the first time, the water level of the field surface is kept to be 10-15 cm, the broken straws scattered on the field surface are decomposed slowly, when the preliminary decomposition of the broken straws is basically finished (after the first watering is carried out for about 15 days), the water is watered for the second time, the water level of the field surface is kept to be 20-25 cm, and partial straws soaked in the water are decomposed slowly; when the rice stubble is soaked in the water and partially discolours and decomposes, water is added again, the water level of the field surface is kept between 20cm and 25cm, and the water level is kept to 3 months in the next year.
Furthermore, a grass outlet of the harvester is modified, a grass outlet guide sheet is additionally arranged at the grass outlet, the grass outlet guide sheet is inclined upwards at an angle of 45 ℃, the straw smashed at the upper part is guided to cover upright rice stubbles, the straw smashed at the upper part is covered on the upright rice stubbles, and the guide sheet is made of common stainless steel.
Further, the organic fertilizer in the step 3 is prepared by selecting chicken manure as a main material, adding biological agents such as EM (effective microorganisms) bacteria and the like, fully fermenting and killing pathogenic bacteria in the organic fertilizer, uniformly applying the organic fertilizer into the ploughed paddy field, and uniformly raking the organic fertilizer by using a machine.
Further, after the rice field is ploughed and fertilized, when the temperature is reduced to 25 ℃, earthworms are introduced into the field, the collected earthworms are uniformly scattered on the rice field fertilizer mud, and the earthworms are inoculated according to 300-500 g per square meter of culture area.
Further, step 5, planting waterweed and xerophyte eyebright in the rice field in a combined mode for the first time, planting an waterweed in an waterweed planting area, planting the waterweed in strips around the rice field, wherein the strip width is 2-3 m; planting the waterweeds strips and the cord grass strips in the middle of the rice field at intervals, and reserving 3-5 grass-free feeding areas in the middle of the field; the covering area of the waterweed is 50 percent, and the covering area of the eyebright is 20 percent.
Further, in the step 6, when the coverage rate of the waterweed and the eyebright reaches 60% -70%, high-quality crayfish fries are thrown.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects that:
1. by selecting the flat-plate paddy field, the crayfish can be bred without ditching in the paddy field.
2. The treatment of the harvested rice straws enables the rice straws to be slowly decomposed and utilized by water plants and plankton, so that the rice straws are returned to the field in full amount to cause the water quality of the rice field to deteriorate rapidly, and the rice straws are converted into crayfish aquatic products through biological chain approaches such as the water plants and the plankton.
3. 150kg of organic fertilizer which is fully fermented per mu of rice field after the broken straws scattered in the field are basically decomposed; the fertility of the rice field is continuously and uniformly. After fertilization, tubificidae is introduced into the rice field to provide a high-quality protein bait source.
4. The method is characterized in that waterweeds and cord grass are planted in a striped and blocky manner in different regions, a better ecological condition is created by combining waterweed varieties, when the coverage rate of the waterweeds and the cord grass reaches 60% -70%, high-quality crayfish seedlings are thrown in, the growth promotion effect of the cord grass on the crayfish is fully exerted, the biomass change conditions of the waterweeds, the cord grass and the tubificidae in the rice field are checked, the crayfish is forced to utilize and remove scattered rice seeds and weed rice seeds in the rice field by powerful chela and hunger without being fed with feed for induction, and a weed-free space is left for the growth of the rice.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic view of the zonal strip-block cultivation of elodea nuttallii and cord grass according to the present invention.
Detailed Description
The technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the drawings in the embodiments of the present invention, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, and not all of the embodiments. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
The method for culturing the flat plate type paddy field crayfishes without ditching and feeding and removing the weedy rice comprises the following steps:
(1) selecting a suitable flat-plate rice field, transplanting rice seedlings with water artificially, and selecting naturally to prevent crayfish germplasm from rapidly degrading and breeding earlier crayfish seedlings; selecting an idle rice field for planting rice in one season in a water network area, wherein the area of the rice field is generally 5-15 mu, the original ridges around the rice field are firmer, the average height reaches 50-60 cm, and the width of the upper part of each ridge reaches 40-50 cm; one side of the periphery of the rice field, which is close to the ridge, is relatively low, and is 20-30 cm lower than the field, and the low-lying area accounts for 1-2% of the rice field in total; the paddy soil is clay loam without water leakage; when the rain does not fall for 30 days continuously in a dry season, water and the surface of the field can be kept moist in low-lying places around; installing a crayfish escape-proof net on the original water inlet and outlet of the rice field; the selected rice field can be directly used for breeding crayfishes without digging surrounding circular ditches and rice and fish engineering; the plate type paddy field with the original high ridge and firm periphery with the low-lying area of 1% -2% is selected to directly breed the crayfishes, the paddy field is not required to be transformed, and the original landform and structure of the paddy field are kept.
Transplanting rice seedlings with water artificially to breed earlier shrimp seedlings; when the adult crayfishes in 5 months finish fishing and selling, the water level of the rice field is kept at 15-20 cm, and seedlings of about 40 days old are planted manually, so that the seedlings are older, the crayfishes which are not caught completely in the rice field cannot pinch off the seedlings, the seedlings can quickly survive, turn green and tillere, the field surface is sealed to play a role in shading, the water temperature of the rice field is relatively lower in 6-8 months, and the growth, gonad development, early mating and early propagation of the crayfishes in the field are facilitated; the first shrimp fries can be seen in the earliest 7 months, and a fry foundation is laid for the early marketing of the second year;
artificial water-carrying rice transplanting, natural selection, and prevention of rapid degeneration of crayfish germplasm; the water level of the field surface is maintained at 15 cm-20 cm during the rice transplanting, and the environment selection of various environments such as illumination of the rice field, day and night change of the water level, various birds and shallow water for catching crayfish with weak constitution is a 'natural selection': the crayfishes with strong physique survive, reserve parent crayfishes, breed offspring and avoid rapid germplasm degeneration (crayfish growth speed is not obviously slowed down for crayfish farmers more than 10 years).
(2) After the rice is harvested, the rice is insolated in 10-15 sunny days, the surface of the upright rice stubble slightly yellows, and the water supply to the field surface is started after the crushed straws are completely withered and yellow;
when the rice is mature, the field surface is completely drained and dried in the sun (a small amount of water is accumulated along the low-lying part around the ridge), then the rice is harvested by a harvester, and the height of the rice stubble is kept to be more than 45 cm;
a grass outlet of the harvester is modified, a grass outlet guide sheet is additionally arranged at the grass outlet, the grass outlet guide sheet is inclined upwards at an angle of 45 ℃, the crushed straws at the upper part are guided to cover upright rice stubbles, the crushed straws at the upper part are covered on the upright rice stubbles, and the guide sheet is made of common stainless steel;
after rice is harvested, the rice is exposed to the sun in 10-15 sunny days, the surface of upright rice stubble slightly yellows, all broken straws covering the rice stubble are withered and yellow, the rice field is watered comprehensively for the first time, the water level of the field surface is kept at 10-15 cm, and the broken straws scattered on the field surface are slowly decomposed;
when the preliminary decomposition of the crushed straws is basically finished (about 15 days after the first watering), watering for the second time, keeping the water level of the field surface at 20-25 cm, and slowly decomposing partial straws of the rice stubble soaked in the water; when the rice stubble is soaked in the water and partially discolours and decomposes, adding water again, keeping the water level of the field surface at 20 cm-25 cm, and keeping the water level to 3 months in the second year;
because the surface layer of the soil has good air permeability, some aerobic microorganisms can be propagated, and the surface layer structure of the soil is improved; the slowly decomposed straw organic matter is mainly utilized by the planted elodea and the eyebright, so that the water quality of the rice field is not rapidly deteriorated in 5 months, the concentrated disease outbreak of crayfish love diseases is avoided, and the crayfish is forced to grow grass;
after the rice is harvested, the rice is fed in batches, the rice straws are slowly decomposed and utilized by the waterweeds and the plankton, the water quality of the rice field is rapidly deteriorated due to the fact that the rice straws are returned to the field in full, and the water straws and the plankton are converted into crayfish aquatic products through biological chain ways such as the waterweeds and the plankton.
(3) 150kg of organic fertilizer which is fully fermented per mu of rice field after the broken straws scattered in the field are basically decomposed; raking the organic fertilizer evenly to ensure that the planted waterweeds can grow vigorously and leave a base fertilizer for the growth of the rice in the future: the organic fertilizer is prepared by selecting chicken manure as a main material, adding biological agents such as EM (effective microorganisms) and the like, fully fermenting to kill pathogenic bacteria in the organic fertilizer, uniformly applying the organic fertilizer into a ploughed rice field, and uniformly raking the organic fertilizer by a machine, so that on one hand, sufficient nutrients are provided for planted aquatic weeds, feed is provided for growth of water earthworms, on the other hand, a base fertilizer is left for future production of rice, and the using amount of chemical fertilizers is reduced;
(4) after fertilization, introducing tubificidae into the rice field to provide a high-quality protein bait source: after the rice field is ploughed and fertilized, the earthworms can be introduced into the field when the temperature is reduced to about 25 ℃, and the seed sources of the earthworms are rich in sewage drainage ditches at suburbs in cities and towns, sewage drainage ditches for livestock and poultry farms, slaughterhouses, sugar factories and food factories and the like, so that the earthworms can be harvested nearby; uniformly scattering the collected earthworm seeds on the fertilizer mud of the rice field, and inoculating 300-500 g of earthworm seeds per square meter of culture area;
(5) the waterweeds and the eyebright are planted in the strip and block shape in different areas, and the combination of the waterweeds and the dryland weeds creates better ecological conditions: the method comprises the following steps of planting waterweed and xerophyte eyebright in a rice field in a combined mode for the first time, planting an waterweed in a waterweed planting area, planting the waterweed at the periphery of the rice field in a strip mode, and enabling the strip width to be 2-3 m; planting the waterweeds strips and the cord grass strips in the middle of the rice field at intervals, and reserving 3-5 grass-free feeding areas in the middle of the field; the covering area of the elodea nuttallii is 50 percent, and the covering area of the cord grass is 20 percent (see the schematic diagram 1 of the zonal bar-block shaped planting of the elodea nuttallii and the cord grass for details);
(6) timely feeding high-quality crayfish fries according to the coverage rate of the aquatic weeds and the number of early fries bred by the crayfish left in the field; when the coverage rate of the waterweed and the eyebright reaches 60% -70%, putting high-quality crayfish fries, and fully playing the growth promoting effect of the eyebright on crayfish; after the elodea nutans and the like are cultivated for several months, feeding crayfish seedlings properly according to the number of the crayfish seedlings ecologically bred in the field at the bottom of 3 months or at the beginning of 4 months in the next year, controlling the specification to be 160-200 tails/kg, and feeding 10-15 kg of the crayfish seedlings with the specification in each mu of rice field.
(7) Feeding is not carried out in the whole crayfish breeding process, weed rice seeds are removed, and a weed-free space is reserved for the growth of rice; checking the biomass variation conditions of the waterweeds, the eyebright and the tubificidae in the rice field: after the crayfish fries are put in, the biomass change conditions of the waterweeds, the eyebright and the tubificidae in the rice field are checked in the morning and evening of each day, the number of the tubificidae is rapidly reduced 10 days before the crayfish fries are put in, and no feed is fed; after the crayfish fries are put for 20 days, when the water earthworms and the eyebright are rapidly reduced through examination, the crayfish fries are not fed with feed; after the crayfish fries are put in for 30 days, the feed is not fed when the biomass of the tubificidae and the cord grass is less and the quantity of the lilac is also obviously reduced through examination; after the crayfish fries are put in for 40 days, the examination finds that rice tender shoots, weed rice and the like in the rice field are all removed by the crayfish with roots, and no feed is fed; the crayfish breeding process always insists that no feed is fed, induces and forces the crayfish to utilize and remove scattered rice seeds and weed rice seeds in the rice field by using powerful large chela and hunger, and finally, the rice field is finished to be clean, so that a weed-free space is left for the growth of rice; the weed rice seeds germinate earlier than the rice seeds and are first ingested and removed by crayfish; the mechanized harvesting is about per mu of rice fieldRice seeds scattered 25 kg-50 kg are in the rice field, rice seeds scattered in the field in 3-4 months in the spring of the next year and weed rice seeds can slowly germinate and bud, and rice seeds which just germinate and bud (including weed rice seeds scattered in the field) become one of the most delicious baits for crayfishes after overwintering (the weed rice seeds germinate and emerge earlier than the rice seeds and are firstly removed by eating crayfishes), so that the problem of the bait source of the crayfishes is solved on one hand, and more importantly, the problem of the weed rice (the weed rice is wild enough, and germinates earlier than the cultivated rice, tillers earlier, and is removed earlier than the cultivated rice)Ear-pickingEarly maturing, once a family is set up in the rice field, people can compete for sunlight, nutrients, water and growing space with the cultivated rice. The weedy rice is also clever, and the important characteristics of the weedy rice are that the falling property is strong, the rice falls while maturing, so that the weedy rice is hidden from being harvested by human beings, and the weedy rice can continuously take root and germinate in the next year. The seed dormancy time can reach 10 years at most, and the seed can break the ground to germinate and survive as long as the temperature and the humidity are proper. Meanwhile, it continuously imitates the characteristics of cultivated rice such as height, color and the like in the evolution process, and even in the future, it may be difficult to distinguish weedy rice from cultivated rice by naked eyes).
(8) 55kg of clear water crayfish can be produced per mu through the steps from (1) to (7), the average specification reaches 5 money, the market price is 40 yuan/kg, and the yield per mu reaches 2200 yuan.
By adopting the method, 180 mu in 2014 to 2016, rice is harvested and then is insolated in 10-15 sunny days, the surface of rice stubble becomes slightly yellow, all broken straws covering the rice stubble become dry and yellow, the rice field is watered comprehensively for the first time, the water level of the field surface is kept to be 10-15 cm, and the broken straws scattered on the field surface are slowly decomposed; applying 150kg of fully fermented organic fertilizer per mu after decomposing the crushed straws in the rice field, and uniformly raking the organic fertilizer; after fertilization, introducing tubificidae into the rice field to provide a high-quality protein bait source; the waterweeds and the eyebright are planted in the strip and block shape in different areas, and the aquatic weed species combination creates better ecological conditions; when the coverage rate of the waterweed and the eyebright reaches 60% -70%, putting high-quality crayfish fries, and fully playing the growth promoting effect of the eyebright on crayfish; checking the biomass variation condition of the waterweeds, the eyebright and the tubificidae in the rice field, forcing the crayfish to utilize and remove the scattered rice seeds and weed rice seeds in the rice field by using powerful large-chelate and hunger without feeding the feed for induction, and leaving a weed-free space for the growth of the rice; by the comprehensive means, a good ecological system of the rice field is constructed, the productivity of the ecological system of the rice field is fully utilized, and the surface of the cultured crayfish is clean; the average specification of 55kg of the crayfish in clear water reaches 5 money, the market selling price is 40 yuan/kg, the acre output value reaches 2200 yuan, the crayfish is not fed with the pellet feed, the body surface of the crayfish is clean, and the crayfish is sold in high price and high level in the market.
According to the invention, rice straws are completely returned to the field after rice is harvested, and straw organic matters are slowly decomposed to fertilize water without influencing the growth of crayfish; 150kg of fully fermented organic fertilizer per mu is uniformly raked to ensure that the planted waterweeds can grow vigorously and leave base fertilizer for the growth of the rice in the future; introducing tubificidae into the rice field after fertilization; cultivating elodea nuttallii and eyebright in different areas; when the coverage rate of the waterweed and the eyebright reaches 60% -70%, putting high-quality crayfish fries; checking the biomass change conditions of the waterweed, the eyebright and the water earthworms in the rice field, and supplementing the eyebright and the waterweed; thereby achieving the purposes of culturing crayfish and removing weed rice in the flat-plate rice field without ditching and feeding and improving the culture efficiency of the rice field.
The above description is only for the preferred embodiment of the present invention, but the scope of the present invention is not limited thereto, and any person skilled in the art should be able to cover the technical solutions and the inventive concepts of the present invention within the technical scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. The method for culturing the flat plate type paddy field crayfishes without ditching and feeding and removing the weedy rice is characterized by comprising the following steps:
step 1: selecting a suitable flat-plate rice field, transplanting rice seedlings with water artificially, and selecting naturally to prevent crayfish germplasm from rapidly degrading and breeding earlier crayfish seedlings;
step 2: after the rice is harvested, the rice is insolated in 10-15 sunny days, the surface of the upright rice stubble slightly yellows, and the water supply to the field surface is started after the crushed straws are completely withered and yellow;
and step 3: 150kg of organic fertilizer which is fully fermented per mu of rice field after the crushed straws are scattered in the field and basically decomposed; uniformly raking the organic fertilizer to ensure that the planted waterweeds can grow vigorously and leave a base fertilizer for the growth of the rice in the future;
and 4, step 4: after fertilization, introducing tubificidae into the rice field to provide a high-quality protein bait source;
and 5: the waterweeds and the eyebright are planted in the strip and block shape in different areas, and the combination of the waterweeds and the dryland grass creates better ecological conditions;
step 6: and (4) timely feeding high-quality crayfish fries according to the coverage rate degree of the waterweeds and the number of early fries bred by the crayfish left in the field.
2. The method for cultivating and removing weedy rice for the flat-plate type paddy field crayfish in claim 1 without ditching and feeding is characterized in that the specific steps of the step 1 are as follows:
selecting an idle rice field for planting rice in one season in a water network area, wherein the area of the rice field is 5-15 mu, the original ridges around the rice field are firmer, the average height is 50-60 cm, and the width of the upper part of each ridge is 40-50 cm; one side of the periphery of the rice field, which is close to the ridge, is lower by 20-30 cm than the field, and the original water inlet and outlet of the rice field is provided with a crayfish escape-proof net.
3. The method for cultivating and removing weedy rice for flatbed paddy field crayfish as claimed in claim 1 without ditching and feeding, wherein in step 1, the seedlings are transplanted with water artificially to breed earlier crayfish seedlings; when the adult crayfishes in 5 months finish fishing and selling, the water level of the rice field is kept at 15 cm-20 cm, and seedlings of about 40 days old are manually planted.
4. The method for cultivating and removing the weedy rice of the flat-plate type paddy field crayfish as claimed in claim 1 without ditching and feeding is characterized in that the artificial rice with water is transplanted in the step 1, the artificial rice with water is naturally selected, and the water level of the field surface is maintained between 15cm and 20cm during the transplanting.
5. The method for cultivating and removing weedy rice for crayfish in a flat plate type paddy field according to claim 1 without ditching and feeding comprises the following steps of 2, when the rice is ripe, fully draining the surface of the paddy field, drying the paddy field, harvesting the rice by a harvester, keeping the height of rice stubble to be more than 45cm, exposing the harvested paddy field in 10-15 sunny days, standing up the surface of the rice stubble to be slightly yellow, completely withering the crushed straws covered on the rice stubble, starting the first full watering of the paddy field, keeping the water level of the surface of the paddy field to be 10-15 cm, slowly decomposing the crushed straws scattered on the surface of the paddy field, and when the primary decomposition of the crushed straws is basically finished, secondly watering, keeping the water level of the surface of the paddy field to be 20-25 cm, and slowly decomposing the partial straws soaked in the water; when the rice stubble is soaked in the water and partially discolours and decomposes, water is added again, the water level of the field surface is kept between 20cm and 25cm, and the water level is kept to 3 months in the next year.
6. The method for cultivating and removing weed rice of lobsters in flat plate type paddy field as claimed in claim 5, wherein the grass outlet of the harvester is modified, a grass outlet guide plate is additionally arranged at the grass outlet, the grass outlet guide plate is inclined upwards at an angle of 45 ℃ to guide the smashed straws at the upper part to cover upright rice stubbles, the smashed straws at the upper part to cover the upright rice stubbles, and the guide plate is made of common stainless steel.
7. The method for cultivating and removing weedy rice without ditching and feeding crayfishes in a flat plate type paddy field as claimed in claim 1, wherein the organic fertilizer in the step 3 is mainly chicken manure, EM (effective microorganisms) are added, pathogenic bacteria in the organic fertilizer are killed through full fermentation, the organic fertilizer is uniformly applied to the ploughed paddy field, and the paddy field is raked uniformly by a machine.
8. The method for cultivating and removing weedy rice for the flat-plate type paddy field crayfishes as claimed in claim 1 without ditching and feeding is characterized in that after the paddy field is ploughed and fertilized, earthworms are introduced into the field when the temperature is reduced to 25 ℃, the collected earthworm seeds are uniformly scattered on the paddy field fertilizer mud, and the cultivation area per square meter is inoculated according to 300-500 g.
9. The method for cultivating and removing the weedy rice for the flat plate type paddy field crayfish without ditching and feeding as claimed in claim 1, wherein step 5 comprises the steps of planting the waterweed and the xerophyte eyeweed in the paddy field in a combined manner for the first time, planting the waterweed in the waterweed planting area, planting the waterweed in strips around the paddy field, wherein the strips are 2-3 m wide; planting the waterweeds strips and the cord grass strips in the middle of the rice field at intervals, and reserving 3-5 grass-free feeding areas in the middle of the field; the covering area of the waterweed is 50 percent, and the covering area of the eyebright is 20 percent.
10. The method for cultivating and removing weedy rice without ditching for crayfishes in a flatbed paddy field according to claim 1, wherein in the step 6, high-quality crayfish seedlings are thrown when the coverage rate of the elodea and the cord grass reaches 60% -70%.
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