CN113303182A - Highland barley cultivation method in plateau area - Google Patents

Highland barley cultivation method in plateau area Download PDF

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Publication number
CN113303182A
CN113303182A CN202110665726.7A CN202110665726A CN113303182A CN 113303182 A CN113303182 A CN 113303182A CN 202110665726 A CN202110665726 A CN 202110665726A CN 113303182 A CN113303182 A CN 113303182A
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China
Prior art keywords
controlled release
slow
fertilizer
highland barley
nitrogen fertilizer
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CN202110665726.7A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
邱城
刘青海
张飞龙
达娃
吴雪莲
张唐伟
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Tibet Academy Of Agricultural And Animal Husbandry Sciences Agricultural Quality Standards And Testing Institute
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Tibet Academy Of Agricultural And Animal Husbandry Sciences Agricultural Quality Standards And Testing Institute
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Priority to CN202110665726.7A priority Critical patent/CN113303182A/en
Priority to CN201810193780.4A priority patent/CN108496500A/en
Publication of CN113303182A publication Critical patent/CN113303182A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/20Cereals
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilizing, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/20Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions in agriculture, e.g. CO2
    • Y02P60/21Dinitrogen oxide [N2O], e.g. using aquaponics, hydroponics or efficiency measures

Abstract

The invention discloses a fertilizing method of a highland barley slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer, and belongs to the technical field of controlled release fertilizer application. Selecting a slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer with a controlled release period of 2.5-3.5 months, wherein the fertilizing amount of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is converted into pure nutrient nitrogen 105-180 kg/hm2The seed is applied once when the highland barley is sowed; the fertilizing depth of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is 10-15 cm, wherein the horizontal distance between the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer and the highland barley seeds is 0-10 cm, and 0cm is just below the highland barley seeds. The technical scheme comprehensively considers the aspects of the controlled release period of the fertilizer, the fertilizing depth, the distance between the fertilizer and seeds, the fertilizer using amount, the fertilizing time and the like, achieves the purpose of reasonable production and efficient fertilization of the highland barley, not only effectively improves the utilization rate of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer, increases the yield of the highland barley, but also can effectively control the loss rate of nitrogen and promote the sustainable and healthy development of the ecological environment of the plateau agriculture.

Description

Highland barley cultivation method in plateau area
The application is a divisional application with application date of 2018, 03 and 09, application number of 201810193780.4 and invention name of fertilizing method of highland barley slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer.
Technical Field
The invention relates to a fertilizing method of a slow/controlled release fertilizer, in particular to a fertilizing method of a highland barley slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer, and belongs to the technical field of controlled release fertilizer application.
Background
Highland barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum hook. f.) is a cereal crop of Hordeum in Gramineae, also called naked barley, highland barley and rice barley, and is mainly produced in high and cold regions with elevation of 1000-4500 m, such as Tibet, Qinghai, Sichuan and Yunnan. The highland barley is used as a main grain crop in Tibet areas, has rich nutrition and large deep processing potential, and is an important raw material for producing various foods, health products, wines and other industrial products. Highland barley planting is vigorously developed in Tibet, a highland barley industrial chain is extended, the living needs of Tibetan nationality can be met, the employment problem of residual labor force can be solved, the income of farmers and herdsmen is increased, the comprehensive production capacity of local agriculture and animal husbandry is improved, the crossing development of the Tibetan farming and animal husbandry can be promoted, and the national association and social stability are maintained. Therefore, in order to meet the purpose, a reasonably optimized fertilization system for local highland barley planting needs to be researched, the fertilization cost is effectively utilized and saved, the problems of low utilization rate of chemical fertilizers and the like are solved, and the yield and the benefit of highland barley planting are greatly improved.
The total area of the Tibetan region is more than 120 thousands square kilometers, the average altitude is 4200m, the illumination time is long, the radiation intensity is large, the annual sunshine duration is 3000-3400 h, the total annual solar radiation amount is 190-200 kcal/cm 2, the solar radiation amount is far more than that of the eastern region of China, good conditions are provided for the formation and conversion of crop bioenergy by strong illumination and solar radiation, and good natural conditions are provided for high crop yield. Although the index of superiority of the Tibetan crop planting efficiency is highest nationwide, the average yield of Tibetan crops is low, mainly the soil fertility level is low besides farming and management factors, and the index becomes a bottleneck limiting the crop yield. In the Tibet region, the determining effect of soil fertility on grain production reaches more than 70%, and fertility factors seriously influence the exertion of potential of good variety resources, illumination, water, temperature and the like of crops.
Highland barley is a crop variety with the largest cultivation area (accounting for 60-70% of grain sowing area), the largest yield and the widest distribution in the Tibet area, at present, most of nitrogen fertilizers planted by the highland barley are quick-acting nitrogen fertilizers (such as urea), the application method generally adopts a fertilization method combining base fertilizers and additional fertilizers, and the base fertilizers are applied before highland barley sowing, namely deep ploughing after spreading on the soil surface before ploughing; the top dressing is applied in the growth process, mostly adopts the spreading before watering, can be applied among highland barley rows, but the fertilizing mode has low utilization rate and poor yield increasing efficiency. The slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer has the advantages of low seed burning rate, less leaching loss, high nutrient utilization rate and the like, can complete seeding and fertilizing at one time by using machinery, and saves a large amount of labor cost. In the slow/controlled release fertilizer, the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is the most common, and compared with the common quick-acting nitrogen fertilizer, the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer has closer relationship between the fertilizer efficiency and the fertilizing method and has larger potential for increasing the fertilizer efficiency. However, the implementation of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer has the following technical problems:
firstly, the controlled release period of the selected slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is a main factor for reasonably applying the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer, the controlled release period is too short, the nutrient is released too fast, and the later period of the highland barley is easy to lack fertilizer and senilis, so that the yield and the quality are influenced; the controlled release period is too long, the nutrient release of the fertilizer is slow and incomplete in the highland barley growing season, the fertilizer efficiency utilization rate is reduced, the highland barley growth is influenced, and the yield is reduced. Secondly, the fertilization depth is another factor influencing the fertilizer efficiency of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer, the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer needs proper moisture condition for releasing nutrients in soil, and in the highland barley habitat, the moisture content is different in different soil depths, and the nutrient release rate of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is different. In addition, the quick-acting nitrogen fertilizer has high dissolution speed in soil, is easy to cause fertilizer damage when being too close to seeds or root systems, and the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer solves the problem.
At present, in highland barley planting, a reasonable and efficient fertilizing method of a slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is urgently needed to improve the utilization efficiency of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer, reduce resource waste and promote the healthy and continuous development of agricultural ecological environment, but the method has not been reported in relevant aspects.
The national Bureau discloses a technical scheme of a publication number CN107285946A in 2017, 10 and 24 months and with a patent name of 'a special controlled release fertilizer for highland barley and a preparation method and application thereof', and discloses: the fertilizer comprises fertilizer granules and a film coating coated on the fertilizer, wherein the fertilizer granules are prepared from the following components in parts by weight: 10-20 parts of urea, 15-30 parts of diammonium phosphate, 2-8 parts of zinc sulfate heptahydrate and 5-12 parts of potassium sulfate, wherein the film coat is prepared from the following components: 10-15 parts of polyacrylamide, 12-18 parts of sodium polyacrylate and 1-2 parts of starch grafted sodium acrylate. The preparation method comprises the following steps: preparing fertilizer particles, preparing a film coating solution, spraying the film coating solution on the surfaces of the fertilizer particles, and drying to obtain the fertilizer. In 2011, 08 and 17 months, a technical scheme of a publication number CN102150502A with a patent name of an efficient and accurate fertilization method of a wheat slow/controlled-release nitrogen fertilizer is disclosed, and the technical scheme comprises the following steps: selecting a slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer with a controlled release period of 3-4 months, wherein the fertilizing depth of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is 11-16 cm, and the horizontal distance between the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer and the wheat seeds is 0-9 cm; the 0cm is right below the wheat seeds; the fertilizing amount of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is converted into 6-14 kg of pure nutrient nitrogen per mu, and the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is completely applied at one time when wheat is sowed.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to plant highland barley in a plateau environment, and provides a fertilizing method of a highland barley slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer by comprehensively considering the aspects of the controlled release period of the fertilizer, the fertilizing depth, the distance between the fertilizer and seeds, the fertilizer using amount and the like. By utilizing the technical scheme, the purpose of reasonable and efficient fertilization of highland barley is achieved, the utilization rate of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is effectively improved, the increase of highland barley yield is promoted, the loss rate of nitrogen can be effectively controlled, and the sustainable and healthy development of the plateau agricultural ecological environment is ensured.
In order to achieve the technical purpose, the following technical scheme is proposed:
a fertilizing method of highland barley slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer comprises the step of selecting the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer with the controlled release period of 2.5-3.5 months, wherein the fertilizing amount of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is converted into pure nutrient nitrogen elements of 105-180 kg/hm2The seed is applied once when the highland barley is sowed; the fertilizing depth of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is 10-15 cm, wherein the horizontal distance between the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer and the highland barley seeds is 0-10 cm, and 0cm is just below the highland barley seeds.
Preferably, the controlled-release period of the slow/controlled-release nitrogen fertilizer is 2.5-3.0 months, and the fertilizing amount is converted into pure nutrient nitrogen 120-150 kg/hm2
Preferably, the fertilizing depth of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is 12-15 cm; the horizontal distance between the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer and the highland barley seeds is 0-6 cm.
Preferably, the nitrogen content of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is 25-45 wt%.
Preferably, the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer comprises one or the combination of more than two of sulfur-coated urea, paraffin-coated urea, high polymer-coated urea, thermoplastic resin-coated urea and thermosetting resin-coated urea.
Preferably, the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer comprises sulfur-coated urea with the nitrogen content of 30-35 wt%, wherein the sulfur coating accounts for 15-20% of the mass ratio of the core fertilizer urea.
The slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is directly purchased in the market or ordered and obtained from manufacturers.
The slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is applied by manpower or a seeder during highland barley seeding, and the seeder is the conventional agricultural seeder.
By adopting the technical scheme, the beneficial technical effects brought are as follows:
1) application and popularization of nitrogen fertilizer promoting slow/controlled release and accurate fertilization method thereof in highland barley planting
The invention firstly applies the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer to the highland barley planting and firstly provides the accurate fertilization method for applying the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer to the highland barley planting. The method comprehensively considers the aspects of the length of the controlled release period of the fertilizer, the fertilization depth, the distance between the fertilizer and seeds, the fertilizer using amount and the like, mainly takes the reasonable and efficient fertilization of the highland barley as a measure, aims to improve the utilization rate of the fertilizer and increase the yield of the highland barley, strengthens the introduction and popularization of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer in time, promotes the wide application of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer in the highland barley planting, and establishes a high-yield and efficient ecological highland barley planting system;
2) effectively improving the nutrient utilization efficiency of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer
The invention fully combines the environmental characteristics of Tibet plateau, which comprises the following steps: the technical scheme is provided according to the factors such as altitude, soil type, rainfall, evaporation capacity and temperature, and the nutrient utilization efficiency of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is effectively improved. Firstly, the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is mainly prepared on the basis of organic matter or inorganic matter coating, the release of nitrogen in the fertilizer in soil is mainly realized by micropores on a film layer, the moisture and the temperature of the soil are main factors influencing the micropores, the moisture content and the temperature of each depth of a soil layer are different, the fertilizing depth of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is set to be 10-15 cm, and the optimal moisture content and temperature required by the release of the nitrogen are achieved. Secondly, the controlled release period is selected to be 2.5-3.5 months, and the nitrogen can be effectively utilized by the highland barley within the period. Furthermore, the horizontal distance between the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer and the highland barley seeds influences the contact degree of nutrients and highland barley, and further influences the absorption of the nutrients, and the horizontal distance between the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer and the highland barley seeds is 0-10 cm, so that the highland barley can sufficiently absorb the nutrients within the distance. The method is comprehensively considered from the influence factors, the parameters are accurately set, the utilization rate of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer in highland barley production is obviously improved, and the utilization rate is improved by 4.2-7.1%;
3) increase the yield of highland barley
In the invention, by adopting the fertilizing method of the highland barley slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer, the controlled release period, the fertilizing depth, the distance between the fertilizer and the root system of the highland barley and the like of the nitrogen fertilizer are effectively optimized, the reasonable application of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer can not only improve the utilization rate of the fertilizer, but also provide proper nitrogen nutrition for the highland barley, obviously improve the yield of the highland barley while improving the utilization rate of the fertilizer and promoting the growth of the highland barley, and the maximum yield increasing efficiency is 8.3%;
4) saving resources of slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer
Under the influence of various factors such as production technology and the like, the proportion of the output of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer in the total amount of the applied nitrogen fertilizer in China is not high, and the resources of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer are not much. The efficient fertilization method of the highland barley slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer effectively improves the utilization efficiency of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer and fully solves the problem of limited resources;
5) promoting the sustainable and healthy development of the plateau agricultural ecological environment
The fertilizing method of the highland barley slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer obviously improves the utilization rate of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer, obviously reduces the emission of nitrogen to the environment, is an important technical measure for protecting the ecological environment of the plateau in a new period, and effectively promotes the sustainable and healthy development of the ecological environment of the plateau agriculture.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a graph of the relationship between the controlled-release period of a slow/controlled-release nitrogen fertilizer and the utilization efficiency of the fertilizer;
FIG. 2 is a graph showing the relationship between the fertilization depth and the fertilizer utilization efficiency of a slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer;
FIG. 3 is a graph showing the relationship between the distance of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer from the highland barley seeds and the utilization efficiency of the fertilizer.
Detailed Description
The technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention are clearly and completely described below, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, and not all embodiments (the percentages described in the embodiments are all mass percentages). All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
Description of terms:
the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is a slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer which meets the industrial standard of slow/controlled release fertilizer in China (HG/T3931-2007, implemented in 10 months and 1 day in 2007).
The controlled release period of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is the controlled release period obtained according to a detection method in the national controlled release fertilizer industry standard (HG/T3931-2007, carried out in 2007 in 10 months and 1 day).
The fertilization depth refers to the distance between the fertilizer and the soil surface.
The depth of the highland barley seeds is generally 5-7 cm from the surface of the soil.
Example 1
A fertilizing method of highland barley slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer selects slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer with a controlled release period of 2.5 months, wherein the fertilizing amount of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is converted into pure nutrient nitrogen 105kg/hm2The seed is applied once when the highland barley is sowed; the fertilizing depth of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is 10cm, wherein the horizontal distance between the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer and the highland barley seeds is 0cm, and 0cm is just below the highland barley seeds.
The slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is applied manually during highland barley sowing.
Example 2
A fertilizing method of highland barley slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer selects slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer with a controlled release period of 2.5 months, wherein the fertilizing amount of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is converted into pure nutrient nitrogen 120kg/hm2The seed is applied once when the highland barley is sowed; the fertilizing depth of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is 12cm, wherein the horizontal distance between the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer and the highland barley seeds is 2 cm.
The slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is applied by a seeder during highland barley seeding, and the seeder is the conventional agricultural seeder.
Example 3
A fertilizing method of highland barley slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer selects slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer with a controlled release period of 3 months, wherein the fertilizing amount of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is converted into pure nutrient nitrogen of 135kg/hm2The seed is applied once when the highland barley is sowed; the fertilizing depth of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is 13cm, wherein the horizontal distance between the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer and the highland barley seeds is 4 cm.
The slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is applied by a seeder during highland barley seeding, and the seeder is the conventional agricultural seeder.
Example 4
Highland barley slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizerThe fertilizing method comprises the step of selecting a slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer with a controlled release period of 3 months, wherein the fertilizing amount of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is converted into pure nutrient nitrogen of 150kg/hm2The seed is applied once when the highland barley is sowed; the fertilizing depth of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is 14cm, wherein the horizontal distance between the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer and the highland barley seeds is 6 cm.
The slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is applied manually during highland barley sowing.
Example 5
A fertilizing method of highland barley slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer selects slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer with a controlled release period of 3.5 months, wherein the fertilizing amount of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is converted into pure nutrient nitrogen 180kg/hm2The seed is applied once when the highland barley is sowed; the fertilizing depth of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is 15cm, wherein the horizontal distance between the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer and the highland barley seeds is 8 cm.
The slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is applied by a seeder during highland barley seeding, and the seeder is the conventional agricultural seeder.
Example 6
A fertilizing method of highland barley slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer selects slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer with a controlled release period of 3.5 months, wherein the fertilizing amount of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is converted into pure nutrient nitrogen of 150kg/hm2The seed is applied once when the highland barley is sowed; the fertilizing depth of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is 12cm, wherein the horizontal distance between the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer and the highland barley seeds is 10 cm.
The slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is applied by a seeder during highland barley seeding, and the seeder is the conventional agricultural seeder.
Example 7
A fertilizing method of highland barley slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer selects slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer with a controlled release period of 2.5 months, wherein the fertilizing amount of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is converted into 145kg/hm of pure nutrient nitrogen2The seed is applied once when the highland barley is sowed; the fertilizing depth of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is 13cm, wherein the horizontal distance between the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer and the highland barley seeds is 9 cm.
The slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is applied manually during highland barley sowing.
Example 8
A fertilizing method of highland barley slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer selects slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer with a controlled release period of 3 months, wherein the fertilizing amount of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is converted into pure nutrient nitrogen 180kg/hm2The seed is applied once when the highland barley is sowed; the fertilizing depth of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is 15cm, wherein the horizontal distance between the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer and the highland barley seeds is 5 cm.
The slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is applied by a seeder during highland barley seeding, and the seeder is the conventional agricultural seeder.
Example 9
On the basis of examples 1 to 8: the nitrogen content of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is 25 wt%.
Example 10
On the basis of examples 1 to 8: the nitrogen content of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is 27 wt%.
Example 11
On the basis of examples 1 to 8: the nitrogen content of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is 30 wt%.
Example 12
On the basis of examples 1 to 8: the nitrogen content of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is 32 wt%.
Example 13
On the basis of examples 1 to 8: the nitrogen content of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is 35 wt%.
Example 14
On the basis of examples 1 to 8: the nitrogen content of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is 38 wt%.
Example 15
On the basis of examples 1 to 8: the nitrogen content of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is 40 wt%.
Example 16
On the basis of examples 1 to 8: the nitrogen content of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is 43 wt%.
Example 17
On the basis of examples 1 to 8: the nitrogen content of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is 45 wt%.
Example 18
On the basis of examples 1 to 8: the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is paraffin coated urea.
Example 19
On the basis of examples 1 to 8: the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is high molecular polymer coated urea.
Example 20
On the basis of examples 1 to 8: the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is thermoplastic resin coated urea.
Example 21
On the basis of examples 1 to 8: the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is thermosetting resin coated urea.
Example 22
On the basis of examples 1 to 8: the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is sulfur-coated urea.
Example 23
On the basis of examples 1 to 8: the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is a mixture of sulfur-coated urea, paraffin-coated urea and thermosetting resin-coated urea.
Example 24
On the basis of examples 1 to 8: the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is a mixture of five of sulfur coated urea, paraffin coated urea, high polymer coated urea, thermoplastic resin coated urea and thermosetting resin coated urea.
Example 25
On the basis of examples 1 to 8: the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer comprises sulfur-coated urea with the nitrogen content of 30 wt%, wherein the sulfur coating accounts for 15% of the mass ratio of the core fertilizer urea.
Example 26
On the basis of examples 1 to 8: the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer comprises sulfur-coated urea with the nitrogen content of 35 wt%, wherein the sulfur coating accounts for 20% of the mass ratio of the core fertilizer urea.
Example 27
On the basis of examples 1 to 8: the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer comprises sulfur-coated urea with the nitrogen content of 32 wt%, wherein the sulfur coating accounts for 16% of the mass ratio of the core fertilizer urea.
Example 28
On the basis of examples 1 to 8: the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer comprises sulfur-coated urea with the nitrogen content of 34 wt%, wherein the sulfur coating accounts for 18% of the mass ratio of the core fertilizer urea.
Comparative example
The nitrogen fertilizer is common quick-acting urea, the mass ratio of the nitrogen content is 46.4 percent, a common fertilizing method is adopted, namely a fertilizing method combining base fertilizer and additional fertilizer, the base fertilizer is spread on the surface of soil before ploughing and then deeply ploughed, and the additional fertilizer is applied in the process of growing the highland barley in line. The fertilizer is converted into pure nutrient nitrogen, and the dosage of the comparative example is the same as that of the fertilizers in the examples 1-28.
The application effects of the examples 1 to 28 and the comparative example are as follows:
test points are as follows: two river basins of Tibet one river (including the Lasa river basin, the Yajiang river basin and the Nichchu river basin);
test time: 4 months to 2017 months from 2015;
and (3) trial article species: dark blue 2000;
the average altitude of test points is 3670-3890 m, the test points belong to arid and semiarid monsoon climates in high altitude temperature zones, the annual rainfall is 200-500 mm (most of rainfall is concentrated in 6-9 months), the annual average evaporation capacity is 2100-2600 mm, the annual average temperature is 5.9-8.4 ℃, and the soil type is mainly moist soil. By sampling analysis, the average content of the soil nutrients in the test field is shown in the following table 1 (table 2 is a soil nutrient content grading standard), and the fertility is at a medium level.
TABLE 1 average soil nutrient content of test fields
TABLE 2 grading Standard of soil nutrient content (second national soil general survey technical Specification)
The technical points of the dark blue 2000 planting are as follows: (1) and (4) variety selection. Seed selection is carried out before sowing, the selection rate reaches 100 percent, and the seed quality reaches the seed grading standardMore than quasi-second level. The purity is not less than 95%, the purity is not less than 96%, the germination rate is not less than 95%, the water content of the seeds is not more than 14%, and the seeds are manually selected once before sowing. (2) And (5) preparing before broadcasting. Selecting a plot which is leeward, sunny, convenient in water source, high in terrain and dry and good in drainage as a highland barley test field. (3) Ploughing. After the previous crops are harvested, the crops are deeply ploughed in time, autumn rain is intercepted, the soil moisture is increased, and the soil aggregate structure is improved through the freeze thawing effect of the soil in two seasons of winter and spring. Then before spring sowing in the next year, the depth is combined, the depth is increased first and then the depth is reduced, and the land leveler can be used for ploughing and harrowing for many times to break particles, so that the land is level, and the land is deficient and full. The water content of the soil is guaranteed to be 15-20%, the color of the soil is dark in sense, the soil can be kneaded into lumps by hands, wet marks are left on the hands, the lumps can be broken after being thrown, the soil is the best soil moisture content, and the sowing is facilitated. (4) And (6) sowing. The mechanical sowing mode is carried out in the sowing period, the sowing quantity is 18g/m of the dark blue 2000 seeds2(ii) a The seeding row spacing is 15cm, and the single-row seeding amount is adjusted to 60 grains/m. (5) And (5) field management. After sowing, the soil is found to be dry and is pressed once so as to facilitate the emergence of seedlings. After the seedlings emerge, the seedlings lack and the ridges are broken, and the seeds should be supplemented in time to ensure the seedlings to be uniform. Pouring water after 40 days after seeding, namely the four-leaf one-heart period, pouring water every 15 days until the rainy season comes, and well preventing and draining waterlogging at the later stage. The highland barley is subjected to first field intertillage and soil loosening in a four-leaf and one-heart period, and field weeds are killed; carrying out secondary intertillage weeding before jointing; timely removing large weeds such as wild oat grass, wild rape and the like at the later stage of highland barley jointing.
The fertilization method of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer and the common fertilization method of the existing common nitrogen fertilizer (selecting common quick-acting urea with 46.4 percent of nitrogen content) are respectively implemented in the technical scheme, and the highland barley yield and the fertilizer utilization ratio are compared to obtain the results shown in the following table 3:
TABLE 3 application effect of slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer application method
The examples 1-28 and the comparative example in the technical scheme are respectively implemented, and then the highland barley yield and the fertilizer utilization rate are compared, and the obtained results are shown in the following table 4:
TABLE 4 examples 1-28 fertilization method application effects
Relation between controlled release period of slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer and fertilizer utilization efficiency
The slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is selected as sulfur coated urea, the mass ratio of the coating layer to the core fertilizer urea is respectively 15%, 16%, 18%, 20% and 25%, and the corresponding controlled release periods are 2 months, 2.5 months, 3 months, 3.5 months and 4 months. The results shown in FIG. 1 were obtained by using the abscissa as the controlled-release period (unit: month) of the slow/controlled-release nitrogen fertilizer and the ordinate as the fertilizer utilization ratio (unit:%) of the slow/controlled-release nitrogen fertilizer.
Second, the relationship between the fertilization depth of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer and the utilization efficiency of the fertilizer
The slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is sulfur coated urea with 32% of nitrogen content, and the controlled release period is 2.5 months. The results shown in FIG. 2 were obtained by using the abscissa as the fertilization depth (unit: cm) and the ordinate as the fertilizer utilization ratio (unit:%) of the slow/controlled nitrogen fertilizer.
Thirdly, the relationship between the distance between the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer and the highland barley seeds and the utilization efficiency of the fertilizer
The slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is sulfur coated urea with 32% of nitrogen content, and the controlled release period is 2.5 months. The horizontal coordinate is the horizontal distance (unit: cm) of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer from the highland barley seeds, and the vertical coordinate is the fertilizer utilization rate (unit:%) of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer, and the results shown in the following figure 3 are obtained.
Although the present invention has been described with reference to the preferred embodiments, it should be understood that various changes and modifications can be made therein by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims.

Claims (6)

1. A highland barley cultivation method in plateau areas is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) variety selection
Seed selection is carried out before sowing, and the selection rate is 100%; the quality of the highland barley seeds is more than two grades of seed grading standard, the purity is not less than 95%, the purity is not less than 96%, the germination rate is not less than 95%, and the water content of the seeds is not more than 14%;
(2) preparation before broadcast
Selecting a plot which is leeward, sunny, convenient in water source, high and dry in terrain and good in drainage;
(3) plowing
After the previous crops are harvested, deep ploughing is carried out in time, autumn rain is intercepted, autumn moisture is increased, and the soil aggregate structure is improved through the freeze thawing effect of the soil in two seasons of winter and spring; then before spring sowing in the next year, combining depth, firstly depth and then depth, ploughing and raking for many times, breaking particles, leveling land, and making the land deficient and real; the water content of the soil is guaranteed to be 15-20%, the color of the soil is dark on the sense, the soil can be kneaded into lumps by hands, wet marks are left on the hands, and the lumps can be broken after being thrown, so that the soil is the best soil moisture content and is suitable for seeding;
(4) seeding
The seeding rate is 18g/m2The seeding row spacing is 15cm, and the single-row seeding amount is adjusted to 60 grains/m;
(5) management of field
After sowing and fertilizing, if the soil is dry, compacting once; after seedling emergence, if the seedlings are short and the ridges are broken, timely reseeding is carried out, and uniform seedlings are ensured; pouring water after 40 days after seeding, namely the four-leaf one-heart period, pouring water every 15 days until the rainy season comes, and well preventing and draining waterlogging at the later stage; the highland barley is subjected to first field intertillage and soil loosening in a four-leaf and one-heart period, and field weeds are killed; carrying out secondary intertillage weeding before jointing; timely removing large weeds such as wild oat grass, wild rape and the like at the later stage of highland barley jointing.
2. The cultivation method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the average nutrient content standard of the soil for which the cultivation method is applied is as follows:
when the soil depth is 0-20 cm: 1.37g/kg of total nitrogen, 109mg/kg of hydrolyzable nitrogen, 0.683mg/kg of total phosphorus, 21.5mg/kg of available phosphorus, 23.1mg/kg of total potassium, 63mg/kg of quick-acting potassium, 8.2 of pH value, 25.0g/kg of organic matters, 14mg/kg of ammonium nitrogen and 24mg/kg of nitrate nitrogen;
when the soil depth is 20-40 cm: 1.09g/kg of total nitrogen, 75mg/kg of hydrolyzable nitrogen, 0.604mg/kg of total phosphorus, 10.1mg/kg of available phosphorus, 23.1mg/kg of total potassium, 45mg/kg of quick-acting potassium, 8.0 of pH value, 17.7g/kg of organic matters, 12mg/kg of ammonium nitrogen and 16mg/kg of nitrate nitrogen;
the soil depth is below 40 cm: the total nitrogen is 0.47g/kg, the hydrolyzable nitrogen is 38mg/kg, the total phosphorus is 0.352mg/kg, the available phosphorus is 4.7mg/kg, the total potassium is 23.2mg/kg, the quick-acting potassium is 44mg/kg, the pH value is 8.1, the organic matter is 9.2g/kg, the ammonium nitrogen is 9mg/kg, and the nitrate nitrogen is 8 mg/kg.
3. The cultivation method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the seed of highland barley is Tibet Qing 2000.
4. The cultivation method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the cultivation method is suitable for environments with an average altitude of 3670-3890 m, arid climates in high plateau temperature zones and semiarid monsoon, an annual rainfall of 200-500 mm, an annual average evaporation capacity of 2100-2600 mm, and an annual average temperature of 5.9-8.4 ℃.
5. The cultivation method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the soil type to which the cultivation method is applied is moisture soil.
6. The cultivation method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the operation of applying fertilizer in step (5) is: selecting a slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer with a controlled release period of 2.5-3.0 months, wherein the fertilizing amount of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is converted into 120-150 kg/hm of pure nutrient nitrogen2The seed is applied once when the highland barley is sowed; the fertilizing depth of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is 12-15 cm, wherein the horizontal distance between the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer and the highland barley seeds is 0-6 cm, and 0cm is just below the highland barley seeds;
the nitrogen content of the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer is 25-45 wt%; the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer comprises one or the combination of more than two of sulfur coated urea, paraffin coated urea, high polymer coated urea, thermoplastic resin coated urea and thermosetting resin coated urea; the slow/controlled release nitrogen fertilizer comprises sulfur-coated urea with the nitrogen content of 30-35 wt%, wherein the sulfur coating accounts for 15-20% of the mass of the core fertilizer urea.
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