CN112243758A - Integrated shed frame rain-sheltering cultivation facility for fresh edible jujube and cultivation method thereof - Google Patents

Integrated shed frame rain-sheltering cultivation facility for fresh edible jujube and cultivation method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN112243758A
CN112243758A CN202011266993.9A CN202011266993A CN112243758A CN 112243758 A CN112243758 A CN 112243758A CN 202011266993 A CN202011266993 A CN 202011266993A CN 112243758 A CN112243758 A CN 112243758A
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China
Prior art keywords
jujube
rain
film
branches
sheltering
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
周军永
陆丽娟
孙其宝
孙俊
马福利
朱淑芳
刘茂
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Anhui Agricultural University AHAU
Institute of Gardening of Anhui Academy Agricultural Sciences
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Anhui Agricultural University AHAU
Institute of Gardening of Anhui Academy Agricultural Sciences
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Priority to CN202011266993.9A priority Critical patent/CN112243758A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/14Greenhouses
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/14Greenhouses
    • A01G9/1438Covering materials therefor; Materials for protective coverings used for soil and plants, e.g. films, canopies, tunnels or cloches
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/24Devices or systems for heating, ventilating, regulating temperature, illuminating, or watering, in greenhouses, forcing-frames, or the like
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/25Greenhouse technology, e.g. cooling systems therefor

Abstract

The invention relates to the technical field of jujube tree cultivation. The invention discloses a fresh edible jujube shed frame integrated rain-sheltering cultivation facility and a cultivation method thereof. The rain sheltering cultivation facility comprises an integral horizontal steel wire frame surface and a multi-span rain shelter. By utilizing the integrated rain-sheltering cultivation facility for the jujube shed frame, the problem of fruit cracking of fresh edible jujubes in the crisp and mature period is solved, meanwhile, the ventilation and cooling can be accelerated by opening the rain-proof film at the top part at high temperature, the problem of slow cooling of the rain-sheltering shed is solved, and the fruit setting in the flowering period and the fruit quality are favorably improved. According to the jujube cultivation method, branches are uniformly distributed after the horizontal trellis tree form is adopted according to the characteristic that the jujube strands bear fruits, so that the growth vigor is weakened, and the jujube fruit setting rate is improved; the tree body has good light receiving condition, the fruits are under the leaves, and the fruits are not easy to suntan, so that the appearance and the internal quality of the fruits are improved; the root zone restriction cultivation in the root control container is convenient for the management of underground root systems, the cost is low, the space under the frame is large, the ventilation and the light transmission are good, and the plant diseases and insect pests are light.

Description

Integrated shed frame rain-sheltering cultivation facility for fresh edible jujube and cultivation method thereof
Technical Field
The embodiment of the invention relates to the technical field of jujube tree planting, in particular to a fresh edible jujube shed-frame integrated rain-sheltering cultivation facility and a cultivation method thereof.
Background
The jujube belongs to the plants of the jujube genus in the Rhamnaceae family, the native production of China has a long cultivation history, the jujube is a regional leading industry and is a main source of the economic income of farmers, but fruit cracking is always a serious disaster in jujube production and occurs in the jujube areas in the south and the north of China. After the jujube fruits enter the white ripe period, under the conditions of improper cultivation management, rain exposure or long-term condensation on the surfaces of the fruits and the like, the surfaces of the fruits crack differently, the fruit cracking rate of the jujubes is about 15 percent generally, the year of raininess in the ripe period is as high as 50 to 80 percent, and after the fruits crack, pathogenic bacteria such as anthrax and the like are easy to invade, so that the rot of the fruits is accelerated, and the yield and the commodity value are seriously influenced. Cracking of jujube becomes an important bottleneck for the development of jujube industry.
At present, a traditional single-stem open-heart-shaped cultivation method is mostly adopted for jujube trees, 3-4 main branches exist in the whole jujube tree in the rain sheltering cultivation process of the tree-shaped structure, when the dwarfing control of the crown width and the tree height is poor, the upper branches are prone to growing vigorously, tree-shaped disorder and poor ventilation and light transmission are caused, the fruit setting rate of lower fruiting parts is further caused to be low, the yield is influenced, and due to the fact that the short branches of the main stems are high in density, small mechanical equipment cannot conduct autumn and winter fertilization, insecticide spraying and the like.
The rain-proof cultivation of jujube is developed more slowly, and the simple and easy little rain shelter that adopts at present is most according to jujube cultivation line spacing and decides, for the design of single span disjunctor, although the rainwater can flow into waterlogging caused by excessive rainfall ditch and escape canal along the film in, nevertheless because the span is little, in the white ripe period like meeting weather such as torrential rain, jujube tree body and jujube fruit still can receive the harm of rainwater, and soil humidity is difficult to control simultaneously, and the fruit cracking rate takes place great, is unfavorable for the improvement of quality.
Disclosure of Invention
The embodiment of the invention aims to provide a fresh food jujube shed frame integrated rain-sheltering cultivation facility and a cultivation method thereof, so as to solve the problems in the background technology.
In order to achieve the above purpose, the embodiments of the present invention provide the following technical solutions:
an integrated rain-sheltering cultivation facility for fresh edible jujube shed frames comprises an integral steel wire frame surface and a plurality of single-span shed bodies;
the single-span greenhouse body comprises a plurality of steel pipe main bodies, each steel pipe main body comprises a straight pipe and arc pipes, the upper parts of the left arc pipe and the right arc pipe are connected through a sleeve, the bottom of the straight pipe is buried under the ground by 60cm, meanwhile, the arc pipes are longitudinally connected through three arch rods with the diameter of 26mm and the diameter of 2.0mm, the first arch rod is a left arch rod, the second arch rod is a right arch rod, the third arch rod is a top arch rod, the left arch rod and the right arch rod are positioned on two sides of an arch surface of each arc pipe and are 2.0m away from the top arch rod, the top arch rod is positioned at the sleeve connection part of the arc pipes, and the arch rods are connected with the arch surfaces of the arc pipes through snap springs;
the left arch bar and the right arch bar are fixedly connected and erected on the cement upright post through triangular iron supports, the cross beam is spaced from the cement upright post, the cross beam is fixed on the straight pipe 2.5m away from the ground, meanwhile, one end of the cross beam is connected with the cross beam to increase firmness of the shed body, and the other end of the cross beam is fixedly connected with the top arch bar, the sleeve pipe and the corresponding arc-shaped pipe;
laying a rainproof film on the greenhouse body, wherein the rainproof film consists of three independent rainproof films, the three rainproof films are respectively a left rainproof film, a top rainproof film and a right rainproof film, one end of the left rainproof film and one end of the right rainproof film are correspondingly fixed with the drainage groove, the other end of the left rainproof film and the other end of the right rainproof film are fixed on the left side pressure film groove and the right side pressure film groove, the top rainproof film is fixed on the left top film pressing groove and the right top film pressing groove, and the left top film pressing groove and the right top film pressing groove are fixed on the arc-shaped pipe;
a plurality of single-span greenhouse bodies are arranged, connected, fixedly placed and drained to form a multi-span rain-sheltering cultivation facility.
As a further limitation of the technical scheme of the embodiment of the invention, the span of the shed body is 6.0m, the distance between the arc-shaped pipes is 1.0m, and the shoulder height of the straight pipe is 2.5 m.
As a further limitation of the technical scheme of the embodiment of the invention, the widths of the left side rain-proof film and the right side rain-proof film are both 2.0m, and the width of the top rain-proof film is 5.0 m.
As a further limitation of the technical scheme of the embodiment of the invention, the lower part of the top rain-proof membrane is connected with the membrane rolling rod, the membrane rolling device controls the opening and closing of the top rain-proof membrane, a top vent is formed after the top rain-proof membrane is opened, and the tops of all the rain-proof membranes are fixed by a membrane pressing rope.
As a further limitation of the technical scheme of the embodiment of the invention, the cement upright columns are vertically buried 60cm below the ground and fixed, the ground height of the cement upright columns is 2.6 m-2.8 m, and the row spacing of the cement upright columns is 3.0m by 4.0 m; the peripheral cement upright posts and the ground form an included angle of 60 degrees and are obliquely buried on the ground, and the galvanized steel stranded wires are 2.2m away from the ground, fixed on the peripheral cement upright posts and surround into an integral frame.
As a further limitation of the technical scheme of the embodiment of the invention, the integral steel wire frame surface is formed by drawing steel wires into a whole in a criss-cross mode, and two ends of the integral steel wire frame surface are fixed on a peripheral integral frame surrounded by galvanized steel strands.
As a further limitation of the technical scheme of the embodiment of the invention, the steel wires parallel and vertical to the cement upright posts are simultaneously fixed on the cement upright posts, and the interwoven frame surface grid is 40 cm-50 cm x 40 cm-50 cm.
As a further limitation of the technical scheme of the embodiment of the invention, after the ground anchor and the ground anchor line made of the galvanized steel stranded wire are connected into a whole, the ground anchor is buried at a position of 1.0m underground, and meanwhile, the ground anchor line is fixed with the surrounding cement upright columns, and the fixed height is 2.2 m.
A cultivation method of a fresh edible jujube shed-frame integrated rain-sheltering cultivation facility comprises the following steps:
step 1: planting the jujube trees in a root control container, wherein the soil in the root control container is treated into an organic fertilizer according to harmless treatment: mushroom residue: matrix: 1, garden soil in a ratio of 1:2: 1: uniformly mixing according to the proportion of 0.5, fixing the stem at a position of 60-80 cm after field planting, only keeping 1 robust terminal bud for growth after the bud grows, erasing the rest buds, standing a bamboo pole in time for binding when a top young shoot grows to 30-40 cm, pinching when the young shoot grows to 1.8m, removing a lateral branch at the lower part of the young shoot, stimulating the bud to germinate into a jujube head, and selecting 2-4 jujube heads to be cultured into a main branch after the bud germinates;
step 2: after the main branches grow, the main branches are guided and bound on the surface of the steel wire frame in time, fertilizer and water management is increased, the growth of the main branches is promoted, and secondary branches on the main branches are cultured in time; after the secondary branches grow, the branches are also guided and held in a shed frame manner in time, so that the spatial layout of the branches is reasonable;
during winter construction, redundant branches, diseased branches, dead branches and the like are pruned, the top ends of the secondary branches are short-cut, the growth and extension of the secondary branches are promoted, and sprouts or rootstocks at the base parts of the trunks are all thinned;
and step 3: after sprouting in spring of the 2 nd year, continuously culturing the main branch extending head, pinching when the length of a new shoot reaches 60-80 cm, and promoting thickening and secondary branch growth; the secondary branches with spaces are reserved and cultured into bearing branches, no space or excessive thinning is realized, and the bearing branches are guided and bound in time;
under good fertilizer and water management, the jujube tree form of the single-trunk multi-main-branch horizontal shed frame can be formed through 3-5 years of shaping and pruning, later annual pruning mainly takes thinning as main branch, thinning of spindly branches and insect-disease branches, pruning of root tillers or stock tillers and the like; when the fruiting capacity of the fruiting branch group is reduced, a method of selecting and reserving a jujube head at the base or cutting a main branch again is adopted to culture a new main branch or fruiting branch group;
and 4, step 4: in order to improve the fruit setting rate of the jujube trees, the surplus jujube heads are timely thinned after sprouting, girdling is carried out on the trunk or the main branch in the initial flowering period, the girdling part of the trunk is 20 cm-30 cm away from the ground, the jujube trees move upwards at intervals of 5cm every year, and the jujube trees return to the initial girdling part after many years. The girdling width is generally 0.4 cm-1.0 cm, the girdling depth reaches xylem, the girdling needs to be healed within 30 days after girdling, and girdling is coated with a medicament for preventing invasion of diseases and insects;
and 5: the relative air humidity required by pollination and fertilization of the jujube flowers is about 60 percent, the tree crowns can be sprayed with mist spray water by using a micro-spraying system in the early morning, 0.2 to 0.3 percent of boric acid or borax is sprayed in the early flowering phase, and 10 to 15mg/L of gibberellin is sprayed for 1 to 2 times in the full flowering phase;
step 6: the temperature in the rain sheltering cultivation facility after the film covering is higher than that in the open field, the temperature rises quickly, the temperature in the flowering phase exceeds 26 ℃ to cause burnt flowers, the fruits are burnt at the high temperature in the expanding period and the later growth and development period of the jujube fruits, and the top rain-proof film is opened in time to ventilate and cool according to the temperature condition.
Compared with the prior art, the embodiment of the invention has the beneficial effects that: compared with the traditional single-dry open-heart-shaped cultivation method, the jujube cultivation method using the integrated rain sheltering cultivation of the jujube shed frame in the embodiment of the invention has the following advantages: firstly, the branches are uniformly distributed, the light receiving condition of the tree body is good, and after the branches are positioned, standardized management and mechanized operation are convenient to carry out; the main branches and the secondary branches are horizontally extended, so that the growth vigor is weakened, the branches grow fully, the contradiction between vegetative growth and reproductive growth is alleviated, and the fruit setting rate of the jujubes is improved; secondly, the fruits are arranged below the leaves, so that sunscald is not easy to occur, and the appearance and quality of the fruits are greatly improved; the third shelf potential cultivation has unique shape, large space under the shelf, good ventilation and light transmittance, light plant diseases and insect pests, and the limitation of the root zone in the root control container for cultivation is convenient for the management of underground root systems, thereby reducing the production cost of labor force and being beneficial to the three-dimensional cultivation of fresh food jujubes and the development of sightseeing fruit industry. .
The integrated rain sheltering cultivation facility for the jujube shed frame for the cultivation method is simple in structure and low in construction cost, and after the rain sheltering facility is adopted, the planting management of a jujube garden is facilitated, fruit cracking after the white ripe period is reduced, the ventilation and cooling speed is increased by opening the top rain-proof film at high temperature, the cooling speed is high, the improvement of fruit setting in the flowering period and the fruit quality is facilitated, the stable and high yield is realized, and the economic benefit of fruit growers is greatly improved.
Drawings
In order to more clearly illustrate the technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention, the drawings used in the description of the embodiments or the prior art will be briefly described below, and it is obvious that the drawings in the following description are only some embodiments of the present invention.
Fig. 1 is a schematic structural view of a fresh food jujube shed-frame integrated rain-sheltering cultivation facility in embodiment 1 of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a front view of the fresh food jujube shed-frame integrated rain-sheltering cultivation facility in embodiment 1 of the invention.
Fig. 3 is a side view of the fresh food jujube shed-frame integrated rain-sheltering cultivation facility in embodiment 1 of the present invention.
In the figure: 1-cement column, 2-ground anchor, 3-ground anchor line, 4-galvanized steel stranded wire, 5-steel wire, 6-steel pipe body, 61-straight pipe, 62-arc pipe, 7-sleeve pipe, 8-left side arch bar, 9-top arch bar, 10-right side arch bar, 11-cross beam, 12-meter support, 13-left side rain-proof membrane, 14-top rain-proof membrane, 15-right side rain-proof membrane, 16-drainage groove, 17-left side pressure membrane groove, 18-right side pressure membrane groove, 19-top left side pressure membrane groove, 20-top right side pressure membrane groove, 21-membrane rolling rod, 22-pressure membrane rope, 23-operating rod, 24-iron triangular support, 25-jujube tree, 26-root control container, 27-main branch, 28-secondary branch.
Detailed Description
In order to make the technical problems, technical solutions and advantageous effects to be solved by the present invention more clearly apparent, the present invention is further described in detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings and embodiments. It should be understood that the specific embodiments described herein are merely illustrative of the invention and are not intended to limit the invention.
Example 1
In the embodiment provided by the invention, the fresh food jujube shed frame integrated rain-sheltering cultivation facility comprises an integral steel wire frame surface and a plurality of single shed bodies;
the single-span greenhouse body shown in fig. 1 comprises a plurality of steel pipe bodies 6 with phi 26 mm-phi 32 mm-phi 2.0mm, wherein each steel pipe body 6 comprises a straight pipe 61 and an arc pipe 62, the span of the greenhouse body is 6.0m, the distance between the arc pipes 62 is 1.0m, the shoulder height of the straight pipe 61 is 2.5m, the upper parts of the left arc pipe 62 and the right arc pipe 62 are connected through a sleeve 7, the bottom of the straight pipe 61 is buried in the ground for 60cm, meanwhile, the arc pipes 62 are longitudinally connected through three channels of phi 26 mm-phi 2.0mm arch rods, the first channel of arch rod is a left side arch rod 8, the second channel of arch rod is a right side arch rod 10, the third channel of arch rod is a top arch rod 9, the left side arch rod 8 and the right side arch rod 10 are positioned at two sides of the arch surface of the arc pipe 62, the distance from the top arch rod is 92.0m, the top arch rod 9 is positioned at the joint of the sleeve 7 of the arc pipe 62, and the arch rod is connected with; .
In fig. 1, a left arch bar 8 and a right arch bar 10 are fixedly connected and erected on a cement upright post 1 through a triangular iron support 24, a cross beam 11 is spaced from the cement upright post 1, the cross beam 11 is fixed on a straight pipe 61 at a distance of 2.5m from the ground, one end of a cross brace 12 is connected with the cross beam 11 to increase the firmness of the shed body, and the other end of the cross brace 12 is fixedly connected with a top arch bar 9, a sleeve 7 and a corresponding arc pipe 62.
Laying a rainproof film on the shed body, wherein the rainproof film is composed of three independent rainproof films, the three rainproof films are respectively a left rainproof film 13, a top rainproof film 14 and a right rainproof film 15, the widths of the left rainproof film 13 and the right rainproof film 15 are both 2.0m, the width of the top rainproof film 14 is 5.0m, the length is determined by the length of the shed body, one end of the left rainproof film 13 and one end of the right rainproof film 15 are correspondingly fixed with a drainage groove 16, the other end of the left rainproof film 13 and the other end of the right rainproof film 15 are fixed on a left side pressure film groove 17 and a right side pressure film groove 18, the top rainproof film 14 is fixed on a left top film pressing groove 19 and a right top film pressing groove 20, the left top film pressing groove 19 and the right top film pressing groove 20 are fixed on an arc-shaped pipe 62, the lower part of the top rainproof film 14 is connected with a film rolling rod 21, the opening and closing of the top rainproof film 14 is controlled by a film rolling device, a top vent can, all the tops of the rain-proof membranes are fixed by a squeeze film rope 22.
A plurality of single-span sheds are arranged, connected, fixedly placed and provided with drainage grooves 16 to form a multi-span rain sheltering cultivation facility.
In the figures 1 and 2, the whole steel wire frame surface is formed by drawing steel wires 5 into a whole in a criss-cross mode, two ends of the whole steel wire frame surface are fixed on a peripheral whole frame surrounded by galvanized steel strands 4, the steel wires 5 parallel and vertical to the cement upright posts 1 are simultaneously fixed on the cement upright posts 1, and the grid of the frame surface formed by interweaving is 40 cm-50 cm x 40 cm-50 cm.
In the figures 2 and 3, the cement upright posts 1 are vertically buried 60cm below the ground and fixed, the ground height of the cement upright posts 1 is 2.6 m-2.8 m, and the row spacing of the cement upright posts 1 is 3.0m by 4.0 m; the peripheral cement upright posts 1 and the ground form an included angle of 60 degrees and are obliquely buried on the ground, and the galvanized steel stranded wires 4 are 2.2m away from the ground and fixed on the peripheral cement upright posts 1 to surround into an integral frame.
After the ground anchor 2 is connected with the ground anchor line 3 made of galvanized steel strands 4 into a whole, the ground anchor 2 is buried 1.0m underground, and meanwhile, the ground anchor line 3 is fixed with the surrounding cement upright posts 1, and the fixing height is 2.2 m.
Example 2
The embodiment of the invention provides a jujube cultivation method utilizing the shed frame integrated rain-sheltering cultivation facility, which comprises the following steps:
step 1: planting the jujube trees 25 in a root control container 26, wherein the soil in the root control container is treated with organic fertilizer according to the harmless treatment: mushroom residue: matrix: 1, garden soil in a ratio of 1:2: 1: uniformly mixing the raw materials in a proportion of 0.5, fixedly planting a jujube tree 25 in a root control container 26, fixing the jujube tree at a position of 60-80 cm after planting, only keeping 1 robust terminal bud to grow after germination, erasing the rest sprouts, standing a bamboo pole in time to tie up when a top young sprout grows to 30-40 cm, pinching when the young sprout grows to 1.8m, removing a lateral branch at the lower part of the young sprout, stimulating the buds to germinate into jujube heads, and selecting 2-4 jujube heads to culture into main branches 27 after the buds germinate;
a row of root control containers 26 are longitudinally arranged in the middle of each single-span greenhouse body, the spacing distance between the root control containers 26 is 3.0-4.0 m, and the row spacing of the root control containers 26 in the multi-span rain sheltering cultivation facility is calculated to be 6.0m multiplied by 3.0-4.0 m;
step 2: after the main branches grow, the main branches are guided and bound on the surface of the steel wire frame in time, fertilizer and water management is added, the growth of the main branches is promoted, and secondary branches 28 on the main branches are cultured in time; after the secondary branches grow, the branches are also guided and held in a shed frame manner in time, so that the spatial layout of the branches is reasonable;
during winter construction, redundant branches, diseased branches, dead branches and the like are pruned, the top ends of the secondary branches are short-cut, the growth and extension of the secondary branches are promoted, and sprouts or rootstocks at the base parts of the trunks are all thinned;
and step 3: after sprouting in spring of the 2 nd year, continuously culturing the main branch extending head, pinching when the length of a new shoot reaches 60-80 cm, and promoting thickening and secondary branch growth; the secondary branches with spaces are reserved and cultured into bearing branches, no space or excessive thinning is realized, and the bearing branches are guided and bound in time;
under good fertilizer and water management, the jujube tree form of the single-trunk multi-main-branch horizontal shed frame can be formed through 3-5 years of shaping and pruning, later annual pruning mainly takes thinning as main branch, thinning of spindly branches and insect-disease branches, pruning of root tillers or stock tillers and the like. When the fruiting capacity of the fruiting branch group is reduced, a method of selecting and reserving a jujube head at the base or cutting a main branch again is adopted to culture a new main branch or fruiting branch group;
and 4, step 4: in order to improve the fruit setting rate of the jujube trees, the surplus jujube heads are timely thinned after sprouting, girdling is carried out on the trunk or the main branch in the initial flowering period, the girdling part of the trunk is 20 cm-30 cm away from the ground, the jujube trees move upwards at intervals of 5cm every year, and the jujube trees return to the initial girdling part after many years. The girdling width is generally 0.4 cm-1.0 cm, the girdling depth reaches xylem, the girdling needs to be healed within 30 days after girdling, and girdling is coated with a medicament for preventing invasion of diseases and insects;
and 5: the relative air humidity required by pollination and fertilization of the jujube flowers is about 60 percent, the tree crowns can be sprayed with mist spray water by using a micro-spraying system in the early morning, 0.2 to 0.3 percent of boric acid or borax is sprayed in the early flowering phase, and 10 to 15mg/L of gibberellin is sprayed for 1 to 2 times in the full flowering phase;
step 6: the temperature in the rain sheltering cultivation facility after the film covering is higher than that in the open field, the temperature rises quickly, the temperature in the flowering phase exceeds 26 ℃ to cause burnt flowers, the fruits are burnt at the high temperature in the expanding period and the later growth and development period of the jujube fruits, and the top rain-proof film 14 is opened in time to ventilate and cool according to the temperature condition.
Further, in the preferred embodiment provided by the invention, in the step 2 and the step 3, the main branches are guided and bound on the surface of the steel wire frame in time after growing, and the secondary branches on the main branches are cultured in time; after the secondary branches grow, the branches are also guided and bound in time and are in a shed frame type.
Further, in a preferred embodiment provided by the invention, in the step 4 and the step 5, in order to improve the fruit setting rate of the jujube tree, redundant jujube heads are timely thinned and removed after germination, girdling is carried out on a main trunk or a main branch in the early flowering phase, the tree crown is subjected to mist-masking sprinkling by using a micro-spraying system in the early morning, 0.2% -0.3% of boric acid or borax is sprayed in the early flowering phase, and 10-15 mg/L gibberellin is sprayed for 1-2 times in the full flowering phase.
Furthermore, in the preferred embodiment provided by the invention, in the step 6, after the plastic film is covered on the rain sheltering cultivation facility, the contact between rainwater and the jujube tree is cut off, the water content in the garden is controlled by the drip irrigation facility, the fruit cracking after the white ripe period is reduced, the ventilation opening at the top is opened in time according to the temperature condition for ventilation and cooling in the flowering period, the fruit expanding period and the white ripe period, and the ventilation opening at the top can be kept in the open state in the rainy day.
In summary, compared with the traditional single-stem open heart-shaped cultivation method, the jujube cultivation method using the jujube shed frame integrated rain-sheltering cultivation in the embodiment of the invention has the following advantages: firstly, the branches are uniformly distributed, the light receiving condition of the tree body is good, and after the branches are positioned, standardized management and mechanized operation are convenient to carry out; the main branches and the secondary branches are horizontally extended, so that the growth vigor is weakened, the branches grow fully, the contradiction between vegetative growth and reproductive growth is alleviated, and the fruit setting rate of the jujubes is improved; secondly, the fruits are arranged below the leaves, so that sunscald is not easy to occur, and the appearance and quality of the fruits are greatly improved; the third shelf potential cultivation has unique shape, large space under the shelf, good ventilation and light transmittance, light plant diseases and insect pests, and the limitation of the root zone in the root control container for cultivation is convenient for the management of underground root systems, thereby reducing the production cost of labor force and being beneficial to the three-dimensional cultivation of fresh food jujubes and the development of sightseeing fruit industry. .
The integrated rain sheltering cultivation of the jujube shed frame for the cultivation method has the advantages of simple structure and lower construction cost, and after the rain sheltering facility is adopted, the cultivation management of a jujube garden is facilitated, the fruit cracking after the white ripe period is reduced, the ventilation and cooling speed is increased by opening the top rain-proof film at high temperature, the cooling speed is high, the fruit setting in the flowering period and the improvement of the fruit quality are facilitated, the stable and high yield is realized, and the economic benefit of fruit growers is greatly improved.
The above description is only for the purpose of illustrating the preferred embodiments of the present invention and is not to be construed as limiting the invention, and any modifications, equivalents and improvements made within the spirit and principle of the present invention are intended to be included within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (9)

1. An integrated rain sheltering cultivation facility for fresh food jujube shed frames is characterized by comprising an integral steel wire frame surface and a plurality of single shed bodies;
the single-span greenhouse body comprises a plurality of steel pipe main bodies (6), each steel pipe main body (6) comprises a straight pipe (61) and an arc-shaped pipe (62), the upper parts of the left arc-shaped pipe and the right arc-shaped pipe (62) are connected through a sleeve (7), the bottom of the straight pipe (61) is buried underground by 60cm, meanwhile, the arc-shaped pipes (62) are longitudinally connected through three arch rods with the diameter of 26mm and the diameter of 2.0mm, the first arch rod is a left arch rod (8), the second arch rod is a right arch rod (10), the third arch rod is a top arch rod (9), the left arch rod (8) and the right arch rod (10) are located on two sides of an arch surface of each arc-shaped pipe (62), the top arch rod (9) is located at the joint of the sleeves (7) of the arc-shaped pipes (62), and the arch rods are connected with the arch surfaces of the arc-shaped pipes (;
the left arch rod (8) and the right arch rod (10) are fixedly connected and erected on the cement upright post (1) through a triangular iron support (24), a cross beam (11) is spaced from the cement upright post (1), the cross beam (11) is fixed on a straight pipe (61) at a distance of 2.5m from the ground, one end of a cross brace (12) is connected with the cross beam (11), and the other end of the cross brace (12) is fixedly connected with a top arch rod (9), a sleeve (7) and a corresponding arc pipe (62);
laying a rainproof film on the greenhouse body, wherein the rainproof film consists of three independent rainproof films, the three rainproof films are respectively a left rainproof film (13), a top rainproof film (14) and a right rainproof film (15), one end of the left rainproof film (13) and one end of the right rainproof film (15) are correspondingly fixed with a drainage groove (16), the other end of the left rainproof film (13) and the other end of the right rainproof film (15) are fixed on a left side pressure film groove (17) and a right side pressure film groove (18), the top rainproof film (14) is fixed on a top left side pressure film groove (19) and a top right side pressure film groove (20), and the top left side pressure film groove (19) and the top right side pressure film groove (20) are fixed on an arc-shaped pipe (62);
a plurality of single-span greenhouse bodies are arranged, connected, fixedly placed and drained (16) to form a multi-span rain-sheltering cultivation facility.
2. The integrated shelter from rain cultivation facility for fresh food jujube as claimed in claim 1, wherein the span of the shelter body is 6.0m, the distance between the arc pipes (62) is 1.0m, and the shoulder height of the straight pipe (61) is 2.5 m.
3. The fresh food jujube shed-frame integrated rain-sheltering cultivation facility as claimed in claim 2, wherein the width of the left rain-sheltering film (13) and the width of the right rain-sheltering film (15) are both 2.0m, and the width of the top rain-sheltering film (14) is 5.0 m.
4. The fresh food jujube shed frame integrated rain sheltering cultivation facility as claimed in claim 3, wherein the lower portion of the top rain-proof film (14) is connected with a film rolling rod (21), the opening and closing of the top rain-proof film (14) is controlled by a film rolling device, a top vent is formed after the top rain-proof film (14) is opened, and the tops of all the rain-proof films are fixed by a film pressing rope (22).
5. The integrated fresh-eating jujube shed frame rain-sheltering cultivation facility as claimed in claim 4, wherein the cement columns (1) are vertically buried 60cm below the ground for fixation, the ground height of the cement columns (1) is 2.6 m-2.8 m, and the row spacing of the cement columns (1) is 3.0m x 4.0 m; the peripheral cement upright columns (1) and the ground form an included angle of 60 degrees and are obliquely buried on the ground, and the galvanized steel stranded wires (4) are fixed on the peripheral cement upright columns (1) and surround into an integral frame, wherein the distance between the galvanized steel stranded wires (4) and the ground is 2.2 m.
6. The fresh food jujube shed frame integrated rain sheltering cultivation facility as claimed in claim 5, wherein the whole steel wire frame surface is formed by drawing steel wires (5) into a whole in a criss-cross manner, and both ends of the whole steel wire frame surface are fixed on a peripheral whole frame surrounded by galvanized steel stranded wires (4).
7. The integrated shelter from rain cultivation facility for fresh food jujube as claimed in claim 6, wherein the steel wires (5) parallel and perpendicular to the cement columns (1) are fixed on the cement columns (1) at the same time, and the mesh of the interwoven frame surface is 40 cm-50 cm x 40 cm-50 cm.
8. The fresh food jujube shed frame integrated rain sheltering cultivation facility as claimed in claim 7, wherein after the ground anchor (2) and the ground anchor line (3) made of galvanized steel stranded wires (4) are connected into a whole, the ground anchor (2) is buried deeply at 1.0m underground, and simultaneously the ground anchor line (3) is fixed with the surrounding cement upright columns (1), and the fixed height is 2.2 m.
9. The cultivation method of the fresh-eating jujube shed-frame integrated rain-sheltering cultivation facility as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 8, characterized by comprising the following specific steps:
step 1: planting jujube tree (25) in accuse root container (26), soil is according to innocent treatment fertilizer in the accuse root container: mushroom residue: matrix: 1, garden soil in a ratio of 1:2: 1: uniformly mixing the raw materials according to the proportion of 0.5, fixing the raw materials at a position of 60-80 cm after field planting, only keeping 1 robust terminal bud for growth after germination, erasing the rest sprouts, standing a bamboo pole in time for binding when a top young shoot grows to 30-40 cm, pinching when the young shoot grows to 1.8m, removing a lateral branch at the lower part of the young shoot, stimulating the buds to germinate into a jujube head, and selecting 2-4 jujube heads after the buds germinate to be cultured into a main branch (27);
step 2: after the main branches grow, the main branches are guided and bound on the surface of the steel wire frame in time, fertilizer and water management is added, the growth of the main branches is promoted, and secondary branches (28) on the main branches are cultured in time; after the secondary branches grow, the branches are also guided and held in a shed frame manner in time;
during winter construction, redundant branches, diseased branches, dead branches and the like are pruned, the top ends of the secondary branches are short-cut, the growth and extension of the secondary branches are promoted, and sprouts or rootstocks at the base parts of the trunks are all thinned;
and step 3: after sprouting in spring of the 2 nd year, continuously culturing the main branch extension head, and pinching when the length of a new shoot reaches 60-80 cm; the secondary branches with spaces are reserved and cultured into bearing branches, no space or excessive thinning is realized, and the bearing branches are guided and bound in time;
under the management of fertilizer and water, the jujube tree form of the single-trunk multi-main-branch horizontal trellis can be formed through 3-5 years of shaping and pruning, then annual pruning mainly takes thinning as thinning, thinning of spindly branches and insect-disease branches, and cutting of root tillers or stock tillers; when the fruiting capacity of the fruiting branch group is reduced, a method of selecting and reserving a jujube head at the base or cutting a main branch again is adopted to culture a new main branch or fruiting branch group;
and 4, step 4: removing redundant jujube heads in time after sprouting, performing girdling on a trunk or a main branch in an initial flowering period, enabling the girdling part of the trunk to be 20-30 cm away from the ground, moving upwards at intervals of 5cm every year, and returning to the initial girdling part after years; the girdling width is generally 0.4 cm-1.0 cm, the girdling depth reaches xylem, the girdling needs to be healed within 30 days after girdling, and girdling is coated with a medicament for preventing invasion of diseases and insects;
and 5: the relative air humidity required by pollination and fertilization of the jujube flowers is 60%, a micro-spraying system can be used for carrying out camouflage spraying and watering on the tree crowns in the early morning, 0.2-0.3% of boric acid or borax is sprayed in the early flowering phase, and 10-15 mg/L of gibberellin is sprayed for 1-2 times in the full flowering phase;
step 6: and opening the top rain-proof film (14) in time according to the temperature change condition in the rain-proof cultivation facility after film covering for ventilation and cooling.
CN202011266993.9A 2020-11-13 2020-11-13 Integrated shed frame rain-sheltering cultivation facility for fresh edible jujube and cultivation method thereof Pending CN112243758A (en)

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CN114830948A (en) * 2022-04-30 2022-08-02 金华市农业科学研究院(浙江省农业机械研究院) Intelligent multi-span greenhouse for hillside orchard and building method thereof

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CN108834625A (en) * 2018-07-16 2018-11-20 梁友盛 A kind of jujube tree facility cultivation method
CN209120823U (en) * 2018-11-30 2019-07-19 安徽省农业科学院园艺研究所 A kind of pomegranate lew
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CN103430801A (en) * 2013-08-28 2013-12-11 张洪海 Method for height setting, layered distribution, rain sheltering and cultivating of jujube trees and device thereof for dwarfing, clipping, shaping and sheltering rain
CN106069482A (en) * 2016-06-20 2016-11-09 李拴明 A kind of inoculation method of selenium-rich tall bottle with spout Fructus Jujubae
CN106550849A (en) * 2016-11-28 2017-04-05 郝哲 A kind of live garden building method of Zizyphus jujuba Mill heliogreenhouse
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CN114303725A (en) * 2021-12-27 2022-04-12 台州市一鸣机械股份有限公司 Heat preservation greenhouse
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