CN111201957A - Light supplementing method for improving quality of red-heart pitaya in autumn and winter - Google Patents

Light supplementing method for improving quality of red-heart pitaya in autumn and winter Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111201957A
CN111201957A CN202010061579.8A CN202010061579A CN111201957A CN 111201957 A CN111201957 A CN 111201957A CN 202010061579 A CN202010061579 A CN 202010061579A CN 111201957 A CN111201957 A CN 111201957A
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red
light
autumn
winter
pitaya
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Inventor
俞超
顾鑫慧
吴忆兰
汪财生
蔡旭正
胡攀婧
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Zhejiang Wanli University
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Zhejiang Wanli University
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/05Fruit crops, e.g. strawberries, tomatoes or cucumbers
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilising, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/04Electric or magnetic or acoustic treatment of plants for promoting growth
    • A01G7/045Electric or magnetic or acoustic treatment of plants for promoting growth with electric lighting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01HNEW PLANTS OR NON-TRANSGENIC PROCESSES FOR OBTAINING THEM; PLANT REPRODUCTION BY TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES
    • A01H1/00Processes for modifying genotypes ; Plants characterised by associated natural traits
    • A01H1/02Methods or apparatus for hybridisation; Artificial pollination ; Fertility
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/14Measures for saving energy, e.g. in green houses

Abstract

The invention provides a light supplement method for improving the quality of red-heart pitaya in autumn and winter, which changes the conditions of the cultivation process of red-heart pitaya plants, promotes the photosynthesis of the red-heart pitaya plants mainly by continuously supplementing red light for 3-5h at night in autumn and winter, increases the utilization of the light effect of red light supplementation through a light reflecting film, and improves the yield of the red-heart pitaya in autumn and winter by combining fertilizer and water management and artificial cross pollination.

Description

Light supplementing method for improving quality of red-heart pitaya in autumn and winter
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of plant cultivation, in particular to a light supplementing method for improving the quality of dragon fruits in autumn and winter.
Background
Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is a cultivar of Cactaceae, trigonella, a typical tropical plant. The fruit contains vegetable albumin, betanin pigment, polysaccharide, and abundant vitamins and water-soluble dietary fiber. The content of total betanin pigment in the flesh of red meat strain is up to 679.6mg/kg, the pigment can be preserved for 75h in blood, and the antioxidant activity is more than 10 times stronger than that of carotene. The dragon fruit has fresh and sweet taste, rich nutrition and unique function, and becomes a new health food which is very popular.
The pitaya is easy to propagate by cutting, the flower and fruit period is as long as 5-6 months, the fresh fruit supply period is longer, the yield is higher, the characteristics of drought resistance and disease resistance are added, the growth range is small, the production threshold is low, the cultivation area is greatly increased in recent years, and the pitaya is a new, special, excellent and high agricultural project which is put into production. However, the problems of incapability of selfing and pollination, variety degradation, flooding and cold tolerance, unstable yield and quality and the like of partial strains exist in the dragon fruit varieties, and the production benefit of the dragon fruits is greatly influenced. The productive period of the dragon fruits is 6-9 months, and the price is often reduced due to the over-concentration of the productive period and the competition of other fruits on the market. Therefore, the research on the cultivation technology such as quality improvement, new variety cultivation, and production period adjustment of the pitaya under the regional climate condition is enhanced, and the continuous and stable development of the pitaya industry can be promoted.
The pitaya is a long-day plant, has high light demand, and basically does not undergo flower bud differentiation and flowering in the period from 'autumn' to 'spring' with short day time. Night light supplementation is the most common and effective dragon fruit producing period adjusting technology in the current production, can delay the blooming of the dragon fruit in 11 months to the next 1 month, but the research on the quality of the red-heart dragon fruit by different lights is not comprehensive and deep.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the technical problems, the invention adjusts the cultivation conditions of the red-heart pitaya, improves the yield of the red-heart pitaya in autumn and winter, is beneficial to improving the contents of substances such as vitamin C, soluble protein, betanin pigment and the like, and improves the quality.
The technical scheme of the invention is to provide a light supplementing method for improving the quality of red-heart pitaya in autumn and winter, which comprises the following steps:
(1) preparing dragon fruit plants: selecting a strong and disease-free red-core pitaya variety with more than three years of age and capable of normally bearing fruits, and adopting a reinforced concrete column independent bracket planting mode in a greenhouse, wherein 12-20 effective bearing branches are reserved in each column;
(2) and (3) performing light supplement treatment on red light at night: installing a red LED lamp tube to ensure that the surface light intensity of the dragon fruit branches is 150-220 LX; continuously supplementing light for 3-5h every day after sunset in 9-12 months;
(3) laying a ground reflective film: starting in 9 months, paving a reflective film along the ridge surface, wherein the reflective surface faces upwards;
(4) and (3) fertilizer and water management: spraying 30-50mg/kg sodium selenite solution to the whole plant every 7 days from the bud period to the initial fruit period of the dragon fruit, and simultaneously keeping the soil moist; in dry weather, water is irrigated for 1 time in 3-5 days, and water and fertilizer are applied for 1 time in 13-17 days.
Furthermore, when the reinforced concrete column independent support planting mode in the greenhouse is adopted in the step (1), the height is 1.3-1.5m, and the plant spacing is (150-. The height and the row spacing are beneficial to the growth of the dragon fruit plants.
Further, LED red lamp tubes are arranged at a position 25-30cm away from the upper part of the dragon fruit plant in the step (2), the distance between the lamps is 45-60cm, and 8-12 lamps are arranged in each row.
Furthermore, the material of the reflective film in the step (3) is high-density polyethylene, and the reflective film has the characteristics of light weight, good air permeability and high reflectivity.
Further, the step (4) is followed by an artificial cross pollination step, and the process is as follows:
artificial cross pollination is carried out on the day when the pitaya flowers bloom in each month; marking each cement column, brushing pollen on the fixed branches of each cement column with a writing brush respectively, collecting the pollen in a glass bottle, and attaching a label; after all the pollen is collected, the pollen dipped with different marks is crossed and taught to stigma pairwise, and the light point of each stigma is 5-6. The fruit setting rate and the yield of the red-core pitaya are improved by cross pollination.
The invention has the advantages and beneficial effects that: the invention changes the conditions of the cultivation process of the red-heart pitaya plants, is beneficial to promoting the photosynthesis of the red-heart pitaya plants by continuously supplementing red light for 3-5 hours at night in autumn and winter, simultaneously increases the utilization of the light effect of supplementing red light through the reflective film, improves the yield of the red-heart pitaya in autumn and winter by combining fertilizer and water management and artificial cross pollination, and is beneficial to improving the contents of substances such as vitamin C, soluble protein, betanin pigment and the like in the fruit, thereby improving the quality of the red-heart pitaya.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be further described with reference to the following embodiments.
Example 1
The invention provides a light supplementing method for improving the quality of red-core pitaya in autumn and winter, which comprises the steps of firstly selecting a healthy and healthy red-core pitaya variety earthworm with more than three years of age and capable of normally bearing fruit, adopting a reinforced concrete column independent bracket planting mode in a greenhouse, erecting by 1.4m, arranging by 160cm multiplied by 80cm in plant row spacing, and reserving 12-20 effective bearing branches for each column. T8 integrated LED red lamp tubes (1.2m, 18W) are arranged at a position 30cm away from the upper part of the dragon fruit plant (outside the plant height and 30cm away from the top of the plant), the light intensity of the surface of the dragon fruit branch below the lamp is 150 and 220LX, the lamp interval is 50cm, and 10 LED red lamp tubes are arranged in each row. The light supplement treatment is continuously carried out for 4 hours every day after sunset (about 17: 00 to 18: 30) from 9 months, 5 days to 12 months and 30 days. And (3) paving a silver-black double-sided reflective film along the ridge surface for 9 months, 5 days to 12 months and 30 days, wherein the silver-black double-sided reflective film is made of high-density polyethylene, has the characteristics of light weight, good air permeability and high reflectivity, and has the width of 1.0m and the thickness of 0.16mm, and the black surface is attached to the ground, and the silver surface faces upwards. Spraying 30-50mg/kg sodium selenite solution to the whole plant every 7 days from the bud period to the initial fruit period of the dragon fruit, and simultaneously keeping the soil moist; in dry weather, water is poured for 1 time in 3-5 days, and water and fertilizer are applied for 1 time about 15 days. Artificial cross pollination is carried out on the day when the pitaya flowers bloom in each month. Marking each cement column, brushing pollen on the fixed branches of each cement column with a writing brush, collecting the pollen in a glass bottle, and labeling. After all the pollen is collected, the pollen dipped with different marks is crossed and taught to stigma pairwise, and the light point of each stigma is 5-6.
Example 2
The invention provides a light supplementing method for improving the quality of red-core pitaya in autumn and winter, which comprises the steps of firstly selecting a healthy and healthy red-core pitaya variety earthworm with more than three years of age and capable of normally bearing fruit, adopting a reinforced concrete column independent bracket planting mode in a greenhouse, erecting by 1.3m, arranging by 170cm multiplied by 70cm in plant row spacing, and reserving 12-20 effective bearing branches for each column. T8 integrated LED red lamp tubes (1.2m, 18W) are arranged at a position 25cm away from the upper part of the dragon fruit plant (outside the plant height and 25cm away from the top of the plant), the light intensity of the surface of the dragon fruit branch below the lamp is 150-220LX, the lamp spacing is 60cm, and 12 tubes are arranged in each row. The light supplement treatment is continuously carried out for 5 hours after 9 months, 5 days to 12 months, 30 days and 5 hours after sunset (about 17: 00 to 18: 30). And (3) paving a silver-black double-sided reflective film along the ridge surface for 9 months, 5 days to 12 months and 30 days, wherein the silver-black double-sided reflective film is made of high-density polyethylene, has the characteristics of light weight, good air permeability and high reflectivity, and has the width of 1.0m and the thickness of 0.16mm, and the black surface is attached to the ground, and the silver surface faces upwards. Spraying 30-50mg/kg sodium selenite solution to the whole plant every 7 days from the bud period to the initial fruit period of the dragon fruit, and simultaneously keeping the soil moist; in dry weather, water is poured for 1 time in 3-5 days, and water and fertilizer are applied for 1 time about 15 days. Artificial cross pollination is carried out on the day when the pitaya flowers bloom in each month. Marking each cement column, brushing pollen on the fixed branches of each cement column with a writing brush, collecting the pollen in a glass bottle, and labeling. After all the pollen is collected, the pollen dipped with different marks is crossed and taught to stigma pairwise, and the light point of each stigma is 5-6.
Example 3
The invention provides a light supplementing method for improving the quality of red-core pitaya in autumn and winter, which comprises the steps of firstly selecting a healthy and healthy red-core pitaya variety earthworm with more than three years of age and capable of normally bearing fruit, adopting a reinforced concrete column independent bracket planting mode in a greenhouse, erecting by 1.5m, arranging by 150cm multiplied by 60cm in plant row spacing, and reserving 12-20 effective bearing branches for each column. T8 integrated LED red lamp tubes (1.2m, 18W) are arranged at a position 28cm away from the upper part of the dragon fruit plant (outside the plant height and 28cm away from the top of the plant), the light intensity of the surface of the dragon fruit branch below the lamp is 150-220LX, the lamp spacing is 45cm, and 8 LED red lamp tubes are arranged in each row. The light supplement treatment is continuously carried out for 3.5 hours after sunset (about 17: 00 to 18: 30) every 9 months, 5 days to 12 months, and 30 days. And (3) paving a silver-black double-sided reflective film along the ridge surface for 9 months, 5 days to 12 months and 30 days, wherein the silver-black double-sided reflective film is made of high-density polyethylene, has the characteristics of light weight, good air permeability and high reflectivity, and has the width of 1.0m and the thickness of 0.16mm, and the black surface is attached to the ground, and the silver surface faces upwards. Spraying 30-50mg/kg sodium selenite solution to the whole plant every 7 days from the bud period to the initial fruit period of the dragon fruit, and simultaneously keeping the soil moist; in dry weather, water is poured for 1 time in 3-5 days, and water and fertilizer are applied for 1 time about 15 days. Artificial cross pollination is carried out on the day when the pitaya flowers bloom in each month. Marking each cement column, brushing pollen on the fixed branches of each cement column with a writing brush, collecting the pollen in a glass bottle, and labeling. After all the pollen is collected, the pollen dipped with different marks is crossed and taught to stigma pairwise, and the light point of each stigma is 5-6.
Comparative example 1
The method of the comparative example is different from that of the example 1 only in that the light supplement lamp is changed into a T8 integrated LED white lamp tube, and other conditions are the same.
Comparative example 2
The method of the comparative example is different from that of the example 1 only in that the light supplement lamp is changed into a T8 integrated LED blue lamp tube, and other conditions are the same.
Comparative example 3
The comparative example is different from the method of example 1 only in that the fill light is removed, and other conditions are the same.
Comparative example 4
This comparative example differs from the method of example 1 only in that no reflective film is laid, and the other conditions are the same.
Comparative example 5
This comparative example differs from the method of example 1 only in that the pollination process is self-pollination, and other conditions are the same.
The fruit quality of the obtained red-heart pitaya of example 1 and comparative examples 1 to 4 was evaluated and examined, and the results are shown in table 1; the fruit set rate and the yield per mu of the red heart dragon fruits obtained in examples 1 to 3 and comparative example 5 were monitored, and the results are shown in table 2.
TABLE 1 Red-heart dragon fruit quality detection
Figure BDA0002374675020000041
Figure BDA0002374675020000051
From the results in table 1, it can be seen that, compared with comparative examples 1, 2 and 3, by adopting the cultivation method of the present invention, the content of soluble solid, vitamin C, betanin, soluble protein and reducing sugar in the pulp of red-heart pitaya in autumn and winter is higher than that of comparative examples 1, 2 and 3, especially the content of betanin, the comparison ratio of red-heart pitaya obtained by the present invention is increased by about 40-50%, and the content of soluble protein is increased by about 30-40%. Compared with the comparative example 4, by adopting the cultivation method, the content of soluble solid, vitamin C, betanin, soluble protein and reducing sugar in the pulp of the red heart pitaya in 9-10 months is slightly higher; in 11-12 months, compared with comparative example 4, all quality indexes are improved by 9.9-12.6 percent by adopting the cultivation method. And (3) no light supplement and no fruit yield are performed in the comparative example 3 for 11-12 months.
TABLE 2 fruit set percentage and acre yield of red-heart dragon fruit
Item Percentage of fruit set/%) Yield per kg per mu
Example 1 91.7 586.6
Example 2 91.2 581.2
Example 3 92.8 590.4
Comparative example 5 81.5 522.6
As can be seen from the results in Table 2, compared with the comparative example 5, by adopting the cultivation method disclosed by the invention, the fruit setting rate and the acre yield of the red-heart pitaya in 9-12 months are obviously improved, and the light supplement method disclosed by the invention is beneficial to improving the yield of the red-heart pitaya in autumn and winter.
Materials, reagents and experimental equipment related to the embodiment of the invention are all commercial products which accord with the field of plant cultivation if no special description is provided.
The foregoing is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, and it should be noted that, for those skilled in the art, modifications and decorations can be made without departing from the core technology of the present invention, and these modifications and decorations shall also fall within the protection scope of the present invention. Any changes which come within the meaning and range of equivalency of the claims are to be embraced within their scope.

Claims (5)

1. A light supplementing method for improving the quality of red-heart pitaya in autumn and winter is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) preparing dragon fruit plants: selecting a strong and disease-free red-core pitaya variety with more than three years of age and capable of normally bearing fruits, and adopting a reinforced concrete column independent bracket planting mode in a greenhouse, wherein 12-20 effective bearing branches are reserved in each column;
(2) and (3) performing light supplement treatment on red light at night: installing a red LED lamp tube to ensure that the surface light intensity of the dragon fruit branches is 150-220 LX; continuously supplementing light for 3-5h every day after sunset in 9-12 months;
(3) laying a ground reflective film: starting in 9 months, paving a reflective film along the ridge surface, wherein the reflective surface faces upwards;
(4) and (3) fertilizer and water management: spraying 30-50mg/kg sodium selenite solution to the whole plant every 7 days from the bud period to the initial fruit period of the dragon fruit, and simultaneously keeping the soil moist; in dry weather, water is irrigated for 1 time in 3-5 days, and water and fertilizer are applied for 1 time in 13-17 days.
2. A light supplementing method for improving the quality of red-heart dragon fruits in autumn and winter as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the step (1), when a stand-alone support planting mode of reinforced concrete columns in a greenhouse is adopted, the height is raised by 1.3-1.5m, and the planting distance is (150-.
3. A light supplementing method for improving the quality of red-core dragon fruit in autumn and winter as claimed in claim 1, wherein in step (2), LED red light tubes are installed 25-30cm away from the upper part of dragon fruit plant, the distance between the lamps is 45-60cm, and 8-12 tubes are installed in each row.
4. A light supplement method for improving the quality of red-heart pitaya in autumn and winter as claimed in claim 1, wherein the material of the light reflecting film in the step (3) is high density polyethylene.
5. A light supplementing method for improving the quality of red-core pitaya in autumn and winter as claimed in claim 1, wherein the step (4) is followed by an artificial cross pollination step, and the process is as follows:
artificial cross pollination is carried out on the day when the pitaya flowers bloom in each month; marking each cement column, brushing pollen on the fixed branches of each cement column with a writing brush respectively, collecting the pollen in a glass bottle, and attaching a label; after all the pollen is collected, the pollen dipped with different marks is crossed and taught to stigma pairwise, and the light point of each stigma is 5-6.
CN202010061579.8A 2020-01-19 2020-01-19 Light supplementing method for improving quality of red-heart pitaya in autumn and winter Pending CN111201957A (en)

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CN112715291A (en) * 2020-07-31 2021-04-30 广西南亚热带农业科学研究所 Anti-season high-efficiency high-yield cultivation method for red-meat pitaya
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CN113728884A (en) * 2021-09-03 2021-12-03 广东省农垦南亚热带作物科技中心(广东省农垦农业技术推广站) Water and fertilizer integrated fertilizing and planting method for pitaya based on LED light supplementing and flower forcing

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN112715291A (en) * 2020-07-31 2021-04-30 广西南亚热带农业科学研究所 Anti-season high-efficiency high-yield cultivation method for red-meat pitaya
CN112136543A (en) * 2020-09-24 2020-12-29 福建省农业科学院果树研究所 Device and method for promoting coloring and sweetening of waxberries through wind energy light supplement
CN113412768A (en) * 2021-07-29 2021-09-21 广东省农垦南亚热带作物科技中心(广东省农垦农业技术推广站) High-quality and high-efficiency light-operated adjusting technical method for pitaya
CN113728884A (en) * 2021-09-03 2021-12-03 广东省农垦南亚热带作物科技中心(广东省农垦农业技术推广站) Water and fertilizer integrated fertilizing and planting method for pitaya based on LED light supplementing and flower forcing

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