CN110352877B - All-season artificial propagation method for micropterus salmoides - Google Patents

All-season artificial propagation method for micropterus salmoides Download PDF

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CN110352877B
CN110352877B CN201910790640.XA CN201910790640A CN110352877B CN 110352877 B CN110352877 B CN 110352877B CN 201910790640 A CN201910790640 A CN 201910790640A CN 110352877 B CN110352877 B CN 110352877B
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fish
water temperature
temperature
parent
pond
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CN110352877A (en
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陆健
周国勤
陈树桥
王佩佩
唐忠林
刘炜
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NANJING FISHERIES RESEARCH INSTITUTE
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/10Culture of aquatic animals of fish
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The invention relates to a full-season artificial propagation method for micropterus salmoides, which comprises the steps of parent selection and stocking of micropterus salmoides, low-temperature stimulation, parent fish intensive cultivation, temperature rise stimulation of gonad development, hormone injection, fry production and the like.

Description

All-season artificial propagation method for micropterus salmoides
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of aquaculture, and particularly relates to a full-season artificial propagation method for micropterus salmoides.
Technical Field
Micropterus salmoides (Micropterus salmoides), also known as Micropterus salmoides and Micropterus macrocephalus, belong to Perciformes (Perciformes), Sunridae (Centrarchide), Hemicus (Micropterus), are native to the Missippi river basin in North America, are high-quality carnivorous freshwater fishes which are fresh and tender in meat quality, rich in nutrition, strong in disease resistance and rapid in growth, have the name of 'freshwater yellow fishes' and are introduced to various countries in the world for cultivation. Since the introduction of the method into China in 1983, researchers have conducted intensive research on micropterus salmoides and succeeded in artificial propagation in 1985. With the continuous improvement of the breeding technology and the increase of the promotion strength, the annual output of the largemouth black bass is in a remarkable rising trend, the market demand is also remarkably increased, the market prospect is good, and the industrial development potential and the space are large.
The laying season of the largemouth black bass is 2-7 months, 4 months is the full laying period, and the largemouth black bass is mainly bred in spring in the conventional production process. With the development of fishery production and the change of production mode, the fry bred only in spring can not meet the fishery production requirement, and the breeding in the same time can cause commercial fishes to be sold on the market intensively, thus causing the price of largemouth black bass to be lower. In addition, the breeding cost of farmers can be increased by single-season production, and meanwhile, the risk of disease rate improvement of old mouth weever is increased, so that the breeding work of the largemouth black weever fry in all seasons is developed according to market demands, the limitation that the largemouth black weever can only be bred in spring is broken through, the experience is accumulated for the gradual trend of the largemouth black weever to the full-season artificial breeding, and the demand of the largemouth black weever on fishery production is met.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention mainly solves the problem of providing the method for the whole-season artificial propagation of the micropterus salmoides, and the method can break through the limitation that the micropterus salmoides can only be propagated in spring, so that the propagation time of the fries is controlled, the fries can be bred all the year round, and the requirement of the market on the output of the micropterus salmoides is met.
Technical scheme
A full-season artificial propagation method for micropterus salmoides comprises the following steps:
(1) selecting and stocking weever parents: selecting a strong and disease-free micropterus salmoides with an individual weight of more than 0.6kg as a parent of the micropterus salmoides; preparing a parent fish pond, wherein the parent fish pond is provided with a water inlet and outlet system and a water temperature control system, the bottom of the parent fish pond is provided with a micropore oxygenation facility, and weever parents are placed into the parent fish pond with the stocking density of 1.0-1.2 kg/m 3
(2) Low-temperature stimulation: after the parent weever is kept in the parent fish pond for two days, the water temperature is gradually reduced by adopting a cooling-temperature returning-cooling mode until the water temperature is reduced to 16 ℃, and the temperature is stopped being reduced and kept;
(3) intensive cultivation of parent fish: during the parent fish pond cultivation period, fresh fish or ice fresh trash fish is adopted for feeding in the whole process, the feeding amount is 5% -10% of the weight of the fish, and the feeding is carried out for 2 times every day;
(4) warming to stimulate gonad development: when the water temperature reaches 16 ℃, preserving the heat for 15 days, gradually raising the water temperature to stimulate the gonad of the micropterus salmoides to start development, and stopping raising the temperature and preserving the heat when the temperature is raised to 25 ℃;
(5) hormone injection: raising the temperature to 25 ℃, continuing to perform intensive culture for 15 days, and then performing hormone injection in a manner of injecting the root of the pectoral fin, wherein the dosage of female fish is 5 mg/kg of diospyrone, the HCG is 1000 units/kg, and the injection amount of male fish is halved;
(6) and (3) seedling production: after hormone injection, the male and female fish were mixed at a ratio of 1: the method comprises the following steps of 1, stocking the laying pond according to the proportion, wherein the density is 1 pair/square meter, arranging the palm pieces in the laying pond to serve as fish nests, laying eggs in 3-5 days, collecting the palm pieces after laying eggs, and hatching fries to obtain largemouth black bass seedlings.
Further, in the step (2), the method for gradually reducing the water temperature by adopting the cooling-temperature returning-cooling mode comprises the following steps: the temperature reduction starts from 7 a.m., the difference of the water temperature is not more than 3 ℃ before and after each temperature reduction, the temperature is continuously reduced after the temperature rises to 2 ℃, and meanwhile, the average water temperature reduction range per day is controlled not to exceed 2 ℃. For example: before cooling, the water temperature is 30 ℃, and the cooling is stopped when the water temperature reaches 27 ℃; when the water temperature is recovered to 29 ℃, cooling again, and when the water temperature is reduced to 26 ℃, stopping cooling; when the water temperature rises to 28 ℃, the temperature is reduced again, when the water temperature is reduced to 25 ℃, the temperature is returned, then the temperature is reduced again, and the like until the water temperature is reduced to 16 ℃.
Further, in the step (2), the microporous oxygen increasing facilities at the bottom of the parent fish pond are opened simultaneously in the process of reducing the water temperature, so that the pond water can be fully mixed, and the stress reaction caused by water temperature stratification is reduced.
Further, in the step (4), the water temperature was increased at a rate of 1 ℃ per day.
Further, in the step (6), the water temperature is controlled to be 22-25 ℃ when the fries are hatched.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
1. the invention carries out artificial breeding of the micropterus salmoides in non-breeding seasons under artificial control for the first time, breaks through the limitation that the micropterus salmoides can only be bred in spring, and realizes the full-season breeding of the micropterus salmoides.
2. The method can control the output of the largemouth black bass fry and the time of adult fish appearing on the market, and solves the problems of poor market digestion, low sale price and the like caused by centralized appearance on the market.
3. The method can break through the limitation of seasons and temperature, provide large-size fries in the culture season, shorten the culture and pond storage time of the largemouth black bass, and solve the problem that old mouth fishes stored in a pond are easy to attack for a long time.
Detailed Description
The present invention is further described below in conjunction with specific examples so that the features and advantages of the present invention may be better understood by those skilled in the art. The specific parameters mentioned in the examples are required for the technical solution of the invention and should not be construed as limiting the scope of the invention.
Example 1
A full-season artificial propagation method for micropterus salmoides comprises the following steps:
(1) selecting and stocking weever parents: at the beginning of 7 months, 400 pieces of healthy, strong, large, good-body-color, non-injury and disease-free largemouth black bass from the Sihong Gaohuangmu thousand mu ecological weever culture base are selected as weever parents, the average weight of the parent fishes is 0.7kg, stocking is carried out in 4 parent fish ponds of the Lukou base of the Nanjing City Water obstetrics research institute, and the stocking density of each parent pond is 1.0kg/m 3 . The parent fish pond utilizes a cold and warm air energy water cooling (heating) machine to control water temperature, is provided with a water inlet and outlet and circulating filtration system, and the bottom of the parent fish pond is provided with a micropore oxygenation facility which takes a Roots blower as an air source and a rubber nanotube as an air head;
(2) low-temperature stimulation: the method comprises the following steps that (1) bass parents are statically cultured in a parent fish pond for two days, the water temperature is gradually reduced in a cooling-temperature returning-cooling mode after the parent fish adapts to a new environment, a cooling device is an outer rotor axial flow cold and hot dual-purpose fan, the water temperature of a breeding pond is 31 ℃, cooling is started at 7 am, the cooling temperature of the fan is set to be 29 ℃, a thermometer is observed at intervals, when the water temperature is reduced to be 29 ℃, the temperature is kept for one day, the temperature is set to be 27 ℃ for the second time, the water temperature is reduced by 2 ℃ in the same mode, the parent fish has stress reaction during cooling, the cooling is stopped at the moment, the cooling is continued after the parent fish is stabilized, and finally the water temperature reaches 16 ℃, the cooling is stopped and the heat is preserved;
(3) intensive cultivation of parent fish: during parent fish pond cultivation, the whole process adopts the ice fresh trash fish to feed, the feeding amount is 7 percent of the weight of the fish, the feeding is carried out for 2 times every day, and the feeding is respectively 8 times as early as: 00-9: 00, 5 in the afternoon: about 00;
(4) warming to stimulate gonad development: after the water temperature reaches 16 ℃, preserving heat for 15 days, gradually increasing the water temperature by 1 ℃ every day to stimulate the gonad of the micropterus salmoides to start development, stopping heating and preserving heat until the temperature is increased to 25 ℃, and continuing parent intensive cultivation, wherein the bait mainly comprises ice fresh fish blocks;
(5) hormone injection: heating to 25 ℃, continuing to perform intensive cultivation for 15 days, wherein the gonad of the micropterus salmoides grows to be mature gradually, male and female can be distinguished, and then hormone injection is performed, wherein the injection mode is injection at the root of a pectoral fin, the dosage of the female fish is 5 mg/kg of diospyrone, the dosage of HCG is 1000 units/kg, the female fish and the HCG are mixed to prepare injection liquid for injection, and the injection amount of the male fish is halved; the fish body is kept clean in the injection process, and meanwhile, the fish body needs to be stabilized, so that the fish is prevented from being injured in the struggling process, and the injection needle head is sufficiently sterilized;
(6) and (3) seedling production: after hormone injection, the male and female fish were mixed at a ratio of 1: the method comprises the following steps of 1, breeding the fries in a spawning pond according to the proportion of 1, wherein the density is 1 pair/square meter, laying eggs in the spawning pond by arranging palm pieces as fish nests, collecting the palm pieces after spawning to perform fry hatching, and obtaining largemouth black bass seedlings after 36-72 hours, wherein the hatching rate of fertilized eggs is 95% in the embodiment.
Example 2
A full-season artificial propagation method for micropterus salmoides comprises the following steps:
(1) selecting and stocking weever parents: the perch parent is derived from a 'excellent perch No. 3' parent which is self-bred by the Jiangsu Shuaifeng group, and the bred parent fish has strong physique and no diseases, scars and deformities. The average weight of the parent fishes is 0.74 kg/tail, when the parent fishes reach the breeding specification, the parent fishes are transported to a parent fish breeding pond of a Capai Feng group offspring seed breeding workshop from a culture pond of a Kaochun small flower bridge for temporary breeding by using a live fish transport barrel, and the stocking density is 1.0kg/m 3 Continuously increasing oxygen during temporary culture, and timely fishing out diseased or dead fishes caused by transport stress, diseases and the like.
(2) Low-temperature stimulation: after the parent weever is statically cultured in a parent fish pond for two days, the water temperature is gradually reduced by adopting a cooling-rewarming-recooling mode, and the specific method comprises the following steps: the water is cooled by a condenser at first, the water is cooled at 7 am, the temperature is reduced by 2 ℃ every day, the current temperature is kept unchanged when the temperature is reduced to the required temperature, the temperature is reduced by 2 ℃ in the same way on the original basis the next day, and the steps are repeated until the temperature is reduced to 16 ℃ and the temperature is kept unchanged.
(3) Intensive cultivation of parent fish: during the parent fish pond cultivation period, the whole process adopts the iced fresh trash fish to feed, the feeding amount is 7% -8% of the fish weight, the feeding is carried out for 2 times every day, respectively 8 in the morning: about 00, afternoon 4: about 00 hours later after feeding, fishing out the uneaten fish blocks in time to prevent water quality deterioration, and observing the condition of the parent fish at any time;
(4) warming to stimulate gonad development: and (3) continuously carrying out intensified cultivation for 15 days at the water temperature of 16 ℃, keeping the iced fresh trash fish to be fed sufficiently, starting to raise the temperature at 1 ℃ every day after 15 days until the temperature is raised to 25 ℃, and continuously carrying out intensified cultivation.
(5) Hormone injection: after 15 days of intensive culture, hormone injection is started, the injection mode is injection at the root of the pectoral fin, the dosage of female fish is 5 mg/kg of diospyrone, the dosage of HCG is 1000 units/kg, the two are mixed to prepare injection, and the injection dosage of male fish is halved;
(6) and (3) seedling production: after hormone injection, the male and female fish were mixed at a ratio of 1: the ratio of 1 is released into a spawning pond, the density is 1 pair/square meter, palm pieces and goose egg stones are arranged in the spawning pond to be used as fertilized egg attachments, largemouth bass seedlings are obtained after spawning and hatching, and the water temperature is controlled to be 22-25 ℃ during fry hatching. In this example, the fertilized egg hatchability was 90%.

Claims (2)

1. A full-season artificial propagation method for micropterus salmoides is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) selecting and stocking weever parents: selecting a strong and disease-free micropterus salmoides with an individual weight of more than 0.6kg as a parent of the micropterus salmoides; preparing a parent fish pond, wherein the parent fish pond is provided with a water inlet and outlet system and a water temperature control system, the bottom of the parent fish pond is provided with a micropore oxygenation facility, and weever parents are placed into the parent fish pond with the stocking density of 1.0-1.2 kg/m 3
(2) Low-temperature stimulation: after the parent weever is kept in the parent fish pond for two days, the water temperature is gradually reduced by adopting a cooling-temperature returning-cooling mode until the water temperature is reduced to 16 ℃, and the temperature is stopped being reduced and kept;
(3) intensive cultivation of parent fish: during the period of parent fish pond cultivation, fresh fish or ice fresh trash fish is adopted for feeding in the whole process, the feeding amount is 5-10% of the weight of the fish, and the feeding is carried out for 2 times every day;
(4) warming to stimulate gonad development: after the water temperature reaches 16 ℃, preserving the heat for 15 days, gradually increasing the water temperature to stimulate the gonads of the micropterus salmoides to start development, and stopping heating and preserving the heat when the temperature is increased to 25 ℃;
(5) hormone injection: after the temperature is raised to 25 ℃, continuously carrying out intensified cultivation for 15 days, and then carrying out hormone injection, wherein the injection mode is injection at the root of the pectoral fin, the dosage of female fish is 5 mg/kg of diospyrone, the dosage of HCG is 1000 units/kg, and the injection amount of male fish is halved;
(6) and (3) seedling production: after hormone injection, breeding female and male fishes in a spawning pond according to the ratio of 1: 1, wherein the density is 1 pair/square meter, arranging palm pieces as fish nests in the spawning pond, enabling the fish to spawn in 3-5 days, and collecting the palm pieces after spawning to perform fry hatching to obtain largemouth bass seedlings;
in the step (2), the water temperature is gradually reduced by adopting a cooling-temperature returning-cooling mode, and the specific method comprises the following steps: cooling from 7 a morning, wherein the difference of the water temperature before and after each cooling is not more than 3 ℃, the temperature is continuously cooled after rising to 2 ℃, and meanwhile, the average water temperature per day is controlled to be reduced by not more than 2 ℃;
in the step (4), the water temperature rising speed is 1 ℃ per day;
in the step (6), the water temperature is controlled to be 22-25 ℃ when the fries are hatched.
2. The method for full-season artificial propagation of micropterus salmoides according to claim 1, wherein in the step (2), the microporous oxygen-increasing facility at the bottom of the parent fish pond is opened simultaneously in the process of reducing the water temperature.
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