CN101066046B - Curled-lip mandarin fish and spot and spotted mandarin fish hybridizing propagation process - Google Patents

Curled-lip mandarin fish and spot and spotted mandarin fish hybridizing propagation process Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101066046B
CN101066046B CN2007100669203A CN200710066920A CN101066046B CN 101066046 B CN101066046 B CN 101066046B CN 2007100669203 A CN2007100669203 A CN 2007100669203A CN 200710066920 A CN200710066920 A CN 200710066920A CN 101066046 B CN101066046 B CN 101066046B
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mandarin fish
fish
hybridization
water
spot
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CN101066046A (en
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宓国强
许谷星
黄鲜明
贾永义
胡廷尖
王雨辰
顾志敏
刘启文
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Zhejiang Institute of Freshwater Fisheries
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Zhejiang Institute of Freshwater Fisheries
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The curled-lip mandarin fish and spotted mandarin fish hybridizing propagation process includes the following steps: 1. reinforced culturing curled-lip mandarin fish as female parent fish and spotted mandarin fish as male parent fish; 2. injecting exogenous hormone to promote mature and induce spawning, flowing water stimulating to promote spawning, artificial dry insemination and managing duringhatching, so as to reach spawning rate over 80 %, fertility rate up to 83.5 % and hatching rate up to 89 %; and 3. staged culturing of the hybrid mandarin fish and feeding habit conversion from live fish to non-live feed, so as to reach survival rate of hybrid mandarin fish fry up to 60 %. The hybrid mandarin fish has good taste, high disease resistance, high growth speed and capacity of ingesting non-live fish feed.

Description

Stick up the hybridizing propagation process of mouth mandarin fish and spot mandarin fish
Technical field
The invention belongs to the fish culture technical field, particularly relate to the cross breeding method that sticks up mouth mandarin fish and spot mandarin fish.
Background technology
Stick up mouth mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) and spot mandarin fish (Siniperca scherzeri) belongs to Perciformes together, Section, mandarin fish belongs to, and is high-grade freshwater fish kind.From the early 1990s in last century, the breed of sticking up the mouth mandarin fish has extensively been carried out in all parts of the country, has obtained better economic and social benefit.Yet stick up the mouth mandarin fish live fish that need ingest throughout one's life, need the throw something and feed live fish of different size of different growing stages, this special feeding habits of sticking up the mouth mandarin fish have not only increased aquaculture cost and have cultured difficulty, have more influenced the scale of propagating artificially and have promoted.Middle nineteen nineties in last century, domestic many research and production department had once carried out a large amount of research to the behavior habit of sticking up the mouth mandarin fish, the mechanism of ingesting, feeding habits instructionization etc., the cultural method of sticking up the mouth mandarin fish in the hope of improvement, but all do not obtain satisfied effect.The spot mandarin fish is an another kind in the wild mandarin fish, another name rock mandarin fish, be commonly called as the cylinder mandarin fish, it is a kind of carnivorous economic fish that is grown in mountain stream, the reservoir, with stick up the mouth mandarin fish and compare, this flesh of fish matter is solid, thorn less between flesh, taste is more delicious, disease resistance good and the non-live fish that can ingest, and shortcoming is that growth is slow, individuality is less.Spot mandarin fish in the market mainly is a wild resource, the commodity spot mandarin fish that few people worker cultures.
Biological property according to hybridization, if will stick up the mouth mandarin fish and the spot mandarin fish hybridizes, gene are reconfigured, through directive breeding, be expected to obtain to possess parent both sides' merit or produce the crossbreed of the unexistent new merit of parent, the non-live fish that promptly is expected to obtain ingesting, disease resistance are good, fast growth and the good hybridization mandarin fish of meat are cultured new varieties.Yet, do not see as yet so far about sticking up the technology report of mouth mandarin fish and spot mandarin fish crossbreeding aspect.
Summary of the invention
Purpose of the present invention is for developing high-grade fresh water culture fishery, cultivate mandarin fish and culture good new varieties, with reduction mandarin fish aquaculture cost, raising cultured output and quality, and providing a kind of cost-effective hybridizing propagation process that sticks up mouth mandarin fish and spot mandarin fish.
The technical scheme of the inventive method comprises the following steps:
1, parent fish rearing, breeding autumn the previous year, select for use 2 full ages, the above stalwartness of body weight 1Kg to stick up the mouth mandarin fish and make the hybridization female parent, the hybridization male parent is then selected 2 full ages, the above spot mandarin fish of body weight 0.5Kg for use, they is placed on respectively carries out reinforced cultivating, the feed of nurturing period in different net cages or the pond, stick up the mouth mandarin fish and feed agreeable to the taste live fish, the spot mandarin fish can be with live fish or fish piece.Use stimulation by running water after the beginning of spring, impel the sexual gland normal mature, but after mid-April, stop stimulation by running water.
2, cross method
1., artificial induced spawning and insemination, when parent population breeding water body water temperature reaches 22 ℃, begin parent population injection exogenous hormone, exogenous hormone can adopt one or more in luteotropin releasing hormone d-ala analog (LRH-A), human chorionic gonadtropin (HCG) and the maleic acid DOM (DOM), the milter injection volume is 50% of a raun, but the general good parent population shot of maturity, otherwise can divide biphasic injection, two pins is spaced apart 12 hours during biphasic injection.After the injection male parent spot mandarin fish is stuck up the mouth mandarin fish and is placed in the same net cage current stimulation with flow velocity 0.1-0.2m/s and impels and oestrus, ovulate with maternal.Injection hormone after 24 hours begins to check, when light pressure is stuck up mouth mandarin fish belly and had ovum to flow out, will stick up the mouth mandarin fish and separate with the spot mandarin fish, carries out the dry method of artificial fertilization.
2., hatching management, guarantee between the incubation period that water quality is pure and fresh, current are unobstructed, control the inflow of circular hatching channal well, so that the ovum during the embryonic development can all stir but acutely not stir, suitable increased water flow speed before and after the hybridization fry membrane, generally be controlled to be 0.45m/s, and in time remove circuit or the egg membrane of hatching in the cylinder, reduce circuit when fry can put down trip or hatch the interior water flow velocity of cylinder, the controlled 0.25m/s that is made as.
3, hybridization fry rearing
1., body length is less than the cultivation in 20mm stage
A, type of rearing are cultivated in the cement pit of circuit or miniflow water, and density is controlled at 1.5 ten thousand tails/m 3In, flow velocity is controlled at about 0.1m/s.
B, bait feeding, the whole cultivating process agreeable to the taste chinese carp fry of throwing something and feeding, along with growing up of hybridization mandarin fish seedling, the also corresponding increase of bait fry, generally control the body of bait fry long for hybridization mandarin fish fry body long about 60%.Forage fiss is thrown something and fed once every day, and the feeding volume of every day is forage fiss/hybridization mandarin fish seedling=5~6 in 6 days after opening food, increases gradually later on, and making day feeding volume is forage fiss/hybridization mandarin fish seedling=8~10.
C, sterilizing prevent disease, regularly after hybridization mandarin fish seedling is eaten up forage fiss, picking up hybridization mandarin fish seedling with blanket net, to put into concentration be that the saline solution of 3-5% soaked 5-10 minute, puts back to then and cultivate the pond.
2., the cultivation in long 20mm-50mm stage of body
A, the mode that adopts the pond hydrostatic to cultivate, the breeding density of hybridization mandarin fish seedling are about 20,000 tail/mus, and about depth of water 1.5m, silt depth advances draining conveniently less than 15cm at the bottom of the pond.
B, bait feeding, forage fiss is cultivated by the special pool, controls growth rate well, and the body of the forage fiss of throwing something and feeding is long to be about 50~60% of hybridization mandarin fish fish length.Under the hybridization mandarin fish seedling during pool every mu throw in about forage fiss 300,000 tails, keep the amount of forage fiss in the pond to be more than 5 times of hybridization mandarin fish seedling amount later on.
The control of c, water quality, under the hybridization mandarin fish before the pool to after the thorough disinfection of pond, pour into outer river clear water, the nurturing period, change about water 30cm every 3 days ponds, with the copper sulphate full pool spilling head of 0.8~1.0ppm once every 5 days.In time open the oxygenation facility during anoxic.
4, feeding habits transform
When hybridization mandarin fish seedling grows to the long 50mm of body, carry out feeding habits and transform, will hybridize the mandarin fish seedling earlier and block one jiao of 100-150m in the pond with close net 2The zone in, early morning of every day and at dusk earlier with bailer to water surface water-sprinkling, shed forage fiss again, when just beginning, the firm dead fresh crow of mixing 10-20% in the live bait of throwing something and feeding is young, increases the young ratio of dead crow later on gradually, throws something and feeds until dead fish of whole usefulness or fish piece.Finish feeding habits in about 4-7 days and transform, can enter adult fish culture subsequently.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows: technical measures such as take to inject that the exogenous hormone accelerating is hastened parturition, stimulation by running water is promoted production, artificial dry method hybridized insemination and hatching process manage with delicacy, the spawning rate of parent population is reached more than 80%, the exomixis rate reaches 83.5%, and incubation rate reaches 89%; Three, hybrid seedlings adopts cultivation stage by stage and forage fiss to select, throw something and feed and hybridize fry and transforms cultivation by the feeding habits that the live fish that ingests transfers non-live fish to, makes the hybridization fish shoot survival percent reach 60%.The present invention successfully provides the cross breeding method that sticks up mouth mandarin fish and spot mandarin fish, has cultivated a kind of meat taste, resistance against diseases for high-grade fresh water culture fishery and has been better than sticking up the hybridization mandarin fish new varieties that mouth mandarin fish growth rate is good faster than the economic characters of spot mandarin fish, the non-live fish that can ingest, be convenient to artificial breeding scale.
Embodiment
The invention will be further described with embodiment below.
Stick up the hybridizing propagation process of mouth mandarin fish and spot mandarin fish, comprise the following steps:
1, parent fish rearing
The used parent population of present embodiment was collected in the autumn of breeding the previous year, and female parent sticks up the mouth mandarin fish from propagating the pond artificially, 2 ages, and body weight 1.0~1.3Kg/ tail, male parent spot mandarin fish is taken from the wild population of reservoir, 2 ages of the age of a fish, body weight 0.5~0.8Kg/ tail.The parent population that sticks up mouth mandarin fish and spot mandarin fish is placed on 4 * 3 * 2m respectively 3Net cage in cultivate, the nurturing period, stick up the mouth mandarin fish agreeable to the taste small crucian of throwing something and feeding, spot mandarin fish throw something and feed agreeable to the taste small crucian or fish piece.Made net cage water be in miniflow state with micropump bath 3 hours every day to April 15 then February 1 in breeding.
2, cross method
1., artificial induced spawning and insemination
A, parent fish selection, maternal parent fish selection gonopore takes on a red color, belly expands, soft, when facing upward abdomen in the middle of recessed stalwartness stick up the mouth mandarin fish, male parent parent fish selection gonopore is light color, gently squeezes the healthy and strong spot mandarin fish that belly adularescent seminal fluid flows out, chance water promptly looses, and father, maternal parent population ratio are 1: 2~3.
The time of b, artificial induced spawning and insemination, mainly to decide according to water temperature, the water temperature when hastening parturition will reach 22 ℃, and the water temperature of hastening parturition in back 7 days remains on 22~24 ℃.Different water temperature variation tendencies " open food " with hybridization mandarin fish seedling and the relation of survival rate sees the following form shown in 1.
Water temperature changed the influence to mandarin fish seedling " membrane ", " opening food " after table 1 was promoted production
Time The back 7 days water temperatures of promoting production change (℃) " membrane " time (h) " open food " time (h) Survival rate (%) after " opening food "
2005.5.8 21.5→18 70 76 37.5
2006.5.11. 22→24 24 24 86.0
As shown in Table 1, water temperature after promoting production changes, to the membrane of mandarin fish, open food and survival rate has bigger influence, when water temperature is in ascendant trend, mandarin fish " membrane ", " opening food " neatly, the survival rate height.
C, artificial induced spawning and insemination adopt manual injection's exogenous hormone to hasten parturition, and impel gonad maturity, ovulation, carry out artificial dry method insemination, the method that fertilized egg is hatched in circuit.Better because of the parent population maturity, present embodiment adopts a shot, and injection male parent spot mandarin fish is injected female parent again and sticks up the mouth mandarin fish after 2 hours earlier, and after the injection father, mother originally being placed on the current of using flow velocity 0.1-0.2m/s in the same net cage stimulates, and impels and oestruses, ovulates.The injection hormone began to check after 24 hours, checked once every 1 hour, when light pressure raun belly has ovum to flow out, with female milter separately, carried out the dry method insemination.Pick up milter earlier, dry gonopore, extract seminal fluid with dry 10ml syringe, raun is caught in recurrence, after drying gonopore ovum is squeezed in container, and splash into seminal fluid immediately, after fully stirring, ovum and seminal fluid are poured in the washbowl that is filled with water, stir the water in the washbowl, activate sperm, make the fish-egg fertilization.The ovum of after fertilization is put into the circuit hatching.
D, oxytocic hormone agent kind and dosage
Adopt the effect contrast of hastening parturition of multiple compatibility in luteotropin releasing hormone d-ala analog (LRH-A), human chorionic gonadtropin (HCG), maleic acid DOM (DOM) hormone, determine to hasten parturition effect hormone preparation kind and dosage preferably.Test situation such as following table.
The hormone of the different agent kinds of table 2, the dosage effect contrast table of hastening parturition
Time Water temperature (℃) Agent kind and dosage (international unit, microgram, milligram/kilogram) The mantissa of hastening parturition The mantissa of laying eggs Spawning rate (%)
05.05. 21.5 1800H+15L+5D 20 17 85.0
21.5 1800H+15L 17 14 82.4
06.05 22.0 1500H+10L+5D 15 12 80.0
1500H+10L 15 13 86.7
As shown in Table 2, four kinds of different hormone combinations are to not obviously influence of spawning rate, after adding DOM, can not increase the spawning rate of mandarin fish, so, can adopt the hormotone of luteotropin releasing hormone d-ala analog LRH-A and HCG, raun dosage is LRH-A10~15 μ g+HCG, 1500~1800I/Kg fish body weight, and milter dosage reduces by half.
2., hatching management
The exomixis fish-egg is hatched in the circular circuit of diameter 5m, depth of water 1m, hatching water is the outer river that filters through the close screen cloth of 80 orders, pass through inlet valve, control the inflow of circular hatching channal well, stirring so that the ovum during the embryonic development can all stir can not be too violent, and suitable increased water flow speed is controlled at about 0.45m/s before and after the membrane, fry will reduce the circuit flow velocity in the time of putting down trip, is controlled at about 0.25m/s.
3, hybridization fry rearing
1., body length is less than the cultivation in 20mm stage
Present embodiment is at 12m 3Circular circuit in put mandarin fish seedling 100,000 tails of firm membrane, the circuit flow velocity is controlled at about 0.1m/s.Hybridization mandarin fish seedling membrane the 4th day " is opened food " with the megalobrama amblycephala fry of firm membrane, and the megalobrama amblycephala fry of throwing something and feeding for three days on end, and the grass carp and the silver carp bighead fry that open the 4-6 days firm membranes of throwing something and feeding of food worked grass carp and the silver carp bighead fry that the waist point of throwing something and feeding all sprouts on the 7th day.Along with growing up of mandarin fish seedling, the also corresponding increase of bait fry, long about 60% of the hybridization mandarin fish seedling body length that generally is controlled at of the body of forage fiss.Forage fiss is thrown something and fed once every day, and feeding volume is decided according to weather and the mandarin fish situation of ingesting, and the feeding volume of every day is forage fiss/hybridization mandarin fish seedling=5~6 in 6 days after opening food, increases gradually later on, and making day feeding volume is forage fiss/hybridization mandarin fish seedling=8~10.
Hybridization mandarin fish seedling is opened food and is carried out sterilization first time after 6 days, and sterilization is carried out after forage fiss is eaten up, and picks up the mandarin fish seedling with blanket net, is that immersion was put back to circuit after 10 minutes in 4% the saline solution in concentration.Later on as find that the mandarin fish food reduces or keeps afloat, when being slow in action, in time carries out disinfection or to water body oxygenation.
2., the cultivation in long 20mm-50mm stage of body
The cultivation of present embodiment is carried out in the rectangle pond of 3 mu of areas, depth of water 1.5m, puts hybridization mandarin fish seedling 6.5 ten thousand tails of the long 22mm of average body in a suitable place to breed.The previous day on the pool under hybridization mandarin fish seedling, young 700,000 tails of grass carp crow of putting into the long 12mm of body in the pool in time replenish according to the quantity of forage fiss in the pool later on as hybridization mandarin fish seedling bait.Adorn a micro pump in the pond, washed by water every day 4 hours, changed about water 30cm every 3 days.Under hybridization mandarin fish seedling the 7th day of the pool with the copper sulphate full pool spilling head of 1.0ppm once, later on according to the cluster of hybridization mandarin fish seedling in the pond, move about and ingest situation in time sterilization or oxygenation.
4, feeding habits transform
Carrying out feeding habits when hybridization mandarin fish seedling body length is grown to the 50mm left and right sides transforms.With close net (summer flower net) in the pond one jiao block into an area 100m 2About delta-shaped region, it is intensive at this to hybridize the mandarin fish seedling, early morning every day and at dusk earlier with bailer to water surface water-sprinkling, shed forage fiss again.When just beginning, in the live bait of throwing something and feeding, mix the just dead fresh crow son of 10-20%, increase the young ratio of dead crow later on gradually.Feeding habits through about 5 days transform, and after mandarin fish can be robbed and be eaten the dead black son who throws something and feeds, promptly finish the cultivation of hybridization mandarin fish seedling, can enter adult fish culture.

Claims (4)

1. a hybridizing propagation process that sticks up mouth mandarin fish and spot mandarin fish is characterized in that it comprises the following steps:
1), parent fish rearing
Breeding autumn the previous year, select for use 2 full ages, the above stalwartness of body weight 1Kg to stick up the mouth mandarin fish and make the hybridization female parent, the hybridization male parent is then selected 2 full ages, the above spot mandarin fish of body weight 0.5Kg for use, they are placed on respectively carry out reinforced cultivating in different net cages or the pond, the feed of nurturing period sticks up the mouth mandarin fish and feeds agreeable to the taste live fish, the spot mandarin fish can be with agreeable to the taste live fish or fish piece, irritate with flowing water after the beginning of spring, impel the sexual gland normal mature, but after mid-April, stop stimulation by running water;
2), cross method
1., artificial induced spawning and insemination
When parent population breeding water body water temperature reaches 22 ℃, begin parent population injection exogenous hormone, exogenous hormone can adopt luteotropin releasing hormone d-ala analog (LRH-A), human chorionic gonadtropin (HCG), in the maleic acid DOM (DOM) one or more, the milter injection volume is 50% of a raun, but the general good parent population shot of maturity, otherwise can divide biphasic injection, two pins is spaced apart 12 hours during biphasic injection, after the injection male parent spot mandarin fish is stuck up the mouth mandarin fish and is placed in the same net cage current with flow velocity 0.1~0.2m/s and irritates to impel and oestrus with maternal, ovulation, the injection hormone is after 24 hours, begin to check, when light pressure is stuck up mouth mandarin fish belly and is had ovum to flow out, to stick up the mouth mandarin fish and separate, carry out the dry method of artificial fertilization with the spot mandarin fish;
2., hatching management
Guarantee between the incubation period that water quality is pure and fresh, current are unobstructed, control the inflow of circular hatching channal well, so that the ovum during the embryonic development can all stir but acutely not stir, suitable increased water flow speed before and after the hybridization fry membrane generally is controlled to be 0.45m/s, and in time removes the egg membrane in circuit or the hatching cylinder, when putting down trip, fry reduces water flow velocity in circuit or the hatching cylinder, the controlled 0.25m/s that is made as;
3), hybridization fry rearing
1., body length is less than the cultivation in 20mm stage
A, type of rearing are cultivated in the cement pit of circuit or miniflow water, and density is controlled at 1.5 ten thousand tails/m 3In, flow velocity is controlled at about 0.1m/s;
B, bait feeding, the whole cultivating process agreeable to the taste chinese carp fry of throwing something and feeding, along with growing up of hybridization mandarin fish seedling, the also corresponding increase of bait fry, generally the body of control bait fry is long is about 60% of hybridization mandarin fish fry body length, and forage fiss is thrown something and fed once every day, and the feeding volume of every day is forage fiss/hybridization mandarin fish seedling=5~6 in 6 days after opening food, increase gradually later on, making day feeding volume is forage fiss/hybridization mandarin fish seedling=8~10;
C, sterilizing prevent disease, regularly after hybridization mandarin fish seedling is eaten up forage fiss, picking up hybridization mandarin fish seedling with blanket net, to put into concentration be that the saline solution of 3-5% soaked 5-10 minute, puts back to then and cultivate the pond;
2., the cultivation in long 20mm-50mm stage of body
A, the mode that adopts the pond hydrostatic to cultivate, the breeding density of hybridization mandarin fish seedling are about 20,000 tail/mus, and about depth of water 1.5m, silt depth advances draining conveniently less than 15cm at the bottom of the pond;
B, bait feeding, forage fiss is cultivated by the special pool, controls growth rate well, and the body of the forage fiss of throwing something and feeding is long to be about 50~60% of hybridization mandarin fish fish length, under the hybridization mandarin fish seedling during pool every mu throw in about forage fiss 300,000 tails, keep the amount of forage fiss in the pond to be more than 5 times of hybridization mandarin fish seedling amount later on;
The control of c, water quality, under the hybridization mandarin fish before the pool to after the thorough disinfection of pond, pour into outer river clear water, the nurturing period, change about water 30cm every 3 days ponds, every 5 days once with the copper sulphate full pool spilling head of 0.8~1.0ppm, timely unlatching oxygenation facility during anoxic;
4), feeding habits transform
When hybridization mandarin fish seedling grows to the long 50mm of body, carry out feeding habits and transform, will hybridize the mandarin fish seedling earlier and block one jiao of 100-150m in the pond with close net 2The zone in, early morning and dusk in every day use bailer to water surface water-sprinkling earlier, shed forage fiss again, when just beginning, the firm dead fresh crow of mixing 10-20% in the live bait of throwing something and feeding is young, increases the young ratio of dead crow later on gradually, throws something and feeds until dead fish of whole usefulness or fish piece, finish feeding habits in about 4-7 days and transform, can enter adult fish culture subsequently.
2. by the described hybridizing propagation process that sticks up mouth mandarin fish and spot mandarin fish of claim 1, it is characterized in that the time of artificial induced spawning and insemination mainly decides according to water temperature, the water temperature when hastening parturition will reach 22 ℃, and the water temperature of hastening parturition in back 7 days remains on 22~24 ℃.
3. by the described hybridizing propagation process that sticks up mouth mandarin fish and spot mandarin fish of claim 1, it is characterized in that adopting the hormotone of luteotropin releasing hormone d-ala analog (LRH-A) and human chorionic gonadtropin (HCG), raun dosage is LRH-A 10~15 μ g+HCG 1500~1800I/Kg fish body weight, and milter dosage reduces by half.
4. by claim 1 or the 2 or 3 described hybridizing propagation process that stick up mouth mandarin fish and spot mandarin fish, when it is characterized in that parent population injection exogenous hormone, injection male parent spot mandarin fish is injected female parent again and sticks up the mouth mandarin fish after 2 hours earlier.
CN2007100669203A 2007-01-19 2007-01-19 Curled-lip mandarin fish and spot and spotted mandarin fish hybridizing propagation process Expired - Fee Related CN101066046B (en)

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