CN106613274B - Aconitum sinomontanum seed seedling raising method - Google Patents

Aconitum sinomontanum seed seedling raising method Download PDF

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CN106613274B
CN106613274B CN201710005195.2A CN201710005195A CN106613274B CN 106613274 B CN106613274 B CN 106613274B CN 201710005195 A CN201710005195 A CN 201710005195A CN 106613274 B CN106613274 B CN 106613274B
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seeds
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seedling
fine sand
aconitum
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CN106613274A (en
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王俊杰
张跃华
张志强
嘎日迪
李红
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Inner Mongolia Agricultural University
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Inner Mongolia Agricultural University
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for raising seedlings of aconitum sinomontanum seeds, which comprises the following steps: (1) seed pretreatment: performing stratification treatment on Aconitum kusnezoffii seeds, and keeping the treatment temperatureThe temperature is minus 5 to minus 1 ℃, and the processing time is 40 to 45 days; (2) container seedling culture: a seedling substrate is filled in the container, the seedling substrate consists of flower soil and vermiculite, and the container is watered thoroughly; sowing the seeds treated in the step (1) into a container, covering soil, and culturing under illumination; culturing for 3-5 days to emerge; and ensuring sufficient sunlight after seedling emergence. The invention aims at the characteristic Mongolian medicine plant aconitum kusnezoffii (aconitum kusnezoffii) ((R))Aconitum kusnezoffiiReichb.) is difficult to cultivate and domesticate in wild, invent a technical method for propagating and raising seedlings by aconitum kusnezoffii seeds, improve germination percentage and emergence uniformity through an accurate seed pretreatment technology, reasonably manage and regulate high seedling protection rate in a seedling stage, have low cost, solve the propagation technical difficulty in the wild-changed cultivation process of the aconitum kusnezoffii heads, and realize rapid propagation and large-scale production.

Description

Aconitum sinomontanum seed seedling raising method
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of aconitum sinomontanum planting, and particularly relates to an aconitum sinomontanum seed seedling raising method.
Background
Aconitum kusnezoffii Reichb is widely applied to Mongolian medicine clinical pharmacy, about one third of Mongolian medicine formulas without Aconitum kusnezoffii can not be used, but the medicinal source of the Aconitum kusnezoffii is mainly dependent on wild resources at present and is difficult to meet market demands. And the alkaloid content in the aconitum kusnezoffii produced in different areas is greatly different, thereby bringing great risk to clinical pharmacy.
There are currently few studies and academic reports on the planting technology of Aconitum kusnezoffii Reichb, the main method being root tuber transplanting and sowing. The root tuber propagation is applied to small-scale production, and Longplaintext (Aconitum kusnezoffii cultivation technology [ J ]. rural economy and technology, 2003, 10:032), Chenyubao (Aconitum kusnezoffii cultivation management technology [ J ]. special economy animal and plant, 2014,17(6):42-43.) and the like report the method, wherein the root tuber of wild Aconitum kusnezoffii is dug out in 9 to 10 months in the first year, and the healthy and disease and insect pest-free root tuber with plump bud is selected to be sowed in 11 to 12 months in the current year, or is stored for sowing in 3 to 4 months in the second year. Although the method is easy to survive, the root tuber quantity is limited, the propagation coefficient is low, and the variety is easy to degrade after the propagation time is long, so that the technical problem of large-area production of the aconitum kusnezoffii cannot be fundamentally solved.
The discussion of Yang Guangxi et al on Aconitum kusnezoffii is: the wild aconite root can adopt autumn sowing or seedling transplanting technology, and the treatment method for breaking seed dormancy is that the germination rate is 80% in 89-day outdoor stratification test. There are two problems with this technique: one, based on the previous evidence in this work, the basic original plants of Aconitum carmichaeli Debx and Aconitum kusnezoffii Reichb were considered to be the main plants of Aconitum carmichaeli, and in addition, other 14 Aconitum kusnezoffii plants were also identified as the original plants of Aconitum kusnezoffii, and the test for releasing seed dormancy did not indicate which plant was used. According to the researches of Yanfan Asia (investigation of germplasm resources of partial Aconitum plants in northern China and research on introduction and breeding [ D ]. Beijing university of forestry, 2007.) and Zhouyikxia (investigation of resources of partial Aconitum plants and research on introduction and cultivation [ D ]. Beijing university of forestry, 2008), seeds of Aconitum plants have different degrees of dormancy, the dormancy of the seeds can be relieved by a gibberellin soaking or low-temperature laminating method generally, but different species have different sensitivity degrees on gibberellin and low-temperature treatment, the optimal gibberellin concentration and the optimal treatment time for improving the germination rate of the seeds are different, wherein the dormancy degree of the seeds of the northern Aconitum (Aconitum kusnezoffii Reichb.) is deepest, and the dormancy can not be broken by conventional treatment. Secondly, the seed treatment method can only be operated under the environment suitable for the winter in the same year, the treatment time is long, and the limitation on the environment and the time is large. And (3) selecting sunny gentle slope land with sufficient illumination for breeding in the Jilin, harvesting seeds from the first 9 th to the first 10 th of the year, soaking the seeds for 5 hours by using 500mg/L gibberellin, performing low-temperature stratification, performing germination accelerating treatment in an illumination incubator at 25 ℃ 1-2 weeks before sowing in the second 5 th last of the year, and then sowing, wherein seedlings emerge for 8-12 days, and the emergence rate is more than 94%. This method is clear, but the treatment temperature and the minimum treatment time are not clearly discussed, and gibberellin treatment of seeds increases the number of operations and the cost of gibberellin production is high, and if the amount of seeds is large, the production cost increases.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the problems, the invention determines the definite temperature condition and the treatment time for relieving the seed dormancy of the Aconitum kusnezoffii Reichb and carries out container seedling raising, the propagation coefficient is greatly improved, and the problem of variety degradation is not caused, thus the invention is the fundamental method for the standardized planting of the Aconitum kusnezoffii in the future.
The method mainly comprises three aspects of a seed pretreatment technology, a container seedling raising technology and seedling stage management, and the aconitum sinomontanum nakai seedling is cultured through the steps so as to provide sufficient seedlings for subsequent field transplantation.
The invention adopts the following specific technical scheme:
a method for raising seedlings of aconitum sinomontanum seeds comprises the following steps:
(1) seed pretreatment: carrying out lamination treatment on the aconitum kusnezoffii seeds, wherein the treatment temperature is-5 to-1 ℃, and the treatment time is 40 to 45 days;
(2) container seedling culture: a seedling substrate is filled in the container, the seedling substrate consists of flower soil and vermiculite, and the container is watered thoroughly; sowing the seeds treated in the step (1) into a container, covering soil, and culturing under illumination; culturing for 3-5 days to emerge; and ensuring sufficient sunlight after seedling emergence.
In the step (1), the aconitum kusnezoffii seeds have deeper morphological physiological dormancy, and the untreated or unreasonable-treatment-mode seeds are completely ungerminated or have low germination rate and poor germination uniformity, so that the emergence rate and emergence uniformity are influenced, and the seeds need to be subjected to proper pretreatment before germination. Due to the wide variety of aconitum species, the physiological properties of each aconitum seed are completely different. The invention relates to a seedling raising method for aconitum sinomontanum nakai seeds, which is used for researching and obtaining the aconitum sinomontanum nakai seed seedling raising method for improving the emergence rate and emergence uniformity according to the physiological characteristics of aconitum sinomontanum nakai seeds.
At present, some existing methods for layering seeds usually place the seeds at a temperature of 1-10 ℃, but through experimental research, the layering treatment mode has no effect on relieving dormancy of aconitum kusnezoffii seeds. The invention creatively sets the lamination temperature between-5 ℃ and-1 ℃ and has very obvious effect. During the stratification treatment, the aconitum sinomontanum seeds are subjected to a series of physiological after-ripening treatments under proper temperature and humidity, so that the content of growth inhibiting substances of the seeds can be reduced, the effect is uniform, and the seedling emergence uniformity of the seeds is high. The aconitum kusnezoffii seeds have morphological and physiological comprehensive dormancy, and water-soluble and alcohol-soluble inhibitors exist in the seeds, so that the dormancy degree of the seeds is relatively deep, the dormancy degree of wild aconitum kusnezoffii seeds is inconsistent, and the dormancy is difficult to break by a conventional method. Under proper low-temperature and humid conditions, the aconitum sinomontanum seeds complete a series of morphological and physiological after-ripening processes, the embryo grows to a sufficient volume, the embryo morphology is completely differentiated, the inhibitor in the seeds is hydrolyzed and released, and the seeds begin to germinate. Through the treatment, the problem that the aconitum kusnezoffii seeds are difficult to germinate due to dormancy is solved, and the problems of germination and irregular seedling emergence caused by inconsistent dormancy degree of the aconitum kusnezoffii seeds are also solved. Through the solution of the two problems, convenience and premise are provided for unified management and protection of the seed reproduction seedling stage in production application.
Seed selection: selecting seeds harvested in the current year, naturally drying, threshing and cleaning.
In the lamination treatment, selection of fine sand: the sand grains with different grain diameters have different influences on seed growth, and the requirement of the invention on the grain diameter of fine sand is less than or equal to 0.8 mm. The humidity of the fine sand has certain influence on the lamination treatment of the seeds, the humidity of the fine sand obtained through screening and optimization is 28-32%, and tests prove that the aconitum kusnezoffii seeds can be well physiologically after-ripened under the humidity. Judging the humidity of the fine sand, holding the fine sand by hand to form a cluster, and uniformly dispersing the fine sand after falling on the ground. The pH value of the fine sand is 6.0-7.5, and the environmental requirement of the aconitum kusnezoffii seed for releasing the dormancy state is met.
In the lamination treatment, the mass ratio of the seeds to the fine sand is 1: 3-4, preferably, the mass ratio of the seeds to the fine sand is 1: 3.
in the lamination treatment, fine sand with the thickness of 1.5-2.5 cm is paved at the bottom of a container, then the stirred seeds and the fine sand are put to the position 4-5 cm away from the opening of the container, 3.5-4.5 cm of fine sand is covered on the container, the fine sand is continuously covered to form an arch protrusion, the covering thickness is increased to reduce the water loss, and the top of the filled container is covered with an air-permeable covering (such as a nylon bag, cloth and the like).
1-2 times of examination is carried out during the lamination treatment, and after the covering is opened, if the fine sand is dry, a small amount of water is sprayed on the surface by a spray can, so that the humidity of the fine sand is basically unchanged; after the examination, the cover is covered quickly and put back into the incubator at the temperature of-5 to-1 ℃.
And after 40-45 days of lamination treatment, placing the container filled with the seeds in the shade for unfreezing for 6-8 hours, then removing the covering and the fine sand covered on the surface, spreading the fine sand and the seeds, after drying in the shade for 20-30 minutes, screening out the seeds by using a fine sieve with the diameter of 1mm, and sowing.
When the layering treatment time exceeds 45 days, the germination rate cannot be obviously improved, and when the layering treatment time exceeds 45 days, the seedling emergence uniformity is found to be greatly reduced, and the improvement of the group growth uniformity under the conditions of high density and high yield has very important significance; when the stratification treatment time is shorter than 40 days, the germination rate of the aconitum kusnezoffii seeds is remarkably reduced. Preferably, the treatment time is 6 weeks for the most excellent effect.
In the step (2), container seedling raising is a seedling raising mode for cultivating crops by using a specific container, and the container is filled with substrates such as nutrient-rich culture soil and the like, so that the seedlings can grow and develop under better nutrient and environmental conditions.
The selection of the substrate has great influence on the seedling emergence, and the solid substrate suitable for the substrate is obtained by screening and optimizing according to the physiological growth characteristics of the aconitum kusnezoffii, considering the immobilization, the water retention, the air permeability, the buffering and the nutrition providing capacity of the substrate, and the volume weight and the porosity of the solid substrate can improve the air and moisture content. Preferably, the matrix is prepared from flower soil and vermiculite according to the mass ratio of 1-2: 1, and in order to ensure higher emergence rate, it is further preferable that the mass ratio of the flower soil to the vermiculite is 1: 1. the flower soil is general organic nutrient soil sold in the market, the main components of the flower soil are natural turf, perlite, sheep manure, bio-organic fertilizer, coconut husk and the like, the pH value is 5.6-7.0, and the flower soil is suitable for various flowering plants, foliage plants, various potted plants, vegetables and seedlings.
The culture temperature is set to be 14-16 ℃, and preferably, the culture temperature is 15 ℃.
The method adopts the container to grow seedlings, so that the aconitum sinomontanum seedling has high survival rate, short seedling revival period, quick rooting and vigorous growth.
Selection of the container: the seedling raising containers are various in types, shapes, sizes and manufacturing materials, and can be selected according to different requirements of crop types, seedling raising periods, seedling specifications and the like. The invention selects a plastic flowerpot with the diameter of 12 cm.
Before sowing, mixing the flower soil and the vermiculite uniformly, putting the mixture into a container, wherein the soil filling height is required to be 1.5-2 cm away from the upper part of the container, and airing the container for one day after each container is watered thoroughly to ensure that the matrix in the container is moist but not sticky. The principle of selecting the water content is that the water content after airing for one day is 60 percent of the water content, and the principle of not generating a layer of water film around the seeds after sowing is taken as the principle.
Preferably, 3 seeds are sown into each container, and then covered with 0.4-0.6 cm (preferably 0.5cm) of soil, and sprayed on the surface.
Preferably, water is poured once in 2-3 days during culture, and the water is guaranteed to be thoroughly poured each time.
Preferably, the illumination intensity is more than 2LX, so that the normal growth of seedlings is facilitated.
Ensuring sufficient sunlight after seedling emergence means ensuring sufficient sunlight and soil moistening during the period from seedling emergence to growth of the first true leaves; after that, the management and protection in the seedling stage are mainly proper shading, and not only soil moistening but also air moistening is ensured. The microclimate of the wild plants is water edge, under forest and forest edge, and the air humidity is high.
The technical scheme has the following beneficial effects:
(1) the method adopts the seed propagation of the aconitum kusnezoffii, and the propagation coefficient is far higher than that of a root tuber propagation method.
(2) The method adopts the aconitum kusnezoffii seeds for propagation, has strong plant variability, and does not cause the phenomenon of variety degradation due to long-term planting.
(3) The invention only needs to sow after the seed treatment is finished, thereby reducing the labor consumption and the production cost.
(4) The invention aims at the problem that wild cultivation and domestication of a special Mongolian medicine plant, namely Aconitum kusnezoffii Reichb, are difficult, provides a technical method for breeding and raising seedlings by Aconitum kusnezoffii seeds, improves the germination rate and the seedling emergence uniformity by an accurate seed pretreatment technology, has obvious effect, reasonably manages and controls the seedling-keeping rate through the seedling stage, has low cost, solves the problem of difficulty in breeding technology in the wild-changing cultivation process of the Aconitum kusnezoffii head, and realizes rapid propagation and large-scale production.
(5) According to the physiological growth characteristics of the aconitum kusnezoffii seeds, the temperature and the time in the lamination treatment are obtained through screening and optimization, the dormancy breaking effect is obviously promoted, the germination rate of the aconitum kusnezoffii is improved, the germination rate reaches 92-94% (3 days), the emergence rate is up to more than 96% (5 days, the germination rate refers to the proportion of seeds which break through seed coats and reach the length of the seeds and account for tested seeds after the laminated seeds are sowed, the emergence rate refers to the proportion of the number of plants of which the cotyledons are exposed out of the ground to the total number of sowed seeds, and the emergence time is shortened; the growth promoting substances such as gibberellin and auxin are not needed, the uniformity of seedling emergence is ensured, and the cost is reduced.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a photograph of a seedling of Aconitum kusnezoffii in example 1 of the present invention.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be further described with reference to the following examples.
Example 1
A method for raising seedlings of aconitum sinomontanum seeds comprises the following steps:
(1) seed pretreatment technology
The seeds harvested in the current year are naturally air-dried, threshed and cleaned, and then are uniformly mixed with fine sand with the humidity of about 30 percent according to the proportion of 1: 3. The requirement of the grain size of the fine sand is as follows: sand which can pass through a fine screen with the aperture of 0.8 mm; judging the humidity of fine sand (about 30%): held by hand to form a ball, and then uniformly dispersed after falling to the ground. The pH value of the fine sand is 6.0-7.5. Placing the mixed seeds in a breathable container such as a wooden box, a flowerpot and the like, firstly paving 1.5-2.5 cm of wet sand at the bottom of the container, then putting the mixed seeds and sand to a position 4-5 cm away from the opening of the container, covering 3.5-4.5 cm of the wet sand on the container, continuously covering to enable the wet sand to be arched and protruded, increasing the covering thickness, reducing the water loss, and covering the top of the container with a breathable covering (such as a nylon bag, cloth and the like). And (3) placing the filled seeds and the container in a thermostat for 6 weeks at the temperature of between-5 and-1 ℃, checking for 1 to 2 times in the period, and after the covering is opened, if the fine sand is dry, spraying a small amount of water on the surface by using a spraying pot to ensure that the humidity of the fine sand is approximately unchanged. After inspection, the cover was quickly covered and placed back in the oven. After 6 weeks, firstly placing the container filled with the seeds in a shade place for unfreezing for 6-8 hours, then removing the covering and the fine sand covered on the surface, spreading the wet sand and the seeds, after drying in the shade for 20-30 minutes, screening the seeds out by using a fine sieve with the diameter of 1mm, and sowing.
(2) Container seedling raising technology
The container seedling substrate is flower soil (purchased from Huai' an flowers-flourishing agriculture, forestry and horticulture development limited company): 1 part of vermiculite: 1, and the container is a plastic flowerpot with the diameter of 12 cm. And (3) uniformly mixing the soil matrix, putting the mixture into flowerpots, wherein the soil filling height is required to be 1.5cm away from the upper parts of the flowerpots, and airing the flowerpots for 1 day after each flowerpot is watered to be permeable so that the pot soil is moist but not sticky. And (3) sowing the treated seeds into flowerpots, sowing 3 seeds into each flowerpot, uniformly placing the flowerpots, uniformly covering 0.5cm of soil, and spraying a spray can to wet the surface and cover the soil. And (3) placing the flowerpot on a culture rack with illumination, wherein the culture temperature is 15 ℃, watering is carried out once every 2-3 days, and the watering is ensured to be thorough every time. Sowing for 3-5 days, and emergence of seedlings, wherein the emergence rate can reach 96%, the seedling culture laboratory is required to have sufficient sunlight (generally more than 2 LX), and if the illumination is insufficient, the light of the culture shelf needs to be turned on for light supplement after 2 days of emergence of seedlings. Ensuring sufficient sunlight and soil moistening during the period from seedling emergence to growth of the first true leaf; after that, the management and protection in the seedling stage are mainly proper shading, and not only soil moistening but also air moistening is ensured.
The Aconitum kusnezoffii seedling cultured by the seedling culture method is shown in figure 1.
Comparative example 1
The differences from example 1 are: the filled seeds and containers were placed in a 4 ℃ incubator for 6 weeks, with the other operating and process conditions being the same as in example 1.
The germination rate of the seeds is remarkably reduced to 64 percent after the seeds are accumulated for six weeks at 4 ℃.
Comparative example 2
The differences from example 1 are: the filled seeds and the container are placed in a thermostat for 2 weeks at the temperature of between-5 and-1 ℃, and other operation and process conditions are the same as those of the example 1.
The germination rate of the seeds treated in a thermostat with the temperature of between-5 and-1 ℃ for 2 weeks is only 36 to 40 percent, the low-temperature treatment time is insufficient, and the germination rate of the seeds is obviously reduced.
Comparative example 3
The differences from example 1 are: the seedling culture substrate is prepared from flower soil and farmland soil according to the mass ratio of 1: 1 mixing, other operating and process conditions were the same as in example 1.
The difference of different seedling raising substrates in seedling emergence time is not large, but the difference between seedling growth (mainly, seedling height) and seedling preservation rate (seedling survival rate) is large, and the seedling survival rate is equal to the number of survival seedlings/total number of seedlings multiplied by 100%.
Experimental example 1
Seedling raising is carried out on the aconitum kusnezoffii by adopting the seedling raising method in the embodiment 1 and the comparative examples 1-3, and the germination rate is detected. The detection results are shown in table 1:
the first counting time is day 3 of sowing, and the last counting time is day 28 of sowing.
TABLE 1
TABLE 2
Object Measuring time Plant height (cm) Number of leaves developed
Example 1 Seeding day 45 5.9 1
Comparative example 1 Seeding day 45 5.5 1
Comparative example 2 Seeding day 45 6.1 1
Comparative example 3 Seeding day 45 4.5 1
Note: the plant height and the number of spread leaves were the average number of 10 plants examined at random.
And (4) conclusion: from the table 1, compared with comparative examples 1-3, the seedling raising method in the example 1 enables the rate of emergence of aconitum sinomontanum, the uniformity of emergence of seedlings to be high, the seedling height and the survival rate of seedlings to be remarkably improved, wherein the key factors are that the seedling raising of aconitum sinomontanum has a remarkable effect only by adopting reasonable stratification treatment temperature and time and adopting a proper seedling raising substrate during seedling raising management and mastering the key factors.
The above embodiments are preferred embodiments of the present invention, but the present invention is not limited to the above embodiments, and any other changes, modifications, substitutions, combinations, and simplifications which do not depart from the spirit and principle of the present invention should be construed as equivalents thereof, and all such changes, modifications, substitutions, combinations, and simplifications are intended to be included in the scope of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. A method for raising seedlings of aconitum sinomontanum seeds is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) seed pretreatment: carrying out lamination treatment on the aconitum kusnezoffii seeds, wherein the treatment temperature is-5 to-1 ℃, the treatment time is 40 to 45 days, and the grain size of fine sand is less than or equal to 0.8mm in the lamination treatment; the humidity of the fine sand is 28-32%; the pH value of the fine sand is 6.0-7.5; in the lamination treatment, firstly, fine sand with the thickness of 1.5-2.5 cm is paved at the bottom of a container, then the stirred seeds and the fine sand are put to the position 4-5 cm away from the opening of the container, 3.5-4.5 cm of fine sand is covered on the container, the fine sand is continuously covered to form an arch protrusion, the covering thickness is increased to reduce the water loss, and the top of the container is covered with an air-permeable covering;
after 40-45 days of lamination treatment, placing the container filled with the seeds in a shade place for unfreezing for 6-8 hours, then removing the covering and the fine sand covered on the surface, spreading the fine sand and the seeds, and separating the seeds after the seeds are dried in the shade place for 20-30 minutes;
(2) container seedling culture: a seedling substrate is filled in the container, the seedling substrate consists of flower soil and vermiculite, and the container is watered thoroughly; sowing the seeds treated in the step (1) into a container, covering soil, and culturing under illumination, wherein the culture temperature is set at 15 ℃; culturing for 3-5 days to emerge; ensuring sufficient sunlight after seedling emergence; the seedling culture substrate is prepared from flower soil and vermiculite according to a mass ratio of 1: 1, preparing a composition;
in the step (1), in the lamination treatment, the mass ratio of the seeds to the fine sand in the seed dressing step is 1: 3.
2. a method of growing seedlings according to claim 1, which comprises: in the step (1), 1-2 times of examination is carried out during the lamination treatment, after the covering is opened, if the fine sand is dry, a small amount of water is sprayed on the surface by a spray can, and the humidity of the fine sand is ensured to be unchanged; after the examination, the cover is covered quickly and put back into the incubator at the temperature of-5 to-1 ℃.
3. A method of growing seedlings according to claim 1, which comprises: in the step (2), water is poured once in 2-3 days during culture, and the water is guaranteed to be thoroughly poured each time.
4. A method of growing seedlings according to claim 1, which comprises: in the step (2), the illumination intensity is more than 2 LX.
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