CN105218184A - A kind of method utilizing straw compost - Google Patents

A kind of method utilizing straw compost Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105218184A
CN105218184A CN201510734975.1A CN201510734975A CN105218184A CN 105218184 A CN105218184 A CN 105218184A CN 201510734975 A CN201510734975 A CN 201510734975A CN 105218184 A CN105218184 A CN 105218184A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
straw compost
stalk particle
utilizing straw
fertilizer
stalk
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Pending
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CN201510734975.1A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
华怀峰
郑永权
徐立明
杨蕴毅
李向花
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JIANGSU SIWEIBO BIOLOGICAL TECHNOLOGY CO., LTD.
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NANJING YUANKAI BIOLOGICAL ENERGY ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ENGINEERING Co Ltd
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Priority to CN201510734975.1A priority Critical patent/CN105218184A/en
Publication of CN105218184A publication Critical patent/CN105218184A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse

Abstract

The invention provides a kind of method utilizing straw compost, comprise the steps: that crushed stalk becomes particle diameter to be the stalk particle of 1 ~ 5mm by (1); (2) mixed with ethanolic soln by stalk particle, under 25 ~ 30 DEG C of conditions, airtight placement 24 ~ 36h, obtains pretreated stalk particle; (3) step (2) is obtained pretreated stalk particle to mix with solid fungicide, beer vinasse, obtain composting material; (4) composting material is piled fermentation buttress, outdoor fermentation 15 ~ 20 days.The bio-feritlizer that the present invention obtains is slightly acidic, and its N, P, K content is high, is conducive to the growth of farm crop.

Description

A kind of method utilizing straw compost
Technical field
The invention belongs to the fertile field of agro-ecology, be specifically related to a kind of method utilizing agricultural stalk to produce bio-feritlizer.
Background technology
The fertilizer that China agriculturally uses at present is chemical fertilizer and fertilizer mainly, chemical fertilizer is mainly divided into simple substance fertilizer, composite fertilizer, slow control fertilizer, and fertilizer mainly contains organic commercial fertilizer, commodity composite organic-inorganic fertilizer, commodity micro organism composite fertilizer, commodity microbial organic fertilizer, Organic-inorganic biological fertilizer.Because chemical fertilizer can make farm crop comparatively fast be grown at short notice, the peasant of China generally compares dependence chemical fertilizer.Along with peasant is to the increase dropped into planting, the phenomenon of rural area " apply fertilizer excessive, Higher output is not accompanied by a higher income " also gets more and more, and causes high risks to social resources, human health and environmental issue.One of harm: weaken crop production ability.It is easy lodging that the excessive result worked the mischief to farm crop of applying fertilizer mainly contains two: one, causes grain drop in production; Two is easily disease and pest occurs, and nitrogen application is too much, crops resistant to diseases and insects can be made to weaken, subject to disease worm and infect, then increase the pesticide dosage destroyed plant diseases and insect pests, directly threaten the security of food.Two of harm: aggravation environmental pollution.Expert once did such investigation to some areas: according to statistics, and China is every year because unreasonable fertilising causes the nitrogen loss of more than 1,000 ten thousand tons outside farmland.Excessive fertilizer can infiltrate in the shallow ground water within 20m, make underground water nitric acid use chemical fertilizer also to have an impact to the structure of soil, research shows, China consumes the chemical fertilizer of 5,000 ten thousand tons of nutrients resources every year, account for 27% of world Fertilizer total flow, and always plough in the Zhi Zhan world, arable land of China 7%, chemical nitrogen fertilizer utilization ratio only 30%, rate of loss, up to 60%, consumes the Nonrenewable resources (coal, Sweet natural gas) for chemical fertilizers production greatly.
Fertilizer has great active effect to agricultural: the first, can supply the nutrient required for plant growth comprehensively; The second, nutrient can be reduced and fix, improve fertilizer efficiency further; 3rd, can protect and to store up point, reduce and run off, improve the absorption of crop to nutrient; 4th, effectively can reconcile soil acidity or alkalinity, improvement Soil structure; 5th, can soil nutrient be increased, improve soil vitality.At present, peasant applies fertilizer ubiquity " triple three light " phenomenon, i.e. heavy chemical fertilizer, light fertilizer, diazonium phosphate fertilizer, light potash fertilizer, fertile, the light medium trace element of great secondary element.Development organic fertilizer, utilize self raw material advantage exactly, by the need fertile characteristic sum agriculture production requirement of different crops, carry out the exploitation of fertilizer depth, with appropriate proportionings of fertilizer such as chemical fertilizer, biological inoculum and medium trace element, balance is used, and to improve fertilizer nutrient utilization, promotes agriculture production high yield, high-quality, efficient.
China is large agricultural country, and the cultivated area of wheat and paddy rice is relatively wider, problems such as all can producing a large amount of stalks every year, the carbon-nitrogen ratio of soil is lacked of proper care if straw directly returning to field can cause, organic acid is accumulated, farming sowing is difficult, growing way of newly emerging is not prosperous.Burned to crop harvesting a large amount of stalk in season or arbitrarily abandoned every year, become serious social and environmental problems.Straw compost is that agricultural crop straw is become high-quality fertilizer, not only solves agricultural wastes straw, can also production high-quality fertilizer, and improvement soil, increases soil fertility, preserve the ecological environment, to national food security and agricultural sustainable development all significant.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention is to provide a kind of method utilizing straw compost.
For solving the problems of the technologies described above, the present invention adopts following technical scheme:
Utilize a method for straw compost, comprise the steps:
(1) particle diameter crushed stalk is become to be the stalk particle of 1 ~ 5mm;
(2) mixed with ethanolic soln by stalk particle, under 25 ~ 30 DEG C of conditions, airtight placement 24 ~ 36h, obtains pretreated stalk particle;
(3) step (2) is obtained pretreated stalk particle to mix with solid fungicide, beer vinasse, obtain composting material;
(4) composting material is piled fermentation buttress, outdoor fermentation 15 ~ 20 days.
In step (2), described ethanolic soln volume fraction of ethanol is the solution of 5% ~ 10%.
In step (2), the blending ratio of stalk particle and ethanolic soln is 1kg:2 ~ 3L.
In step (3), described solid fungicide is Trichodermareesei ATCC56764.
Wherein, described Trichodermareesei is that the preparation method of ATCC56764 is as follows:
(1) activated on PDA slant medium by Trichodermareesei ATCC56764 bacterial strain, be then transferred in liquid nutrient medium and cultivate, culture temperature is 25 ~ 35 DEG C, and rotating speed is 150rpm, and incubation time is 3 ~ 5 days;
(2) use fermentor tank enlarged culturing again, the culture condition of fermentor tank is air flow 0.3 ~ 0.8vvm, and rotating speed is 150rpm, and in fermenting process, control pH is 6 ~ 7, and fermentation time is 5 ~ 7 days.
Wherein, the formula of described liquid nutrient medium is as follows:
Glucose 10g/L, peptone 1g/L, Mandels trace element salts solution 1ml/L.
In step (3), the mass ratio of stalk particle, solid fungicide, beer vinasse mixing is 1kg:0.01 ~ 0.1kg:0.05 ~ 0.1kg.
In step (3), the water content regulating composting material is 40% ~ 60%.
In step (3), the pH regulating composting material is 5.5 ~ 7.5.
In step (4), described fermentation buttress, length 5 ~ 7 meters, wide 1 ~ 1.5 meter, high 0.5 ~ 1 meter length are piled up neatly.
(1), in the present invention, first use ethanolic soln to carry out pre-treatment to stalk particle, by the wax layer on the dissolving stalk surface on stalk surface, be stalk more easily and contact with moisture.
(2) Trichodermareesei can produce a large amount of cellulases, contributes to abundant pyrolysis straw.
(3) bio-feritlizer N, P, K content of obtaining of the present invention is high, is conducive to the growth of farm crop.
Embodiment
According to following embodiment, the present invention may be better understood.But those skilled in the art will readily understand, the content described by embodiment only for illustration of the present invention, and should can not limit the present invention described in detail in claims yet.
Embodiment 1:
The preparation of Trichodermareesei ATCC56764 solid fungicide:
Substratum: PDA substratum; Liquid nutrient medium: glucose 10g/L, peptone 1g/L, Mandels trace element salts solution 1ml/L.
Trichodermareesei ATCC56764 is activated on PDA slant medium, is then transferred in liquid nutrient medium and cultivates, then use fermentor tank enlarged culturing, the culture condition of fermentor tank is air flow 0.3 ~ 0.8vvm, rotating speed is 150rpm, and in fermenting process, control pH is 6 ~ 7, and fermentation time is 5 ~ 7 days.Centrifugal fermented liquid, collects thalline, namely obtains Trichodermareesei ATCC56764 solid fungicide.
Embodiment 2:
(1) particle diameter crushed stalk is become to be the stalk particle of 1 ~ 5mm;
(2) aqueous ethanolic solution being 5% by stalk particle and volume fraction mixes, and under 25 ~ 30 DEG C of conditions, airtight placement 24h, obtains pretreated stalk particle;
(3) step (2) is obtained solid fungicide that pretreated stalk particle obtains with embodiment 1, to mix according to mass ratio be 1kg:0.01kg:0.05kg to beer vinasse, obtain composting material, the pH regulating composting material is 6.2, and water content is 60%;
(4) composting material is piled growth 5 ~ 7 meters, wide 1 ~ 1.5 meter, high 0.5 ~ 1 meter length is piled up neatly, outdoor fermentation 15 days.
To the temperature Real-Time Monitoring of fermentation buttress between yeast phase, when temperature is more than 65 DEG C, turn over buttress immediately, in order to avoid the impact smell that to send out more generation severe, also ensure to ferment to obtain the N content of fertilizer simultaneously.Then regulate the moisture of fermentation buttress to be between 55% ~ 60% immediately, ensure that stalk is in relatively moistening environment all the time.
In the fertilizer finally obtained, the content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium is 5.9 ~ 7.2%, and organic content is 55%, pH is 6.3 ~ 7.2, and moisture content is 20 ~ 25%.
Embodiment 3:
(1) particle diameter crushed stalk is become to be the stalk particle of 1 ~ 5mm;
(2) aqueous ethanolic solution being 5% by stalk particle and volume fraction mixes, and under 30 DEG C of conditions, airtight placement 30h, obtains pretreated stalk particle;
(3) step (2) is obtained solid fungicide that pretreated stalk particle obtains with embodiment 1, to mix according to mass ratio be 1kg:0.02kg:0.08kg to beer vinasse, obtain composting material, the pH regulating composting material is 6.5, and water content is 60%;
(4) composting material is piled growth 5 ~ 7 meters, wide 1 ~ 1.5 meter, high 0.5 ~ 1 meter length is piled up neatly, outdoor fermentation 20 days.
To the temperature Real-Time Monitoring of fermentation buttress between yeast phase, when temperature is more than 65 DEG C, turn over buttress immediately, in order to avoid the impact smell that to send out more generation severe, also ensure to ferment to obtain the N content of fertilizer simultaneously.Then regulate the moisture of fermentation buttress to be between 55% ~ 60% immediately, ensure that stalk is in relatively moistening environment all the time.
In the fertilizer finally obtained, the content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium is 6.2 ~ 8.2%, and organic content is 55%, pH is 5.9 ~ 6.8, and moisture content is 18 ~ 22%.
Embodiment 4:
(1) particle diameter crushed stalk is become to be the stalk particle of 1 ~ 5mm;
(2) aqueous ethanolic solution being 10% by stalk particle and volume fraction mixes, and under 28 DEG C of conditions, airtight placement 36h, obtains pretreated stalk particle;
(3) step (2) is obtained solid fungicide that pretreated stalk particle obtains with embodiment 1, to mix according to mass ratio be 1kg:0.1kg:0.1kg to beer vinasse, obtain composting material, the pH regulating composting material is 6.2, and water content is 60%;
(4) composting material is piled growth 5 ~ 7 meters, wide 1 ~ 1.5 meter, high 0.5 ~ 1 meter length is piled up neatly, outdoor fermentation 15 days.
To the temperature Real-Time Monitoring of fermentation buttress between yeast phase, when temperature is more than 65 DEG C, turn over buttress immediately, in order to avoid the impact smell that to send out more generation severe, also ensure to ferment to obtain the N content of fertilizer simultaneously.Between yeast phase, if the water content of fermentation buttress is less than 45%, then regulate the moisture of fermentation buttress to be between 55% ~ 60% immediately, ensure that stalk is in relatively moistening environment all the time.
In the fertilizer finally obtained, the content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium is 5.9 ~ 7.2%, and organic content is 55%, pH is 6.5 ~ 7.3, and moisture content is 15 ~ 20%.
Embodiment 5:
Utilize embodiment 2 ~ 4 to obtain fertilizer to test wheat paddock, contrast field uses composite fertilizer, and the routine maintenance such as application rate, weeding is all identical.In embodiment 2 ~ 4, the usage quantity of fertilizer is 50kg/ mu, and the usage quantity of composite fertilizer is applied fertilizer with reference to its standard usage quantity.
Experiment place: Dongtai City of Jiangsu Province
Experimental period: in November, 2014 ~ 2015 year May
Select the field of plantation wheat, the area in each group experimental plot is 5 mu, and experimental result is as shown in table 1.
Table 1 fertilizer contrasts with the output of composite fertilizer
Embodiment 2 fertilizer Embodiment 3 fertilizer Embodiment 4 fertilizer Composite fertilizer
Per mu yield (kg) 852 860 870 789
As can be seen from Table 1, employ fertilizer in the present invention and effectively can improve the output of wheat.

Claims (10)

1. utilize a method for straw compost, it is characterized in that, comprise the steps:
(1) particle diameter crushed stalk is become to be the stalk particle of 1 ~ 5mm;
(2) mixed with ethanolic soln by stalk particle, under 25 ~ 30 DEG C of conditions, airtight placement 24 ~ 36h, obtains pretreated stalk particle;
(3) step (2) is obtained pretreated stalk particle to mix with solid fungicide, beer vinasse, obtain composting material;
(4) composting material is piled fermentation buttress, outdoor fermentation 15 ~ 20 days.
2. the method utilizing straw compost according to claim 1, is characterized in that, in step (2), described ethanolic soln volume fraction of ethanol is the solution of 5% ~ 10%.
3. the method utilizing straw compost according to claim 1, is characterized in that, in step (2), the blending ratio of stalk particle and ethanolic soln is 1kg:2 ~ 3L.
4. the method utilizing straw compost according to claim 1, is characterized in that, in step (3), described solid fungicide is Trichodermareesei ATCC56764.
5. the method utilizing straw compost according to claim 4, is characterized in that, described Trichodermareesei is that the preparation method of ATCC56764 is as follows:
(1) activated on PDA slant medium by Trichodermareesei ATCC56764 bacterial strain, be then transferred in liquid nutrient medium and cultivate, culture temperature is 25 ~ 35 DEG C, and rotating speed is 150rpm, and incubation time is 3 ~ 5 days;
(2) use fermentor tank enlarged culturing again, the culture condition of fermentor tank is air flow 0.3 ~ 0.8vvm, and rotating speed is 150rpm, and in fermenting process, control pH is 6 ~ 7, and fermentation time is 5 ~ 7 days.
6. the method utilizing straw compost according to claim 5, is characterized in that, the formula of described liquid nutrient medium is as follows:
Glucose 10g/L, peptone 1g/L, Mandels trace element salts solution 1ml/L.
7. the method utilizing straw compost according to claim 1, is characterized in that, in step (3), the mass ratio of stalk particle, solid fungicide, beer vinasse mixing is 1kg:0.01 ~ 0.1kg:0.05 ~ 0.1kg.
8. the method utilizing straw compost according to claim 1, is characterized in that, in step (3), the water content regulating composting material is 40% ~ 60%.
9. the method utilizing straw compost according to claim 1, is characterized in that, in step (3), the pH regulating composting material is 5.5 ~ 7.5.
10. the method utilizing straw compost according to claim 1, is characterized in that, in step (4), described fermentation buttress, length 5 ~ 7 meters, wide 1 ~ 1.5 meter, high 0.5 ~ 1 meter length are piled up neatly.
CN201510734975.1A 2015-11-03 2015-11-03 A kind of method utilizing straw compost Pending CN105218184A (en)

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105646109A (en) * 2016-03-23 2016-06-08 山东绿亨生物工程有限公司 Compound biofertilizer and preparation method thereof
CN105753526A (en) * 2016-01-26 2016-07-13 安徽大地节能科技有限公司 Method for composting by utilizing straw

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
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CN102887751A (en) * 2012-10-31 2013-01-23 青岛嘉禾丰肥业有限公司 Manufacturing method of straw-fermented organic fertilizer

Patent Citations (4)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JP4411846B2 (en) * 2003-02-19 2010-02-10 住友化学株式会社 Method for composting organic waste and material for promoting composting
CN101225004A (en) * 2008-02-04 2008-07-23 上海创博生态工程有限公司 Method for producing soil biological fertilizer by employing compound starter
CN102887741A (en) * 2012-10-31 2013-01-23 青岛嘉禾丰肥业有限公司 Organic fertilizer prepared by fermenting straws
CN102887751A (en) * 2012-10-31 2013-01-23 青岛嘉禾丰肥业有限公司 Manufacturing method of straw-fermented organic fertilizer

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Cited By (2)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105753526A (en) * 2016-01-26 2016-07-13 安徽大地节能科技有限公司 Method for composting by utilizing straw
CN105646109A (en) * 2016-03-23 2016-06-08 山东绿亨生物工程有限公司 Compound biofertilizer and preparation method thereof

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Address after: Pukou District of Nanjing City, Jiangsu province 211800 Jiangpu Street West Wanshou Road No. 15 Nanjing University Science and Technology Industrial Park, building C2, Room 202

Applicant after: JIANGSU SIWEIBO BIOLOGICAL TECHNOLOGY CO., LTD.

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