CN104839009B - A kind of method for improving white turnip breeding quality - Google Patents

A kind of method for improving white turnip breeding quality Download PDF

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CN104839009B
CN104839009B CN201510257455.6A CN201510257455A CN104839009B CN 104839009 B CN104839009 B CN 104839009B CN 201510257455 A CN201510257455 A CN 201510257455A CN 104839009 B CN104839009 B CN 104839009B
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planting
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parent
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陈智超
潘叶飞
冯丽莉
毛潭睿
王伟
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Zhenjiang Xin Yuanda Gardening Science And Technology Ltd
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Zhenjiang Xin Yuanda Gardening Science And Technology Ltd
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Abstract

The present invention provides a kind of method for improving white turnip breeding quality; with the rogueing twice at expansion initial stage before being expanded by white turnip fleshy root; select complete purebred male parent and maternal plant; and protect male parent and maternal bagging isolation before the florescence; artificial pollination is carried out after into the florescence; until female parent just removes the sack covered completely after bearing pods, so as to which the purity of maternal pollination is completely secured, the quality of the seed of white turnip is finally caused to be improved.

Description

A kind of method for improving white turnip breeding quality
Technical field
The present invention relates to turnip breeding technical field, more particularly to a kind of method for improving white turnip breeding quality.
Background technology
Turnip (scientific name:Brassica rapa var.rapa) also known as:Turnip, Orychophragmus violaceus, root-mustard, circle turnip, circle root (Yunnan), assorted cold dishes, turnip originate in that tired model is special, and earliest plantation is the Yellow Basin and the Yangtze River in the Middle East in ancient times to Indus plains region. China is one of source place of production of turnip, and plantation history is more than 3000.《The Book of Songs》In be referred to as turnip.Turnip belongs to biennial cruciate flower Section herbaceous plant, tuberous root, shape has spherical, oblate spheroid, and ellipse is a variety of.It is unaccommodated to the hot weather in summer, need to be cultivated in shady and cool place, suitably Planted on fertile sandy loam.Root and leaf all edibles of turnip simultaneously have Chinese medicine purposes.White turnip is common turnip One kind, plant strain growth gesture is strong, and leafage is upright, plant height about 40~50cm, and leaf is in irregular pinniform, and dark green leaf color, leaf is about 45cm, wide 15cm, every plant has 6~8 leaves;Blade face is smooth, the green white of petiole, and rachis is clear, and dead leaf is few.Fleshy root oblate sphere Shape, epidermis is pure white smooth, fine and tender taste, and crisp sweet tea is tasty, and moisture is moderate, can be used to eat raw, prepared food or pickled use.The kind winter Property strong, bolting evening, can sow in spring;Strong stress resistance, it is cold-resistant, drought-enduring, and black rot resistance, anthracnose.
In view of the market demand of white turnip is, it is necessary to a kind of method of raising white turnip breeding quality, it is possible to increase obtain The purity and quality of the white turnip seed obtained.
The content of the invention
It is an object of the invention to provide a kind of method for improving white turnip breeding quality, it is possible to increase the white of acquisition The purity and quality of turnip seed.
To achieve these goals, a kind of method for improving white turnip breeding quality of the present invention, including:
Site preparation and fertilization:After preceding crop harvest, every mu is applied 2000~5000 kilograms of high-quality for becoming thoroughly decomposed in small, broken bits organic fertilizers, 20 ~60 kilograms of phosphorus potassium complex fertilizers, 5~15 kilograms and 0.5~1.5 kilogram of sulfur fertilizer of nitrogenous fertilizer plough 22~25 centimetres as base fertilizer, Make ridge after ground levelling rake is thin;
Seeding and seedling raising:The white turnip male parent of sowing and female parent, cultivate parent's strong sprout with 4~6 leaves;
Transplant seedlings field planting:Parent's strong sprout of 4~6 leaves is carried described in transplanting to field planting on alley, and according to a ridge male parent, 2 The maternal alternate mode in~3 ridges is colonized, and Nitrogen Top Dressing pours root water, uses thickness for 0.06mm covered rearing with plastic film earth's surface And expose strong sprout;
Field management:In leaf growth animated period, soil moisture content more than 40% is kept, plant length is stayed in 8~12 The plastic sheeting is removed during leaf, and in meat root growth early stage, by an observation fleshy root color, earth's surface is not exposed to fleshy root Plant location under dig 1cm~1.5cm observation, remove fleshy root have heterochromatic plant;In fleshy root peak of growing season, soil is kept Earth water content more than 60% and draining in time, and temperature and the illumination of stable planting environment, 15~25 DEG C of daytime, night is 10~ 12 DEG C, phosphorus potash fertilizer is imposed, by an observation fleshy root color and fleshy root is removed again and has heterochromatic plant;To sowing after field planting It is preceding to continue insect prevention disease;
Blooming period management:Remove the plant of bolting and bolting too late in advance;When the florescence will be entered to paternal plant and Maternal plant carries out set venting bags isolation;Into after the florescence, pluck bag and male parent pistil is aided in using artificial pollination method to mother This pistil is pollinated, and continues to cover venting bags isolation after pollination to maternal plant, the florescence terminate after paternal plant is removed, and treat female parent Plant extracts venting bags when bearing Fruit pod;
Maturation harvesting:Treat that Fruit pod grows to ripe discoloration, pluck pod and take kind, preserved after drying.
Further, the width of every alley is 40cm~60cm, and there is 30cm~60cm gutter on every alley both sides.
Further, the step of seeding and seedling raising includes:
Sowing:Hole tray is chosen, matrix is put into, per one seed of bunch planting, pours permeable;
Nursery:The moisture of hole tray is kept using moist but crowded not water outlet as standard, while when running into 35 degree of high temperature above Sunshade is carried out to hole tray;
Reseed:Observe seed germination, to sowing 5 days after ablastous hole tray reseed.
Further, transplant seedlings field planting when every ridge on the strong sprout spacing in the rows that is colonized be 33cm~45cm.
Further, include after field planting to lasting insect prevention disease before sowing:
For virosis, 20% virus A 600 times of liquid of wettable powder are sprayed at the initial stage of a disease;
For downy mildew, early stage selects 25% metalaxyl wettable powder, 750 times of liquid, 69% Acrobat MZ wettable 1000~1200 times of liquid of pulvis, 600~750 times of 69% cymoxanil mancozeb wettable powder, three kinds of liquid spraying alternating, rotation sprinkling, 7 ~10 days once, continuously prevents and treats 2~3 times;
For black rot, early stage uses 1:1:The sprinkling preventing and treating of 200 Bordeaux mixture;
For aphid, with 10% imidacloprid, 1500 times of liquid, 5% pyrethrum of biological pesticide, 1000 times of liquid or 1% print Chinaberry element water is throbbed with fear the preventing and treating of 1000 times of liquid sprays of agent, or every mu of 25 centimetres of 40 cm x of suspension 20 pieces of trapping adults of yellow plate.
For cabbage caterpillar, diamondback moth, in dusk or early morning or cloudy arbitrary period, with a 0.36% hundred careless biological pesticide 1000 times of liquid, or prevented and treated with the biological 100 times of liquid sprays of soap of biological pesticide;
For ground maggot, prevented and treated with 50% phoxim emulsifiable concentrate, 1000 times of liquid irrigating roots.
Further, spring cultivation, the sowing of greenhouse production of hybrid seeds planting and selecting mid or late Febuary, open country production of hybrid seeds planting and selecting is in 3 months The last ten-days period to mid or late May is sowed;Summer and autumn cultivation is sowed in 8~October.
Further, depth and each 13cm of diameter cave are opened during field planting on alley.
Further, in fleshy root peak of growing season, when fleshy root is expanded into a diameter of 6cm~10cm, seen again by Examine fleshy root color.
Compared with prior art, the method for the white turnip breeding quality of raising of the invention, passes through white turnip fleshy root With the rogueing twice at expansion initial stage before expansion, complete purebred male parent and maternal plant are selected, and by father before the florescence This and the protection of maternal bagging isolation, into the florescence after carry out artificial pollination, until it is maternal bear pods after just remove the bag covered completely Son, it is final so that the quality of the seed of white turnip is improved so as to which the purity of maternal pollination is completely secured.
Embodiment
To become apparent the purpose of the present invention, feature, it is further described with reference to specific embodiment, so And, the present invention can be realized with different forms, should not be to be confined to described embodiment.
A kind of method for improving white turnip breeding quality of the present invention, including procedure below:
(1) site preparation and fertilization:The sandy loam of the hygrophilous profit of turnip, is used as the fertility water of non-turnip class crop before can selecting Flat high, level of ground water is high, and the good sandy loam plantation of irrigation condition, during the outdoor production of hybrid seeds around not plant other in 1000 meters overgrown with weeds Cyanines kind, after preceding crop harvest, every mu is applied 2000~5000 kilograms of high-quality for becoming thoroughly decomposed in small, broken bits organic fertilizers, 20~60 kilograms of phosphorus K composite fertilizer, 5~15 kilograms of nitrogenous fertilizer and 0.5~1.5 kilogram of sulfur fertilizer plough 22~25 centimetres, ground levelling rake as base fertilizer Make ridge after thin, alley south-north direction or it is east-west all can, the width of every alley is 40cm~60cm, every alley both sides There is 30cm~60cm gutter.Site preparation can be carried out during seeding and seedling raising, can also be carried out before seeding and seedling raising.
(2) seeding and seedling raising:Spring cultivation, the sowing of greenhouse production of hybrid seeds planting and selecting mid or late Febuary, open country production of hybrid seeds planting and selecting 3 The sowing of the middle ten days and the last ten days to the mid or late May moon;Summer and autumn cultivation is sowed in 8~October, and the suitable germination temperatures of seed are 20 DEG C or so. It is specific to sow with time of site preparation according to resident time reasonable selection of transplanting seedlings,.In the present embodiment, white turnip father can be sowed simultaneously Originally it is and maternal, parent's strong sprout with 4~6 leaves is cultivated, the time about needs one month, specific as follows:
1st, sow:Preceding elite seed is broadcast, flat grain and floater is eliminated.Under open-air atmosphere, such as two grasslands of September No. 15 Cyanines parent respectively broadcasts 2 hole trays, often the cave of disk 128, and matrix has been put into hole tray, per bunch planting 1 seed, 1.5 centimetres of thickness of earth-fill cover with On, slightly suppressed after broadcasting, pour permeable;
2nd, nursery:Hole tray is put into intelligent greenhouse to set, suitable germination temperatures are 20 DEG C or so, carries out nursery, nursery Note keeping the moisture of hole tray, using moist but crowded not water outlet as standard, such as water content 55%, if running into more than 35 degree high in journey Temperature is, it is necessary to use Shading net covering hole tray;
3rd, reseed:Note observe seed germination, if having sowing 5 days after ablastous hole tray reseed in time;
4th, seedling separation:When seedling length to 21 heart of leaf (about broadcast after 10 days or so), 1 seedling separation can be carried out, can at dusk or Cloudy seedling separation is conducive to surviving;
5th, insect prevention:Wild cabbage strong sprout strong stress resistance, but insect prevention, anti-grass work must be carried out simultaneously, in order to avoid embezzled by worm, grass Seedling, primary pest has aphid, diamondback moth, cabbage caterpillar, can be used alternatingly with ten thousand spirits and 1.8% AVM, because the time in seedling stage is short, Depending on insect situation, general medication 2 times;
6th, strong sprout:One time of nutrition liquid was added in the basin of cave every 2~3 days, promotes growth of seedling, until being grown to serve as carrying The strong sprout of 4~6 leaves.
(3) transplant seedlings field planting:Parent's strong sprout of 4~6 leaves is carried described in transplanting to field planting on alley, and according to a ridge father Originally, the maternal alternate mode in 2~3 ridges is colonized, and the strong sprout spacing in the rows being colonized on every ridge is 33cm~45cm.Nitrogen can suitably be imposed Fertilizer, phosphate fertilizer, potash fertilizer.The cave of depth and each 13cm of diameter is opened during field planting on alley, strong sprout is put into cave, makes the root of strong sprout in cave Uprightly, earthing can not be too deep or too shallow, is advisable with burying to cotyledon base portion, to pour root water after cultivation in time, survived with sharp seedling.Adopt The covered rearing with plastic film earth's surface for being 0.06mm with thickness simultaneously exposes strong sprout, and overlay film inhibits the growth of weeds simultaneously, is turnip life It is long to provide favourable habitat conditions, it is the main cause that turnip obtains high yield.At the same time, to also reduce turnip unexpected for overlay film The evaporation of moisture and worm degree of disease.In other embodiments, field planting process of transplanting seedlings can not also topdress, and reduce each parent battalion Health is long, promotes reproductive growth, to promote bud differentiation.If September part hole tray seeding and seedling raising, can transplant seedlings October field planting.
(4) field management:1st, illumination management, turnip requires stricter to illumination, preferably ensures the sunlight of abundance, makes Abundant nutrient growth and reproductive growth, will take covering sunshade net when temperature is too high, strengthen the cooling measures such as ventilation.2nd, humiture Management, in fleshy root peak of growing season, keeps soil moisture content more than 60% and draining in time, and the temperature of stable planting environment and Illumination, 15~25 DEG C of daytime, night is 10~12 DEG C, and requires certain temperature difference, into after winter-spring season, to take and cover tightly grass Cover with mat, dig the multinomial cold-proof heat insulation measure such as Cold-proof Ditch.3rd, water and fertilizer management:Turnip is to fertilizer-responsive sensitivity in plant strain growth early stage to chase after Based on nitrogen fertilizer application, potash fertilizer is preferably applied in fleshy root expansion early stage, and nitrogenous fertilizer should not apply excessive during fleshy root expands, and otherwise easily draw Play crack root.Thing growing state is regarded as, is carried out emphatically fertile twice:Final singling chases after the 1st fertilizer after surviving;In meat root growth early stage, point Careless art ash 100kg, night soil 500kg are not imposed.Throughout the growing season, soil dry-wet should be kept uniform, in Seedling Stage and field planting Watered in time during surviving, while noting rainy day water drainage.In leaf growth animated period, soil moisture content more than 40% is kept, is treated The plastic sheeting is removed in plant length to 8~12 leaves, fleshy root peak of growing season needs water more, and water, one should be filled with enough in good time As can water once for 5~7 days, keep soil moisture content more than 60% and in time draining.4th, rogueing, (1) tillage and weeding, Seedling Stage and meat root growth early stage carry out tillage and weeding, plough and cut weeds, and the subenvironment grown beneficial to overground part are formed with, in meat Before the expansion of matter root, shallow except soil moisture conservation of breaking ground, young root should not be hurt, quality and yield is influenceed.(2) removal is heterochromatic, in fleshy root life Long early stage, by an observation fleshy root color, does not expose to fleshy root and 1cm~1.5cm observations is dug under the plant location of earth's surface, move Except fleshy root has a heterochromatic plant, and in fleshy root peak of growing season, by an observation fleshy root color and remove fleshy root again and have Heterochromatic plant.If October is colonized, to fleshy root peak of growing season is entered during November, the bulb for almost having half is ground , now observe the bulb color that plant bassets one by one to field, as long as having variegated, heterochromatic on bulb, just directly pull out The plant.5th, insect prevention plant disease management, turnip disease mainly has virosis, downy mildew and black rot;Insect pest be mainly aphid, Cabbage caterpillar, diamondback moth and ground maggot.(1) virosis.Early stage, can spray 20% virus A wettable powders, 600 times of liquid sprayings Preventing and treating.(2) downy mildew.25% metalaxyl wettable powder, 750 times of liquid can be selected, or with 69% Acrobat MZ wettable powder 1000~1200 times of liquid of agent, or sprayed with 69% cymoxanil mancozeb wettable powder, 600~750 times of liquid.To replace, rotation is used Agricultural chemicals, general 7~10 days once, continuously prevents and treats 2~3 times.(3) black rot.Early stage sprinkling 1:1:200 Bordeaux mixture are prevented Control.(4) aphid.10% imidacloprid, 1500 times of liquid can be used, either with 5% pyrethrum of biological pesticide, 1000 times of liquid or Throbbed with fear the spraying preventing and treating of 1000 times of liquid of agent with 1% nimbin water.Greenhouse can be hanged using the method for hanging the yellow plate of mythimna separata, every mu Hang 20 pieces of trapping adults of yellow plate of 25 centimetres of 40 cm x.(5) cabbage caterpillar, diamondback moth.A 0.36% hundred careless biology can be used 1000 times of liquid of agricultural chemicals, or prevented and treated with the 100 times of liquid sprayings of the biological soap of biological pesticide, general dusk medication, the cloudy day can be with whole day Medication.(6) maggot.It can be prevented and treated with 50% phoxim emulsifiable concentrate, 1000 times of liquid irrigating roots.
(5) blooming period management:Remove the plant of bolting and bolting too late in advance;Male parent is planted when the florescence will be entered Strain and maternal plant carry out set venting bags isolation;Into after the florescence, pluck bag and male parent pistil is aided in using artificial pollination method Maternal pistil is pollinated, continues to cover venting bags isolation after pollination to maternal plant, the florescence terminate after paternal plant is removed, and treat Maternal plant extracts venting bags when bearing Fruit pod.
(6) ripe harvesting:Treat that Fruit pod grows to ripe discoloration, pluck pod and take kind, preserved after drying.
The method of the white turnip breeding quality of raising of the present invention, the first time impurity elimination in field management, by white overgrown with weeds Rogueing twice before the expansion of cyanines fleshy root with expansion initial stage, selects complete purebred male parent and maternal plant;At the florescence Second of impurity elimination during management, protects male parent and maternal bagging isolation before the florescence, into the florescence after carry out artificial pollination, until Female parent just removes the sack covered completely after bearing pods, final to cause white overgrown with weeds so as to which the purity of maternal pollination is completely secured The quality of the seed of cyanines is improved.
Obviously, those skilled in the art can carry out the spirit of various changes and modification without departing from the present invention to invention And scope.So, if these modifications and variations of the present invention belong to the claims in the present invention and its equivalent technologies scope it Interior, then the present invention is also intended to comprising including these changes and modification.

Claims (4)

1. a kind of method for improving white turnip breeding quality, it is characterised in that including:
Site preparation and fertilization:After preceding crop harvest, every mu is applied 2000~5000 kilograms of high-quality for becoming thoroughly decomposed in small, broken bits organic fertilizers, 20~60 Kilogram phosphorus potassium complex fertilizer, 5~15 kilograms and 0.5~1.5 kilogram of sulfur fertilizer of nitrogenous fertilizer plough 22~25 centimetres, soil as base fertilizer Make ridge after leveling rake is thin, the width of every alley is 40cm~60cm, and there is 30cm~60cm gutter on every alley both sides;
Seeding and seedling raising:The white turnip male parent of sowing and female parent, cultivate parent's strong sprout with 4~6 leaves;
Transplant seedlings field planting:Transplanting parent's strong sprout with 4~6 leaves opened to being colonized on alley, during field planting on alley it is deep and Each 13cm of diameter cave, and be colonized according to the maternal alternate mode in a ridge male parent, 2~3 ridges, the strong sprout spacing in the rows being colonized on every ridge For 33cm~45cm, Nitrogen Top Dressing pours root water, uses thickness for 0.06mm covered rearing with plastic film earth's surface and exposes strong sprout;
Field management:In leaf growth animated period, soil moisture content more than 40% is kept, when staying in plant length to 8~12 leaves The plastic sheeting is removed, and in meat root growth early stage, by an observation fleshy root color, does not expose the plant of earth's surface to fleshy root 1cm~1.5cm observations are dug under strain location, removing fleshy root has heterochromatic plant;In meat root growth early stage, phosphorus potassium is imposed Fertilizer;In fleshy root peak of growing season, soil moisture content more than 60% and draining in time, and the temperature and light of stable planting environment are kept According to, 15 DEG C~25 DEG C of daytime, night is 10 DEG C~12 DEG C, and requires certain temperature difference, treat fleshy root be expanded into a diameter of 6cm~ During 10cm, by an observation fleshy root color and remove fleshy root again and have heterochromatic plant;To persistently preventing before sowing after field planting Parasitosis does harm to;
Blooming period management:Remove the plant of bolting and bolting too late in advance;When the florescence will be entered to paternal plant and female parent Plant carries out set venting bags isolation;Into after the florescence, pluck bag and male parent pistil is aided in using artificial pollination method to flower of female parent Stamen is pollinated, and continues to cover venting bags isolation after pollination to maternal plant, the florescence terminate after paternal plant is removed, and treat maternal plant Venting bags are extractd when bearing Fruit pod;
Maturation harvesting:Treat that Fruit pod grows to ripe discoloration, pluck pod and take kind, preserved after drying.
2. the method as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that include the step of seeding and seedling raising:
Sowing:Hole tray is chosen, matrix is put into, per one seed of bunch planting, pours permeable;
Nursery:The moisture of hole tray is kept using moist but crowded not water outlet as standard, while when running into 35 degree of high temperature above to cave Disk carries out sunshade;
Reseed:Observe seed germination, to sowing 5 days after ablastous hole tray reseed.
3. the method as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that include after field planting to lasting insect prevention disease before sowing:
For virosis, 20% virus A 600 times of liquid of wettable powder are sprayed at the initial stage of a disease;
For downy mildew, early stage selects 25% metalaxyl wettable powder, 750 times of liquid, 69% Acrobat MZ wettable powder 1000~1200 times of liquid, 600~750 times of 69% cymoxanil mancozeb wettable powder, three kinds of liquid spraying alternating, rotation sprinklings, 7~10 It is once continuously prevented and treated 2~3 times;
For black rot, early stage uses 1:1:The sprinkling preventing and treating of 200 Bordeaux mixture;
For aphid, with 10% imidacloprid, 1500 times of liquid, 5% pyrethrum of biological pesticide, 1000 times of liquid or 1% nimbin Water is throbbed with fear the preventing and treating of 1000 times of liquid sprays of agent, or every mu of 25 centimetres of 40 cm x of suspension 20 pieces of trapping adults of yellow plate;
For cabbage caterpillar, diamondback moth, in dusk or early morning or cloudy arbitrary period, with a 0.36% hundred careless biological pesticide 1000 Times liquid, or prevented and treated with the biological 100 times of liquid sprays of soap of biological pesticide;
For ground maggot, prevented and treated with 50% phoxim emulsifiable concentrate, 1000 times of liquid irrigating roots.
4. the method as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that spring cultivation, greenhouse production of hybrid seeds planting and selecting mid or late Febuary is broadcast Kind, open country production of hybrid seeds planting and selecting mid or late March to mid or late May is sowed;Summer and autumn cultivation is sowed in 8~October.
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CN105359774B (en) * 2015-10-13 2017-10-17 宁波市农业科学研究院 A kind of method of reserving seed for planting of floral leaf root-mustard
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