CN104737735B - Method for ecological afforestation of coastal saline-alkali areas by means of original soil cultivation - Google Patents

Method for ecological afforestation of coastal saline-alkali areas by means of original soil cultivation Download PDF

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CN104737735B
CN104737735B CN201310750185.3A CN201310750185A CN104737735B CN 104737735 B CN104737735 B CN 104737735B CN 201310750185 A CN201310750185 A CN 201310750185A CN 104737735 B CN104737735 B CN 104737735B
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soil
plantation
broussonetia papyrifera
ditch
water
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CN104737735A (en
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沈世华
彭献军
王金山
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Zhongke chuanggou (Beijing) Technology Co.,Ltd.
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Institute of Botany of CAS
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/22Improving land use; Improving water use or availability; Controlling erosion
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/40Afforestation or reforestation

Abstract

The invention provides a method for ecological afforestation of coastal saline-alkali areas by means of original soil cultivation. Broussonetia papyrifera trees which are multi-resistant, fast-growing, high-yield and high-quality trees for ecological economic forests are adopted, and a series measures including plant land selection, land consolidation, seedling preparation, water and fertilizer management, pest control, pruning and the like are combined reasonably to guarantee survival and growth of the broussonetia papyrifera trees, so that a broussonetia papyrifera greening system for the coastal saline-alkali areas can be established successfully. The method has the advantages that excessive engineering measures taken for soil is not needed, so that cost of landscape engineering can be greatly reduced; in addition, the method has promising application prospect in ecological afforestation of the coastal saline-alkali areas, mud flat saline-alkali areas and the like.

Description

A kind of method carrying out beach saline land ecological afforestation using original soil plantation
Technical field
The invention belongs to field of environment protection is and in particular to one kind sets up beach saline land and/or seashore beach saline-alkali ground The method of greening system.
Background technology
At present, the greening technique in terms of beach saline land and/or seashore beach saline-alkali ground ecological afforestation engineering mainly has: Halophytess greening, original soil improvement greening and soil moved in improve the original greening.
Halophytess greening technique is using halophytess afforestation, is the important side that biological control measure improves salt-soda soil Method.Halophytess are the natural plants faunas on salinization soil, can on salinization soil normal growth and complete its life History alive, is the pionner in salt-soda soil.Both embodied annidation principle using halophytess greening saline-alkali soil, and can save Nature and social resources in a large number, meet the demand of beach saline land ecological afforestation.Main haophitic vegetation has Tamarix Community, west Berli Asia Cortex Acanthopanacis Radicis group, Herba suadeae glaucae group and reed community etc..Halophytess are divided into 3 classes, polysalt plant, salt-secreting plant and refuse salt Plant.Wherein, polysalt plant can stand high salt concentration solonchak, but mostly draft, species are single, on a large scale should be not suitable for Landscape ecology greening for beach salt-soda soil;Salt-secreting plant can draw excessive salinity from salinized soil, but does not accumulate In vivo, but by the salt glandular cell that stem, leaf surface gather, the Salt excretion absorbing is excreted, the crystallization of secretion discharge Salt is spread it is impossible to be used for improveing the saline and alkaline soil in beach by wind and weather in warp, leaf surface again;Refuse salt plant also known as salt-resistant plant, Can on salt-soda soil normal growth, but similarly can not absorb the salt in soil.Therefore, carried out using halophytess green Salt dissolving alkaline earth technology has certain advantage, but floristics are single, also has deficiency.
Soil moved in improve the original greening technique is the coastal saline-alkali soil commonly used greening technique of greening, has the spies such as afforestation effect is good, fast Point.In order to prevent soil moved in improve the original secondary salinization, need to take control salt measure.Soil removal and replacement greening in local can take soil moved in improve the original+every salt blindstory Aggregate measures;Comprehensively soil moved in improve the original+every salt blindstory+closed drainage aggregate measures is suitably taken in soil removal and replacement.From this point of view, soil moved in improve the original greening technique Early investment cost is larger, and later maintenance cost is high, increases the financial input of beach saline land greening, is not suitable for pushing away on a large scale Extensively.
Original soil improvement greening technique mainly has build raised fields, pressure of pouring water salt, pad sealing coat, organic fertilizer, salt tolerance of planting The technical measures such as strong ornamental plant.Coastal saline-alkali soil salinity is high, barren, structure is poor.Local original soil improvement greening can To take fertilising to improve the soil+drench every salt blindstory+pour water the aggregate measures of salt;Comprehensively original soil improvement greening can take fertilising improve the soil+ Aggregate measures every salt blindstory+closed drainage+pouring salt of pouring water.Afforestation ecological environmental protection improved by original soil, but the improvement greening time is longer, Initial stage landscape effect is poor, should be made rational planning for arrangement using this technology.
Content of the invention
It is an object of the present invention to provide one kind carries out beach saline land and/or seashore beach saline-alkali using original soil plantation The method of ground ecological afforestation.
It is an object of the present invention to provide the side of a kind of beach saline land and/or seashore beach saline-alkali ground ecological afforestation Method, comprise the steps: salinity be less than 1% beach saline land and/or the seashore beach saline-alkali structure of plantation hybridization on the ground Tree, is afforested with making beach saline land and/or seashore beach saline-alkali.
In methods described, when the salinity of described beach saline land and/or seashore beach saline-alkali ground is less than 1%, can Directly plantation hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera is so that it may realize the ecological afforestation to described salt-soda soil;When described beach saline land and/or seashore beach When the salinity in salt-soda soil is 1%-1.5%, the following consolidation process of the present invention can be first passed through and make described salt-soda soil Salinity reaches less than 1%, then after planting hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera, also can achieve to salinity for 1%-1.5% salt-soda soil ecological green Change.
When described beach saline land and/or seashore beach saline-alkali ground salinity are 1%-1.5%, in described plantation hybridization Before Broussonetia papyrifera, also need to carry out consolidation so that the containing of beach saline land after consolidation and/or seashore beach saline-alkali ground Salt amount is less than 1%, and the method for described consolidation comprises the steps 1) -4):
1) in one length of monoblock rectangle soil central authorities setting road consistent, wide 3-5m with described rectangle soil length, The described rectangle soil deducting after described path area is divided into two pieces little rectangle soils of area equation by described road;Institute State on two pieces little rectangle soils, open the parallel gutter of the broadside in multiple and described little rectangle soil respectively, ditch top width degree is 3m, , in 1-2m, ditch length is consistent with the width in described little rectangle soil for trench depth, and furrow bank will make the angle to 45 degree of ditch outer incline; Multiple ditches on each little rectangle soil described communicate and are interconnected with the described monoblock rectangle soil external world respectively;The plurality of Described little rectangle soil is divided into the bar of each independent area equation of polylith, raised fields by gutter respectively;Bar, raised fields width are 8-12m, length is consistent with the length in described little rectangle soil;
Bank protection also to be done on described furrow bank process, described bank protection processing procedure includes usage mining machine or spade ditch Surface is exerted oneself to clap tight, compacting and is reached requirement;
Preferably, in one length of monoblock rectangle soil central authorities setting road consistent, wide 4m with described rectangle soil length Road, the described rectangle soil deducting after described path area is divided into two pieces little rectangle soils of area equation by described road; On described two blocks little rectangle soils, open the parallel gutter of the broadside in multiple and described little rectangle soil, ditch top width degree respectively For 3m, in 1.5m, ditch length is consistent with the width in described little rectangle soil for trench depth, and furrow bank will be made to 45 degree of ditch outer incline Angle;Multiple gutters on each little rectangle soil described communicate and mutually interconnect with the described monoblock rectangle soil external world respectively Logical;Described little rectangle soil is divided into the bar of each independent area equation of polylith, raised fields by the plurality of gutter respectively; Bar, raised fields width are 10m, and length is consistent with the length in described little rectangle soil;
2) apply fertilizer to the subsoil, described apply fertilizer to the subsoil including each, excavate on raised fields parallel with bar, the long side of raised fields a plurality of for The ditch applying fertilizer to the subsoil, 20 ± 3 centimetres of furrow width, preferably 20 centimetres of furrow width, 30 ± 5 centimetres of ditch depth, preferably 30 centimetres of ditch depth, drains spacing 1m, Apply fertilizer by 3,000,000 grams/acre in ditch, enrich 50,000 grams/acre of npk compound fertilizer simultaneously;Return soil and fill out ditch, place 15 days, allow and have Machine fertilizer becomes thoroughly decomposed;
3) build water adding system: combine the nursery stock band preparing field planting, the drip irrigation zone that setting laying is adapted;
After the completion of the laying of described drip irrigation zone, entirely fill once permeable, drip washing is carried out to salinity in soil, reduce soil further The salinity of earth, improves the survival rate of nursery stock;
Described apply fertilizer to the subsoil process described drip irrigation zone laying complete and fill once permeable before complete;
The described nursery stock band preparing field planting is ridge;
4) ridging: in described each, raised fields, along the direction parallel with bar, the long side of raised fields, do multiple wide 50 lis Rice, high 20 centimetres of high ridge, the spacing between described high ridge and high ridge is 50 centimetres, and described spacing is as aisle;In described height The plantation furrow of 20 centimetres of 20 cm x is excavated in the central authorities on ridge;Described high ridge can not design long, in described each, raised fields In, respectively every the breaker that 10m design is parallel with the broadside of described bar, raised fields, 50 lis of described breaker ditch top width Rice, 20 centimetres of depth, ditch length are consistent with the width of described bar, raised fields, and furrow bank will make the angle of 45 degree of the inclination to outside ditch, and Carry out bank protection to process;
Described ridging described drip irrigation zone laying complete and fill once permeable after complete;
Described build water adding system and described ridging can be carried out simultaneously;
5) in step 4) described in plantation furrow in plantation hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera.
Described bank protection processes to be specially usage mining machine or spade tight, compacting is exerted oneself to clap in ditch surface and reaches requirement.
In methods described, before planting described hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera, also need seedling exercising, described seedling exercising includes: builds using sunshade net About two meters of high hardening canopies, are placed on tissue cultured seedling in canopy by 0-5 cm distance, sooner or later divulge information in good time, meet fine day light intensity and are more than 5 When ten thousand luxs, temperature are higher than 35 degree, put down sunshade net cooling, combine water and fertilizer management depending on concrete condition, when gradually extending ventilation Between and light application time, typically through the time of 10-15 days, you can cultivate strong sprout.
Described water and fertilizer management is specially and carries out moisturizing after placing 3~4 days, and rate of water make-up determines according to degree of water shortage.
Described gradually extend ventilation time specially first ventilation time be half an hour, later daily increase half an hour, directly To transplanting.
In methods described, the condition of described plantation hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera includes following 1) -5):
1) lowest temperature is higher than all can be colonized in month when 10 DEG C;In the plantation of the northern area of China preferred first half of the year;
2) plantation density selects 1m × 1m;
3) high noon in sunlight strong is avoided to be planted;Preferably planted at dusk;
4) depth of planting does not exceed 20 centimetres;
5) it is filled with enough field planting water in time after being colonized;
Described plantation described hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera specially plants the above-mentioned strong sprout turned out through 10-15 days.
In methods described, after planting described hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera, also need to irrigate and/or apply fertilizer;The described hybridization structure of described plantation Tree specially plants the above-mentioned strong sprout turned out through 10-15 days;Described irrigation includes: first week after described strong sprout plantation Water every other day, second week is minimum to pour water twice;After described strong sprout survives, water depending on arid situation on the spot, generally weekly, After entering rainy season, can not water;After nursery stock styma, before entering the winter, pour freeze-up water in good time;The described main points watered include: every time Watering, it is enough to pour, and is sure not to pour and partly intercepts water;
Described pour freeze-up water in good time and refer specifically to pour freeze-up water before late October is freeze-up to soil at the beginning of 11 months.
Described fertilising includes: after Survival rate of nursery stock 2 months, the growth busy season imposes high-nitrogen compound fertilizer once by 0.2kg/ strain, After fall foliage, can entirely apply Oryza sativa L., the straw such as Semen Maydiss, earth's surface is covered.
In methods described, after planting described hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera, also need to carry out the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control, pruning and/or survive the winter Manage and protect;
The described prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control includes: can spray Chongmanke 2000-3000 times of liquid of cream that percent by volume is 1.8% and prevent Eliminate aphis and/or acarid;Before hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera plantation, the insecticide of powder can be admixed with soil, carry out preventing and treating the moth pests;Plantation Afterwards, if finding the moth pests, emulsion insecticide can be applied with water and being prevented and treated;Described insecticide is common preventing and treating on market Soil passes the insecticide of insect;
Described pruning includes: after hybridizing Broussonetia papyrifera seedling length to 80 centimetres, seedling can be dredged unnecessary branch Go out, retain 5 about, the top preferable branch of form, monthly seedling branch is carried out with similar pruning later and prunes, gradually step up Tree body does height, is sure not too early, excessively prunes, tree body grow to 3m about when can surely do, then 2 years raw nursery stocks after surely doing are carried out Transplant;
Described survive the winter manage and protect including: if planting site lowest temperature is less than -10 DEG C or it may happen that less than -10 DEG C of extreme sky Gas needs nursery stock is carried out suitable freeze prevention measure, and described freeze prevention measure includes following 1) -5) arbitrary described:
1) moderate pruning is carried out to nursery stock;
2) remove weeds, in dig ground, to tree root base portion ridging, irrigate anti-freezing water;
3) use rice straw, straw rope etc. to bundle trunk, play thermal insulation and cold resistance effect, colder area, need Jia one outside again Layer Polypropylence Sheet;
4) with agricultural crop straw covering ground or with mulch film, plant pit is covered;
5) some seedling growths are compared concentration local conditions allow when, in the case of not affecting appreciation effect, can Build windbreak with straw mat or build warm canopy with Polypropylence Sheet.
It is a further object to provide any of the above-described described method is in beach saline land and/or seashore beach salt Application in alkali ground ecological afforestation.
For the shortcoming in current beach saline land and/or seashore beach saline-alkali ground ecological afforestation technology, the present invention provides A kind of technology carrying out beach saline land ecological afforestation using original soil plantation.The technology of the present invention mainly use hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera this One multi-resistance, fast-growing, high yield, the Ecological Nonwood Forestry of high-quality, with seeds, plant land use selection, consolidation, seedling in conjunction with rational A series of simple engineering measure such as preparation, water and fertilizer management, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control, pruning and plant culture management technique, make Surviving of Broussonetia papyrifera must be hybridized ensured with growing way, thus being successfully established beach saline land hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera greening system.The present invention Technology does not need to carry out excessive engineering measure to soil, and the cost of afforestation project can be greatly lowered.Therefore, skill of the present invention Art, in terms of the salt-soda soils such as greening beach saline land, seashore beach, has extraordinary application prospect.
The present invention has passed through said method, experimental field etc. has continuously carried out multinomial in area of Hebei Caofeidian and Tianjin huge port oil area Planting experiment, have accumulated the experience of the salt-soda soils such as a large amount of beach saline lands, seashore beach plantation hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera.At present, exist Tianjin huge port establishes nursery base in You Qu proving ground, has cultivated the substantial amounts of hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera that can be used for saline land greening Nursery stock, is more massive planting experiment and further genralrlization has laid in a number of seedling.
Brief description
Fig. 1 is soil salt content on hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera survival rate impact.
Fig. 2 is plantation bar, raised fields form design schematic diagram.
Fig. 3 is each, on raised fields, the design diagram of the ditch applying fertilizer to the subsoil.
Fig. 4 is each, on raised fields, plantation ridge and the design diagram arranging little ditch.
Specific embodiment
Described in following embodiments, method is conventional method if no special instructions.
Equipment used, utensil, machinery, fertilizer or pesticide etc. in following embodiments, if no special instructions, all can be from business Approach obtains.
Used in following embodiments, hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera is cultivated by Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences's Broussonetia papyrifera Breeding base, the public Can therefrom section's conception (Beijing) forestry science and technology company limited be commercially available.
Embodiment 1. realizes beach saline land and/or the ecological afforestation on seashore beach saline-alkali ground by original soil plantation
(1) selection of plantation nursery stock and soil select
1. the selection of kind of plant nursery stock
2012, in Tianjin huge port oil area, to hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera and white beeswax, the increment after the plantation of salt-soda soil was contrasted Experiment, experiment port send out nursery, physical prospecting nursery, in the good garden of sunlight one, in the good garden of sunlight five, grand reach mixing plant, oily company park Hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera and white beeswax are planted with multiple experimental points such as port lion living areas, the increment ratio in terms of thick two of plant height and stem Right.The related data that hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera is recorded with the contrast of white beeswax increment is shown in Table 1.
Table 1
Table 1 result shows, hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera belongs to the quick growing species of trees, and in the case of liquid manure supply abundance, year increment is very big, Compare other saline land greening seeds and have higher ageing, the greening process in salt-soda soil can be accelerated.
2. the impact analysis to hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera survival rate for the salinity in soil
Tangshan Cao Feidian is experimental field the high salt sandy soil being formed with making of blowing sand, and salinity gradient distribution is obvious, saliferous Amount gradually rises from high to low with physical features.Because hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera root system there are certain requirements to the permeability of soil, preferably select soil property Loose, the high and dry plot plantation of physical features.According to the salt-tolerant trait of hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera, set 4 kinds of different salinity soil, using ridging Original soil cropping pattern, hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera container seedling is colonized in sample plot in mid-June, 2010, is monthly sampled tune on the spot Look into.
Fig. 1 is the impact analysis result to hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera survival rate for the salinity in soil.Fig. 1 result shows, works as salinity When below 1%, hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera in Cao Feidian experimental field survive all right, can stablize more than 95%, and growing way High salt area relatively will be got well, and survives rear keep-alive degree high;When salinity is higher than between 1% and 1.5%, spend two weeks suitable Should, after the phase, start to be affected by salt damage, occur continuing seedling death phenomenon, survival rate there is no guarantee that;When salinity is 1.5% and 3% Between or higher than 3% when, seedling survives difficulty, survival rate be less than 20%, under the edaphic condition of this degree, hybridize Broussonetia papyrifera Original soil plantation cannot be realized.
3. soil selects
When selecting actual cultivation land used in production, in advance analysis should be measured to the salt alkali content in soil, and to locality Environment is careful to be considered, and prevents from, because surrounding enviroment change causes soil salt dynamics, production being caused damage.The tool that soil selects Body standard is as follows:
1) preferably select that the soil is porous, the high and dry plot plantation of physical features;
2) soil salt content should not be greater than 1%, to keep hybridizing the good survival rate of Broussonetia papyrifera.
The beach saline land of above-mentioned two standard is not met for other, can be able to be protected by following easy consolidations The of a relatively high survival rate of card hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera, plays the effect reducing greening cost.And meet the beach saline land of above-mentioned standard By following easy consolidations, the growth result of plant can be more preferably.
(2) consolidation
1. build bar, raised fields, drainage system and prepartion of land
The work of consolidation mainly includes building bar, raised fields, drainage system and prepartion of land, and three work are entered simultaneously OK.The soil of bulk trench digging is made each independent bar of certain area, raised fields, has raised physical features, beneficial to draining and salinity Drip washing, reduces soil salinity and alkalinity.
, to facilitate explanation bar, raised fields on each block of such rectangle soil taking long 49m, the rectangle soil of wide 44m as a example Design with drainage system:
As shown in Fig. 2 one length of rectangle soil central authorities setting and the described rectangle soil length one in long 49m, wide 44m Cause, the road of wide 4m, the described rectangle soil deducting after described path area is divided into two pieces of area equation by described road Little rectangle soil.
On described two blocks little rectangle soils, open the parallel gutter of the broadside in multiple and described little rectangle soil respectively, Ditch top width degree is 3m ± 30 centimetre, and, in 1.5m ± 20 centimetre, ditch length is consistent with the width in described little rectangle soil, ditch for trench depth Wall will make the angle to 45 degree of ditch outer incline, lets out speed to reduce under flowing water, and carry out bank protection and process, that is, using excavator or Ditch surface exerted oneself by person's spade, and bat is tight, be compacted reach requirement, reduces flowing water to the structural damage of bar field;Each little rectangle described Multiple gutters on soil communicate and are interconnected with the described monoblock rectangle soil external world respectively, so that flood season arriving draining is not Freely cause waterlogging.
Described little rectangle soil is divided into the bar of each independent area equation of polylith, platform by the plurality of gutter respectively Field, bar, raised fields width are 10m, and length is 20m.
Bar, the pattern of tableland site preparation, artificial changes original topography and geomorphology, planting site is become physical features high and dry;Change Become the structure of soil, the permeability of enhanced soil, while site preparation, form good drainage system;In conjunction with following reasonable fillings Irrigate system setting, effectively improve the soil environment in salt-soda soil, be conducive to hybridizing surviving and growing of Broussonetia papyrifera.
2. apply fertilizer to the subsoil
Another feature in salt-soda soil is that in soil, nutrient content is low, and due to saline and alkaline effect, crop is to nutrient Absorbability also can reduce.Nutrient not enough impact crop growing state, reduces yield and economic worth.So, hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera is as green Change seeds and industrial crops are planted on salt-soda soil, need to improve the nutritional statuses of alkaline land soil it is ensured that the nutrient of seedling supplies Give, promote tree body growing way.Effective method is application of organic fertilizers material on salt-soda soil.
As shown in figure 3, at each, a plurality of ditch for apply fertilizer to the subsoil parallel with bar, the long side of raised fields, ditch are excavated on raised fields Wide 20 ± 3 centimetres, deep 30 ± 5 centimetres, drains spacing 1m, apply fertilizer by 3,000,000 grams/acre in ditch, enrich npk compound fertilizer simultaneously 50000 grams/acre.Return soil and fill out ditch, place 15 days, allow fertilizer to become thoroughly decomposed, standby.The above-mentioned process that applies fertilizer to the subsoil is laid in described drip irrigation zone Complete and fill once permeable before complete.
3. build water adding system
The design of water adding system will complete before seedling planting, and in conjunction with the nursery stock band preparing field planting, (described preparation is colonized Nursery stock band is the ridge in following step 4) lay the drip irrigation zone being adapted, the drip irrigation system of unified management can be greatly reduced filling The manpower demand of water, can reduce planting cost in the long run.After the completion of the laying of drip irrigation zone, entirely fill once permeable, to soil In earth, salinity carries out drip washing, reduces the salinity of soil further, improves the survival rate of nursery stock.
4. ridging
Drip irrigation zone laying completes and fills once permeable rear ridging.Fig. 4 show each, in raised fields, ridging, arrange little ditch Layout.
Before plantation hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera, at each, in raised fields, along the direction parallel with bar, the long side of raised fields, do multiple wide by 50 Centimetre, high 20 centimetres of high ridge, i.e. plantation ridge, the spacing between described high ridge and high ridge is 50 centimetres, and described spacing can conduct Aisle.
For preventing because ridge is long when rainy season, rainwater excessively washes away to bar field, causes soil erosion, destroys bar field knot Structure, ridge can not be designed long, and in described each, raised fields, the broadside every 10m design and described bar, raised fields is put down respectively Row breaker, be easy to disperse draining, 50 centimetres of described breaker ditch top width, deep 20 centimetres, ditch length and described bar, The width of raised fields is consistent, and furrow bank will make the angle of 45 degree of the inclination to outside ditch, and carries out bank protection process, that is, using excavator or Person's spade is exerted oneself to clap tight, compacting ditch surface and is reached requirement.
5. the impact to hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera growth for the consolidation
Salinity be 1%~1.5% area of Hebei Caofeidian beach saline land on carried out following Comparability test: passing through The soil (after above-mentioned consolidation, the salinity in described salt-soda soil is 0.5%) of above-mentioned consolidation is not above with through upper State on the soil of consolidation, after plantation saline land greening seeds (other conditions are the same), the contrast and experiment table of tree growth Bright: to carry out above-mentioned consolidation, hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera survival rate is more than 80%;And without above-mentioned consolidation, hybridize Broussonetia papyrifera survival rate only less than 0.1%.
Hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera root system there are certain requirements to the permeability of soil, plants in hypsography low-lying, the region of impeded drainage Hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera, because such local content easily occurs flooded stain, hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera root can occur putrefactive phenomenon because of being immersed in water, So that plant is dead.Experimental field addressing is hypsography low-lying, carries out identical implementation process in the region of impeded drainage, plant is dead Rate is more than 90%.
(3) seedling exercising
It is the tissue cultured seedling about the monthly age that heliogreenhouse goes out mostly plantation hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera, directly plant salt-soda soil In, will certainly slow seedling slow, growth is slow, survival rate is low, so suitable seedling exercising is to arrange in the key of the good Broussonetia papyrifera of salt-soda soil kind Apply.About two meters of high hardening canopies are built using sunshade net, tissue cultured seedling is placed in canopy by 0-5 cm distance, sooner or later lead in good time Wind, meets fine day intense light irradiation (light intensity is more than 50,000 luxs), high temperature (temperature is higher than 35 degree) puts down sunshade net cooling, depending on concrete feelings Condition combine water and fertilizer management (place 3~4 days after carry out moisturizing, rate of water make-up according to degree of water shortage determine), gradually extend ventilation and Light application time (ventilation time is half an hour first, increases half an hour daily later, until transplanting), typically through 10-15 days Time, you can cultivate strong sprout, field planting in good time (strong sprout normal growth, the seedling of the no performance such as wilting can be colonized).
(4) it is colonized
The setting date of hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera is longer, North China's typically all can be colonized in month when the lowest temperature is higher than 10 DEG C. Tianjin, the plantation work of Tangshan Area typically completes in 5-9 month.But select in first half of the year field planting, nursery stock is through the long period Growth, the survival rate survived the winter can be more guaranteed, and can be in output then.
The hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera plantation density of juvenile stage (i.e. the above-mentioned growth strong sprout of 10-15 days about) selects 1m × 1m to be advisable, Do so and can make full use of soil on the premise of ensureing trunk infusion supply.Selection of time in sunlight strong just should avoid Noon is planted, and is preferably selected in the daily dusk and carries out.During field planting, remove the nutritive cube of nursery stock first, should ensure not dissipate as far as possible Root system does not completely dissipate group.The depth of planting must not be too deep, and depth does not exceed 20 centimetres, is filled with enough field planting water after field planting in time.
(5) water and fertilizer management
For the impact to hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera growth for the detection water and fertilizer management, carry out test experience.Four process of Setup Experiments, Each process sets three repetition: ck as matched group, does not water and does not apply fertilizer;Process, watering, fertilizing;Process, fertilising is not watered; Process, water and do not apply fertilizer.
Described process, watering of process are irrigated, and carry out according to following standards: after seedling planting, need 2 weeks The seedling-slowing stage of left and right time, period should strengthen water management, and depending on weather condition, the last week waters every other day, and one week after is minimum to pour two Secondary water.After Survival rate of nursery stock, water depending on arid situation on the spot, generally weekly, after entering rainy season, can not water.Nursery stock After styma, before entering the winter, pour freeze-up water in good time, be beneficial to nursery stock and pass the winter safely.Water main points: watering every time, it is enough to pour, and is sure not Pour and partly intercept water.Described pour freeze-up water in good time and refer specifically to carry out encapsulation before late October is freeze-up to soil at the beginning of 11 months freeze water, pour Too early, not only postpone trees and enter rest period, but also soil compaction can be made to harden.If pouring is too late, freeze injury easily occurs.
Described process, the fertilising processing, are carried out according to following standards: hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera does not typically need to apply fertilizer, but It is if being to ensure that economic flow rate is also required to rationally be topdressed as economic tree or greening with nursery stock.Can be in Survival rate of nursery stock After 2 months, the growth busy season imposes high-nitrogen compound fertilizer once it is ensured that the sufficient nutrition supply of tree body by 0.2kg/ strain.Fall foliage Afterwards, can entirely apply Oryza sativa L., the straw such as Semen Maydiss, earth's surface is covered, fertilizer not only can be provided for the growth of the seedling coming year Material deposit, the effect that cold-proof moisturizing can also be played simultaneously and prevent the spring accumulation of salt in the surface soil.
Other growing environments of four treatment groups and condition are basically identical, growth 68 days when, from plant height, the number of blade, hat width, Diameter, the aspect such as branch number is counted to the growing state of hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera, and statistical result is shown in Table 2.Table 2 data picks up from Hebei Tang Mountain, the experiment time is 2010.
Table 2
Table 2 result shows, the every data statisticss in process will be higher than ck matched group, and two groups of growing ways have very big difference Different it was demonstrated that liquid manure has obvious impact for the growth of hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera, sufficient liquid manure supply can be remarkably reinforced the length of seedling Gesture.
In table 2, the every data statisticss in treatment group generally will be higher than treatment group it was demonstrated that water for hybridization The growth of Broussonetia papyrifera has obvious impact.Moisture mainly comprises two aspects: on the one hand daily watering tube to the impact that seedling grows Reason meets water supply necessary to plant strain growth, has directly facilitated the growth of plant;On the other hand suitable water to soil Salinity in earth serves leaching, reduces the salinity of soil, can reduce by 0.3% so that during plant strain growth The salt stress degree being subject to reduces, and even up to releases the effect of salt damage, is conducive to plant strain growth.
In table 2, the every data statisticss in treatment group will be higher than generally and treatment group is it was demonstrated that fertilising is for miscellaneous The growth handing over Broussonetia papyrifera has obvious impact.During crop-planting, fertilising is a very important job, and this is in salt-soda soil Seem in plantation more important, in the test of plantation hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera on salt-soda soil, fertilising can not only promote the growth of plant, and And nursery stock is survived also play very big effect.
(6) prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control, pruning and surviving the winter is managed and protected
Hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera pest and disease damage is less, through investigation experiment in recent years, does not find that obvious disease is made to hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera Become impact, and be not easy to grow due to hybridizing the most of insect of special odor of Broussonetia papyrifera, reduce trees final-period management cost.Miscellaneous Broussonetia papyrifera is handed over to occur in the rare insect pest of general time, plant pest concentrates the time of outburst, mainly has aphid, acarid, can spray Percent by volume is 1.8% 2000-3000 times of liquid preventing and treating of Chongmanke cream;In addition moth class larva is to hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera treelet and tree The root system of Seedling can cause more serious harm, and commercially available most of preventing and treating soil passes the insecticide of insect to this class pest Effectively.Before hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera plantation, the insecticide of powder can be admixed with soil, prevented and treated;After plantation, if finding insect pest, permissible Apply emulsion insecticide with water to be prevented and treated.
The pruning of hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera refers to for afforesting aspect purposes, the tree-shaped of hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera is controlled, to fit Should be actually needed and play the effect beautified the environment with beautifulization landscape.Hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera is with luxuriant foliage and spreading branches in leafy profusion, and side shoot is flourishing, in seedling length to 80 Before centimetre, the nutritional statuses it is ensured that tree body should not be operated, after seedling length is to 80 centimetres, can to seedling unnecessary branch Dredge out, retain 5 about, the top preferable branch of form, periodically seedling branch is carried out with similar pruning later, gradually carries High tree body does height, is sure not too early, excessively to prune.Because hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera side shoot sprouts ability by force, and grow rapid, trunk is easily sent out Raw bending or inclination, the aesthetics of impact Broussonetia papyrifera, typically monthly carry out pruning and prune it is proposed that carrying out when nursery determining dry-cure, Tree body grow to 3m about when can surely do, then to surely do after 2 years raw nursery stocks transplant.
Hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera can be with safe overwintering, if planting site is in the northern most area that the lowest temperature is higher than -10 DEG C Low temperature is less than -10 DEG C or it may happen that the extreme weather less than -10 DEG C needs to carry out suitable freeze prevention measure to nursery stock.(1) right Nursery stock carries out moderate pruning.(2) remove weeds, in dig ground, to tree root base portion ridging, irrigate anti-freezing water.(3) rice straw, grass are used The binding trunk such as rope, plays thermal insulation and cold resistance effect, colder area, needs outside plus one layer of Polypropylence Sheet again.(4) crops are used Improving straw mulching ground or covered plant pit with mulch film, can improve surface temperature (3~5 degree) and keep certain humidity (more than 80%) and the spring accumulation of salt in the surface soil can be prevented.In addition, the mode of improving straw mulching can also be as fertilizer supply after straw rots Seedling grows.(5) some seedling growths are compared concentration local conditions allow when, in the case of not affecting appreciation effect, Available straw mat is built windbreak or is built warm canopy etc. with Polypropylence Sheet.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of method of beach saline land ecological afforestation, comprises the steps: the beach saline land being less than 1% in salinity Upper plantation hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera, makes beach saline land be afforested;
When described beach saline land salinity is 1%-1.5%, before described plantation hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera, also need to carry out soil whole So that the salinity of beach saline land after consolidation is less than 1%, the method for described consolidation includes following steps to reason Rapid 1) -4):
1) in one length of monoblock rectangle soil central authorities setting road consistent, wide 3-5m with described rectangle soil length, described Road is divided into two pieces little rectangle soils of area equation by deducting the rectangle soil after described path area;Little at described two pieces On rectangle soil, open the parallel gutter of the broadside in multiple and described little rectangle soil respectively, ditch top width degree is 3m, trench depth exists 1-2m, ditch length is consistent with the width in described little rectangle soil, and furrow bank will make the angle to 45 degree of ditch outer incline;Described each Multiple ditches on little rectangle soil communicate and are interconnected with the described monoblock rectangle soil external world respectively;The plurality of gutter is divided Described little rectangle soil is not divided into the bar of each independent area equation of polylith, raised fields;Bar, raised fields width are 8-12m, long Degree is consistent with the length in described little rectangle soil;
2) apply fertilizer to the subsoil, described apply fertilizer to the subsoil including each, excavate on raised fields parallel with bar, the long side of raised fields a plurality of for applying bottom Fertile ditch, 20 ± 3 centimetres of furrow width, 30 ± 5 centimetres of ditch depth, drains spacing 1m, apply fertilizer by 3,000,000 grams/acre in ditch, increase simultaneously Apply 50,000 grams/acre of npk compound fertilizer;Return soil and fill out ditch, place 15 days, allow fertilizer to become thoroughly decomposed;
3) build water adding system: combine the nursery stock band preparing field planting, the drip irrigation zone that setting laying is adapted;
4) ridging: in described each, raised fields, along the direction parallel with bar, the long side of raised fields, do multiple wide 50 centimetres, High 20 centimetres of high ridge, the spacing between described high ridge and high ridge is 50 centimetres, and described spacing is as aisle;In described high ridge The plantation furrow of 20 centimetres of 20 cm x is excavated in central authorities;Described high ridge can not design long, in described each, raised fields, Respectively every the breaker that 10m design is parallel with the broadside of described bar, raised fields, 50 centimetres of described breaker ditch top width, 20 centimetres of depth, ditch length are consistent with the width of described bar, raised fields, and furrow bank will make the angle of 45 degree of the inclination to outside ditch, and does Good bank protection is processed;
5) in step 4) described in plantation furrow in plantation hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera.
2. method according to claim 1 it is characterised in that: described step 1) in, a width of 4m of described road;Described ditch Depth is 1.5m;Described bar, raised fields width are 10m;
Described step 2) in, a width of 20 centimetres of described ditch, described ditch depth is 30 centimetres.
3. method according to claim 1 and 2 it is characterised in that: plantation hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera before, also need seedling exercising, described refining Seedling includes: about two meters of high hardening canopies built using sunshade net, tissue cultured seedling is placed in canopy by 0-5 cm distance, sooner or later suitable Shi Tongfeng, when chance fine day light intensity is more than 50,000 luxs, temperature is higher than 35 degree, puts down sunshade net cooling, combines water depending on concrete condition Fertile management, gradually extends ventilation time and light application time, through the time of 10-15 days, you can cultivate strong sprout.
4. method according to claim 3 it is characterised in that: described plantation hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera condition include following 1) -5):
1) lowest temperature is higher than being colonized in month when 10 DEG C;
2) plantation density selects 1m × 1m;
3) high noon in sunlight strong is avoided to be planted;4) depth of planting does not exceed 20 centimetres;
5) it is filled with enough field planting water in time after being colonized;
The strong sprout that described plantation hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera is turned out by plantation claim 3.
5. method according to claim 4 it is characterised in that: described condition 1) described in the lowest temperature be higher than 10 DEG C when Carrying out field planting month is to be planted in the northern area of China first half of the year;
Described condition 3) described in avoid the high noon of sunlight strong carry out plantation be dusk planted.
6. method according to claim 3 it is characterised in that: plant described hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera after, also need irrigate and/or apply Fertile;The strong sprout that described plantation hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera is turned out by plantation claim 3;Described irrigation includes: after described strong sprout plantation Water every other day within first week, second week is minimum to pour water twice;After described strong sprout survives, water depending on arid situation on the spot, be one week Once, after entering rainy season, do not water;After nursery stock styma, before entering the winter, pour freeze-up water in good time;The main points watered include: water every time Pour enough, be sure not to pour and partly intercept water;
Described fertilising includes: after Survival rate of nursery stock 2 months, the growth busy season imposes high-nitrogen compound fertilizer once by 0.2kg/ strain, autumn After fallen leaves, entirely apply Oryza sativa L., corn straw, earth's surface is covered.
7. method according to claim 1 and 2 it is characterised in that: plant described hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera after, also need to carry out disease pest Evil preventing and treating, pruning and/or survive the winter are managed and protected;
The described prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control includes: sprays Chongmanke 2000-3000 times of liquid of cream that percent by volume is 1.8% and prevents eliminating aphis And/or acarid;Before hybridization Broussonetia papyrifera plantation, admix the insecticide of powder with soil, carry out preventing and treating the moth pests;After plantation, if finding The moth pests, apply emulsion insecticide with water and are prevented and treated;The preventing and treating soil that described insecticide is common on market passes killing of insect Worm agent;
Described pruning includes: after hybridizing Broussonetia papyrifera seedling length to 80 centimetres, to seedling, unnecessary branch is dredged out, retains top The preferable branch of 5, end form, monthly carries out similar pruning later and prunes, gradually step up tree body and do height, be sure not to seedling branch Too early, excessively prune, tree body grows to be done during 3m surely, then 2 years raw nursery stocks after surely doing are transplanted;
Described survive the winter manage and protect including: if planting site lowest temperature be less than -10 DEG C or it may happen that less than -10 DEG C extreme weather need Nursery stock is carried out with suitable freeze prevention measure, described freeze prevention measure includes following 1) -5) arbitrary described:
1) moderate pruning is carried out to nursery stock;
2) remove weeds, in dig ground, to tree root base portion ridging, irrigate anti-freezing water;
3) use rice straw, straw rope to bundle trunk, play thermal insulation and cold resistance effect, colder area, need again outside plus one layer of plastics Cloth;
4) with agricultural crop straw covering ground or with mulch film, plant pit is covered;
5) some seedling growths are compared concentration local conditions allow when, in the case of not affecting appreciation effect, use straw mat Son is built windbreak or is built warm canopy with Polypropylence Sheet.
8. method according to claim 1 and 2 it is characterised in that: described beach saline land be seashore beach saline-alkali ground.
9. application in beach saline land ecological afforestation for the arbitrary described method of claim 1-7.
10. according to claim 9 application it is characterised in that: described beach saline land be seashore beach saline-alkali ground.
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