CN104255285A - Dipsacus asper and corn-for-seed intercropping method - Google Patents

Dipsacus asper and corn-for-seed intercropping method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104255285A
CN104255285A CN201410581227.XA CN201410581227A CN104255285A CN 104255285 A CN104255285 A CN 104255285A CN 201410581227 A CN201410581227 A CN 201410581227A CN 104255285 A CN104255285 A CN 104255285A
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corn
teasel root
seed
water
planting
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CN201410581227.XA
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CN104255285B (en
Inventor
梁艳丽
胡倩倩
李雪峰
杨生超
许雪峰
许云华
李红丽
姚丽花
李建国
丁成武
刘彩珍
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Jun Feng bio tech ltd, Dali
Yunnan Agricultural University
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MIDU COUNTY JUNFENG SPECIAL ECONOMIC FOREST AND MEDICINE DEVELOPMENT FARMERS' SPECIALIZED COOPERATIVES
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Priority to CN201410581227.XA priority Critical patent/CN104255285B/en
Publication of CN104255285A publication Critical patent/CN104255285A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for

Abstract

The invention discloses a dipsacus asper and corn-for-seed intercropping method and belongs to the technical field of Chinese medical herbs and crop planting. The intercropping method comprises the steps of planting land selection, soil preparation, base fertilizer application, bedding, seeding, field management, harvesting and the like. By adopting a low-investment, high-yield, high-benefit comprehensive matching technical measure, the method reduces the times of intertillage weeding during dipsacus asper planting, relieves the withering phenomenon of dipsacus asper seedlings caused by drought and shortage of water, increases the land utilization rate, and increases the production value. The planting cycle only lasts for 10-12 months, the production value per mu can achieve 6000-7000 yuan, and when the dipsacus asper and corn-for-seed intercropping method is compared with a single dipsacus asper or corn planting pattern, the income is increased by 2000-3000 yuan.

Description

A kind of teasel root and seed production corn intercropping plant method
Technical field
The invention belongs to traditional Chinese medicine and agricultural plantation technology field, be specifically related to a kind of teasel root and seed production corn intercropping plant method.
Background technology
Teasel ( dipsacus asperwall.ex Henry) for Dipsacaceae (Dipsacaceae) Dipsacus ( dipsacus Linn.) herbaceos perennial, being used as medicine with root, is the large medicinal herbs most in use of China.The traditional Chinese medicine teasel root (Radirdispsaci) that the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (version one in 2010) is recorded is the dry rhizome of teasel plant.Teasel root bitter, sweet, pungent, tepor, containing alkaloid and volatile oil, have filling liver kidney, strengthening the bones and muscles, and continuous injured, stops the effects such as uterine bleeding, be widely used in the raw materials for production of Chinese patent drug and health products.Mainly be distributed in the ground such as Sichuan, Yunnan, Hubei, Hunan, Guizhou.Owing to excavating the excessive harvesting of Wild Medicinal Plants Resources, wild teasel root is exhausted year by year, and stock number significantly reduces, and the teasel root that existing market is sold is mainly from artificial planting.The huge market demand of teasel root, purchasing price is stablized, and teasel root planting has huge development potentiality.But teasel root planting level is lower at present, and traditional cropping pattern, occupies a large amount of arable land, and Weed infestation is serious, and weeding cost is higher, and land utilization rate is low, has a strong impact on peasant planting enthusiasm.(Shen Qing Publication day is on June 13rd, 2012 to the ecology planting method of a kind of teasel root of Chinese patent, application publication number is CN10248769A), disclose by teasel root interplanting in walnut, Chinese chestnut, pears, peach and cherry economic forest, method comprises that forest land is selected, whole, sowing, field management, the extermination of disease and insect pest, to gather and preliminary working step.The method mainly solves the Utilizing question of sylvan life land resources, but the teasel root planting time is long, 19 months are taken to gathering from whole, cycle is more than a year and a half, the dry medicinal material of average yield per mu teasel root 315 kilograms, per mu yield value also only has 2000-3000 unit, and therefore the underwood planting cycle is long, but economic benefit is not high.
The seed of seed production corn is parent as corn hybrid seed and plants to gather, its market price is 7 yuan/kg, exceed 7 times relative to conventional corn, because its seed does not have the generalization of conventional corn available everywhere, plantation seed production corn is subject to seed source and number quantitative limitation.
Summary of the invention
For prior art above shortcomings, the object of this invention is to provide a kind of teasel root and seed production corn intercropping plant method, the method is by the measure of low input high production high benefit On Comprehensive Technique, reduce the intertill and clean tillage number of times in teasel root planting, alleviate drought and water shortage and cause the withered phenomenon of teasel root seedling, increase land utilization rate, improve the output value, only have 10-12 month crop cycle, per mu yield value can reach 6000-7000 yuan, comparatively single cropping teasel root or Maize model additional income 2000-3000 yuan.
For achieving the above object, the present invention adopts following technical scheme: a kind of teasel root and seed production corn intercropping plant method, is characterized in that, comprises following sequential steps:
(1) planting site is selected: within the scope of 1600-2500m, the soil is porous, soil layer is deep, well-drained sandy loam field to select height above sea level;
(2) wholelyly and basal dressing: deep plough for 3-April soil 25-35cm, and soil is fully exposed to the sun 10-20 days, use the farmyard manure 2500kg and composite fertilizer 50kg that become thoroughly decomposed as base manure, evenly spread fertilizer over the fields in whole good soil for every mu;
(3) bedding: doing wide is 1m, the high high furrow for 20cm, and furrow furrow width is 30cm;
(4) sow: after planting site leveling rake is thin, program request corn seed, 2-3, every cave, the seeding row spacing 40cm of corn planting, strain spacing 30cm, point fully waters once after finishing corn, when 5-June, corn heading grew to 60-70cm height, spray paraquat, broadcast sowing teasel root seed in the ranks after 7-8 days in corn, teasel root seed consumption is every mu of 1kg;
(5) field management:
A. water: after broadcasting sowing teasel root seed, water 1 time, sow after 90 days, then carry out broad irrigation 1 time;
B. thinning: after 7-August, corn gathered, carry out thinning to teasel root, line space orientates 30 cm × 25cm as;
C. topdress: thinning is after 20-30 days, in conjunction with to water or the rainy day topdresses, every mu imposes urea 8-12Kg, waters after imposing urea with clear water; After August, teasel root entered growth animated period, every mu imposes composite fertilizer 20Kg, waters after imposing composite fertilizer with clear water;
D. delimbing: 9-October grows animated period at teasel root, cuts off 1/5-1/4 of teasel root cauline leaf;
(6) gather: the collecting time of seed production corn is the 7-8 month, and teasel root was gathered in the next year 1-2 month.
The present invention uses in the ratio of N:P:K=10:5:5 in step (2) described composite fertilizer.
The present invention composite fertilizer described in step (5) uses in the ratio of N:P:K=10:5:10.
The method that the present invention imposes urea in step (5) field management is carried out the pouring of every cave by soluble in water for urea or carry out broad irrigation by soluble in water for urea.
The method that the present invention imposes composite fertilizer in step (5) field management is carried out the pouring of every cave by soluble in water for composite fertilizer or carry out broad irrigation by soluble in water for composite fertilizer.
Compared with prior art, the beneficial effect that the present invention has has:
1, teasel root and corn intercrop, utilizes corn height stalk, the short bar of teasel root crawl shape growth, height intercropping, three-dimension use space, improve land utilization rate.
2, in teasel root planting, weeding is the main composition factor of its cost, tradition plantation, and teasel root needs artificial weeding 3 times, and adopts intercropping mode of the present invention, because corn seals Gansu Province comparatively fast, suppresses weed growth, only needs uprooting weed 1 time.
3, teasel root and seed production corn intercropping, the drought-enduring corn of height stalk in seedling stage can be teasel root seedling and shelters from heat or light, thus reduces arid and cause teasel root seedling withered, improves teasel root seedling drought-resistant ability, increases seedling percent.And single cropping teasel root, because teasel root seedling is not drought-enduring, the moistening of soil to be ensured at Seedling Stage, need to water once every 6-7 days.
4, crop cycle is short, only has 10-12 month, can shorten 7-9 month than sylvan life ecologic planting teasel root.
5, good in economic efficiency, compared with single cropping, teasel root corn intercropping plant, under the prerequisite ensureing the teasel root output value, adds the corn output value, improves farmers' income.
Embodiment
Be specifically described the present invention below by example, but can not be interpreted as limiting the scope of the invention, person skilled in art can do some apparent improvement and adjustment according to foregoing invention content to the present invention.
Embodiment 1
A kind of teasel root and seed production corn intercropping plant method, comprise planting site selection, whole with basal dressing, bedding, sowing, field management with the step such as to gather, concrete operation method is as follows:
(1) planting site is selected: select height above sea level at the cool and cold climate of 2500 meters, the gradient is 10 degree, and selection of land should so that the soil is porous, fertile, soil layer is deep, well-drained sandy loam field is good, and soil layer is shallow, chaor and clayed soil, should not plant, if the unsuitable continuous cropping of mellow soil;
(2) wholelyly and basal dressing: deep plough the March that sky cyclostrophic is warm after selection of land soil 25cm, break up the clods, pick stone, soil is made fully to tan by the sun 10 days, every mu of composite fertilizer 50kg applying well-rotted farmyard manure 2500kg and N:P:K=10:5:5 is as base manure, farmyard manure and composite fertilizer are evenly spread fertilizer over the fields in whole good ground, soil and farmyard manure and composite fertilizer are fully mixed, finally by thin for ground leveling rake;
(3) bedding: doing wide is 1m, and height is the high furrow of 20cm, and furrow furrow width is 30cm;
(4) sow: after planting site leveling rake is fine into, direct program request corn seed, 2, every cave seed, the seeding row spacing 40cm of corn planting, strain spacing 30cm, point fully waters once after finishing corn, ensures that emergence of corn is complete and neat, May corn start heading grow to 60cm height time, spray paraquat, broadcast sowing teasel root seed in the ranks in corn after 7 days, teasel root seed consumption is 1kg/ mu, if rainfall is plentifully directly broadcasted sowing, some droughts, then 35 DEG C of water seed soaking 24h are carried out to seed, then broadcast sowing, after having broadcasted sowing, harrow one time with rake again.At ground moistening, when rainfall is abundant, teasel root seed is emerged for 15 days;
(5) field management:
A. water: after May broadcasts sowing teasel root seed, water once.Due to Shading with corn, ensure that soil can not arid rapidly, enter rainy season moisture sufficient simultaneously, can ensure the germination rate of teasel root more than 90%, thinning is after 20 days, in conjunction with topdressing broad irrigation once.Afterwards according to weather condition, the number of rainfall, soil moisture, then determine whether the plant strain growth later stage irrigates again.And single cropping teasel root, because teasel root seedling is not drought-enduring, the moistening of soil to be ensured at Seedling Stage, need to water 1 time every 6 days.
B. thinning: corn carries out thinning, removes weak seedling, sick seedling, unsound seedling after gathering July, retaining healthy and strong seedling, orientate line-spacing 30 cm, spacing 25cm as during thinning, fills the gaps with seedlings in the place be short of seedling, to water after filling the gaps with seedlings, in order to avoid dehydration is wilted lethal at once.Thinning should in the morning of fine day, at dusk, Best Times carries out thinning at the cloudy day;
C. topdress: thinning is after 20 days, in conjunction with to water or the rainy day topdresses, every mu imposes urea 8 kg, carries out the pouring of every cave or carries out broad irrigation by soluble in water for urea, water soluble in water for urea after imposing urea with clear water, in order to avoid occur burning seedling phenomenon; Every mu of composite fertilizer 20 kg imposing N:P:K=10:5:10, carried out the pouring of every cave by soluble in water for composite fertilizer or carried out broad irrigation by soluble in water for composite fertilizer at teasel root growth animated period and the month that rainfall is plentiful early August;
D. delimbing: cut off 1/4 of its cauline leaf at teasel root growth in September animated period, suppress nourishing and growing of its acrial part, promote expanding of under ground portion root, assemble nutrition in root;
E. the extermination of disease and insect pest: the disease of teasel root generally has powdery mildew and root rot, the insect pest of teasel root is generally aphid, cutworm and grub.Will take to put prevention first to the control of damage by disease and insect, biological control is auxiliary, as far as possible Shaoshi chemical pesticide, also will use efficient, low toxicity, low-residual agricultural chemicals when forced;
Often powdery mildew is there is season at summer hot and dry weather, rational close planting is taked to powdery mildew, strengthen field ventilation and penetrating light, increasing the p application rate, potash fertilizer, Shaoshi nitrogenous fertilizer, make plant strain growth stalwartness prevent, dig out away from the process of plantation field in time to invalid body plant, 25% triadimefon, 600 times of liquid are sprayed to disease plant, or 50% Tuzet wetting powder, 800 times of liquid, or 50% thiophanate methyl, 800 times of liquid, every 15 days with wherein a kind of chemical control, spray 2-3 times altogether.
Generally, seldom there is root rot in First Year.
Aphid endangers tender leaf and scape in summer and autumn, affects plant strain growth and blossoms and has seeds.0.3% matrine vegetable insecticide, 500 times of liquid are selected to aphid initial stage of origination, or Aphox 50% wetting powder 2000-2500 times of liquid, continuously every 10 days spray medicines twice, the emergence period sprays 5% Folithion, 1000-2000 times of liquid, every spray in 15 days once, spray 2-3 times are connected.
Cutworm bites seedling broken, causes and is short of seedling, and can take human landing catches, period poison bait, execute the prevention and controls such as pesticide-clay mixture, and the agricultural chemicals such as 50% octyl sulfate, 90% chlorophos, 5% diazinon granule also can be selected to prevent and treat.
Grub is the most serious to the harm of root, causes the presentation quality of root to decline, thus affects purchasing price.Can adopt 50% octyl sulfate missible oil every mu of 250g, the 2.5kg that adds water is sprayed on 25kg fine earth mixes thoroughly and makes pesticide-clay mixture, is mixed in base manure by pesticide-clay mixture and uses; After field finds grub, inject root surrounding soil with 90% trichlorphon, 1000-1200 times of liquid or 50% octyl sulfate missible oil, 800-1000 times of liquid.
(6) gather: this implantation methods is gathered for planting Second Year then the early spring, and the collecting time of seed production corn is late July, cuts maize straw after first breaking off corncobs again; The collecting time of teasel root is the January of i.e. next year.This step is one of advantage of this invention, and this kind of pattern is not only intercropping but also can be called interplanting, Appropriate application land resources, is unlikely to make idle land.Gather teasel root time, cut off the cauline leaf of acrial part, then the root of under ground portion all dug, deep-cut and carefully make root break, affect its exterior quality.Remove earth, reed head, radicula again, transport root back processing.
(7) preliminary working: fresh teasel root is dried to half-dried through Exposure to Sunlight or low baking temperature, concentrates " sweating " deliquescing of banking up, and inside becomes green, then through drying or drying, plucks fibrous root.
(8) packaging and accumulating: teasel root packaging material adopt dry, clean, free from extraneous odour, meets and nationally to make about hygienic requirements and the material that do not affect quality.Packaged teasel root medicinal material, should be stored in time clean, dry, shady and cool, ventilate, in the special warehouse of free from extraneous odour, prevent from going mouldy, the plague of rats, insect pest etc., note making regular check on.
This embodiment seed production corn amount of gathering is every mu of 300kg, and market price is 8 yuan/kg, every mu of corn harvest 2400 yuan; The teasel root amount of gathering is every mu of 400kg, and market procurement price locates 10 yuan/kg, every mu of harvest 4000 yuan, and every mu of gross output value 6400 yuan, than single cropping teasel root fecund 2400 yuan, substantially increases the output value.
Embodiment 2
A kind of teasel root and seed production corn intercropping plant method, comprise planting site selection, whole with basal dressing, bedding, sowing, field management with the step such as to gather, concrete operation method is as follows:
(1) planting site is selected: select height above sea level at the cool and cold climate of 1500 meters, all the other are with embodiment 1;
(2) wholelyly and basal dressing: warm up in sky cyclostrophic the soil 35cm that deep ploughs April after selection of land, make soil fully tan by the sun 20 days, all the other are with embodiment 1;
(3) bedding: with embodiment 1;
(4) sow: after planting site leveling rake is fine into, direct program request corn seed, 3, every cave, point fully waters once after finishing corn, ensure that emergence of corn is complete and neat, June corn start heading grow to 70cm height time, spray paraquat, broadcast sowing teasel root seed in the ranks in corn after 8 days, all the other are with embodiment 1;
(5) field management: a. waters: after broadcasting sowing teasel root seed June, waters once; B. thinning: corn carries out thinning after gathering August; C. topdress: thinning is after 30 days, in conjunction with to water or the rainy day topdresses, every mu imposes urea 12kg; D. delimbing: October cuts off 1/5 of its cauline leaf at teasel root growth animated period; All the other are with embodiment 1.
All the other steps are with embodiment 1.
This embodiment seed production corn amount of gathering is every mu of 400kg, and market price is 8 yuan/kg, every mu of corn harvest 3200 yuan; The teasel root amount of gathering is every mu of 500kg, and market procurement price locates 10 yuan/kg, every mu of harvest 5000 yuan, and every mu of gross output value 8200 yuan, than single cropping teasel root fecund 3200 yuan, substantially increases the output value.

Claims (5)

1. teasel root and a seed production corn intercropping plant method, is characterized in that, comprises following sequential steps:
(1) planting site is selected: within the scope of 1600-2500m, the soil is porous, soil layer is deep, well-drained sandy loam field to select height above sea level;
(2) wholelyly and basal dressing: deep plough for 3-April soil 25-35cm, and soil is fully exposed to the sun 10-20 days, use the farmyard manure 2500kg and composite fertilizer 50kg that become thoroughly decomposed as base manure, evenly spread fertilizer over the fields in whole good soil for every mu;
(3) bedding: doing wide is 1m, the high high furrow for 20cm, and furrow furrow width is 30cm;
(4) sow: after planting site leveling rake is thin, program request corn seed, 2-3, every cave, the seeding row spacing 40cm of corn planting, strain spacing 30cm, point fully waters once after finishing corn, when 5-June, corn heading grew to 60-70cm height, spray paraquat, broadcast sowing teasel root seed in the ranks after 7-8 days in corn, teasel root seed consumption is every mu of 1kg;
(5) field management:
A. water: after broadcasting sowing teasel root seed, water 1 time, sow after 90 days, then carry out broad irrigation 1 time;
B. thinning: after 7-August, corn gathered, carry out thinning to teasel root, line space orientates 30 cm × 25cm as;
C. topdress: thinning is after 20-30 days, in conjunction with to water or the rainy day topdresses, every mu imposes urea 8-12Kg, waters after imposing urea with clear water; After August, teasel root entered growth animated period, every mu imposes composite fertilizer 20Kg, waters after imposing composite fertilizer with clear water;
D. delimbing: 9-October grows animated period at teasel root, cuts off 1/5-1/4 of teasel root cauline leaf;
(6) gather: the collecting time of seed production corn is the 7-8 month, and teasel root was gathered in the next year 1-2 month.
2. a kind of teasel root according to claim 1 and seed production corn intercropping plant method, is characterized in that, uses in the ratio of N:P:K=10:5:5 in step (2) described composite fertilizer.
3. a kind of teasel root according to claim 1 and seed production corn intercropping plant method, is characterized in that, described in step (5), composite fertilizer uses in the ratio of N:P:K=10:5:10.
4. a kind of teasel root according to claim 1 and seed production corn intercropping plant method, is characterized in that, the method imposing urea in step (5) field management is carried out the pouring of every cave by soluble in water for urea or carry out broad irrigation by soluble in water for urea.
5. a kind of teasel root according to claim 1 and seed production corn intercropping plant method, it is characterized in that, the method imposing composite fertilizer in step (5) field management is carried out the pouring of every cave by soluble in water for composite fertilizer or carry out broad irrigation by soluble in water for composite fertilizer.
CN201410581227.XA 2014-10-27 2014-10-27 A kind of Radix Dipsaci and seed production corn intercropping plant method Expired - Fee Related CN104255285B (en)

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CN104838879A (en) * 2015-06-08 2015-08-19 云南农业大学 Stereoscopic cultivation method for interplanting corns and pinellia ternate
CN106211977A (en) * 2016-07-25 2016-12-14 大理白族自治州农业科学推广研究院药用植物及农业新技术研究所 Radix Dipsaci in high altitude localities and the interplanting method of sweet corn
CN106508408A (en) * 2016-11-29 2017-03-22 贵州黔安源药科技发展有限公司 Artificial cultivation method for dipsacus asperoids
CN106717741A (en) * 2016-11-11 2017-05-31 大理市天禾农业科技有限公司 A kind of corn planting method
CN107278567A (en) * 2017-07-03 2017-10-24 云南农业大学 The implantation methods of teasel natural cultivation

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104838879A (en) * 2015-06-08 2015-08-19 云南农业大学 Stereoscopic cultivation method for interplanting corns and pinellia ternate
CN106211977A (en) * 2016-07-25 2016-12-14 大理白族自治州农业科学推广研究院药用植物及农业新技术研究所 Radix Dipsaci in high altitude localities and the interplanting method of sweet corn
CN106717741A (en) * 2016-11-11 2017-05-31 大理市天禾农业科技有限公司 A kind of corn planting method
CN106508408A (en) * 2016-11-29 2017-03-22 贵州黔安源药科技发展有限公司 Artificial cultivation method for dipsacus asperoids
CN107278567A (en) * 2017-07-03 2017-10-24 云南农业大学 The implantation methods of teasel natural cultivation

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