CN103798166B - The indoor extensive artificial breeding method of a kind of the South China coastal Hong Kong oyster - Google Patents

The indoor extensive artificial breeding method of a kind of the South China coastal Hong Kong oyster Download PDF

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CN103798166B
CN103798166B CN201410035539.0A CN201410035539A CN103798166B CN 103798166 B CN103798166 B CN 103798166B CN 201410035539 A CN201410035539 A CN 201410035539A CN 103798166 B CN103798166 B CN 103798166B
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hong kong
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oyster
parent
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CN103798166A (en
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张跃环
肖述
张扬
喻子牛
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South China Sea Institute of Oceanology of CAS
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Abstract

The invention discloses the indoor extensive artificial breeding method of a kind of the South China coastal Hong Kong oyster.The present invention, by links such as parent's accelerating, hatching of hastening parturition, larvae cultivation, settlement and metamorphosis, juvenile mollusk incubations, goes out a large amount of healthy oyster seed at indoor culture.Present invention incorporates Hong Kong oyster ecological habit and the South China coastal regional characteristics, achieve accelerating under Hong Kong oyster parent shellfish hypersaline environment, cultivate under salt environment in larva, the formula of the salt reduction step by step cultivate mode be bred as under low-salt environment in juvenile mollusk, for solid foundation has been established in Hong Kong oyster Seedling production, indigenous variety development and Industry Promotion thereof.

Description

The indoor extensive artificial breeding method of a kind of the South China coastal Hong Kong oyster
Technical field:
The invention belongs to shellfish seed breeding technical field in Marine agriculture, be specifically related to the indoor extensive artificial breeding method of a kind of the South China coastal Hong Kong oyster.
Background technology:
Hong Kong oyster Crassostreahongkongensis is the Main Economic kind of China's the South China coastal cultivation, like living in nearly river mouth or near have fresh water to inject place, mainly be distributed in the ground such as Guangdong, Guangxi, annual production more than 130 ten thousand tons, the output value is in 60-80 hundred million yuan (China Fisheries yearbook, 2013).Hong Kong oyster is compared with other oyster kind, it is worth and is mainly reflected in body pork fertilizer, delicious flavour, its market value is far above other kind oyster in addition, deeply by Guangdong, Guangxi, Hongkong and Macro, some national consumers of Southeast Asia (Zhang Yuehuan etc., 2012).
Hong Kong oyster has the cultivation history of nearly one thousand years in areas such as China Guangdong, Guangxi, Hongkong and Macro, and the seed of this industry all came from natural collecting seedling in the past, carried out sea afterwards to form, and gathers in the crops, goes on the market after reaching commercial specification.But this natural existence and stability difference of collecting seedling, seed such as to mix relatively at the defect.More severe, several natural district of collecting seedling (Zhuhai, Yangjiang, Zhanjiang, the Taishan, the ground such as Qiezhou) greatly such as Guangdong, Guangxi is all faced with industrial or agricultural and pollutes, the lot of challenges such as government's expropriation of land.Which results in the sharply minimizing of natural seeding, wild fry, utilize wild seed to maintain original industry development quite difficult, therefore it is imperative to carry out Hong Kong oyster artificial breeding technology research.
Before, scholars have successively carried out long oyster (Xu Guixian etc., 1986; Zhou Maode, 1987), Crassostrea rivularis (Liang Guangyao etc., 1983; Cai Yingya etc., 1989), Portuguese oyster (Zeng Zhinan etc., 1996), rock oyster (Su Yanming etc., 2009), close squama oyster (Li Qi etc., 2012) the economic artificial breeding work of planting such as, achieve more satisfactory effect, advance oyster industry fast-developing.But because Hong Kong oyster branched away a novel species (Lam 2003 in recent years from Crassostrea rivularis; Guo & Wang 2004), so relatively very few to its research.
Summary of the invention:
The object of the invention is to make a living with natural collecting seedling to change the South China coastal (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hongkong and Macro) the oyster people, the situation of living at the mercy of the elements, solve the long-term deficient present situation of Hong Kong oyster seed, recover China's Hong Kong oyster native resource, safeguard the bio-diversity of its species, and provide one to be applicable to the South China coastal Hong Kong oyster rearing of fingerling, the i.e. indoor extensive artificial breeding method of the South China coastal Hong Kong oyster, this mating system have easy and simple to handle, with low cost, practical, be easy to the advantages such as popularization.
The indoor extensive artificial breeding method of the South China coastal Hong Kong of the present invention oyster, is characterized in that, comprise the following steps:
(a) parent accelerating: in annual 4-8 month Hong Kong oyster mating season, select healthy harmless, vigorous, individuality that sexual gland is full as parent, the mode adopting hanging culture is carry out ecological accelerating in the shrimp pond of the high salinity of 27-30ppt, until parent's sexual gland is synchronously ripe in salinity; Approximately pass through raising of 2-3 week, parent's sexual gland is synchronously ripe;
B () is hastened parturition hatching: for the parent of gonad maturity, cleaned up, then zero degree seawater moderate stimulation 3-6 hour is placed in, dry in the shade after 1-2h, stimulate 45 ~ 90min by normal temperature seawater flow wash, then be positioned over salinity in 15-20ppt in salinity seawater, the ripe gamete of a large amount of discharge naturally can be obtained, fertilized egg is the hatching of salinity Aeration in the water in 15-20ppt, and its density domination, at 30-60/ml, is grown and obtained D shape larva;
(c) larvae cultivation: normotrophic D shape larva is cultivated according to 1-2/ml density, during this period, all Miao Chijun do not change water, micro-airing form is adopted to cultivate, bait is based on cloud tail algae and yeast, the standard of throwing something and feeding repeatedly is thrown less, and keep water quality pure and fresh, the seawater salinity during larvae cultivation is 15-20ppt;
(d) settlement and metamorphosis: when embryophore Seedling height is to 300-360 μm, there is the former base of eyespot, the gill, foot overhanging stage in 30-50% individuality, throw in adherance, eyebot larvae density domination is at 0.3-0.9/ml, when larva is anchored to after on adherance, carry out juvenile mollusk Transitional culture, between the larva setting stage, the salinity of seawater controls as 15-20ppt;
E () juvenile mollusk is bred as: after larva attachment, carry out indoor juvenile mollusk Transitional culture, during this period, micro-inflation, do not change water, salinity controls Low-salinity environment in 12-15ppt; Using shrimp pool water as biological feed, standard of throwing something and feeding keeps water colour slight general green, makes juvenile mollusk be in feeding state always, constantly grows, obtain Hong Kong oyster juvenile mollusk healthy seedling.
The normotrophic D shape larva of described step (c) is preferably employing 300 mesh sieve tulle and screens the D shape larva that step (b) is hatched, obtain shell tall and big in the D shape larva of 300 order mesh, be normotrophic D shape larva, and then for follow-up larvae cultivation.
In described step (d), after throwing in adherance, general continuation cultivates 5-10d, and more than 90% larva all adheres to complete.
Described shrimp pool water refers to seawater in the foster shrimp soil pool, due to a large amount of bait of will throwing something and feeding in foster shrimp process, there will be the organic matter such as defective material and shrimp excrement thereof, make its seawater eutrophication higher, unit cell algae containing a large amount of diversification and organic granular, nutritious, be the natural bait that oyster juvenile mollusk is good.
Ecological accelerating is carried out in the shrimp pond that parent's accelerating stage described in step (a) will be placed in containing highrank fuel salinity water.Effectively can avoid the environment drastic change of parent suffered by estuary region like this, overcome gonad maturity some discharge a bit, be difficult to the difficult problem obtaining excellent gamete, make that its essence is female, egg mother cell always continued development go down, keep sexual gland to be in grossness state.
Induced spawning method in step (b): combine the most effective with stimulation by running water with zero degree seawater, because Hong Kong oyster inherently subtropics kind, heat-resisting ability is comparatively strong, but especially responsive to low temperature; Stimulation by running water link, more excellent with its violent water flow effects.Utilize parent's emission index of method process of the present invention more than 90%, the maturation essence ovum of a large amount of discharge naturally can be obtained, which solve and obtained gamete, the ropy problem of smart ovum by oyster dissection in the past.Parent will be positioned over salinity and to lay eggs in salinity seawater in 15-20ppt ejaculation, is so more conducive to gamete discharge, improves fertilization and hatching level thereof.Because Hong Kong oyster is estuary region kind inherently, low-salt environment in hobby.Obtain D shape larva under middle salinity than easilier cultivating of obtaining under high salinity, growth, survival, abnormal ability are all better than high salt condition larvae cultivation.
Larva described in step (c) is cultivated and does not change water, and these are different from the north, because the South China coastal water environment is comparatively large, especially overcast and rainy more by weather effect, larger to water quality impact.The bad phenomenon such as long as one changes water, in pond, all floating larvaes often there will be whole sinking, death afterwards.Larvae cultivation density is only 1-2/ml, far below the cultivation density of the 6-8/ml in the north, is because water can be changed in a large number in the north, and does not change water in south, water quality also will be kept pure and fresh.In larvae cultivation process, bait repeatedly will lack throwing, this is different from the north can bait throwing in a large number, and be easy to water quality is cancerated because bait, floating larvae is easy to.The bait of larvae cultivation is based on cloud tail algae and yeast, because this algae is the algae the most easily cultivated in the South China coastal, even if overcast and rainy, and also can normal growth; And yeast is easy to buy, low price, is conducive to larva digestion, also can be used as larva bait simultaneously.
Adherance described in step (d) opportunity of throwing in occurs that the former base of eyespot, the gill, overhanging 3 indexs of foot are as standard using 30-50% individuality, and this is different from the past merely to occur that eyespot is as the standard of throwing in adherance.In fact, as long as standard of the present invention ensure that adherance one input, namely seedling can be adopted.Because in these 3 indexs, eyespot occurs the earliest, secondly, the former base of the gill finally occurs foot, and when this 3 sample organ all occurs, such larva 100% there will be secondary shell, successfully can change juvenile mollusk into, anchor on adherance.
It is more suitable that juvenile mollusk incubation stage salinity described in step (e) will control at 12-15ppt, growth rate is the fastest, reason is the oyster juvenile mollusk growth of middle Low-salinity more favourable Hong Kong, because itself is mainly distributed in estuary region kind, and low-salt environment in more adapting to.Originate as biological feed using shrimp pool water when indoor juvenile mollusk is bred as, so not only ensure that bait quantity, due to the diversification of biological feed composition in its shrimp pond, nutrition is more balanced, thus ensure that the quality of bait.Shrimp pool water uses standard preferably transparency≤5cm, and will filter through 60 mesh sieve tulles.
Parent is accelerating under hypersaline environment, and larva is cultivated under middle salt environment, and juvenile mollusk is bred as under middle Low-salinity.That is, cultivating link at parent's accelerating, fertilization and hatching, larva and juvenile mollusk will carry out salinity adjustment, it should be noted that running water must process through more than aeration 24h, can use at this.If there is the underground water of metal ion, on aeration basis, also need to throw 2-5mg/m 3eDTA process, eliminate the toxic action of heavy metal ion to larva and juvenile mollusk.
Zhang Yuehuan etc. (2012) disclose documents 1 (Zhang Yuehuan, Wang Zhaoping, Yan Xiwu etc. the phenotypic character [J] of the huge oyster in Hong Kong and long oyster larva and juvenile mollusk. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 2012,32 (4): 1105-1114.), oyster conventional seedbed system means are utilized to compare the phenotypic character of Hong Kong oyster and long oyster larva and juvenile mollusk in northern China Dalian.For this reason, the method that inventor applies mechanically in documents 1 in the South China coastal has carried out production experiment to Hong Kong oyster seed, result shows: because north and south environmental difference is larger, the traditional seedling-cultivating method in the north is difficult to cultivate Hong Kong oyster seed in the South China coastal, to this, inventor has carried out exploration, practice to its seedling-cultivating method, start and be a set ofly different from northern traditional seedling growing process completely and be applicable to the indoor extensive artificial raise seedling method of the South China coastal Hong Kong oyster, and substantially increase artificial breeding success rate, reduce seedling cost, constitute innovative point of the present invention.
The present invention is different from documents 1, has following main innovate point: 1. the present invention constructs the Seedling production pattern of salinity degression type step by step, carries out juvenile mollusk incubation under carrying out larva cultivation, middle less salt namely carry out parent's accelerating, middle salt under high salt under; Documents 1 is all carried out under high salt condition.2. the present invention adopts that what obtain that the mode of gamete adopts is low temperature, dries in the shade, stimulation by running water discharges gamete naturally, and documents 1 adopts is that hand-dissection obtains smart ovum; 3. larva of the present invention and juvenile mollusk nurturing period do not change water, make its water environment relatively stable; Documents 1 needs to change water in a large number; 4. during larvae cultivation of the present invention, bait is repeatedly thrown less, and keep water quality pure and fresh, larvae cultivation density is relatively low; Documents 1 is few many throwing, and larvae cultivation density is relatively high; 5. the juvenile mollusk nurturing period of the present invention is using shrimp pool water as feed source, throws something and feeds in a large number to ensure juvenile mollusk growth rate; Documents 1 is using single or two kinds of unit cell algae as bait, and nutrition is relatively single.The present invention's northern oyster seedling growing process different from the past is that one is applicable to the South China coastal Hong Kong oyster rearing of fingerling, have easy and simple to handle, with low cost, practical, be easy to the advantages such as popularization.It change for a long time the oyster people with the natural situation of making a living, living at the mercy of the elements of collecting seedling, solve the problem of Hong Kong spat of oyster specific admixture and long run supply deficiency, for solid foundation has been established in the indoor extensive Seedling production of Hong Kong oyster, indigenous variety development and Industry Promotion thereof.
Present invention incorporates Hong Kong oyster ecological habit and the South China coastal regional characteristics, achieve accelerating under Hong Kong oyster parent shellfish hypersaline environment, cultivate under salt environment in larva, the formula of the salt reduction step by step cultivate mode be bred as under low-salt environment in juvenile mollusk, for solid foundation has been established in Hong Kong oyster Seedling production, indigenous variety development and Industry Promotion thereof.
Accompanying drawing illustrates:
Fig. 1 is the flow process exemplary view of the indoor extensive artificial breeding method of the South China coastal Hong Kong of the present invention oyster;
A, one-level Micro Algae; B, three grades of Micro Algaes; C, shrimp pool water; D, larvae cultivation; E, shell top larva in early stage; F, shell top later stage larva (eyebot larvae); G, lower adherance is collected seedling; H-I, Hong Kong oyster juvenile mollusk.
Embodiment:
Breed as embodiment further illustrates the present invention with the South China coastal Hong Kong oyster indoors artificial, but be not construed as limiting the invention.
Embodiment 1
As shown in Figure 1, concrete steps are the flow process exemplary view of the indoor extensive artificial breeding method of the South China coastal Hong Kong oyster of the present embodiment:
A () parent accelerating: on June 10th, 2013, selects healthy harmless, vigorous, 1200 individualities that sexual gland is full as parent at port owned by the government, Zhanjiang.Utilize scallop cage, place 5 parents for every layer, 6 layers, each scallop cage, utilizes 40 scallop cages altogether, and the mode adopting hanging culture is carry out ecological accelerating in the shrimp pond of 27-30ppt high salinity in salinity.Through 2 weeks raise, parent's sexual gland was synchronously ripe.
B () is hastened parturition hatching: random selection goes out the parent of 400 gonad maturities, after being cleaned up, is then placed in zero degree seawater moderate stimulation 6 hours, dry in the shade after 1h, stimulate 45min by normal temperature seawater flow wash again, be positioned in the cement pit of fixed star " 863 " base, pond salinity water controls at 18ppt, through 2h, parent starts ejaculation of laying eggs, and obtains a large amount of ripe gamete, wherein, with microscopy, 3,000,000,000, ovum, finds that parent's emission index reaches 98% through visually observing.Utilize 4 12m afterwards 3cement pit is hatched, and pond salinity water is 18ppt, and adopt inflation hatching, density domination is at 60/ml.
(c) larvae cultivation: temperature 28.6 DEG C, under salinity 18ppt condition, obtain through 16h and just incubate D shape larva, carry out preferably with 300 mesh sieve tulles afterwards, obtain shell tall and big in the D shape larva of 300 order mesh, be normotrophic D shape larva, optimize 2.4 hundred million larvas, carry out larva cultivation according to 1.0-2.0/ml density, be distributed in 15 12m 3in cement pit.During larvae cultivation, all cement pits all do not change water, adopt micro-airing form to cultivate; Bait is based on cloud tail algae and yeast, and every day, cloud tail algae was thrown something and fed 6 times, and each feeding volume is 3000cells/ml; Yeast is after hydrolysis, and after 300 mesh sieve tulles are washed by rubbing with the hands, throw something and feed every day once, throw something and feed 0.2mg/L at every turn.Along with larval growth, the feeding volume of cloud tail algae increases gradually to 8000cells/ml, and yeast feeding volume is constant.During larvae cultivation, water temperature is at 28.2-30.4 DEG C, and salinity is at 15-20ppt.
D () settlement and metamorphosis: through the cultivation of 18d, embryophore Seedling height is to 300-360 μm, and the former base of eyespot, the gill, foot overhanging stage appear in 50% individuality, at this moment throw in adherance.Throw in 1080 adherances in each cement pit, throw in 16200 adherances altogether and collect seedling.Now eyebot larvae density is at 0.6-0.9/ml, continues to cultivate 7-10d, and more than 90% larva all adheres to complete, enters juvenile mollusk and is bred as link.Between the larva setting stage, water temperature is at 28.6-30.8 DEG C, and salinity is at 15-20ppt.
E () juvenile mollusk is bred as: after larva attachment, carry out indoor juvenile mollusk Transitional culture.During this period, micro-inflation, do not change water, salinity controls Low-salinity environment in 12-15ppt; Using shrimp pool water as biological feed, the use standard of shrimp pool water is transparency≤5cm, and will filter through 60 mesh sieve tulles, and throw something and feed every day 0.3-0.5m 3shrimp pool water is as bait, and standard of throwing something and feeding keeps water colour slight general green, and cultivate in pond and have bait to exist always, juvenile mollusk is in feeding state always, constantly grows, and obtains Hong Kong oyster juvenile mollusk seed.Indoor seed breeding process, altogether through 50-60 days, obtains healthy Hong Kong oyster juvenile mollusk seed 24,700,000 of 4-9mm.
Embodiment 2
As shown in Figure 1, concrete steps are the flow process exemplary view of the indoor extensive artificial breeding method of the South China coastal Hong Kong oyster of the present embodiment:
(a) parent accelerating: on June 15th, 2013, Shenzhen Sha Jing select come from Hong Kong after 1500 Hong Kong oysters that health can't harm, vigorous, sexual gland is full in bay as parent.Utilize scallop cage, place 5 for every layer, 6 layers, each scallop cage, utilizes 50 scallop cages altogether, adopts the mode of hanging culture to be that the fry of the roc marine organisms industrial park of the high salinity of 27-30ppt marks in the pool and carries out ecological accelerating at salinity water.Through 3 weeks raise, parent's sexual gland was synchronously ripe.
B () is hastened parturition hatching: after the parent that random selection goes out 500 gonad maturities is cleaned up, then be placed in zero degree seawater moderate stimulation 3 hours, after the 2h that dries in the shade, then stimulate 90min by normal temperature seawater flow wash, be positioned in the cement pit of Shenzhen Long Keyuan Aquatic Product Company Ltd, salinity controls at 20ppt, and through 3h, parent starts ejaculation of laying eggs, obtain a large amount of ripe gamete, wherein, with microscopy, 5,400,000,000, ovum, finds that parent's emission index reaches 99% through visually observing.Utilize 6 30m afterwards 3cement pit is hatched, and pond salinity water controls as 20ppt, and adopt inflation hatching, density domination is at 30/ml.
(c) larvae cultivation: temperature 28.2 DEG C, under salinity 20ppt condition, obtain through 17h and just incubate D shape larva, carry out preferably with 300 mesh sieve tulles afterwards, obtain shell tall and big in the D shape larva of 300 order mesh, be normotrophic D shape larva, optimize 4,800,000,000 larvas, carry out larva cultivation according to 1-2/ml density, be distributed in 10 30m 3in cement pit.During larvae cultivation, all cement pits all do not change water, adopt micro-airing form to cultivate; Bait is based on cloud tail algae and yeast, and every day, cloud tail algae was thrown something and fed 6 times, and each feeding volume is 3600cells/ml; Yeast is after hydrolysis, and after 300 mesh sieve tulles are washed by rubbing with the hands, throw something and feed every day once, throw something and feed 0.2mg/L at every turn.Along with larval growth, the feeding volume of cloud tail algae increases gradually to 9000cells/ml, and yeast feeding volume is constant.During larvae cultivation, water temperature is at 28.0-30.2 DEG C, and salinity is at 15-20ppt.
D () settlement and metamorphosis: through the cultivation of 20d, embryophore Seedling height is to 300-350 μm, and the former base of eyespot, the gill, foot overhanging stage appear in 30% individuality, at this moment throw in adherance.Throw in 3000 adherances in each cement pit, throw in 30000 adherances altogether and collect seedling.Now eyebot larvae density is at 0.3-0.8/ml, continues to cultivate 6-10d, and more than 90% larva all adheres to complete, enters juvenile mollusk and is bred as link.Between the larva setting stage, water temperature is at 28.2-30.4 DEG C, and salinity is at 15-20ppt.
E () juvenile mollusk is bred as: after larva attachment, carry out indoor juvenile mollusk Transitional culture.During this period, micro-inflation, do not change water, salinity controls Low-salinity environment in 12-15ppt; Using shrimp pool water as biological feed, the use standard of shrimp pool water is transparency≤5cm, and will filter through 60 mesh sieve tulles, and throw something and feed every day 1.2-1.8m 3shrimp pool water is as bait, and standard of throwing something and feeding keeps water colour slight general green, cultivates in pond and has bait to exist always, make juvenile mollusk be in feeding state always, constantly grow, obtain Hong Kong oyster juvenile mollusk seed.Indoor seed breeding process, altogether through 50-60 days, obtains 3.2 hundred million, healthy Hong Kong oyster juvenile mollusk seed of 4-8mm.

Claims (3)

1. the indoor extensive artificial breeding method of the South China coastal Hong Kong oyster, is characterized in that, comprise the following steps:
(a) parent accelerating: in annual 4-8 month Hong Kong oyster mating season, select healthy harmless, vigorous, individuality that sexual gland is full as parent, the mode adopting hanging culture is carry out ecological accelerating in the shrimp pond of the high salinity of 27-30ppt, until parent's sexual gland is synchronously ripe in salinity;
B () is hastened parturition hatching: for the parent of gonad maturity, cleaned up, then zero degree seawater moderate stimulation 3-6 hour is placed in, dry in the shade after 1-2h, stimulate 45 ~ 90min by normal temperature seawater flow wash, then be positioned over salinity in 15-20ppt in salinity seawater, the ripe gamete of a large amount of discharge naturally can be obtained, fertilized egg is the hatching of salinity Aeration in the water in 15-20ppt, and its density domination, at 30-60/ml, is grown and obtained D shape larva;
(c) larvae cultivation: normotrophic D shape larva is cultivated according to 1-2/ml density, during this period, all Miao Chijun do not change water, micro-airing form is adopted to cultivate, bait is based on cloud tail algae and yeast, the standard of throwing something and feeding repeatedly is thrown less, and keep water quality pure and fresh, the seawater salinity during larvae cultivation is 15-20ppt;
(d) settlement and metamorphosis: when embryophore Seedling height is to 300-360 μm, there is the former base of eyespot, the gill, foot overhanging stage in 30-50% individuality, throw in adherance, eyebot larvae density domination is at 0.3-0.9/ml, when larva is anchored to after on adherance, carry out juvenile mollusk Transitional culture, between the larva setting stage, the salinity of seawater controls as 15-20ppt;
E () juvenile mollusk is bred as: after larva attachment, carry out indoor juvenile mollusk Transitional culture, during this period, micro-inflation, do not change water, salinity controls Low-salinity environment in 12-15ppt; Using shrimp pool water as biological feed, standard of throwing something and feeding keeps water colour slight general green, makes juvenile mollusk be in feeding state always, constantly grows, obtain Hong Kong oyster juvenile mollusk healthy seedling.
2. method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, the normotrophic D shape larva of described step (c) is that employing 300 mesh sieve tulle screens the D shape larva that step (b) is hatched, and obtains shell tall and big in the D shape larva of 300 order mesh, is normotrophic D shape larva.
3. method according to claim 1, is characterized in that, in described step (d), after throwing in adherance, continues to cultivate 5-10d.
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