以黄腐酸钾为基质的膏状水溶肥料技术领域 本发明涉及一种腐植酸类混合肥料，尤其涉及一种主要用于叶片喷施及滴灌施肥的以黄腐酸钾为基质的膏状水溶肥料。 In fulvic potassium water-soluble fertilizer paste as a substrate Technical Field  The present invention relates to a class of mixed fertilizers humic acid, particularly to a blade for mainly spraying and fertigation to fulvic potassium as a substrate cream water-soluble fertilizer. 背景技术 腐植酸是自然界中广泛存在的大分子有机物质，广泛应用于农林牧、石油、化工、建材、医药卫生、环保等各个领域，横跨几十个行业。  humic acid is widely present in nature macromolecular organic material, widely used in agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, petroleum, chemicals, building materials, medicine and health, environmental protection across dozens of industries. 特别是眼下提倡生态农业建设、无公害农业生产、绿色食品、无污染环保产品等，更使“腐植酸”备受推崇。 Especially now promote eco-agriculture construction, pollution-free agricultural production, green food, pollution and other environmentally friendly products, but also the "humic" highly respected.  黄腐酸钾是一种纯天然矿物质活性钾元素肥，黄腐酸钾内含微量元素、稀土元素、植物生长调节剂、病毒抑制剂等多种营养成分，使养分更充足、补给更合理，从而避免了作物因缺少元素而造成的各种生理性病害的发生，使作物株型更旺盛叶色更浓绿，抗倒伏能力更强。  Potassium fulvic is a natural mineral active potassium fertilizer, fulvic potassium containing trace elements, rare earth elements, plant growth regulators, nutrients and other viral inhibitors, the nutrient more adequate, supply more reasonable, thus avoiding the occurrence of various physiological diseases of crops due to lack of elements caused by the crop plant type more vigorous and more dark green leaf color, lodging resistance stronger. 黄腐酸钾能及时的补充土壤中所流失的养分，使土壤活化，具有生命力，减少了土壤内养分被过度吸收引起的重茬病害，产品完全可以代替含量相同的硫酸钾或氯化钾及硫酸钾镁，而且天然、环保。 Fulvic potassium can promptly replenish the loss of nutrients in the soil, the soil activated, vitality, reducing the cropping soil nutrients disease caused by excessive absorption of the product can replace the same amount of potassium sulfate or potassium chloride and potassium and magnesium, and natural and environmental protection.  通过腐植酸与其他无机元素组成的腐植酸类肥料在农业生产中具有重要作用。  By humic acid and other inorganic elements of humic acid fertilizer plays an important role in agricultural production. 1、使用腐植酸，可改变土壤中含盐过高、碱性过强、土粒高度分散、土壤结构性差的理化性状，促进土壤团聚体的形成，使其成良好状态，从而为植物根系生长发育创造良好的条件；2、施用腐植酸可疏松耕层土壤，破坏盐份的积累，降低表土含盐量，起到隔盐作用，提高出苗率，减少弱苗、死苗，使植物健康成长；3、腐植酸具有较高的阳离子变换量，比一般土壤高10倍以上。 1, using humic acid, high soil salt may be varied, too alkaline, highly dispersed soil particles, the structural difference between physical and chemical properties of soil, the soil to promote the formation of aggregates, so as to be in good condition, so that the growth of plant roots development to create good conditions; 2, humic acid may loose topsoil, destroy the accumulation of salt, reduce salt content in topsoil, salt play every role, improve the germination rate and reduce weak seedling, seedlings died, the healthy growth of plants ; 3, humic acid cation having higher conversion amount, typically more than 10 times higher soil. 施入土壤后，使土壤对阴离子吸附能力显著提高，使表层盐含量减少；4、盐碱土地特别是碱土PH值过高，直接危害作物生长，甚至引起死亡，另外pH值过高还影响到土壤中的磷、铁、锰、硼、锌等营养元素的有效性，而腐植酸pH值为6.8，偏酸性，可中和碱性，减轻消除碱性对土壤和植物的危害，使低产盐碱地得到改良，为作物幼苗生长创造良好的土壤条件；5、施用腐植酸使好气性细菌、放线菌、纤维分解菌的数量增加较多，对加速有机物的矿化，促进营养元素的释放有利；6、腐植酸含有多种官能团，被活化后的腐植酸成为高效生物活性物质，对作物生长发育及体内生理代谢有刺激作用，这种特性是一般肥料所不具备的，活化后的腐植酸高效生物活性物质按一定浓度采用浸种，浸根，蘸根、喷洒、浇灌、做底肥等方式，对各种作物都有明显的刺激效 Soil fertilized the soil for anion adsorption capacity significantly increased, so that the surface to reduce the salt content; 4, saline-alkali land in particular alkaline PH value is too high, the growth of direct damage to crops, and even cause death, while high pH also affects the effectiveness of nutrient elements phosphorus, iron, manganese, boron, zinc, a pH of 6.8 and humic acid, acidic, basic and can reduce damage to eliminate the alkaline soils and plants, so that low-yield saline to give improved crop seedling growth to create good soil conditions; 5, so that humic acid aerobic bacteria, actinomycetes, cellulolytic bacteria increased number of more advantageous to accelerate mineralization of organic matter, the promotion of the release of nutrients; 6, various functional groups containing humic acid, humic acid is activated after the biologically active substance becomes high, and growth of the crops in vivo physiological metabolism stimulation, this feature is generally not available in the fertilizer, humic acid efficiently after activation Soaking the biologically active substance using a certain concentration, root dipping, dipping, spraying, watering, base fertilizer, etc., of various crops have significant stimulation effect ，综合表现在对根系发育的促进，对作物产量、质量因素的良好影响；7、腐植酸能使植物叶片气孔张开度减少，叶片蒸腾量降低，耗水量减少，植株体内的水分状况得到改善，使叶片含水率提高，从而为分穗和在籽奠定了基础，腐植酸还能够提高叶绿素的含量和光合作用的正常进行，对于物质的积累和千粒重的提高是非常重要的。 , The overall performance of promoting root development, positive effect on the crop yield, quality factor; 7, humic acid can reduce the stomatal opening of plant leaves, reduced leaf transpiration, reduced water consumption, condition of the plant of water is improved, so that leaf moisture content increase, which laid the foundation for the sub-spike and seed, humic acid can also improve the normal content of chlorophyll and photosynthesis, for the accumulation of material and increase grain weight is very important. 目前市场上含腐植酸类物质的肥料主要有两种剂型，即固体(粉剂)和液体(水剂)，前者在运输堆放过程中易吸潮结块，使用时即溶性差，腐植酸类物质也不能很好地发挥络合作用，在酸、碱影响下容易发生沉淀现象，因此固体类腐植酸肥料不宜作为滴灌肥料和叶面喷施肥料，而多用于冲施肥。  Currently humic substances containing fertilizer on the market there are two main forms, namely a solid (powder) and a liquid (water), the former is easy to absorb moisture in the agglomerate during the transport stack, the use of instant difference, humic acids can not function well complexation, an acid, an alkali affect precipitation easily occurs and, therefore, not as solids based humic acid fertilizer drip irrigation and spraying fertilizers, and used for fertilization. 后者以水作为基质，但由于受各成分溶解度的影响，养分含量较低，且多种成分融为一体易发生结晶或沉淀现象，且在温度较高及运输过程中，包装桶易发生胀气现象，因此其在生产、贮存、使用方面有一定限制。 The latter water as a base, but due to the impact of each component solubility, low nutrient content and blend a plurality of components prone to crystallization or precipitation phenomena, and at higher temperatures and during transport, flatulence drums easily occur and, therefore, its production, storage, use has certain limitations. 发明内容 针对上述现有技术，本发明提供了一种以黄腐酸钾为基质的膏状水溶物料，由于各原料均经过细粉，其溶解性好，在常温(20°C)下，1:250浓度稀释在I分钟内即可完全溶解；氮磷钾等总养分含量高，配比合理，并且具有不沉淀、不板结、不结晶、不析水的特点，可用于叶面喷施和滴灌施肥等。 SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION  In view of the above prior art, the present invention provides a potassium fulvic in a matrix of water soluble material paste, since the raw materials have to undergo a fine, good solubility at normal temperature (20 ° C) lower, 1: 250 dilution in the concentration of dissolved completely within I minute; high total NPK nutrient content ratio is reasonable, and has no precipitate, not compacted, non-crystalline, no water separation characteristics, can be used for foliar fertilization and irrigation spraying.  本发明是通过以下技术方案实现的: 一种以黄腐酸钾为基质的膏状水溶物料，是由包括以下重量份的组分组成的:黄腐酸钾80〜100份，硝酸钾(KNO3) 200〜650份，磷酸一铵(NH4H2PO4) 100〜460份，尿素(0C (NH2) 2) 60 〜90 份，水130 〜160 份。  The present invention is achieved by the following technical solutions:  Potassium kind fulvic aqueous paste as a substrate material, comprising the following parts by weight of a component consisting of: 80 ~ 100 Potassium fulvic parts of potassium nitrate (KNO3) 200~650 parts, monoammonium phosphate (NH4H2PO4) 100~460 parts urea (0C (NH2) 2) 60 ~90 parts, ~160 130 parts of water.  进一步地，还包括以下重量份的组分:钙镁磷肥2.1〜3.8份，硫酸锰(MnSO4 -H2O)1.6 〜2.4 份，硫酸亚铁(FeSO4.7H20) 0.7 〜1.2 份，硫酸锌(ZnSO4.7H20) 0.8 〜1.3 份，硫酸铜(CuSO4.5H20) 0.8 〜1.4 份，钥酸铵((NH3) 2Mo04) 0.6 〜1.2 份。  Furthermore, further comprising the following parts by weight of component: parts 2.1~3.8 FCMP, manganese sulfate (MnSO4 -H2O) 1.6 ~2.4 parts of ferrous sulfate (FeSO4.7H20) 0.7 ~1.2 parts, zinc sulfate (ZnSO4.7H20) 0.8 ~1.3 parts of copper sulfate (CuSO4.5H20) 0.8 ~1.4 parts, keyhole ammonium ((NH3) 2Mo04) 0.6 ~1.2 parts.  所述以黄腐酸钾为基质的膏状水溶物料的制备方法为:先将黄腐酸钾与水混合，搅拌后得到流动性浆状物，为浆料；将其它组分粉碎成60目以上的颗粒，得粉状物；以浆料此作为基质，加入粉状物，搅拌均匀，即得以黄腐酸钾为基质的膏状水溶物料。  The preparation of aqueous pasty material in a matrix of potassium fulvic as: potassium fulvic first mixed with water, stirred to obtain a slurry flowability, a slurry; other components pulverized particles of 60 mesh or more to obtain powder; to this slurry as a matrix powder was added, stirred uniformly, i.e., as a cream to the aqueous potassium fulvic matrix material.  本发明的以黄腐酸钾为基质的膏状水溶物料，以黄腐酸钾用适量水浸润而成的浆料作为基质，并根据预先设计的配方加入其它相应的粉状物料后，可充分发挥黄腐酸钾在整个复合肥料中的胶体作用、络合作用、各成分的酸碱平衡作用、各物料的相互分散作用，提高各物料加水稀释时的溶解速度，提高各营养成分的肥料中的含量，并且可以很好解决普通水剂肥在温度下降时易沉淀或结晶，以及普通粉剂在运输对方过程中板结等问题，提高肥料的功效。 After  In a matrix of potassium fulvic aqueous paste material of the present invention to fulvic potassium infiltration formed matrix as a slurry with an appropriate amount of water, and addition of other powdery material according to the recipe corresponding predesigned , can give full play to the role of potassium fulvic colloidal entire fERTILIZER, complexation, acid-base balance of the role of each component, each respective dispersion material, increasing the dissolution rate of each material when diluted with water, to improve the nutritional components the fertilizer content, and can be solved general agent manure could precipitate or crystallize when the temperature drops, as well as ordinary powder compaction process in other issues such as transport and improve the effectiveness of fertilizers. 本发明不添加任何辅助添加剂，制备方法简单，无需特殊设备。 The present invention does not add any auxiliary additive, preparation method is simple, no special equipment.  本发明的以黄腐酸钾为基质的膏状水溶物料，由于各原料均经过细粉，其溶解性好，在常温(20°C )下，1:250浓度稀释在I分钟内即可完全溶解；氮磷钾等总养分含量高，配比合理，并且具有不沉淀、不板结、不结晶、不析水的特点，可用于叶面喷施和滴灌施肥等。  In a matrix of potassium fulvic aqueous paste material of the present invention, since the raw materials have to undergo a fine, good solubility, at room temperature (20 ° C), 1: 250 dilution in a concentration of I min dissolved completely; NPK high total nutrient content ratio is reasonable, and has no precipitate, not compacted, non-crystalline, no water separation characteristics, can be used for irrigation and fertilization foliar spray. 具体实施方式 下面结合实施例对本发明作进一步的说明。 DETAILED DESCRIPTION  The following embodiments in conjunction with embodiments of the present invention will be further described.  实施例1制备以黄腐酸钾为基质的膏状水溶物料配方如表I所示。  Example 1 Preparation of paste to aqueous formulations potassium fulvic material as a substrate as shown in Table I. 表 I  TABLE I
 制备方法为: 1、在搅拌机不断搅拌中，将黄腐酸钾加入到水中，直至呈均匀浆状，成为基质，备用； 2、将硝酸钾、尿素、磷酸一铵分别用高速粉碎机粉碎，细读达到60目以上，备用； 3、将以上粉状物料逐一缓慢加入到浆状物(基质)中，用搅拌机快速强力搅拌30分钟，静置后即成膏状。  Preparation of:  1, stirring continuously in a blender, the yellow rot of potassium added to water until a uniform paste, the matrix becomes standby;  2, potassium nitrate, urea, phosphoric acid ammonium respectively using a high speed grinder, to peruse than 60 mesh, the standby;  3, by one or more powdered materials was slowly added to the slurry (matrix), fast intense stirring with a stirrer for 30 minutes and allowed to stand Serve the cream.  以上制成品为含黄腐酸钾的大量元素速溶膏状肥料，其中N、P2O5, K2O的总量为50%，pH 为6 〜7 (1:250 测定)。  than an instant finished paste containing macronutrient fertilizer potassium fulvic, wherein the total amount of N, P2O5, K2O is 50%, pH of 6 ~ 7 (1: 250 measurement).  本实施例制备得到的膏状肥料，与现有的同类型产品的稳定性比较如表2所示，由表2可知，本实施例制备得到的膏状肥料，具有不吸潮、不沉淀、不胀气、不板结、不结晶、不析水等特点。  The present paste fertilizer obtained in Production Example, the stability of the conventional products of the same type of comparison as shown in Table 2, seen from Table 2, paste fertilizer obtained in Production Example of the present embodiment has not absorb moisture, does not precipitate, no flatulence, not compacted, non-crystalline, no syneresis characteristics. 表 2  Table 2 
 施用效果: 本实施例的膏状肥料对芹菜产量的影响 试验在山东省烟台市福山区一温室大棚内进行，试验地地势平坦、肥力均匀，有良好的灌溉条件。  Effect of administration: Effect  The present embodiment is a paste fertilizer on Celery Yield  The test was carried out in Yantai, Shandong Fushan a greenhouse, the test flat, uniform fertility, a good irrigation condition. 供试作物为芹菜，品种为玻璃翠。 Celery test crops, varieties of glass Tsui. 试验面积为3亩，对照I亩。 Test area 3 mu, mu I control.  处理1:常规施肥+喷与处理2等量清水(CK)； 处理2:常规处理+同类型腐植酸液体水溶肥(产品名为“艾菲特”，中化(烟台)作物营养有限公司生产，产品登记证号为农肥(2010)临字4916号)(600-800倍稀释液)； 处理3:常规施肥+喷施本实施例的膏状肥料(1000-1200倍稀释液)； 常规施肥为定植前亩基施复合肥50kg (15-15-15)，有机肥500kg。  Processing 1: conventional fertilization + 2 equivalent amount of the processing water discharge (CK);  Processing 2: Conventional treatment + with humic acid type water-soluble liquid fertilizer (product name "Yifei Te" of the (Yantai ) Co crop nutrition, product registration number as agricultural fertilizer (2010) No. 4916 Pro word) (600-800 fold dilution);  processing 3: conventional fertilization + spraying fertilizer paste according to the present embodiment (1000 -1200-fold dilution);  of conventional fertilizer, compound fertilizer before planting mu yl 50kg (15-15-15), organic fertilizer 500kg. 生长中期追施5kg/亩尿素一次。 Medium-term growth topdressing 5kg / acre of urea once.  喷施处理为在整个生育期内喷施三次含腐植酸膏状肥，处理2的三次喷施分别为喷施800倍、600倍和600倍稀释液，处理3的三次喷施分别为喷施1200倍、1000倍和1000倍稀释液，处理I同一时期喷施等量清水，每个处理组做三个平行(重复)，试验结果如表3所示: 表3芹菜产量对比表  The spraying process is sprayed in the whole growth period three times a paste fertilizer containing humic acid, treated three times with respectively two spray spraying 800 times, 600 times and 600-fold dilutions, were sprayed three times for 3 spraying is 1200-fold, 1000-fold and 1000-fold dilutions, the process the same amount of water sprayed during the same period I, each made of three parallel treatment groups (repeated), the test results shown in table 3:  table 3 celery yield comparison table
 从上表看出，处理3喷施腐植酸膏状肥较处理I和处理2分别增产193.2kg/亩和90kg/亩，增产率分别为6.5%和2.9%。  seen from the table, the processing 3 more fertilizer spraying humic acid paste process I and process 2 were increased by 193.2kg / acre and 90kg / acre, an increase of 6.5% and 2.9%, respectively. 可以看出腐植酸膏状肥较对照及同类型产品具有一定的增产效应。 Humic acid fertilizer can be seen that compared with the control cream and similar products have a certain yield increasing effect.  实施例2制备以黄腐酸钾为基质的膏状水溶物料配方如表4所示。  Example Formulations Preparation of paste to aqueous potassium fulvic material as a substrate 2 as shown in Table 4. 表 4  TABLE 4
 制备方法为: 1、在搅拌机不断搅拌中，将黄腐酸钾加入到水中，直至呈均匀浆状，成为基质，备用； 2、将硝酸钾、尿素、磷酸一铵、钙镁磷肥(江西江磷磷肥有限公司生产，粉状)、硫酸锰、硫酸亚铁、硫酸锌、硫酸铜、钥酸铵分别用高速粉碎机粉碎，细读达到60目以上，备用； 3、将以上粉状物料逐一缓慢加入到浆状物(基质冲，用搅拌机快速强力搅拌60分钟，静置后即成膏状。 施用效果 本实施例制备的腐植酸膏体肥对番茄产量的影响 试验在山东省招远市辛庄镇马连沟一温室大棚内进行。供试作物为番茄，品种为京津。试验面积为5亩，对照I亩。 处理1:常规施肥+喷施黄腐酸钾膏状肥 处理2:常规处理+喷施与处理I等量清水(对照)； 常规施肥为定植前亩基施复合肥150kg,农家肥5000kg。生长中期追施5kg/亩尿素一  Preparation of:  1, stirring continuously in a blender, the yellow rot of potassium added to water until a uniform paste, the matrix becomes standby;  2, potassium nitrate, urea, phosphoric acid ammonium, calcium magnesium phosphate (phosphorus fertilizer in Jiangxi Co., Ltd., powder), manganese sulfate, ferrous sulfate, zinc sulfate, copper sulfate, ammonium key respectively using a high speed grinder, to peruse than 60 mesh, the standby ;.  3, by one or more powdered materials was slowly added to the slurry (red matrix, fast intense stirring with a mixer for 60 minutes and allowed to stand paste Serve  effects of administration  the present embodiment preparation Example the impact of humic acid fertilizer on tomato paste production  test was carried out in the Xinzhuang town, Zhaoyuan City, Shandong Province, Marin ditch a greenhouse. for the test crop is tomato varieties as Beijing and Tianjin. the test area of 5 acres, I mu control  processing 1: conventional fertilization + fulvic paste potassium fertilizer spraying  processing 2: conventional treatment + I spraying equal amount of water and treated (control);  conventional fertilization of colonization compound fertilizer before mu yl 150kg, manure 5000kg. topdressing growth mid 5kg / acre a urea 。整个生育期中间追施复合肥6次，每次50kg/亩。 喷施处理为在整个生育期内喷施5次含腐植酸膏状肥，处理I的五次喷施分别为喷施1200倍、1200倍、1 000倍、1000倍和1000倍稀释液，处理2同一时期喷施等量清水，每个处理组做四个平行(重复)。试验结果如下表5: 表5黄腐酸钾膏状肥番茄试验产量对比 Intermediate whole growth period topdressing fertilizer 6 times 50kg / acre.  The spraying process is sprayed in the whole growth period paste humic acid fertilizer containing 5 times, five times spraying process I respectively spraying 1200 fold, 1200 fold, 1000 fold, 1000-fold and 1000-fold dilutions, the process 2 the same amount of water sprayed during the same period, each group made of four parallel processing (repetition) test results table 5 below: [0051 ] table 5 yellow potassium fertilizer rot of tomato paste yield comparison test 
 从表中可以看出，腐植酸膏状肥比对照平均增产9.87kg/亩，增产率5.42%。  As can be seen from the table, humic acid fertilizer paste than the control average yield 9.87kg / acre, an increase of 5.42%.