CN103202406B - Feed for tendering meat quality of grass carp and preparation method thereof - Google Patents

Feed for tendering meat quality of grass carp and preparation method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103202406B
CN103202406B CN201310151830.XA CN201310151830A CN103202406B CN 103202406 B CN103202406 B CN 103202406B CN 201310151830 A CN201310151830 A CN 201310151830A CN 103202406 B CN103202406 B CN 103202406B
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grass carp
feed
complex
enzyme
mineral salt
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CN201310151830.XA
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Chinese (zh)
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CN103202406A (en
Inventor
林建斌
朱庆国
梁萍
陈度煌
秦志清
邱曼丽
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福建省淡水水产研究所
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Abstract

The invention belongs to the field of aquatic feeds, and specifically relates to a feed for tendering the meat quality of grass carp and a preparation method of the feed. The feed comprises broad bean, fish meal, wheat middling, rice bran, rapeseed dregs, glycine betaine, choline chloride, monocalcium phosphate, enzymic preparation, decavitamin and complex mineral salt; and the raw materials are mixed and granulated. According to the feed for tendering the meat quality of grass carp, the problems and defects in the existing grass carp tendering technology can be solved, and a meat quality tendering feed which is balanced in nutrition, convenient to use, short in culture cycle, high in efficiency and environmental-friendly is provided. When the product is used for culturing grass carp, the feed efficiency is improved, the nitrogen and phosphorus discharge in the culture process is decreased, the water quality pollution is lightened, the grass carp growth performance is improved, the disease resisting and anti-stress capabilities are enhanced, and the meat quality of the grass carp is tight, elastic, crisp, tasty and delicious.

Description

A kind of grass carp meat embrittlement special feed and preparation method thereof
Technical field
The invention belongs to aquatic feeds field, be specifically related to a kind of grass carp meat embrittlement special feed and preparation method thereof.
Background technology
In recent years, along with improving constantly of living standards of the people, pollution-free, noresidue and non-harmful safe green food have become the consumption fashion that everybody pursues, people are not only satisfied with the increase of aquatic products quantity, and the fresh and alive degree of its quality-aquatic products, body colour, meat, medicament residue etc. are also extraordinarily paid close attention to.
Grass carp ( ctenopharyngodon idellus) be four traditional large Chinese carps of China, as one of of paramount importance economic freshwater cultured fishes of China, its annual production reaches more than 400 ten thousand tons.In the ever-increasing while of cultured output, be but accompanied by the universal phenomenon that meat declines, people feel that mouthfeel is poor when edible.For improving the meat of cultivation grass carp, people have carried out many useful explorations.Wherein, with broad bean embrittlement grass carp, it is a kind of special breeding way, but the broad bean of directly throwing something and feeding exists culture-cycle length, the trivial operations of throwing something and feeding, artificial amount is large and high in cost of production problem, and in embrittlement process, the speed of growth of grass carp significantly reduces, to severe water pollution.Have the mixed feed of employing to be aided with greenfeed and feed, wherein mixed feed composition comprises broad bean (content 40%-55%), trash fish, carrot, corn, wheat, bone meal, oyster shell whiting, lotus seeds etc.; Also having the raw materials such as employing broad bean (content 10%-50%), chicken meal, flour, brewer's yeast, dregs of beans, betaine to make mixed feed feeds.But adopt these several mixed feeds grass carp of throwing something and feeding, can not make the grass carp in whole pond obtain good embrittlement effect, while only having small part grass carp edible, there is mouthfeel sharp and clear.Therefore, in mixed feed, broad bean ratio is too low, does not often reach embrittlement effect, or the grass carp embrittlement degree in whole pond is uneven; In mixed feed, broad bean ratio is too high, can affect again the speed of growth of grass carp.The proper ratio of exploring broad bean in mixed feed is crucial.
summary of the invention:
The object of this invention is to provide a kind of grass carp meat embrittlement special feed and preparation method thereof, can solve the problem and shortage that existing grass carp embrittlement technology exists, nutrient balance, the high-efficiency environment friendly meat embrittlement special feed that easy to use, the culture-cycle is short are provided.
For achieving the above object, the present invention adopts following technical scheme:
A grass carp meat embrittlement special feed, the parts by weight of this feed formula each component are: broad bean 65-80 part, fish meal 1-3 part, inferior powder 2-10 part, rice bran 5-8 part, rapeseed dregs 9-15 part, betaine 0.2-0.3 part, Choline Chloride 0.3-0.5 part, calcium dihydrogen phosphate 0.4-0.8 part, enzyme preparation 0.10-0.15 part, B B-complex 0.4-0.6 part, composite mineral salt 1.0-1.5 part.
Described B B-complex, its per kilogram contains: VA 1,500,000 IU, VD 3500000 IU, VE 15g, VK 32.2g, VB 12g, VB 24g, VB 63.2g, VB 120.02g, biotin 0.25g, nicotinic acid 8g, folic acid 0.25g, calcium pantothenate 4.3g, inositol 45g, VC 70g; The rest is corn protein powder.
Described composite mineral salt, its per kilogram contains: manganese sulfate 4.2g, zinc sulfate 52g, copper sulphate 1.5g, ferrous sulfate 20g, sodium selenite 0.01g, cobaltous sulfate 0.02g, KI 0.02g; The rest is montmorillonite.
Described enzyme preparation is phytase and complex enzyme (comprising protease, amylase, zytase etc., is the complex enzyme product that is applicable to aquaculture of routine), and the part by weight of the two is 2~1:1.
The preparation method of described grass carp meat embrittlement feed, comprises the following steps:
A, by the requirement of grass carp meat embrittlement special feed formula each component parts by weight, take broad bean, fish meal, inferior powder, rice bran, rapeseed dregs, betaine, Choline Chloride, calcium dihydrogen phosphate, enzyme preparation, B B-complex and composite mineral salt;
B, broad bean, fish meal, inferior powder, rice bran, rapeseed dregs, betaine, Choline Chloride, calcium dihydrogen phosphate are pulverized after fully mixing, more than 98% crossed 40 mesh sieves, add in proportion enzyme preparation, B B-complex, composite mineral salt again to mix;
C, use mixture that ring mould granulator obtains step B through steam regulation of texture, conditioning of texture, granulation, then dry, cooling, screening, weighing and bagging.
When this product is used for cultivating grass carp, can improve feed efficiency, reduce nitrogen, phosphorus emission in breeding process, alleviate water pollution, improve Growth of Grass Carps Ctenopharyngodon Idellus performance, strengthen the disease-resistant and anti-stress ability of grass carp; And can make grass carp meat tight, high resilience, sharp and clear good to eat when edible, delicious flavour.
The present invention's beneficial effect compared with prior art:
(1) the present invention, according to the physio-biochemical characteristics of grass carp, for the crucial trophic factors of grass carp meat embrittlement, selects the feedstuff that digestibility is high, attractant is strong, and each component collocation is reasonable, nutrient balance, and feed efficiency is high.
(2) grass carp meat embrittlement feed of the present invention embrittlement grass carp meat fast, improve its meat flavor, main is that the present invention can improve the speed of growth in grass carp embrittlement process, and reach the uniform object of whole pond grass carp embrittlement degree, strengthen premunition and the anti-stress ability of grass carp.Use feed of the present invention, each component mature production technology, Product quality and safety, stable, throws something and feeds easy and simple to handle.
(3) the reasonable use of fish green additive, alternative antibiotic is urged long agent with some harmful chemistry, promotes digesting and assimilating of nutriment, promotes fish growth, and disease preventing and treating, alleviates the pollution to water body, and minimizing and elimination harmful substance are residual fish body.In feed of the present invention, added the green additives such as betaine, enzyme preparation, the main effect of betaine has food calling effect, can promote ingesting of grass carp, improves the speed of growth of grass carp, reduces the waste of feed; Can promote fat metabolism, suppress fatty liver simultaneously.Enzyme preparation can reduce fish body alimentary canal chyme viscosity; improve nutrient digestion absorptivity; improve the utilization rate of phytate phosphorus; eliminate ANFs; activate the secretion of endogenous enzymes, improve grass carp survival rate and the speed of growth, and nontoxic, harmless, noresidue; and can reduce significantly excretion and the pollution to environment of nitrogen, phosphorus in grass carp ight soil, great to protection breeding ecological Significance for Environment.
the specific embodiment:
In order to make object and effect that technological means of the present invention, feature and technological process, using method are reached be easy to understand, below in conjunction with specific embodiment, further set forth the present invention, but the present invention is not limited only to this.
embodiment mono-:
The grains dedicated feed of grass carp meat embrittlement of producing 4 millimeters of particle diameters of take is example, gets 65 kilograms of broad beans, 2.0 kilograms of fish meal, 8.85 kilograms, inferior powder, 5.9 kilograms, rice bran, 15 kilograms of rapeseed dregs, 0.3 kilogram of betaine, 0.5 kilogram of Choline Chloride, 0.7 kilogram of calcium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.15 kilogram of enzyme preparation (phytase 0.10kg and complex enzyme 0.05kg), 0.6 kilogram of B B-complex, 1 kilogram of composite mineral salt.
The component of per kilogram composite mineral salt is: manganese sulfate 4.2g, zinc sulfate 52g, copper sulphate 1.5g, ferrous sulfate 20g, sodium selenite 0.01g, cobaltous sulfate 0.02g, KI 0.02g; The rest is montmorillonite.
Per kilogram B B-complex contains VA 1,500,000 IU, VD 3500000 IU, VE 15g, VK 32.2g, VB 12g, VB 24g, VB 63.2g, VB 120.02g, biotin 0.25g, nicotinic acid 8g, folic acid 0.25g, calcium pantothenate 4.3g, inositol 45g, VC 70g; The rest is corn protein powder.
Broad bean, fish meal, inferior powder, rice bran, rapeseed dregs, betaine, Choline Chloride, calcium dihydrogen phosphate are pulverized after fully mixing; make raw material more than 98% pass through 40 order hole testing sieves; add in proportion enzyme preparation, B B-complex, composite mineral salt again to mix, with ring mould granulator, granulating mixture being become to particle diameter is the grit material of 4 millimeters.
embodiment bis-:
The grains dedicated feed of grass carp meat embrittlement of producing 5 millimeters of particle diameters of take is example, gets 72 kilograms of broad beans, 1 kilogram of fish meal, 2.5 kilograms, inferior powder, 6.8 kilograms, rice bran, 15 kilograms of rapeseed dregs, 0.2 kilogram of betaine, 0.3 kilogram of Choline Chloride, 0.6 kilogram of calcium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.1 kilogram of enzyme preparation (phytase 0.05kg and complex enzyme 0.05kg), 0.5 kilogram of B B-complex, 1 kilogram of composite mineral salt.
The component of per kilogram composite mineral salt is: manganese sulfate 4.2g, zinc sulfate 52g, copper sulphate 1.5g, ferrous sulfate 20g, sodium selenite 0.01g, cobaltous sulfate 0.02g, KI 0.02g; The rest is montmorillonite.
Per kilogram B B-complex contains VA 1,500,000 IU, VD 3500000 IU, VE 15g, VK 32.2g, VB 12g, VB 24g, VB 63.2g, VB 120.02g, biotin 0.25g, nicotinic acid 8g, folic acid 0.25g, calcium pantothenate 4.3g, inositol 45g, VC 70g; The rest is corn protein powder.
Broad bean, fish meal, inferior powder, rice bran, rapeseed dregs, betaine, Choline Chloride, calcium dihydrogen phosphate are pulverized after fully mixing; make raw material more than 98% pass through 40 order hole testing sieves; add in proportion enzyme preparation, B B-complex, composite mineral salt again to mix, with ring mould granulator, granulating mixture being become to particle diameter is the grit material of 5 millimeters.
embodiment tri-:
The grains dedicated feed of grass carp meat embrittlement of producing 6 millimeters of particle diameters of take is example, gets 80 kilograms of broad beans, 1 kilogram of fish meal, 2 kilograms, inferior powder, 5.6 kilograms, rice bran, 9 kilograms of rapeseed dregs, 0.2 kilogram of betaine, 0.3 kilogram of Choline Chloride, 0.4 kilogram of calcium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.1 kilogram of enzyme preparation (phytase 0.05kg and complex enzyme 0.05kg), 0.4 kilogram of B B-complex, 1 kilogram of composite mineral salt.
The component of per kilogram composite mineral salt is: manganese sulfate 4.2g, zinc sulfate 52g, copper sulphate 1.5g, ferrous sulfate 20g, sodium selenite 0.01g, cobaltous sulfate 0.02g, KI 0.02g; The rest is montmorillonite.
Per kilogram B B-complex contains VA 1,500,000 IU, VD 3500000 IU, VE 15g, VK 32.2g, VB 12g, VB 24g, VB 63.2g, VB 120.02g, biotin 0.25g, nicotinic acid 8g, folic acid 0.25g, calcium pantothenate 4.3g, inositol 45g, VC 70g; The rest is corn protein powder.
Broad bean, fish meal, inferior powder, rice bran, rapeseed dregs, betaine, Choline Chloride, calcium dihydrogen phosphate are pulverized after fully mixing; make raw material more than 98% pass through 40 order hole testing sieves; add in proportion enzyme preparation, B B-complex, composite mineral salt again to mix, with ring mould granulator, granulating mixture being become to particle diameter is the grit material of 6 millimeters.
use-case:
1. the impact of embrittlement material on Growth of Grass Carps Ctenopharyngodon Idellus and meat quality of throwing something and feeding.
Test is carried out in the square glass steel water tank (2.0 m * 1.0, m * 1.5 m) in Fujian Prov. Inst. of Freshwater Fishery Shui nationality laboratory.Test and use fish purchased from Fujian Minhou County south Yu Yi plant, average weight 1500g, three processing are established in test: grass carp meat embrittlement special compound feed group (being called for short embrittlement material group), immersion broad bean group (control group), immersion pea group.Two repetitions are established in each processing, and each tank is put into 12 tail grass carps.Raise after 90d, measure respectively ingest the Growth of Grass Carps Ctenopharyngodon Idellus index of DIFFERENT FEED group and basic nutrition composition and the physical characteristic of the flesh of fish.Result shows, mixed feed group, the rate of body weight gain that soaks broad bean group and soak pea group grass carp are respectively 17.3%, 13.7% and 12.2%, and Three feed has no significant effect dirty body ratio, the liver body ratio of grass carp; Compare with soaking broad bean group, embrittlement material group has significantly improved the growth performance of grass carp, and the growth of soaking pea group is not as good as control group.Compare with common grass carp, Three feed group grass carp muscle crude fat content and muscle percentage of water loss significantly reduce (P < 0.05), collagen content and muscle fibril length significantly increase (P < 0.05), Three feed all can change grass carp meat to a certain extent, but grass carp meat embrittlement special compound feed embrittlement effect of the present invention is suitable with broad bean, be better than pea, and the embrittlement material group of throwing something and feeding is faster compared with the growth of broad bean group.From production angle, special compound feed of the present invention is a kind of comparatively desirable grass carp embrittlement breeding feed.
2. the crisp meat grass carp of grass carp meat embrittlement special compound feed net cage healthy aquaculture Demonstration And Extension
Within 2011, at Datian County, the Sanming City, Fujian Province point of Reservoir region cage culture in the street, carry out special-purpose embrittlement material and raise grass carp test and Demonstration And Extension work.Grass Carp Juveniles derives from the marketable fish of this cages in reservoir cultivation, and specification is 3300-3700g/ tail, on June 15th, 2011 grass carp kind disposable putting into respectively in 6 net cages.Cage size is 6m * 6m * 4m, and mesh is 5cm, and totally 6, each net cage is thrown in fingerling 700 tails, totally 4200 tails.Meat embrittlement special compound feed started to throw something and feed after 1 week.When embrittlement culturing time reaches 2 months, sampling check, oneself starts fish body meat to become fragile, after 3 first quarter moons, carry out the 2nd check, through stewing, the multiple cooking such as steamed, chafing dish carries out mouthfeel to embrittlement effect to detect the carnification of grass carp of the embrittlement material group that shows to feed tight hard and sharp and clear, and delicious flavour is good to eat, unique flavor.The flesh of fish is cut into the thick fillet of 2-3mm, in boiling water, boil 30min more than and not broken, oneself reaches embrittlement effect completely meat.Through scene, survey and produce, 6 mouthfuls of net cages are all produced qualified crisp meat grass carp, 4.6 kilograms of average cabrages, minimum individual 4.0 kilograms, maximum individual 6.2 kilograms. 6 mouthfuls of net cages are produced crisp meat grass carp 4130 tails, count heavy 18998 kilograms, case all produces 3166 kilograms of fishes, fingerling survival rate 98.3%, approximately 15000 kilograms, the feed of throwing something and feeding altogether, the mean feed 3.50.
This shows the grass carp of average specification 3.5kg/ tail, the grass carp meat embrittlement special compound feed of throwing something and feeding, more than embrittlement culturing time reaches 105d, can produce 4.5 kilograms of above qualified crisp meat grass carps of average cabrage, the breeding cycle of raising crisp meat grass carp with the broad bean of throwing something and feeding is 130 days-150 days, and feed coefficient 5-7 compares, and embrittlement culturing time significantly shortens, feed coefficient significantly reduces, and can more early reach commercial specification.
In sum, a kind of grass carp meat embrittlement special feed, can solve culture-cycle length, numerous and diverse problem of throwing something and feeding that existing use broad bean embrittlement grass carp exists, and the speed of growth of grass carp is very fast, there is lower feed coefficient, simultaneously in breeding process because reduced the discharge capacity of nitrogen, phosphorus, can alleviate the pollution to breeding water body, social benefit and remarkable in economical benefits.

Claims (1)

1. a grass carp meat embrittlement special feed, is characterized in that: the parts by weight of this feed formula each component are: broad bean 65-80 part, fish meal 1-3 part, inferior powder 2-10 part, rice bran 5-8 part, rapeseed dregs 9-15 part, betaine 0.2-0.3 part, Choline Chloride 0.3-0.5 part, calcium dihydrogen phosphate 0.4-0.8 part, enzyme preparation 0.10-0.15 part, B B-complex 0.4-0.6 part, composite mineral salt 1.0-1.5 part;
Described enzyme preparation is phytase and complex enzyme, and the part by weight of the two is 2~1:1;
Described B B-complex, its per kilogram contains: VA 1,500,000 IU, VD 3500000 IU, VE 15g, VK 32.2g, VB 12g, VB 24g, VB 63.2g, VB 120.02g, biotin 0.25g, nicotinic acid 8g, folic acid 0.25g, calcium pantothenate 4.3g, inositol 45g, VC 70g; The rest is corn protein powder;
Described composite mineral salt, its per kilogram contains: manganese sulfate 4.2g, zinc sulfate 52g, copper sulphate 1.5g, ferrous sulfate 20g, sodium selenite 0.01g, cobaltous sulfate 0.02g, KI 0.02g; The rest is montmorillonite;
Preparation method comprises the following steps:
A, by the requirement of grass carp meat embrittlement special feed formula each component parts by weight, take broad bean, fish meal, inferior powder, rice bran, rapeseed dregs, betaine, Choline Chloride, calcium dihydrogen phosphate, enzyme preparation, B B-complex and composite mineral salt;
B, broad bean, fish meal, inferior powder, rice bran, rapeseed dregs, betaine, Choline Chloride, calcium dihydrogen phosphate are pulverized after fully mixing, more than 98% crossed 40 mesh sieves, add in proportion enzyme preparation, B B-complex, composite mineral salt again to mix;
C, use mixture that ring mould granulator obtains step B through steam regulation of texture, conditioning of texture, granulation, then dry, cooling, screening, weighing and bagging;
Described grass carp specification is 3300-3700g/ tail.
CN201310151830.XA 2013-04-27 2013-04-27 Feed for tendering meat quality of grass carp and preparation method thereof CN103202406B (en)

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