CN102617208B - Edible fungus residue organic fertilizer raw materials and preparation method thereof - Google Patents

Edible fungus residue organic fertilizer raw materials and preparation method thereof Download PDF

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CN102617208B
CN102617208B CN201210074044XA CN201210074044A CN102617208B CN 102617208 B CN102617208 B CN 102617208B CN 201210074044X A CN201210074044X A CN 201210074044XA CN 201210074044 A CN201210074044 A CN 201210074044A CN 102617208 B CN102617208 B CN 102617208B
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vinegar
vinegar grain
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fertilizer raw
grain
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常大勇
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常大勇
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Abstract

The invention relates to edible fungus residue organic fertilizer raw materials and a preparation method thereof and belongs to the field of comprehensive utilization of resources. Vinegar residues are used as a culture medium for cultivating edible fungi; coarse fibers in the vinegar are decomposed by the edible fungi, so the fertilizer efficiency of the vinegar residues is improved; and fungus residues obtained after the edible fungi are cultivated are directly used as the organic fertilizer raw materials. According to the vinegar residues, the content of organic matter is 50 percent, but the content of coarse fibers is above 20 percent; and the vinegar residues is low in fertilizer efficiency and can only be used as a green seedling cultivation substrate or used for improving soil; if microorganism composing fermentation is adopted, a cycle is long; and the cycle of the method is almost the same as that of composing fermentation, but extremely obvious economic benefits are created; and the prepared organic fertilizer raw materials are durable in fertilizer efficiency and pollution-free, and can improve soil and the quality of crops, and promote growth of the crops. An effective way for comprehensively utilizing the vinegar residues is provided.

Description

A kind of edible fungi residue organic fertilizer raw material and preparation method thereof

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of edible fungi residue organic fertilizer raw material and preparation method thereof, belong to the comprehensive utilization of resources technical field.

Background technology

The vinegar grain is to make the main tankage of vinegar, accounts for 70%~80% of vinegar raw material processed.Vinegar grain composition is rice husk, wheat bran, rice slag etc., moisture content 70% left and right, and pH value 4.5~5.5, be slightly acidic.The vinegar grain contains crude protein 6%~10%, crude fat 2%~5%, coarse ash 13%~17%, nitrogen-free extract 14%~18%, and calcium 0.25%~0.45%, phosphorus 0.16%~0.37%, crude fiber content is up to more than 20%.

The vinegar grain is poor as the feed palatability, nutritive ingredient is low, can not use in a large number, because vinegar grain moisture content is high, oven dry needs a large amount of fuel in addition, belong to the highly energy-consuming product, and the oven dry expense is high, usually adopts the high-quality anthracite oven dry, more than 500 yuan of oven dry expense per ton, and as the feed selling price 600 yuan of left and right, so the vinegar grain does not possess advantage as feed.

Although vinegar grain organic content reaches 50%, but as fertilizer, use fertilizer efficiency lower, vinegar grain crude fiber content is higher, rice husk will be through decomposing for a long time in soil, usually can only use as soil conditioner or cultivation matrix, mainly as the greening seedling Nutrition Soil, economic worth is lower at present.Document 1 is publication number CN102138074.0, title " matrix and the manufacture method thereof of the botanical seedling culturing take the vinegar grain as raw material and cultivation use ".

Document 2 publication numbers are CN101830738A, and the patent application case of title " a kind of microbial organic fertilizer and production technique thereof of utilizing the vinegar grain to produce ", add plant ash, add bacterium through a Primary Fermentation, secondary secondary fermentation, 15~25 days summer and autumns of one time fermentation, 25~35 days winters, 15~25 days summer and autumns of Secondary Fermentation, 25~35 days winters, 30~50 days summer and autumns of fermenting twice time, 50~70 days winters, fermentation period is very long, stacks fermentation and takies a large amount of places, and relative cost is higher.

In today of wideling popularize recycling economy, development low-carbon (LC) industry, a large amount of undressed vinegar grains are arranged every year or bank up on the spot, or directly apply in farmland, this is not only a huge waste to agriculture organic resource, also easily cause bacterial reproduction, pathophoresis, impact peripheral living environment.And current fertilizer raw material sources are limited, and the output of fertilizer far can not meet the needs of agriculture production, therefore how to fully utilize the vinegar grain, make it be converted into nutrient complete, and the lasting and free of contamination fertilizer raw material of fertilizer efficiency, become vinegar industry a great problem processed.

Summary of the invention

The objective of the invention is to solve the problems of the technologies described above, a kind of edible fungi residue organic fertilizer raw material and preparation method thereof is provided.

The present invention is the substratum of vinegar grain as culturing edible fungus, decompose robust fibre in the vinegar grain by edible mushrooms, promote its fertilizer efficiency, get cultivated edible mushrooms the bacterium slag directly as the fertilizer raw material, percentage composition in bacterium slag gross weight, wherein, robust fibre accounts for 15%~30%, and nitrogen-free extract accounts for 15%~30%, calcium accounts for 0.2%~0.5%, phosphorus accounts for 0.1%~0.4%, and potassium accounts for 0~0.2%, and zinc accounts for 0~0.15%, iron accounts for 0~0.15%, water accounts for 35%~45%, and crude protein, crude fat and coarse ash account for 10%~60% altogether, and the three can the arbitrary proportion combination.

Further, in the percentage composition of bacterium slag gross weight, crude protein accounts for 4%~15%, and crude fat accounts for 1%~10%, and coarse ash accounts for 10%~20%.

The present invention also provides a kind of preparation method of edible fungi residue organic fertilizer raw material, and its step comprises: utilize the vinegar grain as culture medium of edible fungus, by edible mushrooms, consume robust fibre in the vinegar grain, get the bacterium slag cultivated after edible mushrooms as the fertilizer raw material.

Edible fungi residue organic fertilizer raw material of the present invention is prepared by the following step:

A, vinegar grain processed

Moisture content in the vinegar grain is adjusted to 60%~65% of vinegar grain total mass;

Adopt the beneficial effect of this step to be: usually the water ratio of vinegar grain is 72%, and the water ratio of culture medium of edible fungus is in 68% left and right, so the vinegar grain slightly gets final product through dehydration, saves a large amount of expenses, and energy-conserving and environment-protective;

B, pH value are regulated and raw material is regulated

Vinegar grain after processed is regulated pH value to 6~8 with lime powder, add the additive that accounts for vinegar grain and additive total mass 0.1%~20%, described additive is: a kind of or several combination arbitrarily in gypsum, ferrous sulfate, zinc sulfate, Semen Maydis powder, wheat bran, cotton seed hulls, urea, potassium primary phosphate, sucrose;

The packing preparation of C, substratum

The mixture that will obtain after upper two step process bacterium bag of packing into is made the bacterium rod;

D, sterilising treatment

The bacterium rod that makes is sterilizing under 90~120 ℃, and the bacterium rod after sterilizing is cooled to 25~35 ℃;

E, inoculation

, at bacterium rod two inoculation bacterial classification, after the fruit body of edible fungi maturation, pluck ripe edible mushrooms;

F, get the bacterium slag of having cultivated after edible mushrooms and namely obtain the fertilizer raw material.

In steps A: described vinegar grain is aromatic vinegar vinegar grain, it adopts following method preparation: take glutinous rice as raw material, through adding bent saccharification and wine, spawn the wine liquid as the vinegar unstrained spirits, then adopt solid-state layering fermentation technique, add wheat bran, rice chaff to mix in wine liquid solid-state, make vinegar after fermentation, obtain after filtering aromatic vinegar vinegar grain.

In steps A: described vinegar grain processed is: the vinegar grain is through extrusion dehydration, or to fresh vinegar grain, adds and contain actinomycetic microbial inoculum and stack the fermentation dehydration.

In step D: described sterilization time is 2~10 hours.

The educable edible mushrooms of substratum take the vinegar grain as main raw material is Pleurotus eryngii, flat mushroom, needle mushroom, Coprinus comatus, Pleurotus geesteranus, Hericium erinaceus (Bull. Ex Fr.) Pers., straw mushroom, mushroom, bisporous mushroom, auricularia auriculajudae.

Beneficial effect of the present invention:

1, raising fertilizer efficiency vinegar grain fibre content is higher, directly poor as the fertilizer fertilizer efficiency, can only use as planting soil, confirm through detecting, after edible fungus culturing, edible mushrooms digests 10% left and right with robust fibre, and nitrogen-free extract content increases by 7% left and right, calcium contents increases by 0.03% left and right, and its fertilizer efficiency is got a promotion.After edible mushroom collection, contain a large amount of mycelium and probiotics in the bacterium slag, and, by the enzymolysis of mycelial growth to culture material, produced various saccharides, organic acid, enzyme, biologically active substance and gal4 amino acid etc. simultaneously.Therefore, bacterium slag nutrient composition content is abundant, is a kind of good fertilizer raw material, and fertilizer efficiency is lasting and pollution-free, both can improve soil, can improve again the quality of farm crop, promotes the growth of farm crop.Utilizing the production of vinegar grain culturing edible fungus to meet the fertilizer raw material of Agro-ecology demand for development, is the important step that China's vinegar Enterprise Integrated processed utilizes the vinegar grain.

2, the cycle does not extend, the utility value several times promote owing to containing a large amount of rice husks in the vinegar grain, fibre content is high, be difficult to decompose, adopt the microbial process decomposition cycle very long, 30~50 days summer and autumns, winter-spring season 50~70 days also difficulty is become thoroughly decomposed fully, whole process length consuming time, the long-term stacking takies a large amount of places, and cost is very high., if as culture medium of edible fungus, the cycle of 40~50 days, amount to dried vinegar grain per ton and create the benefit of 3000~5000 yuan.

3, the reasonable vinegar grain of energy-saving and cost-reducing, technique moisture content 70% left and right, be suitable as very much the requirement of the substratum moisture of edible mushrooms, need remove moisture hardly, and the bacterium pulp water of having cultivated divides content in 40% left and right, the whole water content requirement that is fit to do well fertilizer, therefore whole technique does not need to expend a large amount of energy and removes moisture, and this is most important link in the large waste residue of water content.Adopt energy saving technology consumption reduction of the present invention, very reasonable.

Embodiment

Embodiment 1

1, vinegar grain processed

By the ribbon extrusion machine, moisture content in the vinegar grain is adjusted to 65% of vinegar grain total mass;

2, pH value is regulated and the raw material adjusting

Take weight percentage and be 1% lime powder, use a small amount of water dissolution, be sprayed on vinegar grain surface, the pH value of sampling Detection vinegar grain is 7.8, takes weight percentage and is 1% gypsum and above-mentioned material and together add in stirrer and stir;

3, the packing of substratum preparation

The mixture that will obtain after upper two step process manually packs makes the bacterium rod;

4, sterilising treatment

With the bacterium rod that makes at 100 ℃ of temperature sterilizing 10 hours, the bacterium rod after sterilizing was cooled to 30 ℃;

5, inoculation

, at bacterium rod two inoculation bacterial classification, after the fruit body of edible fungi maturation, pluck ripe edible mushrooms;

6, get the bacterium slag of having cultivated after edible mushrooms and namely obtain the fertilizer raw material

After testing, the fertilizer raw material contains robust fibre 17%, nitrogen-free extract 17.3%, calcium 0.5%, phosphorus 0.2%, water 35%, crude protein 10%, crude fat 5%, coarse ash 15%.

Manure trial

Test, take commercially available varieties of Brassica campestris as the examination material, is established 3 groups:

(1) vinegar grain group

Adopt Zhenjiang permanent in the fresh vinegar grain of vinegar industry, regulating PH with liming is 7.8, every mu of consumption 500kg;

(2) bacterium slag group

Adopt same source with batch vinegar grain, adopt the method for embodiment 1, get bacterium slag after Xinbao mushroom culturing, every mu of consumption 500kg;

(3) blank group

9 experimental plots are established in test, and every 30 square metres, each group revision test three times, result is as shown in table 1;

The output of three kinds of fertilizer cultivation Plantula Brassicae chinensiss of table 1

Group Blade The leaf look Average plant height (cm) Mean yield (folding per mu yield kg) Vinegar grain group Medium blade Green ??32.3 ??1635 Bacterium slag group Blade is large and thick Dark green ??34.2 ??1732 The blank group Blade is minimum Green ??31.4 ??1601

Experimental result shows: vinegar grain cultivation Plantula Brassicae chinensis, effect is not remarkable, and uses the bacterium slag, every mu of Plantula Brassicae chinensis volume increase 8.2%.

Embodiment 2

1, vinegar grain processed

Adding mass percent to fresh vinegar grain is 3% the actinomycetic microbial inoculum that contains, and adopts and stacks fermentation, opens film after 5 days, and vinegar grain water content is 65% after testing;

2, pH value is regulated and the raw material adjusting

Take mass percent and be 1.5% lime powder, use a small amount of water dissolution, be sprayed on vinegar grain surface, sampling Detection vinegar grain pH value is 8, and getting mass percent is that 1% gypsum, 0.2% urea, 0.5% potassium primary phosphate, 0.1% zinc sulfate and above-mentioned material stir in stirrer;

3, the packing of substratum preparation

The mixture that will obtain after upper two step process manually packs makes the bacterium rod;

4, sterilising treatment

The bacterium rod that makes at 120 ℃ of temperature sterilizing 2 hours, the bacterium rod after sterilizing is cooled to 35 ℃;

5, inoculation

, at bacterium rod two inoculation bacterial classification, after the fruit body of edible fungi maturation, pluck ripe edible mushrooms;

6, get the bacterium slag of having cultivated after edible mushrooms and namely obtain the fertilizer raw material

After testing, the fertilizer raw material contains robust fibre 15%, nitrogen-free extract 30%, calcium 0.44%, phosphorus 0.4%, potassium 0.14%, zinc 0.02%, water 36%, crude protein 6%, crude fat 2%, coarse ash 10%.

Manure trial

The test experimental cultivar is U.S.'s celery, establishes 3 groups:

(1) vinegar grain group

Adopt Zhenjiang permanent in the fresh vinegar grain of vinegar industry, regulating PH with liming is 8.0, every mu of consumption 500kg;

(2) bacterium slag group

Adopt same source with batch vinegar grain, adopt the method for embodiment 2, get bacterium slag after Xinbao mushroom culturing, every mu of consumption 500kg;

(3) blank group

9 experimental plots are established in test, 30 square metres of every areas, each group revision test three times.Result is as shown in table 2;

The output of three kinds of fertilizer cultivation U.S. celeries of table 2

Group Blade The stem stalk Average plant height (cm) Mean yield (folding per mu yield kg) Vinegar grain group The blade look shallow Thinner ??53.5 ??4823 Bacterium slag group Blade is large, look green Sturdy ??57.7 ??5115 The blank group The blade look shallow Thinner ??51.4 ??4633

Result shows: use vinegar grain cultivation U.S. celery, and every mu of volume increase 4.1%, and use the bacterium slag for cultivating, every mu of volume increase 10.4%.

Embodiment 3

1, vinegar grain processed

By the ribbon extrusion machine, moisture content in the vinegar grain is adjusted to 60% of vinegar grain total mass;

2, pH value is regulated and the raw material adjusting

Take mass percent and be 1% lime powder, use a small amount of water dissolution, be sprayed on vinegar grain surface, sampling Detection vinegar grain pH value is 6, takes mass percent and is 0.1% wheat bran and above-mentioned material and together add in stirrer and stir;

3, the packing of substratum preparation

The mixture that will obtain after upper two step process manually packs makes the bacterium rod;

4, sterilising treatment

The bacterium rod that makes at 90 ℃ of temperature sterilizing 7 hours, the bacterium rod after sterilizing is cooled to 25 ℃;

5, inoculation

, at bacterium rod two inoculation bacterial classification, after the fruit body of edible fungi maturation, pluck ripe edible mushrooms;

6, get the bacterium slag of having cultivated after edible mushrooms and namely obtain the fertilizer raw material

After testing, the fertilizer raw material contains robust fibre 15%, nitrogen-free extract 15.4%, calcium 0.2%, phosphorus 0.4%, water 45%, crude protein 4%, crude fat 10%, coarse ash 10%.

Embodiment 4

1, vinegar grain processed

Adding mass percent to fresh vinegar grain is 3% the actinomycetic microbial inoculum that contains, and adopts and stacks fermentation, opens film after 5 days, and vinegar grain water content is 65% after testing;

2, pH value is regulated and the raw material adjusting

Take mass percent and be 2% lime powder, use a small amount of water dissolution, be sprayed on vinegar grain surface, sampling Detection vinegar grain pH value is 8, gets mass percent and is 0.5% ferrous sulfate, 0.5% zinc sulfate, 10% Semen Maydis powder, 9% wheat bran and above-mentioned material and stir in stirrer;

3, the packing of substratum preparation

The mixture that will obtain after upper two step process manually packs makes the bacterium rod;

4, sterilising treatment

The bacterium rod that makes at 100 ℃ of temperature sterilizing 10 hours, the bacterium rod after sterilizing is cooled to 30 ℃;

5, inoculation

, at bacterium rod two inoculation bacterial classification, after the fruit body of edible fungi maturation, pluck ripe edible mushrooms;

6, get the bacterium slag of having cultivated after edible mushrooms and namely obtain the fertilizer raw material

After testing, the fertilizer raw material contains robust fibre 18%, and nitrogen-free extract accounts for 15%, calcium 0.39%, phosphorus 0.4%, zinc 0.11%, iron 0.1%, water 39%, crude protein 15%, crude fat 2%, coarse ash 10%.

Embodiment 5

1, vinegar grain processed, pH value are regulated and the raw material adjusting

Take weight percentage and be 1% lime powder, use a small amount of water dissolution, be sprayed on vinegar grain surface, the pH value of sampling Detection vinegar grain is 6.8, taking weight percentage and be 20% cotton seed hulls and above-mentioned material together adds in stirrer and stirs, cotton seed hulls is the Air drying state, water ratio 63% after mixing;

2, the packing of substratum preparation

The mixture that will obtain after upper two step process is made the bacterium rod;

3, sterilising treatment

With the bacterium that makes rod normal-pressure sterilization at 100 ℃ of temperature sterilizing 10 hours, the bacterium rod after sterilizing was cooled to 25 ℃;

4, inoculation

, at bacterium rod two inoculation bacterial classification, after the fruit body of edible fungi maturation, pluck ripe edible mushrooms;

5, get the bacterium slag of having cultivated after edible mushrooms and namely obtain the fertilizer raw material

After testing, the fertilizer raw material contains robust fibre 30%, nitrogen-free extract 15%, calcium 0.4%, phosphorus 0.1%, water 36.5%, crude protein 6%, crude fat 1%, coarse ash 11%.

Embodiment 6

1, vinegar grain processed

Adding mass percent to fresh vinegar grain is 3% the actinomycetic microbial inoculum that contains, and adopts and stacks fermentation, opens film after 5 days, and vinegar grain water content is 65% after testing;

2, pH value is regulated and the raw material adjusting

Take mass percent and be 1% lime powder, use a small amount of water dissolution, be sprayed on vinegar grain surface, sampling Detection vinegar grain pH value is 8, getting mass percent is that 1% gypsum, 0.2% urea, 0.7% potassium primary phosphate, 0,75% ferrous sulfate and above-mentioned material stir in stirrer;

3, the packing of substratum preparation

The mixture that will obtain after upper two step process manually packs makes the bacterium rod;

4, sterilising treatment

The bacterium rod that makes at 120 ℃ of temperature sterilizing 2 hours, the bacterium rod after sterilizing is cooled to 35 ℃;

5, inoculation

, at bacterium rod two inoculation bacterial classification, after the fruit body of edible fungi maturation, pluck ripe edible mushrooms;

6, get the bacterium slag of having cultivated after edible mushrooms and namely obtain the fertilizer raw material

After testing, the fertilizer raw material contains robust fibre 19%, and nitrogen-free extract accounts for 15%, and calcium accounts for 0.3%, phosphorus 0.35%, iron 0.15%, potassium 0.2%, water 35%, crude protein 9%, crude fat 1%, coarse ash 20%.

Crude protein, crude fat, the coarse ash three content combination in the fertilizer raw material is not limited to above embodiment, and the three can arbitrary proportion.

The foregoing is only preferred embodiment of the present invention, in order to limit the present invention, within the spirit and principles in the present invention not all, any modification of doing, be equal to replacement, improvement etc., within all should being included in protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (7)

1. an edible fungi residue organic fertilizer raw material, is characterized in that, in the percentage composition of bacterium slag gross weight, wherein, robust fibre accounts for 15%~30%, and nitrogen-free extract accounts for 15%~30%, calcium accounts for 0.2%~0.5%, phosphorus accounts for 0.1%~0.4%, and potassium accounts for 0~0.2%, and zinc accounts for 0~0.15%, iron accounts for 0~0.15%, water accounts for 35%~45%, and crude protein, crude fat and coarse ash account for 10%~60% altogether
Wherein, described fertilizer raw material is for utilizing the vinegar grain as culture medium of edible fungus, by edible mushrooms, consumes robust fibre in the vinegar grain, gets the bacterium slag cultivated after edible mushrooms as the fertilizer raw material,
Described vinegar grain is aromatic vinegar vinegar grain, and it adopts following method preparation: take glutinous rice as raw material, through adding bent saccharification and wine, spawn the wine liquid as the vinegar unstrained spirits, then adopt solid-state layering fermentation technique, add wheat bran, rice chaff to mix in wine liquid solid-state, make vinegar after fermentation, obtain after filtering aromatic vinegar vinegar grain.
2. edible fungi residue organic fertilizer raw material according to claim 1, is characterized in that, described crude protein, crude fat and coarse ash are in the percentage composition of bacterium slag gross weight, and crude protein accounts for 4%~15%, and crude fat accounts for 1%~10%, and coarse ash accounts for 10%~20%.
3. the preparation method of edible fungi residue organic fertilizer raw material according to claim 1, its step comprises:
A, vinegar grain processed
Moisture content in the vinegar grain is adjusted to 60%~65% of vinegar grain total mass;
B, pH value are regulated and raw material is regulated
Vinegar grain after processed is regulated pH value to 6~8 with lime powder, add the additive that accounts for vinegar grain and additive total mass 0.1%~20%, described additive is: a kind of or several combination arbitrarily in gypsum, ferrous sulfate, zinc sulfate, Semen Maydis powder, wheat bran, cotton seed hulls, urea, potassium primary phosphate, sucrose;
The packing preparation of C, substratum
The mixture that will obtain after upper two step process bacterium bag of packing into is made the bacterium rod;
D, sterilising treatment
With the bacterium rod that makes 90~120 0Sterilizing under C, the bacterium rod after sterilizing is cooled to 25~35 0C;
E, inoculation
, at bacterium rod two inoculation bacterial classification, after the fruit body of edible fungi maturation, pluck ripe edible mushrooms;
F, get the bacterium slag of having cultivated after edible mushrooms and namely obtain the fertilizer raw material.
4. the preparation method of edible fungi residue organic fertilizer raw material according to claim 3, it is characterized in that, vinegar grain described in steps A is aromatic vinegar vinegar grain, it adopts following method preparation:, take glutinous rice as raw material,, through adding bent saccharification and wine, spawn the wine liquid as the vinegar unstrained spirits, then adopt solid-state layering fermentation technique, add wheat bran, rice chaff to mix in wine liquid solid-state, make vinegar after fermentation, obtain after filtering aromatic vinegar vinegar grain.
5. the preparation method of edible fungi residue organic fertilizer raw material according to claim 3, is characterized in that, vinegar described in steps A grain processed is: the vinegar grain is through extrusion dehydration, or to fresh vinegar grain, adds and contain actinomycetic microbial inoculum and stack the fermentation dehydration.
6. the preparation method of edible fungi residue organic fertilizer raw material according to claim 3, is characterized in that, the sterilization time described in step D is 2~10 hours.
7. the preparation method of edible fungi residue organic fertilizer raw material according to claim 3, is characterized in that, described edible mushrooms is Pleurotus eryngii, flat mushroom, needle mushroom, Coprinus comatus, crab mushroom, Pleurotus geesteranus, Hericium erinaceus (Bull. Ex Fr.) Pers., straw mushroom, mushroom, bisporous mushroom, auricularia auriculajudae.
CN201210074044XA 2012-03-20 2012-03-20 Edible fungus residue organic fertilizer raw materials and preparation method thereof CN102617208B (en)

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