CN105199962B - A kind of microbial straw composing agent and its preparation method and application - Google Patents

A kind of microbial straw composing agent and its preparation method and application Download PDF

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CN105199962B
CN105199962B CN201510475773.XA CN201510475773A CN105199962B CN 105199962 B CN105199962 B CN 105199962B CN 201510475773 A CN201510475773 A CN 201510475773A CN 105199962 B CN105199962 B CN 105199962B
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straw
agent
stalk
culture
days
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CN105199962A (en
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张龙江
孙旭
苏良湖
陈玉东
蔡金傍
汝超杰
陈梅
刘臣伟
黄春燕
戴传超
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Nanjing Normal Univ
Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences MEP
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Nanjing Normal Univ
Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences MEP
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of efficiently quick microbial straw composing agent preparation method and applications, belong to microorganisms technical field.Three kinds of aspergillus niger, bacillus subtilis, Trichoderma viride bacterium are combined to obtain efficient fast microbiological straw decomposing inoculant according to proper proportion by the present invention, and mass percent is aspergillus niger 5 ~ 15%, bacillus subtilis 15 ~ 35%, Trichoderma viride 15 ~ 35%;Decomposing agent of the invention is equipped with a small amount of rice chaff or maize flour simultaneously and uses as leavening, i.e., by stalk after 25 ~ 30 days decomposed, then 0.2 ~ 0.5 kilogram of leavening is added in stalk per ton, forms the organic fertilizer for having growth-promoting disease-resistant.Microbial straw composing agent of the present invention has the advantages that improve decomposed efficiency, shortens the decomposed time, save production cost, reduce chemical fertilizer investment, improvement soil texture, improve legume crop planting benefit, preserve the ecological environment.

Description

A kind of microbial straw composing agent and its preparation method and application
Technical field
The invention belongs to microorganisms technical field, specially a kind of complex microorganism for direct decomposed agricultural crop straw Microbial inoculum and its preparation method and application.
Background technique
With the increase of world food yield, crop material yield increases, according to the United Nations's agricultural and grain survey of organization, In past ten years, about 6.643 hundred million tons of global rice straw yield.The resource utilization problem of stalk is recycled concerning to global energy And material conversion.
China is large agricultural country, and crop genetic resource total amount is totally in continuous growth trend, some researches show that, until 2015 I State's Primary Crop Straw yield is up to 900,000,000 tons or so.Contain a certain amount of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, silicon in agricultural crop straw Equal multiple elements, while the organic substances such as cellulose rich in, hemicellulose, lignin and protein.Contain in stalk For a large amount of nutritional ingredient that animals and plants utilize, studies have shown that phosphorus content is about 40%~60% in stalk, in rice straw Nitrogen content is about 0.60%, phosphorus content is about 0.09%, and wheat stalk nitrogen content is about 0.50%, phosphorus content is about 0.03%, Soybean stalk nitrogen content is about 1.93%, phosphorus content is about 0.03%, is the renewable biological source with comprehensive utilization value.
But the living resources that China could not make full use of this valuable, 2009, China was directly used as the straw of life fuel Stalk accounts for about the 20% of total amount, and fertilizer direct returning to farmland accounts for about 15%, and feed accounts for about 15%, and the raw material of industry accounts for about 2%, discards or outdoor The part of burning is up to 33%.A large amount of straw is at will piled up or is directly burned, not only land occupation, pollutes environment, and make At the serious waste of biomass energy.In addition, due to the higher cost of chemical fertilizer, and easily cause water pollution, soil hardening, Further attract research of the people to biomass fertilizers.Stalk contains largely using element, is the largest solid waste and supports Divide resource.Therefore, by microbial inoculant technique straw decomposing, seem extremely heavy to the resource utilization of agricultural crop straw It wants.
Crop straw decomposing inoculant often has that decomposing microbial inoculum is single, functional bacterial strain is on the low side, decomposed period is long, rotten at present The ripe halfway disadvantage of effect does not play the effect of good disease-resistant growth-promoting to next batch of crops.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of the invention is to overcome the shortcomings of existing decomposing microbial inoculum, a kind of efficiently quick straw decomposing bacterium is provided Agent accelerates straw decomposing efficiency, shortens decomposed period, improves decomposed quality, the decomposing microbial inoculum with disease-resistant growth-promoting.
In order to solve the above technical problems, The technical solution adopted by the invention is as follows:
A kind of microbial straw composing agent rapidly and efficiently, feature includes the following contents: aspergillus niger (Aspergillus Niger), bacillus subtilis (Bscillus subiilis), Trichoderma viride (Trichoderma viride);
The weight ratio of each ingredient of mentioned microorganism straw decomposing inoculant be aspergillus niger 5-15%, bacillus subtilis 15-35%, Trichoderma viride 15-35%.
Another object of the present invention is to provide the preparation processes of above-mentioned efficient straw decomposing agent, comprising:
1) aspergillus niger, bacillus subtilis, Trichoderma viride microbial inoculum are prepared respectively;
2) it by after three kinds of microbial inoculum drying and crushings of preparation, is uniformly mixed.
Specifically, specific step is as follows by the preparation process of above-mentioned decomposing agent:
1) inclined-plane culture: aseptically, aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride are seeded on PDA slant medium, at 28 DEG C Under the conditions of cultivate 2 days;Bacillus subtilis is seeded on LB slant medium, cultivates 1 day under the conditions of 28 DEG C;
2) seed culture: the strain cultivated in step 1) is aseptically inoculated in fluid nutrient medium respectively, Middle aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride are seeded in PDA culture medium, are to cultivate 2 days in 180r/min shaking table in 28 DEG C, revolving speed;By withered grass Bacillus is seeded on LB culture medium, is to cultivate 1 day in 180r/min shaking table in 28 DEG C, revolving speed;
3) solid multiplication culture medium: liquid seeds cultured in step 2) are aseptically inoculated into through height respectively It presses in the solid medium of sterilizing (wheat bran, chaff, rice husk), wherein inoculum concentration is the 5~15% of solid medium quality, wheat bran, Chaff, rice husk mass ratio are 6:3:1, and material-water ratio is 1:1~1.5, control environment temperature at 28 DEG C, culture makes bacterium number amount point for 7 days Do not reach 2~1,000,000,000/g;
4) it is dried: 3) it being dried at 45 DEG C after the solid multiplication culture of step, moisture control is 5 ~15%, the weight ratio of each ingredient is aspergillus niger 5-15%, bacillus subtilis 15-35%, Trichoderma viride 15-35%, drying Microbial inoculum after mixing can be used by pulverizing and sieving.
The third object of the present invention is to provide above-mentioned efficient straw decomposing agent in the purposes of straw-returning, the straw being applicable in Stalk includes corn stover, rice straw, wheat stalk.
Specifically, the rice chaff or maize flour that per kilogram decomposing agent is added 1.0~2.0 kilograms are as leavening, stalk per ton 0.2~0.5 kilogram of leavening is added, is added cow dung and the fruits and vegetables of stalk quality 20~35%, moisture control 65~ 80%, it is fermented 25~30 days after mixing with rice straw mulching, it is primary every turning in 2~3 days.
There are the disease-resistant growth-promoting functions to legume crop using the decomposing agent composting organic fertilizer and improve soil texture Effect.
The utility model has the advantages that efficient quick straw decomposing microbial inoculum of the invention, low in cost, and it is easy to use, it is particularly advantageous to It is used in acid soil;It is decomposed it is high-efficient, the period is short, high-quality, can solve the burning problem of agricultural stalk, reduce stalk and burn Burn the pollution to environment;Stalk after decomposed can be improved soil texture, be promoted soil fertility, to beans farming with direct returning to farmland Object has the effect of disease-resistant growth-promoting, is conducive to the resource utilization of agricultural stalk.
Detailed description of the invention
The influence of decomposing microbial inoculum Fig. 1 of the invention to the decomposed temperature of corn stover.
The influence of decomposing microbial inoculum Fig. 2 of the invention to corn stover organic matter.
The influence of decomposing microbial inoculum Fig. 3 of the invention to corn stover carbon-nitrogen ratio.
The influence of decomposing microbial inoculum Fig. 4 of the invention to corn stover E4/E6.
The influence of decomposing microbial inoculum composting organic fertilizer Fig. 5 of the invention to soil microbe quantity.
The influence of decomposing microbial inoculum composting organic fertilizer Fig. 6 of the invention to soil enzymatic activities.
Specific embodiment
According to following embodiments, the present invention may be better understood.However, as it will be easily appreciated by one skilled in the art that real It applies and is merely to illustrate the present invention described in example, without this hair described in detail in claims should will not be limited It is bright.
Embodiment 1: the preparation of decomposing microbial inoculum.
(1) inclined-plane culture: aseptically, by aspergillus niger, (Guangdong Province's Culture Collection is numbered GIM3.157), Trichoderma viride (Guangdong Province Culture Collection number GIM3.141) is seeded in PDA slant medium On, it is cultivated 2 days under the conditions of 28 DEG C;Bacillus subtilis (Guangdong Province Culture Collection number GIM1.372) inoculation It on LB slant medium, is cultivated 1 day under the conditions of 28 DEG C, strain aspergillus niger used, Trichoderma viride, bacillus subtilis are purchased from Guangdong Province's Culture Collection;
(2) seed culture: the strain of slant medium is aseptically inoculated in fluid nutrient medium respectively, wherein Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride are seeded in PDA culture medium, are to cultivate 2 days in 180r/min shaking table in 28 DEG C, revolving speed;
(3) solid culture: bacillus subtilis is seeded on LB culture medium, is cultivated 1 day under the conditions of 28 DEG C, 28 DEG C, revolving speed be 180r/min shaking table in cultivate 1 day;Cultured liquid seeds are aseptically inoculated into through high pressure respectively In the solid medium of sterilizing (wheat bran, chaff, rice husk), wherein inoculum concentration be solid medium quality 5~15%, wheat bran, chaff, Rice husk mass ratio is 6:3:1, and material-water ratio is 1:1~1.5, controls environment temperature at 28 DEG C, and culture to reach bacterium number amount for 7 days to exist 2~1,000,000,000/g.
(4) prepared by microbial inoculum: it is dried at 45 DEG C after solid multiplication culture, moisture control 5~15%, The weight ratio of each ingredient is aspergillus niger 10%, bacillus subtilis 30%, Trichoderma viride 30%, and the microbial inoculum after dry mixing passes through Pulverizing and sieving can be used.
Embodiment 2: the preparation of decomposing microbial inoculum.
It is respectively aspergillus niger (Guangdong Province Culture Collection number GIM3.148) that the present embodiment, which uses strain, green (Guangdong Province microorganism fungus kind protects for color trichoderma (Guangdong Province Culture Collection number GIM3.140), bacillus subtilis Hide center number GIM1.372), the weight ratio of each ingredient is aspergillus niger 5%, bacillus subtilis 35%, Trichoderma viride 35%, Remaining condition is the same as embodiment 1.
Embodiment 3: the preparation of decomposing microbial inoculum.
It is respectively aspergillus niger (Guangdong Province Culture Collection number GIM3.156) that the present embodiment, which uses strain, green (Guangdong Province microorganism fungus kind protects for color trichoderma (Guangdong Province Culture Collection number GIM3.139), bacillus subtilis Hide center number GIM3.157), the weight ratio of each ingredient is aspergillus niger 15%, bacillus subtilis 35%, Trichoderma viride 15%, Remaining condition is the same as embodiment 1.
Embodiment 4: the preparation of decomposing microbial inoculum.
It is respectively aspergillus niger (Guangdong Province Culture Collection number GIM3.152) that the present embodiment, which uses strain, green (Guangdong Province microorganism fungus kind protects for color trichoderma (Guangdong Province Culture Collection number GIM3.432), bacillus subtilis Hide center number GIM3.157), the weight ratio of each ingredient is aspergillus niger 5%, bacillus subtilis 35%, Trichoderma viride 35%, Remaining condition is the same as embodiment 1.
Embodiment 5: the preparation of decomposing microbial inoculum.
It is respectively aspergillus niger (Guangdong Province Culture Collection number GIM3.150) that the present embodiment, which uses strain, green (Guangdong Province microorganism fungus kind protects for color trichoderma (Guangdong Province Culture Collection number GIM3.443), bacillus subtilis Hide center number GIM3.157), the weight ratio of each ingredient is aspergillus niger 15%, bacillus subtilis 15%, Trichoderma viride 35%, remaining condition is the same as embodiment 1.
Embodiment 6: decomposed effect of the decomposing microbial inoculum of the present invention to corn stover.
(1) preparation of raw material
Selected corn stover, through after natural drying, being crushed to 1-2cm, moisture content by dedicated straw crusher For 11.92%, C/N 31.94, pH 6.69;Dry cow dung is naturally dry cattle manure, and moisture content 16.72%, C/N is 16.36, pH 8.56;The fruit/vegetable waste (predominantly Chinese cabbage) of selection is crushed to 1-2cm, moisture content 96.58%, C/N For 7.34, pH 6.44.
(2) processing of heap body:
WithEcological compost case carries out decomposed test, and each compost case is packed into 30 kilograms of corn stover, point Not Jia Ru corn stover quality 26% cow dung and fruits and vegetables, adjust heap body carbon-nitrogen ratio to 30 or so.Per kilogram embodiment 1 and implementation The rice chaff or maize flour that the decomposing agent for preparing in example 2 is added 1.0~2.0 kilograms as leavening, stalk addition per ton 0.2~ 0.5 kilogram of leavening is added leavening according to the amount of corn stover 1 ‰, compares wheat bran, chaff, rice husk only to add 1 ‰.It is mixed It is fermented 25~30 days after even with rice straw mulching, it is primary every turning in 2~3 days.
(3) evaluation of decomposed effect
After 30 days decomposed, it is added in the heap body of decomposing agent 1 and decomposing agent 2 not at tiny rod-shaped stalk, heap Body color is brown, and compareing in heap body still has a large amount of tiny rod-shaped stalk, and heap body color is still the color of stalk;Such as Fig. 1 Shown decomposing agent can significantly accelerate the heating of heap body, extend the time of megathermal period, and maximum temperature can reach 72 DEG C;Such as Fig. 2 institute Show that decomposing agent 1 and decomposing agent 2 can significantly increase the conductivity of heap body, since organic matter decomposition releases some phosphate, ammonium Caused by the inorganic salts such as salt, the increase of soluble-salt reflects the process of mineralization of organic material;Decomposing agent 1 shown in Fig. 3 and decomposing agent 2 The process of mineralization of organic material can significantly be increased, reduce the carbon-nitrogen ratio of heap body;Decomposing agent 1 shown in Fig. 4 and decomposing agent 2 can be apparent The E4/E6 of heap body is reduced, humic matter extent of polymerization is high, keeps heap body more stable.Illustrate that decomposing agent of the invention can be shortened straw Stalk decomposed period, the humification for improving decomposed temperature, accelerating stalk.
Embodiment 7: decomposing agent tests maize straw purposes
(1) pot experiment
Using bore 27cm, the basin of high 20cm plants soybean, and every basin fills soil 6kg.2 processing are set altogether, are control group respectively: Decomposing agent organic fertilizer 250g is not added in above-described embodiment 2,1 group of decomposing agent: decomposing agent 1 of the present invention is added in above-described embodiment 2 to be had Machine fertilizer 250g, 2 groups of decomposing agent: 2 organic fertilizer 250g of decomposing agent of the present invention being added in above-described embodiment 2.Each processing sets five basins, often 3 plants of basin, respectively handle random alignment.Every basin chemical fertilizer applied amount are as follows: 1.2g nitrogenous fertilizer, 3.0g phosphate fertilizer, 2g KCl, 1g K2SO4。
(2) sample collection and index determining
In terms of soil: respectively before soybean planting, seedling stage, flower pod phase, maturity period acquisition pedotheque, being stood after sample acquisition Laboratory is taken back, a part of sample carries out the measurement of edaphon immediately, and another part carries out enzyme activity survey after air-drying sieving It is fixed.The measurement of edaphon uses plate dilution method: fungi, actinomyces and bacteria culture media are respectively rose-bengal culture Base, No. 1 culture medium of Gao Shi (every 300ml culture medium is added 3% potassium bichromate 1ml and inhibits bacterium and fungus growth) and beef extract egg White peptone culture medium.Soil urease liveness measurement uses phenol-sodium hypochlorite colorimetric method, with rear 1g soil NH for 24 hours4 +The amount (mg) of-N It indicates urease activity (U);Phosphatase uses disodium phenyl phosphate colorimetric method for determining, with 1g soil phenol content (g) table after 24 hours Show phosphatase activity (U).
In terms of soybean: measuring plant height, stem merogenesis number, nodule weight and the root nodule numbers of soybean plant strain, and measure soybean Biomass and yield, while counting the incidence of plant leaf.Soybean disease leaf disease index is investigated, grade scale is as follows: 0 Grade: disease-free spot;1 grade: lesion area accounts for entire 5% or less leaf area;2 grades: scab leaf area accounts for the 6%- of entire leaf area 10%;3 grades: scab leaf area accounts for entire leaf area 11%-25%;4 grades: scab leaf area accounts for entire leaf area 26%-50%; 5 grades: scab leaf area accounts for entire 50% or more leaf area.
(3) to the influence of soybean plant strain and soil
The organic fertilizer of 2 composting of decomposing agent 1 and decomposing agent of the present invention can make the total fresh weight difference of the big beans obtained seen from table 1 Increase by 37% and 37.5%, total pod number increases separately 18.3% and 33.3%, and total grain number increases separately 3% and 22%, total beanpod Fresh weight increases separately 36.1% and 37%;Soybean nodulation weight increases separately 39% and 90%, and root nodule numbers increase separately 21.1% and 74%;Disease incidence is reduced to 53% by 60%, and disease index is reduced to 27% by 31%.Show decomposing agent composting of the present invention Organic fertilizer there is apparent disease-resistant growth-promoting effect to legume crop.
1 decomposing agent of table is to the disease-resistant growth-promoting functions of soybean plant strain
Bacterium, fungi and Population of Actinomycetes are most in big Tofu pudding pod phase soil as shown in Figure 5, and addition decomposing agent 2 has Machine fertilizer makes to spend bacterial number in pod phase soil higher by 21% than compareing, and has no significant effect to fungi and actinomyces;Add shown in Fig. 6 Add the soil urease enzyme activity of 2 organic fertilizer of decomposing agent higher by 22% and 9% than compareing respectively at soybean seedling and florescence, urase is soil In one of most active hydrolase, provide nitrogen source for plant growth.The increase of urase enzyme activity, which accelerates, all kinds of in soil nitrogenous to be had Machine intermediate product is converted into the available substance of plant, to improve the content of root system available nitrogen.Seedling stage soil phophorus as shown in Figure 6 Sour enzyme enzyme activity is smaller, only measures colored pod phase and maturity period soil phosphorus loss enzyme activity.The flower pod phase is the critical period of soybean growth, addition The soil phosphorus loss enzyme activity of 2 organic fertilizer of decomposing agent is higher by 200% and 50% than compareing respectively in soybean florescence and maturity period.Show this The organic fertilizer of invention decomposing agent composting can improve soil texture.
This hair can be understood and applied the above description of the embodiments is intended to facilitate those skilled in the art It is bright.Person skilled in the art obviously easily can make various modifications to these embodiments, and described herein General Principle is applied in other embodiments without having to go through creative labor.Therefore, the present invention is not limited to implementations here Example, those skilled in the art's announcement according to the present invention, improvement and modification made without departing from the scope of the present invention all should be Within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. a kind of microbial straw composing agent, which is characterized in that preparation process is as follows:
1) inclined-plane culture: aseptically, aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride being seeded on PDA slant medium, in 28 DEG C of conditions Lower culture 2 days;Bacillus subtilis is seeded on LB slant medium, cultivates 1 day under the conditions of 28 DEG C;
2) seed culture: the strain cultivated in step 1) is aseptically inoculated in fluid nutrient medium respectively, wherein black Aspergillus, Trichoderma viride are seeded in PDA culture medium, are to cultivate 2 days in 180r/min shaking table in 28 DEG C, revolving speed;By withered grass gemma Bacillus is seeded on LB culture medium, is to cultivate 1 day in 180r/min shaking table in 28 DEG C, revolving speed;
3) solid multiplication culture medium: liquid seeds cultured in step 2) are aseptically inoculated into respectively and are gone out through high pressure In the solid medium of bacterium, which is made of wheat bran, chaff, rice husk and water, and wherein inoculum concentration is solid culture matrix The 5~15% of amount, wheat bran, chaff, rice husk mass ratio are 6:3:1, and material-water ratio is 1:1~1.5, control environment temperature at 28 DEG C, train Supporting 7 days makes bacterium number amount respectively reach 2~1,000,000,000/g;
4) be dried: 3) it being dried at 45 DEG C after the solid multiplication culture of step, moisture control 5~ 15%, the weight ratio of each ingredient is aspergillus niger 5-15%, bacillus subtilis 15-35%, Trichoderma viride 15-35%, and drying is mixed Microbial inoculum after even can be used by pulverizing and sieving.
2. a kind of microbial straw composing agent as described in claim 1 includes in the purposes of straw-returning, the stalk being applicable in Corn stover, rice straw, wheat stalk.
3. microbial straw composing agent according to claim 2 is in the purposes of straw-returning, it is characterised in that per kilogram is rotten As leavening, 0.2~0.5 kilogram of fermentation is added in stalk per ton for the ripe dose of rice chaff for being added 1.0~2.0 kilograms or maize flour Agent, the cow dung and fruits and vegetables, moisture control that stalk quality 20~35% is added are fermented after 65~80%, mixing with rice straw mulching It is 25~30 days, primary every turning in 2~3 days.
4. microbial straw composing agent according to claim 3 is in the purposes of straw-returning, it is characterised in that decomposing agent heap Organic fertilizer processed is to the disease-resistant growth-promoting functions of legume crop and to the improvement of soil texture.
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