CN101614139A - Multicycle power generation thermodynamic system - Google Patents

Multicycle power generation thermodynamic system Download PDF

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CN101614139A
CN101614139A CN 200910090215 CN200910090215A CN101614139A CN 101614139 A CN101614139 A CN 101614139A CN 200910090215 CN200910090215 CN 200910090215 CN 200910090215 A CN200910090215 A CN 200910090215A CN 101614139 A CN101614139 A CN 101614139A
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cycle
vapour
work
medium
power
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CN 200910090215
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Chinese (zh)
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王世英
王恩岐
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王世英
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    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01KSTEAM ENGINE PLANTS; STEAM ACCUMULATORS; ENGINE PLANTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; ENGINES USING SPECIAL WORKING FLUIDS OR CYCLES
    • F01K23/00Plants characterised by more than one engine delivering power external to the plant, the engines being driven by different fluids
    • F01K23/02Plants characterised by more than one engine delivering power external to the plant, the engines being driven by different fluids the engine cycles being thermally coupled
    • F01K23/04Plants characterised by more than one engine delivering power external to the plant, the engines being driven by different fluids the engine cycles being thermally coupled condensation heat from one cycle heating the fluid in another cycle
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F01MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
    • F01KSTEAM ENGINE PLANTS; STEAM ACCUMULATORS; ENGINE PLANTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; ENGINES USING SPECIAL WORKING FLUIDS OR CYCLES
    • F01K25/00Plants or engines characterised by use of special working fluids, not otherwise provided for; Plants operating in closed cycles and not otherwise provided for
    • F01K25/08Plants or engines characterised by use of special working fluids, not otherwise provided for; Plants operating in closed cycles and not otherwise provided for using special vapours
    • F01K25/10Plants or engines characterised by use of special working fluids, not otherwise provided for; Plants operating in closed cycles and not otherwise provided for using special vapours the vapours being cold, e.g. ammonia, carbon dioxide, ether

Abstract

The invention relates to a multicycle power generation thermodynamic system. A first cycle is an improved Rankine cycle. A low-boiling medium is used as a cold source for condensing water vapour which accomplishes work doing into water, and the source of cold energy of the low-boiling medium is that the medium does work in a second cycle expansion unit to generate power and reduce temperature. The second cycle comprises: gasification evaporation, expansion work doing and temperature reduction, driving an electric generator to generate power; and after doing work, vapour is directly turned into liquid or is turned into liquid by a compressor from the vapour state, or achieves the vapour state with minimum value of compression work; the vapour is pressurized to enter an evaporator of the second cycle, the absorbed vapour is condensed, the latent heat is vaporized, and finally the vapour enters a second medium expansion machine to do work. The water vapour in the Rankine cycle condenser, which accomplishes work doing, transfers the latent heat to a second medium and then is condensed into water. When the second cycle can not completely convert the latent heat of the water vapour which accomplishes work doing into power, a third medium is used for a third cycle; the principle thereof is identical with the second cycle, but the third medium is a substance with lower boiling point. The invention can increase the thermal efficiency of a condensing type or an extracting-and-condensing style thermal power generation system, namely the Rankine cycle.

Description

多循环发电热力系统 Multi-cycle thermal power generation system

技术领域 FIELD

本发明涉及一种双循环、多循环凝汽式和抽凝式发电热力循环,以及由蒸汽轮机直接拖动的风机或压縮机或水泵的热力循环系统,它由改进的朗肯循环和第二介质循环,或由改进的朗肯循环和第二(介质)循环及第三(介质)循环及第三循环以上的多循环组成。 The present invention relates to a dual loop, and multi-cycle condensing steam extraction condensing power thermodynamic cycle, the thermodynamic cycle system and the steam turbine fan or compressor directly dragged or pump, which consists of the improved Rankine cycle and two medium circulation, or by the improved Rankine cycle and a second (media) and a third loop (medium) and over a third circulation loop consisting of multi-cycle. 背景技术 Background technique

现行火力发电占绝对主体的是朗肯循环。 Existing thermal power accounted for the absolute subject is the Rankine cycle. 在朗肯循环中,凝汽器一般是列管式换热器, 其壳程是做完功的水蒸汽和水蒸汽的凝结水。 In the Rankine cycle, the condenser is generally tubular heat exchanger, which shell is water vapor condensate and the water vapor finish work. 做完功的水蒸汽把凝结潜热传给循环冷却水后凝结成水,冷凝水被凝水泵送至化学工段精处理或送入锅炉除氧器与补充水混合,除氧后经给水泵进入锅炉,再变成高温高压蒸汽进入汽轮机做功,如此往复循环。 After the successful finish of steam latent heat to the circulating cooling water condenses into water, the condensed water is fed to pump condensate polishing or chemical section into the boiler deaerator supplement mixed with water, the boiler feed pump oxygen through , and then enter a high temperature high pressure steam turbine to do work, and so forth cycle. 其管程走的是循环冷却水,循环水吸收了水蒸汽的凝结潜热后温度升高,再送到双曲线冷却塔蒸发冷却降温, 如此循环使用。 Which the tube is taking circulating cooling water, circulating water after absorption of the latent heat of condensation of water vapor temperature rises, and then evaporated to a hyperbolic cooling tower to cool down, so recycling. 此过程是把水蒸汽的凝结潜热转化成循环水的汽化潜热,通过双曲线冷却塔放散到大气中,使水蒸汽得以凝结成水循环使用。 This process is the latent heat of condensation of water vapor is converted into latent heat of vaporization of the circulating water, emission to the atmosphere through a hyperbolic cooling tower, water vapor is condensed into water recycling.

朗肯循环的热效率,中压机组不到40%,超临界机组不到50%。 Rankine cycle thermal efficiency of less than 40% of medium-voltage unit, supercritical unit of less than 50%. 其根本原因是只能利用水蒸汽的显热,而潜热是通过冷却塔放散到大气中。 The fundamental reason is that only use the sensible heat of water vapor, the latent heat emission to the atmosphere through a cooling tower. 这也是现在所有发电厂都配备双曲线冷却塔的原因。 This is also the reason now that all plants are equipped with hyperbolic cooling tower. 发明内容 SUMMARY

本发明的目的是提出一种多循环发电热力系统,它把朗肯循环做完功的进入凝汽器的水蒸汽的凝结潜热也用起来发电。 Object of the present invention is to provide a multi-cycle thermodynamic power generation systems, it is the latent heat of condensation of the work done Rankine cycle steam into the condenser of the power generation is also used up.

为此,本发明采用以下技术方案: To this end, the present invention employs the following technical solution:

一种多循环发电热力系统,包括第一循环,该第一循环为改进的朗肯循环,第一循环中包括凝汽器,其特征在于: A multi-cycle thermodynamic power generation system comprising a first cycle, the first cycle to improve the Rankine cycle, the first cycle comprising a condenser, characterized in that:

该系统还包括第二循环,该第二循环是低沸点介质吸收朗肯循环凝汽器水蒸汽凝结潜热后的二次发电循环; The system further includes a second cycle, the second cycle is a low-boiling absorption medium Rankine cycle condenser condenses vapor generation cycle after the second latent heat;

所述二次发电循环的基本单元是蒸发单元、膨胀单元、发电单元和加压单元,加压单元是液体加压泵单元或气体压縮单元或液体加压泵单元和气体压縮单元。 The secondary electric power generation cycle is the basic unit of the evaporation unit, the expansion unit, the power generation unit and the pressing unit, the pressing unit is a pump unit or a liquid pressurizing gas compression unit and a pump unit or a liquid pressurizing gas compression unit.

所述第一循环的凝汽器是改进的凝汽器,是压力容器,不再使用循环冷却水把做完功的水蒸汽凝结,而是使用低沸点的介质使水蒸汽凝结,所述凝汽器的壳程进口接汽轮机排汽, 所述凝汽器的壳程出口接冷凝水系统,所述凝汽器的管程串接于第二循环中; The first cycle is improved condenser condenser, a pressure vessel, the circulating cooling water is no longer used to finish the work of condensation of water vapor, but the use of low-boiling medium is water vapor condenses, the condensate a vapor inlet connected to the shell side of the turbine exhaust steam, the outlet of the condenser shell access condensate system, the tube-condenser of the second loop connected in series;

所述低沸点介质的冷量来源是低沸点介质做功降温;低沸点介质吸收第一循环凝汽器水蒸汽凝结潜热后把热能变成低沸点介质的动能,推动第二循环膨胀单元输出轴运动,带动第二发电单元发电或发电并制冷; The low boiling-point medium is a low boiling point source of cold work cooling medium; after the first low-boiling absorption medium circulating condenser latent heat of condensation of water vapor into the kinetic energy of the low-boiling medium, pushes the second cycle of the output shaft motion expansion unit , to drive the second power generation unit and power generation or cooling;

所述第二循环的工质是低沸点介质,所述低沸点介质是除水以外且在第一循环凝汽器工况条件下沸点小于80'C的物质,包括:二氧化碳气、二氧化碳及其吸收剂丙酮或N-甲基_2-吡咯垸酮或其他适用吸收剂的混合物、氮气、空气、氦气、氩气、氨、其他适用气体、氨的水溶液、氟里昴系列、垸烃、烯烃及烷烃、烯烃混合物中之一种或组合; The second working fluid circulating medium is a low boiling point, the low-boiling-point medium is a substance other than water and in a first working cycle conditions condenser boiling point less than 80'C, comprising: carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide, and absorber mixture of acetone or N- methyl pyrrolidin _2- one embankment or other suitable absorbent, nitrogen, air, helium, argon, ammonia, other suitable gas, aqueous ammonia, fluoro Pleiades in series, hydrocarbons embankment, olefins and paraffins, a mixture of an olefin or combinations thereof;

所述的低沸点介质,其在第一循环凝汽器正常工况下能够气化,即沸点小于80'C,以气 The low boiling point medium which can be vaporized in the condenser of the first cycle under normal operating conditions, i.e., boiling point less than 80 'C., in a gas

化温度低于摄氏35'C度以下为佳;介质在经济压力下能够液化;所述经济压力,是压縮功小 Temperature below 35'C degrees Celsius is preferred; medium can be liquefied under economic pressure; the economic pressure, the compression work is small

于膨胀功与循环效率的乘积。 And the expansion power cycle efficiency of the product.

所述循环中的介质物态是下述之一:全程气态,气、液二态互相转化,气、液、固三态 The circulating medium of state is one of the following: the entire gaseous, gas-liquid two each transition, gas, liquid, and solid states

转化,气态是过热态、气态是饱和态或过热态和饱和态转化。 Conversion, superheated gaseous state, the gaseous state is saturated or superheated and saturated state transition. 进一步地: further:

所述第一循环包括蒸汽锅炉、蒸汽轮机、发电机、改进的凝汽器、凝水泵、化学水处理、 除氧器上水泵、除氧器、锅炉给水泵及火力发电所有的部分或全部附属和环保设备或汽机拖动风机、汽轮机拖动压缩机或汽轮机拖动水泵所有的部分或全部附属和环保设备; The first cycle comprises a steam boiler, a steam turbine, a generator, an improved condenser, condensate pumps, water treatment chemicals, deaerator pump, deaerator, boiler feed pump and part or all of the thermal power of all affiliated and environmental protection equipment or drag the fan turbine, steam turbine or steam turbine compressor drag drag pump all of part or all of the subsidiary and environmental protection equipment;

所述第二循环是亚临界、跨临界发电循环和超临界发电循环之一,其中: The second loop is subcritical, one transcritical cycle power generation and a supercritical cycle, wherein:

当第二循环采取第一种亚临界、跨临界发电循环时,第二循环包括第二蒸发单元即改进的朗肯循环凝汽器、第二膨胀单元、第二发电单元、第二储液单元、第二加压泵单元、第二液态介质补充单元或第二气态介质补充单元或第二液态介质补充单元和第二气态介质补充单元,还可包括第二泄漏介质收集单元; When the second circulation take a first subcritical, transcritical power cycle, the second cycle comprises a second evaporation unit that is improved Rankine cycle condenser, a second expansion unit, the second power generation unit, the second reservoir unit second pressurizing pump unit, the second unit or the second liquid medium a gaseous medium supplemented replenishing unit replenishing unit or the second liquid medium and the second gaseous medium supplement means, further comprising a second leakage medium collecting unit;

当第二循环采取第二种亚临界、跨临界发电循环时,包括第二蒸发单元即改进的朗肯循环凝汽器、第二膨胀单元、第二发电单元、第二压縮单元、第二气液分离单元、第二气液分离单元分离出的液体一级加压泵单元、二级加压泵单元、第二液态介质补充单元或第二气态介质补充单元或第二液态介质补充单元和第二气态介质补充单元,还可包括第二泄漏介质收集单元; When the second circulation take the second subcritical, transcritical cycle power generation, including a second evaporation unit that is improved Rankine cycle condenser, a second expansion unit, the second power generation unit, the second compression unit, a second a gas-liquid separation unit, the second gas-liquid separation unit separating a liquid pressurizing pump means, two pressure pump unit, the second unit or the second liquid medium a gaseous medium supplemented replenishing unit or the second unit, and a liquid medium supplemented The second gaseous medium supplement means, further comprising a second leakage medium collecting unit;

当第二循环采取第一种超临界发电循环时,第二循环包括第二蒸发单元即改进的朗肯循环凝汽器、第二膨胀单元、第二发电单元、第二压縮单元,第二介质补充单元,还可包括第二泄漏介质收集元,还可设第二换热单元并放在不同位置; When the second supercritical cycle taking a first power generation cycle, the second cycle comprises a second evaporation unit that is improved Rankine cycle condenser, a second expansion unit, the second power generation unit, the second compression unit, a second medium supplement means, further comprising a second leakage collection medium element, and also provided a second heat exchange unit in different positions;

当第二循环采取第二种超临界循环时,第二循环包括第二蒸发器单元即改进的朗肯循环凝汽器、第二膨胀单元、第二发电单元、第二压缩单元、第二自换热单元或第二自换热单元和换热单元、第二介质补充单元,还可包括第二泄漏介质收集单元; When the second circulation take the second supercritical cycle, the second cycle comprising a second evaporator unit that is improved Rankine cycle condenser, a second expansion unit, the second power generation unit, the second compression unit, from a second or from the second heat exchange unit heat exchange unit and heat exchange unit, the second supplemental media unit may further include a second leakage medium collecting unit;

所述四种循环是基本发电循环;各循环中介质补充单元可以设计成固定式或移动式,设计成移动式时,在系统上只做出接口;泄漏介质收集单元可不设;增减辅助单元的数量,改变辅助单元的位置即成为基本循环的改型。 It is a basic cycle of the four power cycles; each cycle supplemental media unit may be designed to be fixed or mobile, when designed as a mobile, made only on the system interfaces; leaky dielectric collecting unit may not be provided; increase or decrease in the assist unit number, changing the position of the secondary unit becomes modifications of the basic cycle.

所述单元指包括本体设备及其附属设备、部件、元件、连接以及仪表和控制之全部。 It refers to the cell body of the device and its ancillary equipment, components, elements, connections and comprises all the instrumentation and control purposes. 更进一步地: go a step further:

所述第二循环是发电-制冷联合循环,在发电的同时输出冷量,所述发电-制冷联合循环可以是亚临界、跨临界发电-制冷联合循环和超临界发电-制冷联合循环之一,其中: The second cycle is the generation - Combined refrigerating cycle, the output power at the same time cold, the power - Combined refrigerating cycle may be subcritical, transcritical power - supercritical refrigeration cycle combined power and - one combined refrigeration cycle, among them:

当所述第二循环采取第一种亚临界、跨临界发电-制冷联合循环时,第二循环包括:第二蒸发器单元即改进的朗肯循环凝汽器、第二膨胀单元、第二发电单元、第二储液单元、第二液态介质加压泵单元、第二供冷单元、第二液态介质补充单元或第二气态介质补充单元或第二液态介质补充单元和第二气态介质补充单元,还可包括第二泄漏介质收集单元; When the second circulation take a first subcritical, transcritical power - when combined refrigeration cycle, the second cycle comprising: a second evaporator unit that is improved Rankine cycle condenser, a second expansion unit, the second power generation unit, the second reservoir unit, the second liquid medium pressure pump unit, a second cooling unit, the second unit or the second liquid medium a gaseous medium supplemented replenishing unit replenishing unit or the second liquid medium and the second gaseous medium supplemented unit , further comprising a second leakage medium collecting unit;

当所述第二循环采取第二种亚临界、跨临界发电-制冷联合循环时,第二循环包括:第二蒸发单元即改进的朗肯循环凝汽器、第二膨胀单元、第二发电单元、第二压縮单元、第二气液分离单元、第二气液分离单元分离出的液态介质一级加压泵单元、液态介质二级加压泵单元、第二供冷单元、第二液态介质补充单元或第二气态介质补充单元或第二液态介质补充单元和第二气态介质补充单元,还可包括第二泄漏介质收集单元; When the second circulation take the second subcritical, transcritical power - when combined refrigeration cycle, the second cycle comprising: a second evaporator unit that is improved Rankine cycle condenser, a second expansion unit, the second power generation unit second compression unit, a second gas-liquid separation unit, the pressurized second gas-liquid separation unit separating the liquid medium a pump unit, two medium pressure liquid pump unit, a second cooling unit, a second liquid supplemental media unit or the second unit or the second gaseous medium supplemented liquid medium replenishing unit replenishing unit and a second gaseous medium, the medium may further comprise a second leakage collection means;

当所述第二循环采取第一种超临界发电-制冷联合循环时,第二循环包括:第二蒸发单元即改进的朗肯循环凝汽器、第二膨胀单元、第二发电单元,第二压縮单元、第二供冷单元、 第二介质补充单元、第二泄漏介质收集和再利用单元,其中第二供冷单元可放在流程的不同位置; When the second circulation take a first supercritical power - when combined refrigeration cycle, the second cycle comprising: a second evaporator unit that is improved Rankine cycle condenser, a second expansion unit, the second power generation unit, the second a compression unit, a second cooling unit, the second medium supplement means, a second leakage collection medium and reusing unit, wherein the second flow of cooling units may placed in different positions;

当所述第二循环采取第二种超临界发电-制冷联合循环时,第二循环包括:第二蒸发单元即改进的朗肯循环凝汽器、第二膨胀单元、第二发电单元、第二压縮单元、第二自换热单元、 第二供冷单元、第二介质补充单元、第二泄漏介质收集和再利用单元,其中供冷单元可放在流程的不同位置; When the second circulation take the second supercritical power - when combined refrigeration cycle, the second cycle comprising: a second evaporator unit that is improved Rankine cycle condenser, a second expansion unit, the second power generation unit, the second compression unit, from the second heat exchange unit, a second cooling unit, the second supplemental media unit, and a second leakage collection medium recycling unit at different positions, wherein a flow of cooling units can be placed;

所述四种发电-制冷联合循环是发电-制冷联合循环的四种基本循环;各循环中介质补充单元可以设计成固定式或移动式,设计成移动式时,在系统上只做出接口;泄漏介质收集单元也可不设。 Of the four power generation - refrigeration combined cycle power generation - the four basic combined cycle refrigeration cycle; cycles in each unit may be designed to supplement the medium fixed or mobile, designed to be mobile, the system made only on the interface; leakage medium collecting unit may not be provided.

增减辅助单元的数量,改变辅助单元的位置即成为基本循环的改型。 Decrease the number of auxiliary units, i.e., a position changing unit become secondary modifications of the basic cycle. 所述单元中的附属单元的位置可做变通; Position of the auxiliary units do work unit;

所述单元指包括本体设备及其附属设备、部件、元件、连接以及仪表和控制之全部。 It refers to the cell body of the device and its ancillary equipment, components, elements, connections and comprises all the instrumentation and control purposes.

更进一步地: go a step further:

在所述第二循环后接第三发电循环或第三发电-制冷联合循环,所述第三循环使用介质的沸点比第二循环采用的介质沸点低;所述介质包括二氧化碳气、二氧化碳及其吸收剂丙酮或N-甲基-2-吡咯烷酮或其他适用物质的混合物、氮气、空气、氦气等惰性气体、氨、其他适用气体、氨的水溶液、氟里昴系列、烷烃、烯烃及烷烃、烯烃混合物中之一种或组合。 Second cycle following said third cycle power generation or third generation - Combined refrigerating cycle, the third cycle of the low boiling point medium-boiling medium is used than using the second cycle; said medium comprises carbon dioxide gas, carbon dioxide, and absorbent acetone or N- methyl-2-pyrrolidone or a mixture of other suitable materials, nitrogen, air, inert gas such as helium, ammonia, other suitable gas, aqueous ammonia, fluoro Pleiades in series, alkanes, alkenes and alkanes, one or a combination of the olefin mixture.

更进一步地: go a step further:

所述三循环的第二循环采取亚临界、跨临界发电循环或超临界发电循环或亚临界、跨临界发电-制冷联合循环或超临界发电-制冷联合循环之一;所述第三循环采取亚临界、跨临界发电循环或超临界发电循环和亚临界、跨临界发电-制冷联合循环或超临界发电-制冷联合循环之一,第二循环与第三循环排列组合; The second circulation take three cycles subcritical or trans-critical cycle power generation cycle is a supercritical or subcritical, transcritical power - or supercritical refrigeration combined cycle power generation - one combined cycle refrigerant; alkylene take the third cycle critical, generation cycle transcritical or supercritical and subcritical cycle power generation, power generation transcritical - supercritical refrigeration cycle power generation or combined - one combined refrigeration cycle, the second cycle and third cycle permutations;

当所述第二循环采取第二种亚临界、跨临界发电循环时,第二循环包括:第二蒸发单元即改进的朗肯循环凝汽器,第二膨胀单元、第二发电单元、第二压缩单元、第二凝汽单元、 第二气液分离单元、第二气液分离单元分离出的液体一级加压泵单元、二级加压泵单元、第二液态介质补充单元或第二气态介质补充单元或第二液态介质补充单元和第二气态介质补充单元,还可设第二泄漏介质收集单元,所述凝汽器单元即为第三循环蒸发单元; When the second circulation take the second subcritical, transcritical power cycle, the second cycle comprising: a second evaporator unit that is improved Rankine cycle condenser, a second expansion unit, the second power generation unit, the second compression unit, the second condensing unit, the second gas-liquid separation unit, the second gas-liquid separation unit separating a liquid pressurizing pump means, two pressure pump unit, a second liquid or second gaseous medium supplemented unit supplemental media unit or the second liquid medium and the second gaseous medium replenishing unit replenishing unit, the second leakage medium may further collecting unit is provided, the condenser unit is the third circulation evaporator unit;

当所述第二循环采取第一种超临界发电循环时,第二循环包括:第二蒸发单元即改进的朗肯循环凝汽器,第二膨胀单元、第二发电单元、第二压縮单元、第二冷却单元、第二介质补充单元,还可设第二泄漏介质收集单元; When the second supercritical cycle taking a first power generation cycle, the second cycle comprising: a second evaporator unit that is improved Rankine cycle condenser, a second expansion unit, the second power generation unit, the second compression unit , a second cooling unit, the second medium supplement means, a second leakage medium may further collecting unit is provided;

当所述第二循环釆取第二种超临界发电循环时,第二循环包括:第二蒸发单元即改进的朗肯循环凝汽器,第二膨胀单元、第二发电单元、第二压縮单元、第二冷却单元、第二自换热单元、第二介质补充单元,还可设第二泄漏介质收集和二次利用单元; When the second supercritical cycle preclude taking a second power cycle, the second cycle comprising: a second evaporator unit that is improved Rankine cycle condenser, a second expansion unit, the second power generation unit, the second compression unit, a second cooling unit, from the second heat exchange unit, the second supplemental media unit, the media may be provided a second leakage collection means and a secondary use;

当所述第三循环采取发电循环时,第三循环是亚临界、跨临界发电循环或超临界发电循环之一; When taking the third cycle power generation cycle, the third cycle is subcritical, transcritical power cycle or one supercritical power generation cycle;

当所述第三循环采取第一种亚临界、跨临界发电循环时,第三循环包括第二蒸发单元即改进的朗肯循环凝汽器、第二膨胀单元、第二发电单元、第二储液单元、第二加压泵单元、 第二液态介质补充单元或第二气态介质补充单元或第二液态介质补充单元和第二气态介质补充单元,还可设第二泄漏介质收集单元; When the third cycle to take a first subcritical, transcritical power generation cycle, the third cycle comprises a second evaporation unit that is improved Rankine cycle condenser, a second expansion unit, the second power generation unit, the second reservoir fluid means, pressurizing the second pump unit, the second unit or the second liquid medium a gaseous medium supplemented replenishing unit replenishing unit or the second liquid medium and the second gaseous medium supplement means, a second leakage medium may further collecting unit is provided;

当所述第三循环采取第二种亚临界、跨临界发电循环时,第三循环包括第三蒸发单元即第二循环的凝汽单元或第二冷却单元、第三膨胀单元、第三发电单元、第三压缩单元、第三气液分离单元、第三气液分离单元分离出的液体一级加压泵单元、液体二级加压泵单元、第三液态介质补充单元或第三气态介质补充单元或第三液态介质补充单元和第三气态介质补充单元,还可设第三泄漏介质收集单元; When the third cycle of the second take subcritical, transcritical cycle power generation, a third loop comprising a third evaporation unit i.e. the second condensing steam cycle cooling unit or the second unit, the third expansion unit, the third power generating unit , third compression means, the third gas-liquid separation unit, a third gas-liquid separation unit separates out a liquid pressurizing pump unit, two fluid pressurizing pump unit, the third unit or the third liquid medium a gaseous medium supplement added unit or the third liquid medium replenishing unit and the third unit supplemental gaseous medium, the medium may leak third collecting unit is provided;

当所述第三循环是第一种超临界发电循环时,第三循环包括第三蒸发单元即第二循环的凝汽单元或第二冷却单元、第三膨胀单元、第三发电单元、第三压縮单元,第三介质补充单元,还可设第三泄漏介质收集和再利用单元; When the third cycle is a first supercritical power generation cycle, the third cycle comprises a third second-cycle evaporation unit i.e. the trap unit or the second cooling unit, the third expansion unit, a third power generation unit, the third a compression unit, a third medium supplement means, a third leakage also be provided to collect and reuse the medium unit;

当所述第三循环是第二种超临界发电循环时,第三循环包括第三蒸发单元即第二循环的凝汽单元或第二冷却单元、第三膨胀单元、第三发电单元、第三压縮单元、第三自换热单元、 第三介质补充单元,还可设第三泄漏介质收集单元; When the third generation cycle is a supercritical cycle during the second, third loop comprising a third evaporation unit i.e. the second condensing steam cycle cooling unit or the second unit, the third expansion unit, a third power generation unit, the third a compression unit, from the third heat exchange unit, the third medium supplement means, a third set may leak medium collecting unit;

当所述第三循环是第一种亚临界、跨临界发电-制冷联合循环时,第三循环包括:第三蒸发器单元即第二循环凝汽单元或第二冷却单元、第三膨胀单元、第三发电单元、第三储液单元、第三液态介质加压泵单元、第三供冷单元、第三液态介质补充单元或第三气态介质补充单元或第三液态介质补充单元和第三气态介质补充单元,其中供冷单元可放在流程的不同位置;还可设第三泄漏介质收集单元; When the third cycle is the first subcritical, transcritical power - when combined refrigeration cycle, the third cycle comprising: a third evaporator unit i.e. the second unit or the second condensing steam cycle cooling unit, the third expansion unit, a third power generation unit, the third liquid storage unit, a third liquid medium pressure pump unit, the third cooling unit, the third unit or the third liquid medium a gaseous medium supplemented replenishing unit replenishing unit or the third liquid medium and a gaseous third medium replenishing unit, wherein the cooling units may placed in different positions of the process; medium leakage also be provided a third collecting unit;

当所述第三循环是第二种亚临界、跨临界发电-制冷联合循环时,第三循环包括:第三蒸发器单元即第二循环凝汽单元或第二冷却单元、第三膨胀单元、第三发电单元、第三压縮单元、第三气液分离单元、第三气液分离单元分离出的液态介质一级加压泵单元、第三液态介质二级加压泵单元、第三供冷单元、第三液态介质补充单元或第三气态介质补充单元或第三液态介质补充单元和第三气态介质补充单元,其中供冷单元可放在流程的不同位置;还可设第三泄漏介质收集单元; When the third cycle is the second subcritical, transcritical power - when combined refrigeration cycle, the third cycle comprising: a third evaporator unit i.e. the second unit or the second condensing steam cycle cooling unit, the third expansion unit, a third power generation unit, the third compression pressurizing means, a third gas-liquid separation unit, a third gas-liquid separation unit separates the liquid medium a pump unit, the third liquid pressure medium two pump units, for the third cooling unit, the third unit or the third liquid medium a gaseous medium supplemented replenishing unit replenishing unit or the third liquid medium and medium supplement means at different positions, wherein the cooling unit is placed in a third gas flow; further provided a third leaky dielectric collecting unit;

当所述第三循环是第一种超临界发电-制冷联合循环时,第三循环包括:第三蒸发单元即第二循环凝汽单元或第二冷却单元、第三膨胀单元、第三发电单元、第三压縮单元、第三供冷单元、第三介质补充单元,还可设第三泄漏介质收集单元,其中供冷单元可放在流程的不同位置; When the third cycle is a first supercritical power - when combined refrigeration cycle, the third cycle comprising: a third vaporization unit, that traps second circulation unit or the second cooling unit, the third expansion unit, the third power generating unit , third compression means, the third cooling unit, the third medium supplement means, a third set may leak medium collecting unit, wherein the cooling units may placed in different positions of the process;

当所述第三循环是第二种超临界发电制冷循环时,第三循环包括:第三蒸发单元即第二循环凝汽单元或第二冷却单元、第三膨胀单元、第三发电单元、第三压縮单元、第三自换热单元、第三供冷单元、第三介质补充单元,其中供冷单元可放在流程的不同位置;还可设第三泄漏介质收集单元, When the third loop is a second generation supercritical refrigeration cycle, the third cycle comprising: a third vaporization unit, that traps second circulation unit or the second cooling unit, the third expansion unit, a third power generation unit, the first three compression means, from a third heat exchange unit, the third cooling unit, the third medium supplement means, wherein the cooling units may placed in different positions of the process; medium leakage also be provided a third collecting unit,

所述四种发电-制冷联合循环是四种发电-制冷联合循环的基本循环;增减辅助设备或改变辅助设备的位置即成为基本循环的改型;所述单元指包括本体设备及其附属设备、部件、 元件、连接以及仪表和控制之全部。 Generation of the four - four kinds of refrigeration combined cycle power generation is - combined basic cycle refrigeration cycle; increasing or decreasing auxiliary equipment or accessory position change becomes modifications of the basic cycle; means a unit comprising the body of the device and auxiliary equipment , components, elements, connections, and instrumentation and control of all. 更进一步地: go a step further:

循环数可以大于等于四,其中:第一循环是改进的朗肯循环,从第二循环开始,是基本发电循环及改型和基本发电-制冷联合循环及改型的组合之一;从第三循环开始,前一循环的膨胀单元后要增加凝汽单元或冷却单元;所述凝汽单元或冷却单元即后一循环的蒸发单元; 所述各循环中的单元,指包括本体设备及其附属设备、部件、元件、连接以及仪表和控制之全部。 The number of cycles may be greater than equal to four, wherein: the first cycle is improved Rankine cycle, starting from the second cycle, the basic power generating cycle and the modification and basic - one combination of refrigeration and modifications of the combined cycle; from the third cycle begins after the previous cycle the expansion unit to increase the condensing unit or cooling unit; after the trap unit or a cooling unit, that a circulation evaporator unit; a unit of each cycle, comprising a body of the device and its subsidiary means apparatus, components, elements, connections, and instrumentation and control of all.

更进一步地: go a step further:

所述多循环的膨胀单元,是透平式膨胀机、容积式膨胀机、喷嘴之一种或二种或三种的组合;透平式中有轴流式、离心式或二者的组合混流式,可做成冲动式(冲击式),也可做成反动式(反击式);叶片能承受单相气态或单相液态或二相流液态和气态或三相流气态、液态和固态介质的冲击;可以是一次膨胀,也可是多次膨胀;可以是一台膨胀机,也可是多台膨胀机;透平叶轮材质,可以是合金钢以及铝合金和钛合金,可以前数级是合金钢,介质降到某一温度后改用铝合金或钛合金,或前数级是合金钢,介质降到某一温度后改用铝合金,再降到某一温度后改用钛合金或先改用钕合金再改用铝合金,可以在基材上喷涂、刷涂或烧结耐磨损或耐磨损和耐冲刷或耐磨损和耐冲刷和耐腐蚀物质; The multi-cycle expansion unit is a turbine expander, a positive displacement expander, or a combination of A nozzle two or three; and wherein the turbine has axial, centrifugal, or a combination of both Francis type, can be made impulse (impact) can also be made reaction formula (impact); blade can withstand a single-phase gas or single phase liquid or a two-phase or three-phase flow of liquid and gaseous flow of gaseous, liquid and solid media shock; may be once expanded, the expansion may also be repeatedly; may be an expander, the expander may also be more than one; turbine impeller material may be steel and aluminum and titanium, an alloy may first few stages after the switch to the aluminum alloy or titanium alloy steel, medium temperature falls below a certain, pre-log or alloy steel, medium alloy falls below a certain temperature after the switch, and then the temperature falls below a first switch or a titanium alloy then switch to switch neodymium alloy, may be sprayed on a substrate, or brushing, or sintering abrasion and wear resistance, erosion resistance, or abrasion and erosion and corrosion substances;

所述容积式膨胀机,可使用活塞汽缸式、滚动活塞式、摆动转子式、涡旋式、螺杆式, 所述膨胀机输出轴有二种输出方式; 一种是只接发电机,第二种是一端联发电机,另一端联压缩机。 The positive displacement expander, using a piston-cylinder, rotary piston, a swing rotor, scroll, screw, the expander output shaft has two kinds of output modes; only one is connected to the generator, a second One end of the generator is linked species, with the other end of the compressor.

更进一步地: go a step further:

所述多循环的气体压縮单元可采用轴流式、离心式、活塞式,可做成单级或二级或多级压缩机,可以采用一台及一台以上的压縮机;轴流和离心可分成两台压缩机,也可做成一台: 前数级为轴流,后一级或数级为离心,压縮后使介质接近饱和,再用容积式压縮机压縮成液态,也可用透平或容积式压缩机直接压縮成液态;成为液态的介质用离心泵或容积泵加压升高到必要压力,在超临界循环中,每级压缩后可带冷却器,冷却器可用循环水冷却、空气冷却或其他介质冷却或用从前一循环凝汽器膨胀后的低温气体冷却。 The multi-cycle gas compression unit can be axial, centrifugal, piston, can be made into a single stage compressor or two or more stages, one above and one compressor may be employed; axial and centrifugal compressors can be divided into two, one can also be made: the first few stages of an axial flow, after one or several centrifugal stages, the compression of the medium close to saturation, and then compressed into displacement compressor liquid, also be a turbine or a positive displacement compressor is directly compressed into a liquid; a necessary pressure of the liquid medium was added to the pressure is increased by centrifugal or positive displacement pump, in the supercritical cycle, after each stage of compression may be with a cooler, available cooler circulating water cooling, air cooling or other cooling medium or the low temperature gas cooling cycle after the previous condenser expansion.

更进一步地: go a step further:

所述的膨胀单元和压縮机单元可做成一体,即膨胀压縮机;所述膨胀压縮机的种类和型式可以是轴流透平式、离心透平式、轴流离心混流式、往复活塞式、滚动活塞式、摆动转子式、滑片式、螺杆式、铰接叶片式等。 The expansion unit and compressor unit may be formed integrally, i.e., the expansion of the compressor; and type of the expandable type compressors may be axial flow turbine, centrifugal turbine, axial centrifugal Francis, a reciprocating piston, rotary piston, a swing rotor, vane, screw, hinge leaf type.

更进一步地:所述热力循环的设备、装置、管路采取隔热保温保冷措施,使循环成为绝 Further: the thermodynamic cycle of the device, means cold pipe insulation measures to be taken, the circulation must be

热循环或接近绝热循环。 Thermal cycling or nearly adiabatic cycle. 本发明具有以下效果: The present invention has the following effects:

l提高凝汽式和抽凝式朗肯循环发电机组和朗肯循环风机、压缩机、水泵机组的热效率, 由于水蒸汽的凝结潜热大于显热,本发明可提高朗肯循环的热效率约100%; 2极大减少循环冷却水的消耗; 3提高机组凝汽器真空度,提高发电量;4减少基建投资。 l improve the condensing steam and extraction condensing Rankine cycle power and the Rankine cycle turbine, a compressor, a thermal efficiency of the pump unit, due to condensation of water vapor the latent heat greater than the sensible heat, the present invention can improve the Rankine cycle thermal efficiency of about 100%; 2 greatly reduce the consumption of cooling water circulating; improved condenser vacuum unit 3, to improve the power generation; 4 reduced capital investment. 附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

图1为双循环发电流程:第一循环是改进的朗肯循环,第二循环是第1种亚临界跨临界发电循环,即膨胀单元出口介质为全液态,饱和态或微过冷态; Figure 1 is a dual-cycle power generation process: the first cycle is improved Rankine cycle, the second cycle is the first type of power subcritical transcritical cycle, i.e., an expansion unit for the whole liquid medium outlet, a saturated or slightly supercooled state;

图2为双循环发电流程:第一循环是改进的朗肯循环,第二循环是第2种亚临界跨临界发电循环,即膨胀单元出口介质为气液二相流,饱和态; FIG 2 is a dual-cycle power generation process: the first cycle is improved Rankine cycle, the second cycle is the second type subcritical generation transcritical cycle, i.e. the expansion unit outlet gas-liquid two-phase flow of the medium, the saturation regime;

图3为双循环发电流程:第一循环是改进的朗肯循环,第二循环是第1种超临界发电循环,膨胀单元出口气体是过热态; Figure 3 is a dual-cycle power generation process: the first cycle is improved Rankine cycle, the second cycle is the first type of supercritical power generation cycle, the expansion unit outlet superheated gas state;

图4为双循环发电流程:第一循环是改进的朗肯循环,第二循环是第2种超临界发电循环,膨胀单元出口气体是过热态; FIG 4 is a binary power generation process: the first cycle is improved Rankine cycle, the second cycle is the second type of supercritical power generation cycle, the expansion unit outlet superheated gas state;

图5为双循环发电及制冷流程跨临界发电-制冷循环; FIG 5 is a binary power generation and cooling process in a transcritical - refrigeration cycle;

图6为双循环发电及制冷流程跨临界发电-制冷循环; FIG 6 is a binary power generation and cooling process in a transcritical - refrigeration cycle;

图7为双循环发电及制冷流程发电-制冷循环; FIG 7 is a binary power generation and cooling process - the refrigeration cycle;

图8为双循环发电及制冷流程发电-制冷循环; 8 is a binary power generation and cooling process - the refrigeration cycle;

图9为三循环发电流程:第一循环是改进的朗肯循环,第二循环是第1种亚临界跨临界发电循环,第三循环是第1种亚临界跨临界发电循环; Figure 9 is a three-cycle power generation process: the first cycle is improved Rankine cycle, the second cycle is the first type of power subcritical transcritical cycle, the third cycle is the first type subcritical transcritical cycle power generation;

图10为三循环发电流程:第一循环是改进的朗肯循环,第二循环和第三循环都是第2种亚临界、跨临界发电循环; FIG 10 is a three-cycle power generation process: the first cycle is improved Rankine cycle, the second cycle and third cycle of the second type are subcritical, transcritical cycle power generation;

图ll为三循环发电流程:第一循环是改进的朗肯循环,第二循环是第2种亚临界跨临界循环,第三循环是第l种超临界发电循环; - Fig ll is a three-cycle power generation process: the first cycle is improved Rankine cycle, the second cycle is the second type subcritical transcritical cycle, the third cycle is the first kind l supercritical generation cycle; -

图12为三循环发电流程:第一循环是改进的朗肯循环,第二循环是第2种亚临界跨临界循环,第三循环是第2种超临界循环的三循环发电流程; FIG 12 is a three-cycle power generation process: the first cycle is improved Rankine cycle, the second cycle is the second type subcritical transcritical cycle, the third cycle is the second type of supercritical cycle three-cycle power generation process;

图13为三循环发电流程:第一循环是改进的朗肯循环,第二循环是第1种超临界发电循环,第三循环是第2种超临界循环的三循环发电流程; FIG 13 is a three-cycle power generation process: the first cycle is improved Rankine cycle, the second cycle is the first type of supercritical power generation cycle, the third cycle is the second type of supercritical cycle three-cycle power generation process;

图14为三循环发电流程:第一循环是改进的朗肯循环,第二循环和第三循环都是第2种超临界循环的三循环发电流程; FIG 14 is a three-cycle power generation process: the first cycle is improved Rankine cycle, the second cycle and third cycle of the second type are supercritical cycle three-cycle power generation process;

图15为三循环发电及制冷流程:第一循环是改进的朗肯循环,第二循环是第一种亚临界跨临界发电-制冷循环,第三循环是第二种亚临界跨临界发电-制冷循环, FIG 15 is a three-cycle power generation and cooling process: the first cycle is improved Rankine cycle, the second cycle is the first generation transcritical subcritical - refrigeration cycle, the third cycle is transcritical subcritical second generation - Cooling cycle,

图16为三循环发电及制冷流程:第一循环是改进的朗肯循环,第二循环是第2种亚临界跨临界发电-制冷循环,第三循环是第1种超临界发电-制冷循环的三循环流程; FIG 16 is a three-cycle power generation and cooling process: the first cycle is improved Rankine cycle, the second cycle is the second type subcritical transcritical power - the refrigeration cycle, the third cycle is the first type of supercritical power - refrigeration cycle three-cycle process;

图17为三循环发电及制冷流程:第一循环是改进的朗肯循环,第二循环是第2种亚临界跨临界发电-制冷循环,第三循环是第2种超临界发电-制冷循环的三循环流程; FIG 17 is a three-cycle power generation and cooling process: the first cycle is improved Rankine cycle, the second cycle is the second type subcritical transcritical power - the refrigeration cycle, the third cycle is the second type of supercritical power - refrigeration cycle three-cycle process;

图18为三循环发电及制冷流程:第一循环是改进的朗肯循环,第二循环是是第1种超临界发电-制冷循环,第三循环是第2种超临界发电-制冷循环的三循环流程; FIG 18 is a three-cycle power generation and cooling process: the first cycle is improved Rankine cycle, the second cycle is the first one kind of a supercritical power - the refrigeration cycle, the third cycle is the second type of supercritical power - three refrigeration cycle cycle process;

:第一循环是改进的朗肯循环,第二循环是第1种亚临界:第一循环是改进的朗肯循环,第二循环是第2种亚临界:第一循环是改进的朗肯循环,第二循环是第1种超临界:第一循环是改进的朗肯循环,第二循环是第2种超临界图19为三循环发电及制冷流程:第一循环是改进的朗肯循环,第二循环是第2种亚临界跨临界循环的发电-制冷循环,第三循环是第2种亚临界跨临界发电循环的三循环流程; : The first cycle is improved Rankine cycle, the second cycle is the first type Subcritical: first cycle is improved Rankine cycle, the second cycle is the second type subcritical: first cycle is improved Rankine cycle the second cycle is the first type of supercritical: the first cycle is improved Rankine cycle, the second cycle is the second type of supercritical FIG. 19 is a three-cycle power generation and cooling process: the first cycle is improved Rankine cycle, the second cycle is the second type subcritical transcritical cycle power generation - the refrigeration cycle, the third cycle is a three-cycle process the second type subcritical transcritical cycle power generation;

图20为三循环发电及制冷流程:第一循环是改进的朗肯循环,第二循环是第2种亚临界跨临界循环的发电循环,第三循环是第2种超临界发电-制冷循环的三循环流程。 FIG 20 is a three-cycle power generation and cooling process: the first cycle is improved Rankine cycle, the second cycle is the second type subcritical transcritical cycle power generation cycle, the third cycle is the second type of supercritical power - refrigeration cycle three-cycle process. 具体实施方式 detailed description

下面结合附图作进一步说明。 BRIEF DESCRIPTION further binding.

图1: 1蒸汽锅炉2蒸汽轮机3发电机组或风机或压縮机或水泵4凝汽器5凝水泵6 化学水处理7除氧器8锅炉给水9第二蒸发单元(也是第一循环凝汽器)IO第二膨胀单元ll第二发电单元12第二储液单元13第二加压泵单元14第二液态介质补充单元15第二气态介质补充单元16第二泄漏介质收集单元 FIG 1: 1 steam turbine 2 steam boiler or generator 3 or compressor or fan pump condenser 4 5 6 Chemical Water condensate pump deaerator 7 8 9 a second boiler feed water evaporation unit (first cycle also traps It is) the IO ll second expansion unit 12 second power generation unit of the second reservoir pressurization pump unit 13 of the second unit 14 second unit 15 second supplementary liquid medium a gaseous medium supplemented medium collecting unit 16 second leakage unit

图2: 1蒸汽锅炉2蒸汽轮机3发电机组或风机或压縮机或水泵4凝汽器5凝水泵6 化学水处理7除氧器8锅炉给水9第二蒸发单元(也是第一循环凝汽器)IO第二膨胀单元11第二发电单元12第二压缩单元13第二气液分离器单元14第二一级加压泵单元15第二二级加压泵单元16第二液态介质补充单元17第二气态介质补充单元18第二泄漏介质收集单元 FIG 2: 1 steam turbine 2 steam boiler or generator 3 fan pump or compressor or condenser 4 5 6 Chemical Water condensate pump deaerator 7 8 9 a second boiler feed water evaporation unit (first cycle also traps It is) the IO expansion unit 11 of the second power generation unit of the second compression unit 12 of the second gas-liquid separator 13 the second unit 14 second unit 15, a second pressure pump pressurizing pump unit 16 two second liquid medium replenishing means 17 second gaseous medium supplemented medium collecting unit 18 second leakage unit

图3: 1蒸汽锅炉2蒸汽轮机3发电机或风机或压縮或水泵4凝汽器5凝水泵6化学水处理7除氧器8锅炉给水泵9第二蒸发单元(也是第一循环凝汽器)10第二膨胀单元11 第二环发电单元12第二压缩单元13第二换热单元14第二中间冷却单元15第二介质补充单元16第二泄漏介质收集单元。 The second evaporation unit 1 9 2 steam boiler steam turbine or generator 3, or compressed or fan pump condenser 4 5 6 Chemical Water condensate pump 8 7 deaerator boiler feed pump (first loop traps are: 3 ) 10 second expansion means 11 of the second power generating unit 12 rings the second compression unit 13 of the second intermediate heat exchanger unit 14 of the second supplemental cooling unit 15 second unit 16 second leakage dielectric medium collecting unit.

图4: 1蒸汽锅炉2蒸汽轮机3发电机或风机或压縮或水泵4凝汽器5凝水泵6化学水处理7除氧器8锅炉给水泵9第二蒸发单元(也是第一循环凝汽器)lO第二膨胀单元ll 第二发电单元12第二压縮单元13第二自换热单元14第二介质补充单元15第二泄漏介质收集单元。 The second evaporation unit 1 9 2 steam boiler steam turbine or generator 3, or compressed or fan pump condenser 4 5 6 Chemical Water condensate pump 8 7 deaerator boiler feed pump (first loop trap is: 4 is) the second expansion unit lO ll second power generation unit 12 from the second compression unit 13 of the second heat exchanger unit 14 second unit 15 second leakage medium supplemented medium collecting unit.

图5: 1蒸汽锅炉2蒸汽轮机3发电机组或风机或压缩机或水泵4凝汽器5凝水泵6 化学水处理7除氧器8锅炉给水9第二蒸发单元(也是第一循环凝汽器)IO第二膨胀单元11第二发电单元12第二储液单元13第二加压泵单元14第二供冷单元15第二液态介质补充单元16第二气态介质补充单元17第二泄漏介质收集单元 FIG 5: 1 steam turbine 2 steam boiler or generator 3 fan pump or compressor or condenser 4 5 6 Chemical Water condensate pump deaerator 7 8 9 a second boiler feed water evaporation unit (first cycle is Condenser ) the IO expansion unit 11 second unit 12 second power generation unit of the second reservoir pressurization pump 13 of the second unit 14 second unit 15 second cooling medium liquid replenishing unit 16 of the second gaseous medium supplemented medium collecting unit 17 second leakage unit

图6: 1蒸汽锅炉2蒸汽轮机3发电机组或风机或压缩机或水泵4凝汽器5凝水泵6 化学水处理7除氧器8锅炉给水9第二蒸发单元(也是第一循环凝汽器)IO第二膨胀单元11第二发电单元12第二压縮单元13第二气液分离单元14第二一级加压泵单元15第二二级加压泵单元16第二供冷单元17第二液态介质补充单元18第二气态介质补充单元19 第二泄漏介质收集单元。 FIG 6: 1 steam turbine 2 steam boiler or generator 3 fan pump or compressor or condenser 4 5 6 Chemical Water condensate pump deaerator 7 8 9 a second boiler feed water evaporation unit (first cycle is Condenser The second cooling unit 16) second expansion means 11 the IO second power generation unit 12 of the second compression unit 13 of the second gas-liquid separation unit 14, a pressurizing pump unit 15 of the second second two of the pressure pump unit 17 two supplementary units 18 of the second liquid medium a gaseous medium supplemented medium collecting unit 19 second leakage unit.

图7: 1蒸汽锅炉2蒸汽轮机3发电机或风机或压縮机或水泵4凝汽器5凝水泵6化学水处理7除氧器8锅炉给水9第二蒸发单元(也是第一循环凝汽器)IO第二膨胀机组单元ll第二发电机单元12第二压縮单元13第二供冷单元14第二介质补充单元15第二泄漏介质收集单元。 Figure 7: 1 steam turbine 2 steam boiler or generator 3 fan pump or compressor or condenser 4 5 6 Chemical Water condensate pump deaerator 7 8 9 a second boiler feed water evaporation unit (first cycle also traps It is) the IO expansion unit the second unit is a second generator ll second compression unit 12 unit 13 of the second supplemental cooling unit 14 a second unit 15 second leakage dielectric medium collecting unit.

图8: 1蒸汽锅炉2蒸汽轮机3发电机组或风机、水泵4凝汽器5凝水泵6化学水处理7除氧器8锅炉给水9第二蒸发单元(也是第一循环凝汽器)10第二膨胀单元11第二发电单元12第二压縮单元13第二自换热单元14第二供冷单元15第二介质补充单元16 第二泄漏介质收集单元。 FIG 8: 1 steam turbine 2 steam boiler or generator blower 3, pump 4 pumps the condensate condenser 5 6 7 Chemical Water boiler feed water deaerator 9 8 a second evaporation unit (first cycle also condenser) section 10 second expansion means 11 of the second power generation unit 12 from the second compression unit 13 of the second heat exchange unit 14 of the second supplemental cooling unit 15 second unit 16 second leakage dielectric medium collecting unit.

图9: 1蒸汽锅炉2蒸汽轮机3发电机组或风机、水泵4凝汽器5凝水泵6化学水处理7除氧器8锅炉给水9第二蒸发单元(也是第一循环凝汽器)10第二膨胀单元11第二发电单元12第二凝汽单元13第二储液单元14第二加压泵单元15液态第二介质补充单元16气态第二介质补充单元17泄漏第二介质收集单元。 FIG 9: 1 steam turbine 2 steam boiler or generator blower 3, pump 4 pumps the condensate condenser 5 6 7 Chemical Water boiler feed water deaerator 9 8 a second evaporation unit (first cycle also condenser) section 10 second expansion unit 11 second power generation unit 12 of the second condensing unit 13 of the second reservoir unit 14 of the second pump unit 15 liquid pressurizing medium replenishing unit 16 of the second gaseous medium, the second medium replenishing unit 17 of the second leak collecting unit. 18第三蒸发单元(也是第二循环凝汽单元)19第三膨胀单元20第三发电单元21第三储液单元22第三加压泵单元23第三液态介质补充单元24第三气态介质补充单元25第三泄漏介质收集单元 Third vaporization unit 18 (also the second circulation condensing unit) 19 third expansion unit 20 of the third generating unit 21 of the third liquid reservoir unit 22 the third pressurizing pump unit 23 of the third unit 24 of the third supplementary liquid medium a gaseous medium supplemented The third unit 25 leaking medium collecting unit

图10: l蒸汽锅炉2蒸汽轮机3发电机组或风机、水泵4凝汽器5凝水泵6化学水处理7除氧器8锅炉给水9第二蒸发单元(也是第一循环凝汽器)10第二膨胀单元11第二发电单元12第二凝汽单元13第二储液单元14第二加压泵单元15液态第二介质补充单元16气态第二介质补充单元17泄漏第二介质收集单元。 FIG 10: l 2 steam boiler steam turbine generator set or air blower 3, pump 4 pumps the condensate condenser 5 6 7 Chemical Water boiler feed water deaerator 9 8 a second evaporation unit (first cycle also condenser) section 10 second expansion unit 11 second power generation unit 12 of the second condensing unit 13 of the second reservoir unit 14 of the second pump unit 15 liquid pressurizing medium replenishing unit 16 of the second gaseous medium, the second medium replenishing unit 17 of the second leak collecting unit. 18第三蒸发单元(也是第二循环凝汽单元)19第三膨胀单元20第三发电单元21第三介质压縮单元22第三气液分离单元23第三一级加压泵单元24第三二级加压泵单元25第三液态介质补充单元26第三气态介质补充单元27第三泄漏介质收集单元 The third gas-liquid separation unit 22 unit 18 of the third evaporation element (second circulation also trap means) 19 third expansion unit 20 of the third generating unit 21 third medium 23 third compression unit 24, a third pressurizing pump two pressurizing pump unit 25 of the third unit 26 of the third supplementary liquid medium a gaseous medium supplemented medium leakage unit 27 third collecting unit

图11: 1蒸汽锅炉2蒸汽轮机3发电机组或风机或压縮机或水泵4凝汽器5凝水泵6 化学水处理7除氧器8锅炉给水9第二蒸发单元(也是第一循环凝汽器)10第二膨胀单元11 第二发电单元12第二压缩单元13第二凝汽单元14第二气液分离单元15第二一级加压泵单元16第二二级加压泵单元17第二液态介质补充单元18第二气态介质补充单元19 第二泄漏介质收集单元20第三蒸发单元21第三膨胀单元22第三发电单元23第三压縮单元24第二介质补充单元25第二泄漏介质收集单元 Figure 11: a steam boiler steam turbine 2 or 3 generator or compressor or fan pump condenser 4 5 6 Chemical Water condensate pump deaerator 7 8 9 a second boiler feed water evaporation unit (first cycle also traps ) 10 second expansion means 11 of the second power generation unit 12 of the second compression unit 13 of the second condensing unit 14 of the second gas-liquid separation unit 15, a second pressurizing unit 16 of the second pump unit 17 of the two pressurizing pump two supplementary units 18 of the second liquid medium a gaseous medium supplemented medium collecting unit 19 second leakage unit 20 third vaporization unit 21 of the third expansion unit 22 of the third generating unit 23 of the third compression unit 24 second unit 25 second leakage medium supplemented medium collecting unit

图12: 1蒸汽锅炉2蒸汽轮机3发电机组或风机或压縮机或水泵4凝汽器5凝水泵6 化学水处理7除氧器8锅炉给水9第二蒸发单元(也是第一循环凝汽器)10第二膨胀单元11 第二发电单元12第二压縮单元13第二凝汽单元14第二气液分离单元15第二一级加压泵单元16第二二级加压泵单元17第二液态介质补充单元18第二气态介质补充单元19 第二泄漏介质收集单元20第三蒸发单元21第三膨胀单元22第三发电单元23第三压縮单元24第三自换热单元25第三介质补充单元26第三泄漏介质收集单元 FIG 12: 1 steam turbine 2 steam boiler or generator 3 fan pump or compressor or condenser 4 5 6 Chemical Water condensate pump deaerator 7 8 9 a second boiler feed water evaporation unit (first cycle also traps ) 10 second expansion means 11 of the second power generation unit 12 of the second compression unit 13 of the second condensing unit 14 of the second gas-liquid separation unit 15 is a pressurizing pump unit 16 of the second second two pressurizing pump unit 17 the second replenishing unit 18 of the second liquid medium a gaseous medium supplemented medium collecting unit 19 second leakage third vaporization unit 20 unit 21 of the third expansion unit 22 of the third generating unit 23 from the third compression means 24 of the third heat exchanging unit 25 of three medium supplemented medium leakage unit 26 third collecting unit

图13: l蒸汽锅炉2蒸汽轮机3发电机组或风机或压縮机或水泵4凝汽器5凝水泵6 化学水处理7除氧器8锅炉给水9第二蒸发单元(也是第一循环凝汽器)10第二膨胀单元11 第二发电单元12第二压缩单元13第二冷却单元14第二介质补充单元15第二泄漏介质收集单元16第三蒸发单元17第三膨胀单元18第三发电单元19第三压縮单元20第三自换热单元21第三介质补充单元22第三环泄漏介质收集单元 FIG 13: l 2 steam boiler steam turbine generator set or 3 or compressor or fan pump condenser 4 5 6 Chemical Water condensate pumps 7 8 boiler feed water deaerator second evaporator unit 9 (first cycle also traps ) 10 second expansion means 11 of the second power generation unit 12 of the second compression unit 13 of the second supplemental cooling unit 14 a second unit 15 second leakage dielectric medium collecting unit 16 of the third evaporation unit 17 of the third expansion unit 18 of the third power generating unit 19 third compression unit 20 from the third heat exchanger unit 21 of the third unit 22 medium supplemented medium collecting unit leaking third ring

图14: l蒸汽锅炉2蒸汽轮机3发电机或风机或压縮机或水泵4凝汽器5凝水泵6化学水处理7除氧器8锅炉给水9第二蒸发单元(也是第一循环凝汽器)lO第二膨胀单元ll 第二发电单元12第二压縮单元13第二冷却单元14第二自换热单元15第二介质补充单元16第二泄漏介质收集单元17第三蒸发单元(也是第二循环凝汽单元)18第三膨胀单元19 第三发电单元20第三压縮单元21第三自换热单元22第三介质补充单元23第三泄漏介质收集单元图15: l蒸汽锅炉2蒸汽轮机3发电机组或风机、水泵4凝汽器5凝水泵6化学水处理7除氧器8锅炉给水9第二蒸发单元(也是第一循环凝汽器)10第二膨胀单元11第二循环发电单元12第二凝汽单元13第二储液单元14第二加压泵单元15第二供冷单元16第二液态介质补充单元17第二气态介质补充单元18第二泄漏介质收集单元。 FIG 14: l 2 steam boiler steam turbine generator or fan or compressor 3 or 4 pumps the condensate pump condenser 5 6 7 Chemical Water boiler feed water deaerator 9 8 a second evaporation unit (first cycle also traps device) lO ll second expansion means 12 of the second power generation unit of the second compression unit 13 from the second cooling unit 14 of the second heat exchanger unit 15 second unit 16 second leakage medium supplemented medium collecting unit 17 of the third evaporation unit (also condensing second circulation means) 18 third expansion unit 19 of the third generating unit 20 of the third compression unit 21 from the third heat exchanger unit 22 of the third unit 23 of the third medium supplemented medium leakage collecting unit FIG 15: l steam boiler 2 10 the second expansion steam turbine generator set or air blower 3, pump 4 pumps the condensate condenser 5 6 7 chemical water boiler feed water deaerator 9 8 a second evaporation unit (also the first circulation Condenser) 11 second cycle unit power generation unit 12 of the second condensing unit 13 of the second reservoir unit 14 of the second pump unit 15 of the second pressurizing unit 16 of the second cooling medium liquid replenishing unit 17 of the second gaseous medium supplemented medium collecting unit 18 second leakage unit. 19第三蒸发单元(也是第二循环凝汽单元)20第三膨胀单元21第三发电单元22第三介质压縮单元23第三气液分离单元24第三一级加压泵单元25第三二级加压泵单元26第三供冷单元27第三液态介质补充单元28第三气态介质补充单元29第三泄漏介质收集单元 The third gas-liquid separation unit 23, an evaporator unit 19 of the third unit (unit is second circulation trap) third expansion means 20 21 third medium 22 of the third generating unit 24 of the third compression unit 25, a third pressurizing pump two pressurizing pump unit 26 of the third unit 27 of the third cooling medium liquid replenishing unit 28 of the third unit 29 of the third gaseous medium supplemented medium leakage collection means

图16: l蒸汽锅炉2蒸汽轮机3发电机组或风机、水泵4凝汽器5凝水泵6化学水处理7除氧器8锅炉给水9第二蒸发单元(也是第一循环凝汽器)10第二膨胀单元11第二循环发电单元12第二压缩单元13第二凝汽单元14第二气液分离单元15第二一级加压泵单元16第二二级加压泵单元17第二供冷单元18第二液态介质补充单元19第二气态介质补充单元20第二泄漏介质收集单元。 FIG 16: l 2 steam boiler steam turbine generator set or air blower 3, pump 4 pumps the condensate condenser 5 6 7 Chemical Water boiler feed water deaerator 9 8 a second evaporation unit (first cycle also condenser) section 10 second expansion means 11 of the second cycle power generation unit 12 of the second compression unit 13 of the second condensing unit 14 of the second gas-liquid separation unit 15 is a pressurizing pump unit 16 of the second second two pressurizing pump 17 of the second cooling unit The second unit 18 second unit 19 is a liquid medium a gaseous medium supplemented replenishing unit 20 second collecting unit leaking medium. 21第三蒸发单元(也是第二循环凝汽单元) 22第三膨胀单元23第三发电单元24第三介质压缩单元25第三供冷单元26第三介质补充单元27第三泄漏介质收集单元 The third unit 26 medium supplemented third vaporization unit 21 (also the second circulation condensing unit) 22 third expansion unit 23 of the third generating unit 24, a third cooling medium compression unit 25 of the third unit 27 of the third medium leakage collecting unit

图17: l蒸汽锅炉2蒸汽轮机3发电机组或风机、水泵4凝汽器5凝水泵6化学水处理7除氧器8锅炉给水9第二蒸发单元(也是第一循环凝汽器)10第二膨胀单元11第二循环发电单元12第二压縮单元13第二凝汽单元14第二气液分离单元15第二一级加压泵单元16第二二级加压泵单元17第二供冷单元18第二液态介质补充单元19第二气态介质补充单元20第二泄漏介质收集单元。 FIG 17: l 2 steam boiler steam turbine generator set or air blower 3, pump 4 pumps the condensate condenser 5 6 7 Chemical Water boiler feed water deaerator 9 8 a second evaporation unit (first cycle also condenser) section 10 second expansion means 11 of the second cycle power generation unit 12 of the second compression unit 13 of the second condensing unit 14 of the second gas-liquid separation unit 15 is a pressurizing pump unit 16 of the second second two pressurizing pump unit 17 for a second a second cooling unit 18 unit 19 of the second liquid medium a gaseous medium supplemented replenishing unit 20 second collecting unit leaking medium. 21第三蒸发单元(也是第二循环凝汽单元) 22第三膨胀单元23第三发电单元24第三介质压縮单元25第三自换热单元26第三供冷单元27第三介质补充单元28第三泄漏介质收集单元 The third cooling unit 26 third vaporization unit 21 (also the second circulation condensing unit) 22 third expansion unit 23 of the third generating unit 24 of the third medium from the compression unit 25 of the third heat exchanger 27 of the third unit cell medium supplemented The third leak collecting unit 28 medium

图18: l蒸汽锅炉2蒸汽轮机3发电机或风机或压縮机或水泵4凝汽器5凝水泵6化学水处理7除氧器8锅炉给水9第二蒸发单元(也是第一循环凝汽器)lO第二膨胀单元ll 第二发电单元12第二压縮单元13第二冷却单元14第二供冷单元15第二介质补充单元16 第二泄漏介质收集单元17第三蒸发单元(也是第二循环凝汽单元)18第三膨胀单元19第三发电单元20第三压縮单元21第三自换热单元22第三供冷单元23第三介质补充单元24第三泄漏介质收集单元 FIG 18: l 2 steam boiler steam turbine generator or fan or compressor 3 or 4 pumps the condensate pump condenser 5 6 7 Chemical Water boiler feed water deaerator 9 8 a second evaporation unit (first cycle also traps is) the second expansion unit lO ll second power generation unit of the second compression unit 12 13 second cooling unit 14 of the second supplemental cooling unit 15 second unit 16 second leakage dielectric medium collecting unit 17 of the third evaporation unit (and the first The two-cycle condensing unit) 18 third expansion unit 19 of the third generating unit 20 of the third compression unit 21 from the third heat exchanger unit 22, the third cooling unit 23 of the third unit 24 of the third medium supplemented medium leakage collection means

图19: l蒸汽锅炉2蒸汽轮机3发电机组或风机、水泵4凝汽器5凝水泵6化学水处理7除氧器8锅炉给水9第二蒸发单元(也是第一循环凝汽器)10第二膨胀单元11第二循环发电单元12第二压縮单元13第二凝汽单元14第二气液分离单元15第二一级加压泵单元16第二二级加压泵单元17第二供冷单元18第二液态介质补充单元19第二气态介质补充单元20第二泄漏介质收集单元。 FIG 19: l 2 steam boiler steam turbine generator set or air blower 3, pump 4 pumps the condensate condenser 5 6 7 Chemical Water boiler feed water deaerator 9 8 a second evaporation unit (first cycle also condenser) section 10 second expansion means 11 of the second cycle power generation unit 12 of the second compression unit 13 of the second condensing unit 14 of the second gas-liquid separation unit 15 is a pressurizing pump unit 16 of the second second two pressurizing pump unit 17 for a second a second cooling unit 18 unit 19 of the second liquid medium a gaseous medium supplemented replenishing unit 20 second collecting unit leaking medium. 21第三蒸发单元(也是第二循环凝汽单元) 22第三膨胀单元23第三发电单元24第三介质压缩单元25第三气液分离单元26第三一级加压泵单元27第三二级加压泵单元28第三液态介质补充单元29第三气态介质补充单元30第三泄漏介质收集单元 The third gas-liquid separation unit 25 unit 21 of the third evaporation element (second circulation also trap means) 22 third expansion unit 23 of the third generating unit 24, a third medium compression pressurizing pump 26 of the third unit 27 of the third two pressurizing pump unit 28 of the third stage liquid medium replenishing unit 29 of the third unit 30 of the third gaseous medium supplemented medium leakage collection means

图20: l蒸汽锅炉2蒸汽轮机3发电机组或风机、水泵4凝汽器5凝水泵6化学水处理7除氧器8锅炉给水9第二蒸发单元(也是第一循环凝汽器)10第二膨胀单元11第二循环发电单元12第二压缩单元13第二凝汽单元14第二气液分离单元15第二一级加压泵单元16第二二级加压泵单元17第二液态介质补充单元18第二气态介质补充单元19第二泄漏介质收集单元。 FIG 20: l 2 steam boiler steam turbine generator set or air blower 3, pump 4 pumps the condensate condenser 5 6 7 Chemical Water boiler feed water deaerator 9 8 a second evaporation unit (first cycle also condenser) section 10 second expansion means 11 of the second cycle power generation unit 12 of the second compression unit 13 of the second condensing unit 14 of the second gas-liquid separation unit 15 is a pressurizing pump unit 16 of the second second two pressurizing pump unit 17 of the second liquid medium replenishing unit replenishing unit 18 of the second gaseous medium medium collecting unit 19 second leakage. 20第三蒸发单元(也是第二循环凝汽单元)21第三膨胀单元22 第三发电单元23第三介质压縮单元24第三自换热单元25第三供冷单元26第三介质补充单元27第三泄漏介质收集单元 Third vaporization unit 20 (also the second circulation condensing unit) 21 third expansion unit 22 of the third generating unit 23 of the third heat exchange medium from the compression unit 24 of the third cooling unit 25 of the third unit cell 26 of the third medium supplemented The third leak collecting unit 27 medium

本发明是一种多循环发电热力系统,目的是把蒸汽的凝结潜热也利用起来发电。 The present invention is a multi-cycle thermodynamic power generation systems, the object of the latent heat of condensation of steam is also utilized to generate electricity. 途径是用第二介质代替循环冷却水。 Approach is to place a second medium circulating cooling water. 具有一定压力能的第二介质吸收水蒸汽的凝结潜热后,或者由液态变成气态体积增大,或者是气态由低温升至高温体积增大,把水蒸汽的潜热能变成第二介质的压力能和动能,推动第二介质膨胀单元运动部件运动进而带动发电机发电或发电兼提供冷量。 After a certain pressure of the latent heat of condensation can absorb water vapor in the second medium, liquid or gas into the volume increases, or the gaseous volume increases from a low temperature was raised to a high temperature, the latent heat of water vapor into the second medium pressure energy and kinetic energy, pushing the second medium expanding unit moving member in turn drive generators or motion generation and provide cooling.

当第二介质循环不能完全把水蒸汽的潜热变成机械能进而转化成电能时,可再加一级第三介质膨胀做功循环,以获得更多的可转换能量。 When the second medium circulates the water vapor can not be completely latent heat into mechanical energy into electrical energy and thus, may be coupled with a third media expansion work cycle, to get more energy can be converted. 其循环同第二循环,但介质改成适于在更低温度下做功的第三介质。 The cycle with a second cycle, the third medium into the medium is adapted to work at a lower temperature. 同理,可以增加第四循环、第五循环。 Similarly, you can increase the fourth cycle, the fifth cycle.

采用超临界循环时,也可使用空气或循环冷却水带走部分能量,但与水蒸汽的凝结潜热相比要小得多。 When using supercritical cycle may be used air or circulating water cooling energy away portion, but water vapor is much smaller than the latent heat of condensation. 可把水蒸汽的大部分凝结潜热转化成机械能进而转化成电能,极大地减少冷却循环水的消耗和提高凝汽式和抽凝式机组的循环热效率。 Can most of the latent heat of condensation of water vapor into mechanical energy into electrical energy and thus, greatly reducing consumption and increasing the circulating cooling water and condensing steam extraction condensing unit cycle thermal efficiency.

采取双循环发电还有附加效益。 Take binary power generation as well as additional benefits. 由于第二介质沸点低,能较大幅度地提高朗肯循环凝汽器的真空度,尤其是在夏季循环水温高导致凝汽器真空下降使得汽轮机出力下降时更为明显。 Since the second medium is a low boiling point, can greatly improve the degree of vacuum than the Rankine cycle condenser, especially in the summer high temperature cycle leads to the turbine condenser vacuum so that more apparent decrease output decreased. 因此可提高发电量或出力1%〜3%以上。 Or the power generation amount can be improved to contribute more than 1% ~ 3%.

理论上,现发电厂的双曲线冷却塔可以弃之不用,新建火力发电厂可不建双曲线冷却塔或建小规格冷却塔,节约大量投资,极大地减小循环冷却水的消耗,改善环境。 In theory, the current power plant hyperbolic cooling tower can be abandoned, not to build new power plants built hyperbolic cooling tower or small size cooling towers, saving a lot of investment, greatly reducing the circulating cooling water consumption, improve the environment.

本发明至少包括第一循环、第二循环,还可包括第三循环,甚至第四循环、第五循环。 The present invention includes at least a first cycle, second cycle, the cycle may further include a third, or even fourth cycle, the fifth cycle.

第一循环为改进的朗肯循环,包括水蒸汽锅炉、水蒸汽汽轮机,发电机或风机或压縮机或水泵,凝汽器及附属设备。 The first cycle is improved Rankine cycle, including steam boilers, steam turbines, generators or pumps or fans, or compressors, condenser and ancillary equipment. 机组有凝汽式和抽凝式。 There condensing units and extraction-condensing. 不同之处是凝汽器不再使用循环冷却7K,而是使用低沸点介质。 Except using longer circulating cooling condenser 7K, but the use of low-boiling-point medium. 低沸点介质不上冷却塔降温,而是做功降温。 Low boiling point medium is not cool on a cooling tower, but acting cool.

低沸点介质多循环发电的基本单元是蒸发单元、膨胀单元、发电单元、和介质加压单元, 即液体加压泵单元或气体压縮单元或液体加压泵单元和气体压缩单元。 Base unit power low boiling-point medium is a multi-cycle evaporation unit, the expansion unit, the power generation unit, and a medium pressure section, i.e., the liquid pressurizing pump unit or a liquid or a gas compression unit and the pump unit pressurizing gas compression unit. 其他单元是辅助单元, 根据循环性质和设计需要可增减辅助单元和变换辅助单元位置。 Other units are auxiliary units may increase or decrease the need for auxiliary units and converting the auxiliary unit according to the position and nature of the design cycle. 如介质补充装置可设计成固定式和移动式两种,当采取移动式补充装置时,在系统上只设接口。 The medium replenishing device may be designed to two kinds of fixed and mobile, while taking supplemental mobile device, provided only on the system interface. 进而若设计成不需要补充介质且制造精良或其他原因也可取消介质补充装置;根据流程设计及性价比等因素全面考 Then if the design does not need to replenish media and sophisticated manufacturing or other reasons to cancel the supplementary media device; overall design and test processes based on cost and other factors

虑,可以不设泄漏介质收集装置。 Considered to be no leak medium collection means.

图1~图4是低沸点介质双循环发电的四种基本流程。 1 to 4 are the four basic flow of the low-boiling medium is binary power. 第二循环种类:图1是第1种亚临界、跨临界发电循环,图2是第2种亚临界、跨临界发电循环,图3是第1种超临界发电循环,图4是第2种超临界发电循环。 Second circulation type: FIG. 1 is a first type subcritical, transcritical cycle power generation, FIG. 2 is a second type subcritical, transcritical cycle power generation, FIG. 3 is a first type generating a supercritical cycle, FIG. 4 is a second type supercritical power generation cycle.

如图1所示。 As shown in Figure 1. 改进的朗肯循环由水蒸汽锅炉l、蒸汽轮机2、发电机组或风机、水泵3、 凝汽器4、凝水泵5、化学水处理6、除氧器7、锅炉给水8及附属设备如省煤器、高低压加热器、疏水扩容器、定排、连排、阀门、管道、脱硫除尘装置及控制系统等火力发电厂部分或全部设备、装置组成。 Improved Rankine cycle L of water steam boiler, a steam turbine 2, generators or fans, pumps 3, 4 condenser, condensate pumps 5, 6 chemical treatment, 7 deaerator, boiler feed water 8 and auxiliary equipment such as provincial coal, high and low pressure heaters, hydrophobic expansion, given row, and even row, some or all of the thermal power plant equipment valves, pipes, desulfurization and dust removal device and control system, device components. 但凝汽器已不是用循环冷却水作冷却工质,而是采用二氧化碳气、 二氧化碳及其吸收剂丙酮或N-甲基-2-吡咯垸酮或今后开发出的新的溶剂的混合物、氮气、空气、氦气、氩气、氢气、氨或其他适用气体、氨的水溶液、氟里昴系列、垸类、烯类、苯类及烷类、烯类苯类化合物,以上物质中之一种或组合,统称低沸点介质。 But not the condenser with circulating cooling water as the cooling medium, instead of using the carbon dioxide gas, or a mixture of carbon dioxide and acetone absorbent N- pyrrolidin-2-one embankment or later developed a new solvent, nitrogen , air, helium, argon, hydrogen, ammonia or other suitable gas, aqueous ammonia, fluoro Pleiades in series, embankment, alkenes, alkanes and benzene, vinyl benzene compounds, one kind of the above substances or in combination, collectively low boiling-point medium. 由低沸点介质代替循环冷却水吸收做完功的水蒸汽的潜热再通过做功发电降温,而不是通过冷却塔蒸发降温,不再使用循环冷却水或使用很少的循环冷却水,因此双曲线冷却塔只做备用或极大地减小冷却塔的规格。 Instead of the low-boiling medium from the cooling water circulating the water absorbent finish work latent heat of the steam to generate power through the cool, rather than evaporative cooling tower, the circulating cooling water is no longer used or used very little circulating cooling water, the cooling hyperbolic only spare columns or greatly reduced size of the cooling tower. 水蒸汽凝结成水,被凝水泵送到化学工段精处理或直接进除氧器再送给锅炉循环使用。 Water vapor condenses into water, condensate water pump is supplied to a chemical finishing treatment stage or directly into the deaerator and then recycled to the boiler.

第二循环同第一循环类似,但没有使用燃料的锅炉,其"锅炉"即蒸发器是第一循环的凝汽器。 Similarly with the first second circulation loop, but not a boiler fuel, "the boiler" i.e., the first evaporator is a condenser loop. 物态变化和做功的不再是水蒸汽,而是低沸点介质。 Change of state is no longer work and water vapor, but the low boiling-point medium. 常压下气化点即沸点为零上80 'C至零下273°C,首选低沸点介质的汽化温度低于常温,在朗肯循环凝汽器温度和管程压力下能够汽化,凝汽器温度控制在适当适温度范围内,以低于35'C为佳,不但不影响第一循环的发电效率或出力,而且增加第一循环的发电量或出力。 I.e. boiling point at atmospheric pressure gasifier the zero 80 'C to minus 273 ° C, the preferred low boiling vaporization temperature below ambient medium, at a temperature and a Rankine cycle condenser tube side pressure can be vaporized, condenser appropriate temperature within an appropriate temperature range, preferably below 35'C, only does not affect the power generation efficiency or output of the first cycle, the first cycle and increase the power generation amount or output. 如凝汽器温度每降低6〜7'C,汽轮机出力增加1%。 The reduced temperature of each condenser 6~7'C, a 1% increase in turbine output. 汽化温度在32'C以下时,可明显提高夏季循环冷却水温高于32'C地区的凝汽式和抽凝式机组的出力。 Vaporization temperature at 32'C or less, can significantly improve circulating cooling water temperature in summer than condensing steam extraction and condensing unit output region 32'C. 低沸点介质吸收第一循环做完功的水蒸汽的凝结潜热,把水蒸汽冷凝成水,低沸点介质吸热后气化,把水蒸汽凝结潜热转化成机械能,推动第二循环膨胀单元使其转子旋转或活塞运动进而带动发电机发电。 A first low-boiling absorption medium circulating done latent heat of condensation of steam power, the water vapor is condensed into water, the low-boiling endothermic gasification medium, the latent heat of condensation of water vapor into mechanical energy, the expansion unit so that it pushes the second cycle Further rotational movement of the rotor or piston drive generators.

第二循环和第三循环都可以是亚临界循环、跨临界循环和超临界循环之一。 Second cycle and third cycle can be a subcritical cycle, transcritical cycle and one supercritical cycle. 图1至图8 所示为基本循环。 1 to FIG. 8 shows the basic cycle. 第二循环和第三循环可以是上述基本循环及其改型的组合。 The second cycle and third cycle may be a combination of the above-described basic cycle and its modification.

在亚临界、跨临界循环和超临界循环中不设介质补充单元,只设补充接口,不要泄漏介质收集单元,变换换热单元、供冷单元的位置和数量都是基本循环的改型,每种基本循环和基本循环、基本循环和基本循环改型、基本循环改型和基本循环改型都可据需要组合。 Modifications subcritical, transcritical cycle and supercritical cycle with no media supplement unit, located only complement the interface, not media leaks collection unit, location and number of heat exchange unit conversion, cooling units are the basic cycle, each basic cycle and the basic cycle, the basic cycle and the basic cyclic variations, modifications and substantially circular basic cycle can be modified as needed in combination.

图1所示第二发电循环是第1种亚临界和跨临界发电循环,由第一循环的凝汽器4即第二循环的蒸发器单元也是第二循环的锅炉单元9、第二膨胀单元IO、第二发电单元ll、储液单元12、加压泵组单元13、第二液态介质补充单元14、第二气态介质补充单元15、泄漏第二介质收集和再利用装置单元16以及配套装置、控制装置组成。 The second power generation cycle illustrated in Figure 1 denotes the first sub-critical and transcritical power cycle, the first cycle of the boiler unit from the second condenser 4 that is circulating evaporator unit 9 is a second cycle, the second expansion unit the IO, the second power generation unit ll, the reservoir unit 12, the pressurizing pump unit 13, the second liquid medium replenishing unit 14, a second gaseous medium replenishing unit 15, the second dielectric leakage collection and recycling device 16 and a unit supporting means , the composition of the control device.

其中凝汽器壳程进口接汽轮机排汽,壳程出口接凝结水系统,管程进口接二级加压泵出口,管程出口接膨胀单元进口,膨胀单元出口接储液单元进口,储液单元出口接加压泵单元进口,加压泵单元出口接凝汽器管程进口。 Wherein the shell Condenser exhaust turbine inlet connection, an outlet connection shell condensate system, two tube side inlet connected to the pump outlet pressure, the outlet tube side inlet connected to the expansion unit, an expansion unit connected to the outlet reservoir inlet means, the accumulator outlet means connected to the pump unit inlet pressure, outlet pressure of the pump unit connected to the tube inlet of condenser. 膨胀单元的输出轴接发电单元输入轴。 An input shaft connected to the expansion unit power generating unit output shaft.

循环过程是:在第一循环的凝汽器4即第二循环的蒸发单元9内,高压低温的液态第二介质吸收朗肯循环做完功的水蒸汽的凝结潜热把水蒸汽凝结成水后自身气化,进入第二膨胀单元IO,压力降低体积膨胀,把压力能变成动能,推动膨胀单元转子旋转或活塞运动做功,带动发电单元ll发电,做完功的第二介质温度降低到液化温度或二相点温度或三相点温度,全部液化成液体进入储液单元12,经加压泵单元13升到高压、亚临界或临界功超临界压力进入蒸发单元即第一循环凝汽器开始第二次循环。 Cycle is: condenser 4 in the evaporation unit of the first cycle the second cycle 9, a second high-pressure low-temperature liquid medium absorbs latent heat of the Rankine cycle steam power finish of the water vapor condenses into water gasification itself, the IO expansion unit into the second, reduced volume expansion pressure, the pressure energy into kinetic energy, or to promote expansion of the rotor rotational movement of the piston means acting to drive power generating unit generating ll, the temperature of the second medium is reduced to the liquefaction work done temperature or two-phase or three-point temperature point temperature, all the liquefied liquid enters into the reservoir unit 12 via a pressurizing pump unit 13 to rise to a high pressure, supercritical or subcritical supercritical pressure power unit i.e. the first cycle to the evaporator condenser start the second cycle.

为补充介质损耗,在储液单元12与第二加压泵13之间设液态介质补充单元14,在蒸发单元9和膨胀单元10之间设气态介质补充单元15,用于在系统内介质储量下降时向系统补充介质,据情况也可只设接口或不设;泄漏介质收集单元16用于收集泄漏介质,主要是膨胀单元轴封漏气,若设计成无泄漏型或泄漏介质价值很低等原因也可不设。 To supplement the dielectric loss, the liquid reservoir unit 12 is provided with a liquid medium replenishing unit 13 between the second pressure pump 14, the unit 15 is provided between the gaseous medium supplemented evaporation unit 10 and expansion unit 9, the system reserves the medium for when added to the system drops medium, according to the case, or may be provided only does not have an interface; leaky dielectric collecting unit 16 for collecting the leak medium, expansion unit main seal leak, if a leak-free type designed to very low value or leakage medium and other reasons not to set.

主机上装有压力、温度、流量、振动等测量和示仪表以及自动控制系统,包括压力、流量、温度、转速等的调节以及振动监测、保护和故障处理等,仪表有就地指示和变送到远方主控室显示,有就地操作盘和主控制室操作台或控制盘。 Equipped with a pressure, temperature, flow, vibration or the like and measuring instruments and illustrate the automatic control system on the host, including pressure, flow, temperature, speed adjustment and vibration monitoring, protection and fault handling, and the meter has changed to indicate situ remote control room display, and there situ operation panel or the main control room console control panel.

图2所示第二循环是第2种亚临界和跨临界发电循环,与第1种发电循环区别是膨胀单元出口介质是气液两相流。 The second cycle shown in FIG. 2 is a second type sub-critical and transcritical power cycle, the power cycle of the first type except that the expansion unit is a two-phase flow medium outlet. 由第一循环的凝汽器4即第二循环的蒸发器单元也是第二循环的锅炉单元9、第二膨胀单元IO、第二发电单元ll、分离出的第二介质蒸汽压縮单元12、第二气液分离装置单元13、 一级加压泵组单元14、 二级加压泵单元15、第二液态介质补充单元16、第二气态介质补充单元17、泄漏第二介质收集和再利用装置单元18以及配套装置、控制装置组成。 A first cycle of the second condenser 4 that is circulating evaporator unit is a boiler unit 9 of the second cycle, the second the IO expansion unit, the second power generation unit ll, a second medium separated vapor compression unit 12, The second gas-liquid separator unit 13, a pressurizing pump unit 14, two pressure pump unit 15, the second liquid medium replenishing unit 16, the second gaseous medium replenishing unit 17, the second dielectric leakage collection and recycling and supporting device unit 18, a controller components.

其中凝汽器壳程进口接汽轮机排汽,壳程出口接凝结水系统,管程进口接第二二级加压泵出口,管程出口接膨胀单元10进口,膨胀单元出口接第二气液分离单元进口,气液分离单元气体出口接第二压縮单元进口,第二压縮单元出口与第二一级加压泵出口并联;气液分离单元液体出口接第二一级加压泵单元进口, 一级加压泵单元出口与第二压缩单元出口并联后接二级加压泵单元进口, 二级加压泵单元出口接凝汽器管程进口。 Wherein the shell Condenser exhaust turbine inlet connection, an outlet connection shell condensate system, two tube side inlet connected to the second pressure pump outlet, the outlet tube side inlet connected to the expansion unit 10, an expansion unit connected to the second liquid outlet a separation unit inlet, the gas outlet of the gas-liquid separation unit connected to the second compression unit inlet, the outlet pressure of the pump in parallel with the second outlet and the second one compression unit; liquid-liquid separation unit connected to the second outlet of a pressurizing pump unit inlet, a pressurizing pump unit outlet and the outlet of the second compression unit connected to two parallel pressure pump inlet means, outlet means two pressurizing pump inlet connected to the tube condenser. 膨胀单元的输出轴接发电单元输入轴和压縮单元输入轴,压縮单元也可由电动机单独拖动。 An output shaft connected to the input shaft of the expander unit power generating unit input shaft and the compression unit, the compression unit may also be a separate motor drive. ' '

循环过程是:在第一循环的凝汽器4即第二循环的蒸发单元9内,高压低温的液态第二介质吸收朗肯循环做完功的水蒸汽的凝结潜热把水蒸汽凝结成水后自身气化,进入第二介质膨胀单元10,压力降低体积膨胀,把压力能变成动能,推动膨胀单元转子旋转或活塞运动做功,带动发电单元ll发电,还可同时带动压缩单元12对分离出的气态第二介质加压。 Cycle is: condenser 4 in the evaporation unit of the first cycle the second cycle 9, a second high-pressure low-temperature liquid medium absorbs latent heat of the Rankine cycle steam power finish of the water vapor condenses into water gasification itself, into the second medium expanding unit 10, the volume expansion pressure decreases, the pressure energy into kinetic energy, or to promote expansion of the rotor rotational movement of the piston means acting to drive power generating unit generating ll, also while driving the compression unit 12 is separated a second pressurized gaseous medium. 做完功的第二介质温度降低到液化温度或二相点温度或三相点温度,部分是液体部分是气体,进入气液分离器单元13。 A second medium temperature is decreased to finish work or liquefaction temperature two-phase or three-point temperature point temperature, the liquid portion is a part of the gas into the gas-liquid separator unit 13. 分离出的液体经一级加压泵单元14加压送给二级加压泵15。 The separated liquid by a pressurizing pump unit 14 to the two pressurized pressure pump 15. 分离出的气体进入压缩单元12,由于气体温度是饱和温度或接近饱和温度,压縮单元12无需耗费很大的功就可把其压缩成液体,与一级泵送出的液体汇合进入二级加压泵15。 The separated gas into the compression unit 12, since the gas temperature is close to the saturation temperature or saturation temperature, the compression unit 12 without consuming large power can be compressed into the liquid, and a liquid pumped out into the confluence of two pressure pump 15. 二级加压泵15 把低沸点液态介质加压到较高压力如亚临界或临界甚至超临界压力送入蒸发器单元9,吸收朗肯循环做完功的水蒸汽的潜热再次气化和做功。 Two low-pressure pump 15 is pressurized to a higher boiling liquid medium, such as a subcritical pressure or supercritical pressure even critical unit 9 fed to the evaporator, absorbing the latent heat of the Rankine cycle steam to finish the work and the work again gasified .

为补充损耗,在一级加压泵14后设低沸点液态介质补充单元16,在蒸发单元后设低沸点气态介质补充单元17对漏损介质补充。 To complement the loss, in a low-pressure pump 14 is provided after the boiling liquid medium supplemented unit 16 is provided in the evaporation unit 17 pairs of a low-boiling leakage gaseous medium supplemented medium supplemented unit. 也可全面考虑补充介质的压力、物态及尽可能取得效益等因素选取补充点。 It can also be fully considered supplementary media pressure, physical state and get benefits as other factors choose to add points. 为节约第二介质用量,设泄漏低沸点介质收集装置18,收集后再利用。 In order to save the amount of the second medium, provided the low-boiling medium leakage collection means 18, and then collected using. 根据流程设计,介质补充单元和泄漏介质收集单元也可不设。 According to the process design, and the medium replenishing unit leaky dielectric collecting unit may not be provided.

本处所述的单元包括主机、辅助设备、仪表和控制等全部,可以是几个机组串联或并联。 This unit includes a host at the auxiliary equipment, instrumentation and control, and all may be several units in series or parallel.

主机上装有压力、温度、流量、振动等测量和指示仪表以及自动控制系统,包括压力、 流量、温度、转速等的调节以及振动监测、保护和故障处理等,仪表有就地指示和变送到远方主控室显示,有就地操作盘和主控制室操作台或控制盘。 Equipped with a pressure, temperature, flow, vibration or the like and measuring and indicating instrument automatic control system on the host, including pressure, flow, temperature, speed adjustment and vibration monitoring, protection and fault handling, and the meter has changed to indicate situ remote control room display, and there situ operation panel or the main control room console control panel.

循环中,由于第二介质膨胀到饱和态或接近饱和,压縮成液体所消耗的功占整个膨胀功的比例很小。 Cycle, since the second medium is expanded to a saturated or near-saturated state, compressed into liquid little power consumed power of the total expansion ratio. 以用二氧化碳做工质为伊丄假定从7. 372Mpa膨胀到0Mpa只要压缩到0. 5179Mpa 就液化成液体。 With carbon dioxide to work as a qualitative Shang Yi is assumed to expand from 7. 372Mpa 0Mpa simply compress it to 0. 5179Mpa liquefied into a liquid. 再用泵加压到7. 372Mpa,取得的有用功为膨胀功减压缩功再减去水泵的提升液体压力的功及损耗,即有用功与循环效率的乘积减压縮功。 Then pumped to 7. 372Mpa, to obtain useful work of expansion work is reduced compression work of lifting minus the work and the pressure loss of the liquid pump, i.e. the product of useful work and compression work reduced cycle efficiency. 由于同样的压差和扬程,气体的膨胀功远大于液体的升压功,所以可取得可观的有用功。 For the same pressure and head, the gas expansion work is much greater than the boosting power of the liquid, it is possible to obtain considerable useful work.

图l所示的第l种亚临界、跨临界发电循环,其介质由气态直接膨胀到液态,与图2相比,省去了气体压缩单元12和一级加压泵单元14,把汽液分离单元改成储液单元。 Figure l the l kind shown subcritical, transcritical cycle power generation, which is expanded by the gaseous medium directly to the liquid, as compared with FIG. 2, eliminating the need for gas compression means 12 and a pressure pump unit 14, the vapor-liquid liquid reservoir unit into the separation unit. 由于省去了气体的压縮功,取得的效益更大,但膨胀单元的设计制造难度要大得多。 By eliminating the gas compression work, greater efficiency achieved, but the difficulty of designing and manufacturing expansion unit is much greater.

膨胀做完功的第二介质也可以是微过热气态,被压縮机较容易地压缩成液体。 The expansion work done in the second medium may be a micro superheated gaseous, is relatively easily compressed by the compressor into a liquid. 这样做的优点是膨胀机不存在液滴的冲击,容易制作且寿命长。 The advantage of this is that the expander does not exist droplet impact, easy to manufacture and a long life.

当采用超临界循环时,即循环中无液体产生,介质始终在过热气态运行。 When supercritical cycle, i.e. no liquid circulation is generated, always run in superheated gaseous medium. 此种循环去掉气液分离器、 一级泵、二级泵,增加气体冷却单元,根据介质压缩工况采取一级压缩一级冷却或多级压縮、多级冷却以减小压縮功,最大限度地取得有用功。 Such circulation gas-liquid separator is removed, a pump, a secondary pump, to increase the gas cooling unit, according to the compression medium compressed condition to take a cooling one or more stages of compression, multi-stage cooling to reduce the compression work, obtain the maximum useful work.

图3为第二循环是第1种超临界发电循环采用外部介质冷却的流程。 FIG 3 is a second cycle is a first type external power cycle supercritical cooling medium flow. 第二循环由第一循环的凝汽器4即第二循环的蒸发器单元9、第二膨胀单元IO、第二发电单元ll、第二压縮单元12、第二冷却单元13、第二中间冷却单元14、第二介质补充单元15、第二泄漏介质收集单元16组成。 A first condenser by the second circulation loop 9 4 i.e., the IO second expansion unit, the second power generation unit of the second cycle ll evaporator unit, the second compression unit 12, the second cooling unit 13, a second intermediate the cooling unit 14, a second supplemental media unit 15, the second collecting unit 16 composed of dielectric leakage. 其中凝汽器壳程进口接汽轮机排汽,壳程出口接凝结水系统,管程出口接膨胀单元入口,膨胀单元出口接压缩单元入口,压缩单元出口接冷却单元入口,冷却单元出口接凝汽器管程入口,中间冷却单元进口接压缩单元低压级出口,中间冷却单元出口接压縮单元下一级进口。 Wherein the shell Condenser exhaust turbine inlet connection, an outlet connection condensate shell system, the outlet tube side inlet connected to the expansion unit, an expansion unit connected to the compression unit inlet an outlet, the outlet connected to the compression unit inlet cooling unit, a cooling unit connected to the trap outlet tube side inlet, cooling unit inlet connected to the intermediate pressure stage compressor means outlet, the inlet means connected to an intermediate compression cooling unit outlet. 循环过程是:高压低温气体进入朗肯循环凝汽器,吸收做完功的水蒸汽的凝结潜热使水蒸汽凝结成水,气体升温体积膨胀进入膨胀单元,把压力能变成动能使膨胀单元输出轴运动带动发电单元转子旋转发电或同时带动压缩单元对膨胀后的气体加压。 Cycle are: a high pressure gas into low temperature Rankine cycle condenser, absorbing latent heat of condensation of water vapor to finish the work of the water vapor condenses into water, heating the gas volume expands into the expansion unit, the pressure energy into kinetic energy output of the expansion unit axis movement unit driven power generating rotor is rotated while driven by electricity or gas compression unit after expansion pressure. 压缩单元也可用电动机单独拖动。 The compression unit may also be separately motor drive. 一种流程设计是压缩后的气态介质温度升高到常温以上,进入冷却器, 用循环冷却水或空气降温到某一设计数值,目的提高第一循环凝汽器的真空度,第二种设计是设压縮单元温升很高需要级间冷却以减少压缩功和提高压缩效率,设中间冷却器在压縮中途把气体引出,冷却降温后送入压縮单元下一级然后进入蒸发器单元9,若压縮单元出口气体温度仍较高,则设冷却单元继续对气冷却,降温后再进入凝汽器9,吸收水蒸汽的潜热再次循环;当流程设计压縮后气体温度仍然很低,则可不设换热器,压縮后直接进入蒸发单元再次循环。 One kind of process design is compressed gaseous medium temperature elevated above room temperature, into the cooler, cooled to a design value with a circulating cooling water or air, the purpose of improving the degree of vacuum of the condenser first cycle, second design high temperature compression unit is provided with interstage cooling required to reduce compression work and to improve the compression efficiency, the intercooler provided in the middle of the compressed gas is drawn after cooling down the compression unit into a unit and then into the evaporator 9, if the outlet gas temperature is still high unit compression, the cooling means is provided to continue the cooling air, after cooling into the condenser 9, the latent heat of water vapor absorption cycle again; process design when the compressed gas temperature is still low It can be no heat exchanger, compressed directly into evaporation unit cycle again.

图4所示第二循环是第二种超临界发电循环,包括凝汽器4即和二循环蒸发单元9、膨胀单元10、发电单元11、压縮单元12、自换热单元13、介质补充单元14和泄漏介质收集单元15。 Figure 4 shows a second cycle power generation cycle is a supercritical second, 9, i.e., the expansion means comprises a condenser 4 and a two-cycle evaporation unit 10, the power generation unit 11, the compression unit 12, 13, since the heat exchange medium supplement means unit 14 and the leakage medium collecting unit 15. 其中凝汽器壳程进口接汽轮机排汽,壳程出口接凝结水系统,管程出口接自换热单元壳程进口,自换热单元壳程出口接膨胀单元进口,膨胀单元出口接压縮单元进口,压縮单元出口接自换热单元管程进口,自换热单元管程出口接凝汽器管程入口。 Wherein the shell Condenser exhaust turbine inlet connection, an outlet connection shell condensate system, then the outlet from the tube side heat transfer unit inlet shell, shell outlet means from the heat exchanger inlet means connected to the expansion, compression expansion unit connected to the outlet inlet means, the compression unit connected to the outlet from the tube inlet heat exchange means, heat transfer means from the tube outlet connected to the inlet tube-condenser. 本流程特点是设自换热单元。 This process is characterized by self-heat exchanging unit disposed. 第二循环是自换热流程,把换热单元设在蒸发单元9和膨胀单元10之间。 The second cycle is the flow from the heat exchanger, the heat exchange unit 9 is provided between the evaporator unit 10 and an expansion unit. 用从第一循环凝汽器出来相对温度较低的气体对压縮后温度较高的气体降温以提高凝汽器的真空度。 From the first cycle with the condenser gas out of a relatively low temperature after cooling the compressed high temperature of the gas to increase the degree of vacuum of the condenser. 同时升高出凝汽器进膨胀单元的气体温度,提高膨胀单元的做功能力。 Condenser while raising the temperature of the gas into the expansion unit, the expansion unit to increase power capability. 循环过程是:高压低温气体进入朗肯循环凝汽器4即第二蒸发单元9,吸收做完功的水蒸汽的凝结潜热使水蒸汽凝结成水,气体升温体积膨胀进入自换热单元13壳程与管程的压縮后的气体换热进入膨胀单元10,把压力能变成动能使膨胀单元输出轴运动带动发电单元11转子旋转发电或同时带动压縮单元12;膨胀后的气体进入压縮单元12被压縮,压力升高体积縮小后进入自换热单元13管程,与壳程气体换热后进入蒸发器的管程重复循环。 Cycle are: a high pressure gas into low temperature Rankine cycle condenser 4 that is the second evaporation unit 9, the absorption of the finished work latent heat of condensation of water vapor so that water vapor condenses into water, heating the gas volume expands into the housing 13 from the heat exchanger unit the compressed process gas heat exchanger tube unit 10 into the expansion process, the pressure energy into kinetic energy to drive movement of the output shaft of the expansion unit 11 rotating the rotor to generate electricity or power generation unit while driving the compression unit 12; expanded gas enters the nip condensing unit 12 is compressed, pressure is increased into the heat exchange unit 13 from the drive volume is reduced, and after entering the evaporator shell tube side heat transfer gas recirculation. 若压縮单元中间级温度过高,可如图3 —样设中间冷却单元对气体降温。 If the compression unit intermediate stage temperature is too high, it may be as 3 - like intermediate cooling unit arranged to cool the gas.

当采用第二循环不能把第一循环做完功的水蒸汽的潜热完全转化成机械能进而转化成电更适合透平膨胀机,当采用亚临界和跨临界循环时须解决后几级叶片抗液滴冲刷。 When not using the second circulation loop of the first work done latent heat of the steam into mechanical energy is completely converted into electricity and thus more suitable turboexpander, when using subcritical and transcritical cycle after several stages of blades to be liquid-repellent solution drip erosion. 若采用超临界循环则可避开液滴冲刷。 If you can avoid using supercritical cycle droplet erosion. 为把第一循环水蒸汽的潜热尽可能地转化成电能,采用第三循环继续能量转化是办法之一。 The first cycle is the latent heat of water vapor as possible into electrical energy, using a third energy conversion cycle is one way to continue.

图9〜图14是有代表性的六个三循环发电流程。 Figure 9~ 14 are representative of six three-cycle power generation process. 图9的第二循环和第三循环都是第1种亚临界、跨临界循环;图10的第二循环是第1种亚临界、跨临界循环,第三循环是第2种亚临界、跨临界循环;图11的第二循环是第2种亚临界、跨临界循环,第三循环是第l种超临界循环;图12的第二循环是第2种亚临界、跨临界循环,第三循环是第2种超临界循环;图13的第二循环是第1种超临界循环,第三循环是第2种超临界循环;图14的第二循环和第三循环都是第2种超临界循环。 The second cycle and third cycle of FIG. 9 are the first type subcritical, transcritical cycle; FIG. 10 is a second circulation first type subcritical, transcritical cycle, the third cycle is the second type subcritical, cross cYCLE; FIG. 11 is a second circulation second type subcritical, transcritical cycle, the third cycle is the first kind l supercritical cycle; FIG. 12 is a second circulation second type subcritical, transcritical cycle, the third cycle is the second type supercritical cycle; FIG. 13 is a second circulation first type supercritical cycle, the third cycle is the second type supercritical cycle; the second cycle and third cycle 14 is over second type critical cycle. 还有其他组合方式不在此一一列举。 There are other combinations not list here.

三循环的第一循环与双循环的第一循环相同。 The first cycle to the first cycle of three cycles of the same double loop. 第二循环与双循环的第二循环相比,在膨胀单元出口增设了凝气单元或冷却单元。 The second cycle than the second cycle of the dual cycle, the addition of the expansion unit outlet condensable unit or cooling unit. 如图9、图IO增加了凝汽单元12即第三循环蒸发单元18,图11和图12增加了凝汽单元13即第三循环蒸发单元20,图13增加了第二冷却单元13即第三循环蒸发单元16。 9, FIG. 12 increases i.e. IO third circulation evaporation unit condensing unit 18, FIGS. 11 and 12 increased the evaporation unit 13 that is the third cycle condensing unit 20, i.e., FIG. 13 increases the cooling unit 13 of the second three-cycle evaporation unit 16. 图14增加了第二冷却单元13即第三循环蒸发单元17。 FIG 14 a second cooling unit 13 increases i.e. the evaporation unit 17 of the third cycle.

以图10为例,说明如下:本三循环流程第一循环是改进的朗肯循环,第二循环是第l种亚临界、跨临界发电流程,第三循环是第2种亚临界、跨临界发电流程。 In an example of FIG. 10, described as follows: The three-cycle process is an improvement of the first cycle Rankine cycle, the second cycle is the first kind l subcritical, transcritical generation process, the third cycle is the second type subcritical, transcritical power generation process. 第二循环由第一循环的凝汽器4即第二循环的蒸发单元9、第二膨胀单元IO、第二发电单元ll、第二凝汽单元12 (也是第三循环蒸发单元18)、第二储液单元13、第二加压泵单元14、第二液态介质补充单元15、第二气态介质补充单元16、第二泄漏介质收集单元17以及配套装置、控制装置组成。 A first condenser by the second circulation loop 9 4 i.e., the IO second expansion unit, the second power generation unit of the second cycle ll evaporation unit, the second condensing unit 12 (evaporator unit 18 is the third cycle), the two liquid reservoir unit 13, the second pressure pump unit 14, the second liquid medium replenishing unit 15, the second gaseous medium replenishing unit 16, the second collecting unit 17 and the leakage medium supporting means, the control device components. 其中凝汽器4壳程进口接汽轮机排汽,壳程出口接凝结水系统,管程进口接第二加压泵14出口,管程出口接膨胀单元IO进口,膨胀单元10出口接第二凝汽单元12壳程进口,第二凝汽单元12壳程出口接第二储液单元13进口,储液单元13出口接第二加压泵单元14入口,第二加压泵单元14出口接凝汽器管程进口。 Condenser 4 wherein the shell exhaust turbine inlet connection, an outlet connection shell condensate systems, tube side inlet connected to the second outlet of the pressurizing pump 14, the outlet tube side inlet connected to the expansion unit IO expansion unit connected to a second condensate outlet 10 shell inlet steam supply unit 12, the second condensing unit 12 connected to the outlet shell inlet 13 of the second reservoir unit, a reservoir unit 13 is connected to the second outlet of the pressure inlet of the pump unit 14, a second pressurizing pump unit 14 connected to the condensate outlet steam tube drive imports. 膨胀单元的输出轴接发电单元输入轴。 An input shaft connected to the expansion unit power generating unit output shaft. 第二循环过程是:在第一循环的凝汽器4即第二循环的蒸发单元9内,高压低温的液态第二介质吸收朗肯循环做完功的水蒸汽的凝结潜热把水蒸汽凝结成水后自身气化,进入第二膨胀单元10,体积膨胀把压力能变成动能,使膨胀单元输出轴运动,带动发电单元ll发电,做完功的第二介质温度降低到接近液化温度或接近二相点温度温度进入第二凝汽单元12,在凝汽单元内把热量传给第三循环沸点更低的低沸点介质,全部液化成液体,进入储液单元13。 The second cycle is: 4 i.e. in the second cycle of the first cycle evaporation condenser unit 9, a second high-pressure low-temperature liquid medium absorbs latent heat of the Rankine cycle steam power finish of the water vapor condenses into after the water itself vaporized, entering the second expansion unit 10, the volume expansion pressure energy into kinetic energy, moving the output shaft of the expansion unit to drive power generating unit generating ll, the temperature of the second medium is reduced to near finished work at or near the liquefaction temperature point two-phase temperature entering the second condensing unit 12, the trap unit in the third cycle of heat to the boiling point of the low-boiling medium is lower, all the liquefied into liquid, into the liquid reservoir unit 13. 经一级加压泵单元1加压到亚临界或临界或超临界压力送入第二蒸发器单元9进行第二次循环,吸收朗肯循环做完功的水蒸汽的潜热再次气化和做功。 Unit 1 by a pressurizing pump or pressurized subcritical or supercritical pressure fed to the second evaporator unit 9 for the second cycle, the finished absorbent Rankine cycle steam power again to the latent heat of gasification and work .

为补充损耗,可在第二加压泵14后设第二低沸点液态介质补充单元15,在第二蒸发单元后设第二低沸点气态介质补充单元16对漏损介质补充。 To replenish depleted, low boiling liquid may be provided a second supplemental media unit 15 after the second pressure pump 14, a second evaporation unit is provided in the second low-boiling gaseous medium supplemented medium supplemented leakage unit 16. 综合考虑补充介质的压力、物态及尽可能取得效益等因素选取补充点,当设计成移动式只设补充接口或不考虑补充装置。 Considering the supplementary pressure medium, physical state and other factors as far as possible to obtain effective supplement selection point, if the mobile is designed to interface or provided only supplementary replenishing device is not considered. 为节约介质用量,设第二泄漏介质收集装置17,收集后再利用,也可不设。 In order to save the amount of media, the media provided second leakage collection means 17, and then collected by using, or not to set.

第三循环由第二凝汽单元12即第三蒸发单元18、第三膨胀单元19,第三发电单元20, 第三压縮单元21,第三气液分离单元22,第三一级加压泵单元23,第三二级加压泵单元24 第三液体介质补充单元25,第三气体介质补充单元26,第三泄漏介质收集单元27等及所有配套装置、设施、部件、元件和仪表及控制系统组成。 The third cycle by the second condensing unit 12 i.e., the third evaporation unit 18, a third expansion unit 19, the third power generating unit 20, a third compression unit 21, a third gas-liquid separation unit 22, a third pressure pump unit 23, pump unit 24 the third two third liquid pressurizing medium replenishing means 25, 26, and all supporting devices, facilities, parts, components and instrumentation unit, and the third gaseous medium supplemented medium leaking third collecting unit 27, etc. control system. 循环过程是:更低沸点的高压低温第三介质在第二凝汽单元12即第三蒸发单元18内吸收第二介质的热能把第二介质液化成液体而自身气化体积增大,进入第三膨胀单元19,推动膨胀单元输出轴运动,带动第三发电单元20发电,把第二循环介质的热能转化机械能进而转化成电能。 Cycle are: high pressure low temperature heat can lower boiling absorption medium to the third medium in the second trap element 12 within the second third vaporization unit 18 that is a second liquefied into a liquid medium itself vaporized volume increases, into the first three expansion unit 19, an output shaft of the expansion unit pushing motion, the third drive power generating unit 20, the second circulating heat medium is further converted mechanical energy into electrical energy. 从膨胀单元出来的第三循环气液两相流介质进入第三气液分离单元22,分离出的气体进入压缩单元21压縮成液体,分离出的液体先用第三一级加压泵23加压到与压縮单元出口压力相同,二液体汇合后再经第三二级加压泵单元24加压到亚临界或临界或超临界压力,进入第三蒸发单元18即第二凝汽单元12开始第二次循环。 From the third expansion unit out of the two-phase medium circulating liquid enters the third gas-liquid separation unit 22, the separated gas into the compression unit 21 is compressed into a liquid, the separated liquid to the pressurizing pump 23 with a third and pressurized to the same pressure of the compression unit outlet, a pressurized second liquid through the third confluence after two pressurizing pump unit 24 to the supercritical or subcritical or supercritical pressure, i.e., into the third evaporation unit 18 of the second condensing unit 12 to start the second cycle. 由于第三循环是在更低温度下运行,蒸发单元18即第二循环凝汽单元12可把出自第二膨胀单元10的第二循环介质冷却到液化点以下即全部液化。 Since the third loop is operating at a lower temperature, i.e., the evaporation unit 18 of the second cycle the trap unit 12 can be expanded by means of the second cycle of the second cooling medium 10 to the liquefaction point of the liquefied i.e. all.

本发明主要用于增加发电量,但也可同时提供冷量,即发电-制冷联合循环。 The present invention is mainly used to increase the power generation amount, but may also provide refrigeration, i.e. generation - Combined refrigerating cycle. 做法是根据需要的冷量级别,在第二循环、第三循环的适宜环节中增加一台或多台换热器,对提取冷量的介质降温即提供冷量。 Approach is based on the amount of cooling desired level, increasing one or more heat exchangers in a suitable part of the second cycle, third cycle, to cool the cold extraction medium, i.e. to provide cooling. 此时循环成为发电-制冷联合循环。 At this point the cycle become power - refrigeration combined cycle.

图5〜图8所示为双循环发电-制冷联合循环的四种基本流程,图5是第1种亚临界、跨临界发电-制冷联合循环,图6是第2种亚临界、跨临界发电-制冷联合循环,图7是第1种超临界发电-制冷联合循环,图8是第2种超临界发电-制冷联合循环。 FIG -5 to 8 is shown in binary power - Combined refrigerating cycle of the four basic processes, FIG. 5 is a first type subcritical, transcritical power - Combined refrigerating cycle, FIG. 6 is a second type sub-critical, critical power across - combined refrigerating cycle, FIG. 7 is a first type of supercritical power - combined refrigerating cycle, FIG. 8 is a second kind supercritical power - combined refrigerating cycle.

以图8为例,说明如下:其第二循环包括蒸发单元9,膨胀单元IO,发电单元ll,压縮单元12、自换热单元13、供冷单元14、介质补充单元15、泄漏介质收集单元16。 In FIG. 8, for example, as follows: 9 which includes a second circulation, the IO expansion unit, the power generation unit ll evaporation unit, the compression unit 12, from the heat exchanger unit 13, cooling unit 14, the medium replenishing unit 15, the leakage collection medium unit 16. 其中:蒸发单元9管程出口接自换热单元13壳程进口,自换热单元出口接膨胀单元10进口,膨胀单元输出轴接发电单元11和压缩单元12输入轴,膨胀单元出口接压縮单元12进口,压縮单元出口接自换热单元13管程进口,自换热单元管程出口接蒸发单元9管程进口。 Wherein: the evaporation unit 9 away from the heat exchange unit 13 connected to the outlet shell inlet, outlet means from the heat exchanger inlet 10 connected to an expansion unit, an expansion unit connected to an output shaft of the power generation unit 11 and the input shaft unit 12 compression, expansion and compression means connected to the outlet import unit 12, the compression unit connected to the outlet from the inlet tube side heat transfer unit 13, from the tube outlet heat exchange unit connected to the evaporation unit 9 import process. 工作流程是: 高压低温第二介质进入蒸发单元9,吸朗肯循环做完功的水蒸汽的凝结潜热气化,同时使水蒸汽凝结。 Workflow: high pressure low temperature second medium into the evaporator unit 9, finished absorbent Rankine cycle steam power latent heat of condensation, while water vapor condenses. 气体介质进入自换热单元13壳程与压缩单元来的进入管程的热介质换热吸收热量后进入膨胀单元做功,推动膨胀单元转子旋转或活塞运动,做功后降温到设计温度, 一般是接近饱和温度,再进入压縮单元被压縮升压,升压后温度升高,进入自换热单元管程把一部分热量传给蒸发单元9来的介质后进入蒸发单元管程重复循环。 Heat-medium heat exchanger from the gaseous medium enters the shell means 13 and the tube unit enters the compression unit the absorption of heat into the expansion work to promote the expansion unit or the rotor rotational movement of the piston after the work cooled to design temperature, usually close to the saturation temperature, and then compressed into the compression unit is boosted, the boost temperature, enters the tube from the heat exchange means some of the heat medium passed into the evaporation unit 9 to the evaporation unit the tube after repeated cycles. 供冷单元14据温度需要接在流程适宜处,如图示在蒸发单元前后。 According to the cooling unit 14 connected to the temperature required at a suitable process, such as before and after the evaporation unit shown. 介质补充单元15可做成固定式或移动式,做成移动式时只在系统上做接口,也可不设介质补充。 Medium replenishing unit 15 may be made stationary or mobile, as interface when the mobile is made only on the system, not to set media supplemented. 泄漏介质收集单元16可设可不设。 Leakage medium collecting unit 16 may be provided may not be provided.

图15〜图20是有代表性的三循环发电-制冷联合循环。 FIG 15~ FIG. 20 is a representative three-cycle power generation - Combined refrigerating cycle. 图15的第二循环是第1种亚临界、 跨临界联合循环,第三循环是第2种亚临界、跨临界联合循环,图16的第二循环是第2种亚临界、跨临界联合循环,第三循环是第1种超临界联合循环。 The second cycle of FIG. 15 is a first type sub-critical, combined transcritical cycle, the third cycle is the second type subcritical, combined transcritical cycle, the second cycle of FIG. 16 is a second type subcritical, transcritical combined cycle The third cycle is the first one kind of supercritical combined cycle. 图17的第二循环是第2种亚临界、跨临界联合循环,第三循环是第2种超临界联合循环。 The second cycle of FIG. 17 is a second type sub-critical, combined transcritical cycle, the third cycle is the second type of supercritical combined cycle. 图18的第二循环是第1种超临界联合循环,第三循环是第2种超临界联合循环。 FIG 18 is a second circulation of the first type combined supercritical cycle, the third cycle is the second type of supercritical combined cycle. 图19的第二循环是第2种亚临界、跨临界联合循环,第三循环是第2种亚临界、跨临界发电循环。 The second loop 19 are two kinds of sub-critical, critical across the combined cycle, the third cycle are the two kinds of sub-critical, critical inter-generation cycle. 图20的第二循环是第2种亚临界、跨临界发电循环,第三循环是第2种超临界联合循环。 The second cycle of FIG. 20 is a second kind subcritical, transcritical power cycle, the third cycle are the two kinds of supercritical combined cycle.

以图20为例:第二循环是第2种亚临界、跨临界发电循环,包括第二循环蒸发器单元9 即第一循环凝汽器4、第二膨胀单元IO、第二发电单元ll、第二压縮单元12、第二凝汽单元13、第二气液分离单元14、第二一级加压泵单元15、第二二级加压泵单元16、第二液态介质补充单元17、第二气态介质补充单元18、第二泄漏介质收集单元19组成。 In an example of FIG. 20: the second type is the second circulation subcritical, transcritical cycle power generation, comprising a second circulation evaporator unit 9 that is a first condenser 4 cycles, the second the IO expansion unit, the second power generation unit ll, second compression unit 12, the second condensing unit 13, the second gas-liquid separation unit 14, a second pressure pump unit 15, a second two pressurizing pump unit 16, the second liquid medium replenishing unit 17, The second gaseous medium replenishing unit 18, the second collecting unit 19 composed of dielectric leakage. 其中蒸发器单200910090215.6 Wherein a single evaporator 200910090215.6

元9管程出口接膨胀单元10进口,膨胀单元10输出轴接发电单元11输入轴和压縮单元12 输入轴,压縮单元也可用电动机单独拖动,介质出口接凝汽单元13入口,凝汽单元13出口接气液分离单元14入口,气液分离单元分离出的气体进压縮单元12被压縮成液体,排出后与第二一级加压泵出口并联汇合,气液分离单元分离出的液体进第二一级加压泵单元15, 一级加压泵单元把液体加压至与压缩单元12出口压力相同,二液体汇合后进第二二级加压泵单元16,被加压到亚临界、跨临界或超临界压力,进入第二循环凝汽单元9做第二次循环。 Element 9 side outlet 10 connected to inlet expansion unit, the expansion unit 10 is connected to an output shaft of the power generation unit 11 of the input shaft and the input shaft unit 12 compression, the compression unit may also be a separate motor drive, the media outlet 13 connected to an inlet steam condensing unit, condensing outlet means connected to the vapor-liquid separation unit 13 an inlet 14, a gas-liquid separating unit separates the gas into the compression unit 12 is compressed into a liquid, the discharge pressure and a second parallel pump outlet confluent, the gas-liquid separating unit separates a second liquid into a pressurizing pump unit 15, a pressurizing pump unit and the liquid pressurized to the outlet pressure of the compression unit 12 the same, the second backward merging two second liquid pressure pump unit 16, is pressurized to subcritical, or supercritical pressure across into the second circulation trap unit 9 for a second cycle.

第三循环是第2种超临界发电-制冷联合循环,包括第二循环凝汽单元13即第三循环蒸发单元20、第三膨胀单元21、第三发电单元22、第三压縮单元23、第三自换热单元24、第三供冷单元25、第三介质补充单元26、第三泄漏介质收集单元27。 The third cycle is the second type of supercritical power - combined refrigeration cycle, i.e., a third loop 13 includes a second circulation evaporator unit condensing unit 20, the third expansion unit 21, a third power generation unit 22, a third compression unit 23, since the third heat exchange unit 24, the third cooling unit 25, the third medium replenishing unit 26, a third collecting unit 27 leaking medium. 工作流程是:高压更低温度的第三介质在第二凝汽单元13即第三蒸发单元20内吸收第二介质的凝结潜热把第二介质完全冷凝成液体,自身气化体积增大温度降低,进入第三自换热单元24,吸收来自第三压縮单元的第三介质热量后进入膨胀单元21,把压力能变动能推动膨胀单元运动件运动,带动第三发电单元22转子转动或活塞运动,把压力能变成动能进而变成电能,做功后温度降低, 进入第三压縮单元23被压縮到设计压力,压缩后温度升高,进入自换热单元24,与膨胀后介质换热,换热后进入第三蒸发单元20再次循环。 Workflow: a third medium high pressure lower temperature second medium absorbing latent heat in the second condensing unit 13 i.e., the third unit 20 of the second evaporator is completely condensed to a liquid medium, their volume increases the gasification temperature is reduced after entering the third heat exchange unit 24 from absorbing heat from the third medium in the third compression means 21 into the expansion unit, the pressure can promote the expansion unit can change the moving member movement, driven by the third generating unit 22 rotates the rotor or piston movement, the pressure energy into kinetic energy and then into electrical energy, the work temperature is lowered into the third compression unit 23 is compressed to a design pressure, the compression temperature, after entering from the heat exchanger unit 24, the expansion medium exchange heat, the evaporator heat exchanger unit 20 into the third cycle again. 供冷单元25有四个位置可放置,依据要求提供的冷量和温度等级选择。 Cooling unit 25 has four positions can be placed, and cold temperature level is selected based on the request. 介质补充单元26可设计成固定式或移动式两种,设计成移动式时系统上只做接口,根据流程设计也可不要介质补充。 Medium replenishing unit 26 may be designed to be two kinds of fixed or mobile, designed to interface only when the mobile system, according to the process design can not supplemented medium. 泄漏介质收集单元27收集泄漏介质再利用,根据流程设计也可不要。 Leakage medium collecting unit 27 to collect leaking medium reuse, according to the process design may not.

无论是双循环还是三循环还是三循环以上,无论是发电循环还是发电-制冷联合循环,都可据需要由基本循环及其改型任意组合。 Whether the three-cycle or two-cycle or three cycles or more, or whether power generation cycle - Combined refrigerating cycle, may need to be combined according to the basic cyclic and any modifications. 两个循环啣接部设前一循环凝汽单元或冷却单元即后一循环的蒸发单元,当前一循环是亚临界、跨临界循环时还要设加压泵单元。 Two cycles before the engagement portion is provided a trap unit or a cooling cycle unit after evaporation unit i.e. a cycle, the current cycle is a subcritical pressure pump unit also when provided a transcritical cycle.

循环中,介质物态变化如下: Cycle, the state of the medium was changed as follows:

介质全程在气态循环,不发生物态变化。 In the whole of the gaseous recycle medium, and did not change in biological state. 即始终在过热状态。 That is always overheating. 但为降低压缩功耗,出膨胀机时温度尽量接近饱和温度或达到饱和温度。 However, to reduce the compression power, when the temperature of the expander or as close to the saturation temperature reaches the saturated temperature. 气态有过热态,即始终在过热态循环。 Overheating the gaseous state, i.e., always in the superheated state cycle.

有过热态与饱和态转化,如出膨胀单元是饱和态,进压縮单元被压縮成过热态。 Overheating and saturated state transition, such as the expansion unit is a saturated state, into the compression unit is compressed to a superheated state.

循环中介质物态有气态、液态的转化甚至有气态、液态和固态的转化。 Circulating a gaseous medium with a physical state, liquid conversion conversion even gaseous, liquid and solid. 亚临界、跨临界循环是在气态、液态转化中循环;当采用二氧化碳做工质时,液态二氧化碳气化时若外界能量供应不足或不及时,则会生成部分干冰,即出现气态、液态和固态的转化。 Subcritical, transcritical cycle is circulated in a gas, liquid transformation; work quality when using carbon dioxide, liquid carbon dioxide is vaporized when the external energy supply or inadequate if not timely, part of the dry ice is generated, appears gaseous, liquid and solid transformation.

加压后的压力超高,做功能力越大,加压到较高压力、高压力、亚临界压力、临界压力、 超临界压力,做功能力依次加大,做功后温度依次可降得更低,更易于压縮,即消耗的压縮功越小。 Ultrahigh pressure after pressing, the greater the power capability, pressurized to a higher pressure, high pressure, sub-critical pressure, critical pressure, supercritical pressure, successively increasing work capacity, the temperature of the work can be reduced more sequentially low, is more easily compressed, i.e., the compression power consumption is smaller. 但对于气态介质,压缩后的温升也越高。 But for a gaseous medium, the higher temperature after compression. 当超过某一数值如第一循环凝汽器温度, 或者为实现循环流程需要,要加降温冷却单元对压縮过程中和压縮后的介质降温。 When the first cycle exceeds a certain value, such as condenser temperature, or a process for recycling required, to add cooling means to cool the compressed cooling medium during and after compression.

第二循环和第三循环及三循环以上的多循环,其介质膨胀过程有以下方式:l.一次膨胀; 2.二次及多次膨胀;3.每次膨胀可以是一级;4.每次膨胀可以是多级。 The second cycle and third cycle more than three cycles and multi-cycle, the medium which has the expansion process in the following manner: l first expansion; 2. Secondary and multiple expansion; 3 each may be an expansion; 4 each... secondary expansion can be multi-level.

介质循环做功的核心设备是膨胀单元的膨胀机,其种类有: The core work medium circulation device is expanded the expander unit, which types are:

l.透平膨胀机包括轴流式、离心式及其组合轴流离心混流式。 l. turboexpander includes an axial, centrifugal and axial centrifugal Francis composition. 一种膨胀全过程都是气态,叶片只承受气体的推动。 An expansion whole process is gaseous, the gas leaves exposed only to push. 第二种膨胀是到饱和温度或二相点、三相点温度,末数级叶片能承受部分液化及全部液化的甚至有固体颗粒介质的冲击。 The second expansion is the saturation temperature or to a two phase point, triple point temperature, the number of end-stage blades and to withstand the impact of all of the partially liquefied liquefied medium even solid particles. 透平可做成冲动(冲击)式,也可做成反动(反击)式。 The turbine can be made impulse (impact) of formula can also be made reaction (counter) formula. 透平叶轮材质,可以是合金钢以及铝合金或钛合金。 Turbine impeller material, and it may be aluminum alloy or titanium alloy. 也可前数级是合金钢,介质降到某一温度后改用铝合金或钛合金,或合金钢、铝合金、钛合金的组合;可以在基材外喷涂、刷涂或烧结耐磨损或耐磨损和耐冲刷或耐磨损和耐冲刷和耐腐蚀物质。 May also be pre-log is steel, the temperature of the medium falls below a certain use an aluminum alloy or a titanium alloy, or steel, aluminum alloy, titanium alloy composition; outer substrate can be sprayed, brushed or wear-resistant sintered or erosion or abrasion and erosion and abrasion and corrosion resistant material.

2. 容积式膨胀机。 2. The volume expander. 包括活塞汽缸式、滚动活塞式、摆动转子式、涡旋式、螺杆式。 It includes a piston-cylinder, rotary piston, a swing rotor, scroll, screw. 容积式膨胀机,对液滴的敏感度低于透平机。 Volume expander, the sensitivity drops below the turbine.

3. 喷嘴。 3. nozzle.

4. 采用透平膨胀机、容积式膨胀机和喷嘴之二或之三的组合。 4. Using a combination of two or three turbo-expander, the expander and the displacement of the nozzle. 降低温度和压縮可取以下流程: Preferably the compression and the temperature decrease following processes:

1. 第二循环、第三循环及第三循环以上的循环气态介质膨胀直接液化成液体。 1. The second cycle, third cycle, and third cycle more direct liquefaction circulating gaseous medium to a liquid expander. 液态介质用泵加压,再进入前一循环凝汽器。 Medium pressure liquid pumps, and then enters the condenser previous cycle.

2. 第二循环第三循环气态介质膨胀到饱和态,即有液体又有气体甚至有固体,是二相流或三相流,经气液分离,分离出的液体用加压泵单元加压,分离出的气体用压縮单元加压成液体,二者再用二级加压泵单元加压进入前一循环凝汽器。 2. The second cycle is expanded to third circulating gaseous medium saturated state, i.e., liquid or even another solid gas, two-phase or three-phase flow stream, the gas-liquid separation, the separated liquid pressurized by pressurizing pump means separated into a liquid pressurized gas compression means, both the pressure pump and then two units before entering a pressurized circulating condenser.

3. 第二循环、第三循环气态介质膨胀后仍是气体,但已接近饱和温度,目的是最大限度地减小压縮功,很容易地被压縮机压缩成液体,再用泵继续加压。 3. The second cycle, third cycle after expansion, remains gaseous medium is a gas, but is close to the saturation temperature, the aim to minimize the compression work, easily compressed by the compressor into a liquid, then the pump continues to increase pressure. 升压后进入前一循环过冷单元。 Boosted before entering a loop subcooling unit.

4. 第二循环、第三循环气态介质膨胀做功后仍是气体,过热度较高,但根据流程需要设计好膨胀终温,尽量减小压缩功。 4. The second cycle, third cycle after the expansion work is still gaseous medium is a gas, the higher the degree of superheat, the expansion according to the process need to design the final temperature, to minimize the compression work. 用压縮机加压后根据需要用空气或循环冷却水或另一介质降温到设计值,进入前一介质凝汽单元或过冷单元。 The pressurized compressor needs cooling with air or circulating water or another cooling medium to the design value, before entering a media unit or cold trap unit.

压縮和冷却的级数和次数,无论是亚临界、跨临界还是超临界,都根据介质特性可设计成一级或多级压缩, 一次或多次压缩,无冷却或一级(次)冷却或多级(次)冷却,包括压縮单元内的中间冷却。 Compression and cooling stages and times, whether it is subcritical, transcritical or supercritical, are based on media properties can be designed to compress one or more stages, one or more compression, no cooling or a (secondary) or cooling multi-stage (secondary) cooling comprising compressing the intermediate cooling unit.

压缩单元的压縮机种类可以是透平式和容积式,透平式可以是轴流式、离心式和轴流、 离心混流式,即前数级为轴流式,后一级或数级做成离心式。 Type may be compressed by the compressor unit and the turbine type positive displacement, turbine type may be axial, centrifugal and axial, centrifugal Francis, i.e. before the stage number of axial, or after a number of stages centrifugal made. 容积式中可以是往复式(包括活塞式、斜盘式)、涡旋式、滑片式、滚动活塞式、螺杆式。 It may be a positive displacement reciprocating (including piston, swash plate), scroll, vane, rotary piston, screw. 透平压缩机叶轮或叶片表面可以喷涂、刷涂或烧结其他物质。 Turbine or compressor wheel blade surface can be sprayed, brushed, or other sintered material.

压缩过程可用透平把介质压縮到接近饱和,再用容积式压縮机压缩成液态。 The compression process can be pressurized medium to the turbine is close to saturation, and then compressed into a liquid displacement compressors. 也可用透平直接压缩成液态,或只用容积式压縮成液态。 Turbine may also be directly compressed into a liquid, or compressed into a liquid by only displacement. 成为液态的介质用离心泵或容积式泵加压升高到必要压力。 Become liquid medium with a centrifugal pump or positive displacement pump pressure is increased to increase the necessary pressure.

第二循环和第三循环的膨胀机及压縮机的轴封、壳体密封及系统和管路密封,采用已知的成熟的或今后研究出的密封技术,如迷宫密封、石墨密封、介质密封等,防止工质泄漏。 The expander and compressor seal second cycle and third cycle, the housing seal and seal systems and piping, using known or hereafter developed sophisticated sealing techniques, such as labyrinth seals, graphite seals, medium sealing to prevent leakage of the working fluid.

膨胀机除拖动发电机,还可同时拖动压縮机,与现在的燃气轮机组相似。 In addition to the expander drag generator, the compressor may drag, similar to the current gas turbine. 即膨胀机一端联发电机,另一端联压缩机。 I.e. an end of the expander with a generator, with the other end of the compressor.

膨胀压縮机种类把膨胀机和压缩机做在一个壳体内。 Kind of the compressor to the expansion of the expander and the compressor made within a housing. 种类有:轴流式、离心式、轴流离心混流式、往复活塞式、滚动活塞式、摆动转子式、滑片式、螺杆式、铰接叶片式等。 Types: axial flow, centrifugal, axial Francis centrifugal, reciprocating piston, rotary piston, a swing rotor, vane, screw, hinge leaf type.

为补充泄漏损失,设第二循环和第三循环介质补充接口和补充装置。 To supplement leakage losses, provided the second cycle and third cycle supplemented medium replenishing device and an interface. 补充口的位置,当采用液态介质补充时设在二级加压泵单元之前或蒸发单元之前。 The position of the supply inlet, located before the pressurization pump unit before the two evaporator units or when using a liquid medium added. 当采用气态介质补充时根据补充介质的压力、膨胀机进气前的压力设在适宜处、不浪费补充介质的能量又取得最大发电能力或出力处。 When gaseous medium supplemented as supplementary pressure medium, the pressure before the expander inlet disposed at a suitable place, without wasting energy and replenish medium or ability to achieve maximum power output at. 补充装置可设计成固定式和移动式两种,当采取移动式补充装置时,在系统上只设接口。 Supplementary means can be designed to be two kinds of fixed and mobile, while taking supplemental mobile device, provided only on the system interface. 进而若设计成不需要补充介质且制造精良或其他原因也可取消介质补充装置; 根据流程设计及性价比等因素全面考虑,可以不设泄漏介质收集装置。 If further supplemented media and are designed to not require sophisticated manufacturing or other reasons can also cancel the medium replenishing means; full consideration and process design according to factors such as cost, leakage may not be provided media collecting means.

由于第二第三介质循环是在低温下运行,需要保温保冷,使循环接近绝热循环或就是绝热循环。 Since the second and third operating medium cycle is at a low temperature, cold insulation required, circulation is adiabatic or nearly adiabatic circulating loop.

Claims (16)

  1. 1.一种多循环发电热力系统,包括第一循环,该第一循环为改进的朗肯循环,第一循环包括凝汽器,其特征在于: 该系统还包括第二循环,该第二循环是使用低沸点介质做工质的二次发电循环; 所述第一循环中的凝汽器是压力容器,用低沸点介质使所述凝汽器中的水蒸汽凝结,所述凝汽器作为第二循环的蒸发单元,其壳程进口接汽轮机排汽,出口接凝结水系统,所述凝汽器的管程串接于第二循环中; 所述第二循环还包括膨胀单元、发电单元和加压单元,所述低沸点介质经过第一循环凝汽器时吸收水蒸汽凝结潜热后汽化,将热能变为机械能,推动所述膨胀单元的输出轴运动,带动所述发电单元发电或发电并制冷,介质膨胀降温后经加压单元加压送入第一循环凝汽器开始第二次循环。 A multi-cycle thermodynamic power generation system comprising a first cycle, the first cycle to improve the Rankine cycle, the first cycle including the condenser, characterized in that: the system further comprises a second cycle, the second cycle a low boiling-point medium using a secondary work quality power cycle; the first cycle of condenser pressure vessel with a low boiling-point medium condenses vapor in the condenser, the condenser as the the two-cycle evaporation unit connected to the turbine shell exhaust inlet, an outlet connected to the condensate system, the tube-condenser of the second cycle in the series; the second circulation further comprises an expansion unit, and the power generation unit pressurizing means, said low boiling-point medium cycle through the first condenser absorbed the latent heat of vaporization of water vapor condensation, thermal energy into mechanical energy, and promote the expansion of the output shaft of the motor unit to drive the power generating units or power generation and cooling, after cooling medium is expanded by the pressurizing unit starts pressurizing the condenser into the first cycle the second cycle.
  2. 2. 如权利要求1所述的多循环发电热力系统,其特征在于:所述低沸点介质是在第一循环凝汽器正常工作工况下能够吸收第一循环凝汽器中水蒸汽凝结潜热的循环冷却水以外的物质,包括二氧化碳气、二氧化碳及其吸收剂的混合物、氮气、 空气、氦气、氩气、氢气、氨、氨的水溶液、氟里昴系列,烷类、烯类、苯类及烷类、烯类苯类化合物,以上物质中之一种或组合,二氧化碳吸收剂中包括丙酮和N-甲基-2-吡咯烷酮。 2. The multi-cycle thermodynamic power generation system according to claim 1, wherein: the low-boiling-point medium cycle, in the first normal working conditions condenser capable of absorbing the latent heat of condensation of water vapor in the condenser of the first cycle substances other than the cooling water circulation, including carbon dioxide gas, carbon dioxide, and mixtures absorber, a nitrogen gas, an aqueous solution of air, helium, argon, hydrogen, ammonia, ammonia, fluorine Pleiades in series, alkanes, alkenes, benzene class and alkanes, alkenes benzene compounds, one or more or combination of substances, carbon dioxide absorber include acetone and N- methyl-2-pyrrolidone.
  3. 3. 如权利要求l所述的多循环发电热力系统,其特征在于:所述低沸点介质在循环中物态是下述之一:全程气态,气态与液态转化,气态、液态、 固态转化,气态是过热态、饱和态、过热态与饱和态转化。 The multi-cycle thermodynamic power generation system of claim l, wherein: the low-boiling medium in the cycle of state is one of the following: full of gaseous, liquid and gaseous conversion, gaseous, liquid, solid conversion, superheated gaseous state, a saturated state, and saturated superheated state transition.
  4. 4. 如权利要求1所述的多循环发电热力系统,其特征在于:所述的低沸点介质,在第一循环凝汽器工况下沸点小于80'C,以小于35'C为佳;在经济压力下能够液化,所述经济压力,是对介质所做的压縮功小于介质的膨胀功与循环效率的乘积。 4. The multi-cycle thermodynamic power generation system according to claim 1, wherein: said low boiling point medium in the first circulation condition condenser boiling point less than 80 'C., preferably less than 35'C; economy can be liquefied under pressure, the economic pressures, the compression of the medium is made to work with the work expansion cycle efficiency is less than the product of the medium.
  5. 5. 如权利要求1所述的多循环发电热力系统,其特征在于:所述第一循环还包括蒸汽锅炉、蒸汽轮机、凝水泵、化学水处理、除氧器上水泵、除氧器、锅炉给水泵及火力发电所有的或汽轮机拖动风机、压缩机、水泵所有的附属和环保设备; 所述第二循环的基本单元是蒸发单元、膨胀单元、发电单元和加压单元;所述蒸发单元即第一循环的凝汽器,所述加压单元是加压泵单元或压縮单元或加压泵单元和压縮单元。 5. The multi-cycle thermodynamic power generation system according to claim 1, wherein: said first loop further comprises a steam boiler, a steam turbine, condensate pumps, water treatment chemicals, deaerator pump, deaerator, boiler feed pump and all thermal power turbine or drag fans, compressors, pumps and all the subsidiary environmental protection equipment; the second circulation means is substantially evaporation unit, the expansion unit, the power generation unit and the pressurizing unit; the evaporation unit i.e. the first cycle of condenser, the pressurizing means is a pressurized unit or a pump unit or a compression pressure compression unit and the pump unit. 所述基本单元以外的单元是辅助单元; Unit other than the base unit is an auxiliary unit;
  6. 6. 如权利要求1至5之一所述的多循环发电热力系统,其特征在于:所述第二循环是发电循环,可以是两种亚临界、跨临界发电循环和两种超临界发电循环四种基本循环之一,其中:当第二循环采取第一种亚临界、跨临界发电循环时,第二循环包括第二蒸发单元即改进的朗肯循环凝汽器、第二膨胀单元、第二发电单元、第二储液单元、第二加压泵单元、第二介质补充单元,还可设第二泄漏介质收集单元;高压低温液态介质在凝汽器中吸收第一循环水蒸汽凝结潜热使水蒸汽凝结成水,介质气化进入膨胀单元减压体积膨胀把压力能转化成动能推动膨胀单元运动件运动带动发电单元发电,介质做功后温度降低并液化进入储液单元, 再经加压泵单元加压进入凝汽器重复循环;当第二循环采取第二种亚临界、跨临界发电循环时,第二循环包括第二蒸发单元即改 6. The multi-cycle thermodynamic power generation system according to claim 5, wherein: said second cycle power generation cycle may be two subcritical, transcritical cycle power generation cycle and two types of supercritical one of the four basic cycle, wherein: when the second circulation take a first subcritical, transcritical power cycle, the second cycle comprises a second evaporation unit that is improved Rankine cycle condenser, a second expansion unit, the first two power generation unit, the second reservoir unit, the second pressure pump unit, the second supplemental media unit, the media may be provided a second leakage collection means; a first high pressure low temperature liquid circulating medium absorbs latent heat of condensation of water vapor in Condenser water vapor condenses into water, the gasification medium into the expansion means expands the reduced volume of the pressure energy into kinetic energy of the moving member to promote the expansion unit to drive power generating unit generating motion, lowering the temperature of the work medium into the liquid reservoir unit and liquefied, and then by pressing The pump unit recirculated into the condenser pressure; take a second cycle when the second subcritical, transcritical power cycle, the second cycle comprises an evaporator unit that is a second modified 的朗肯循环凝汽器、第二膨胀单元、第二发电单元、第二压縮单元、第二气液分离单元、第二气液分离单元分离出的液体一级加压泵单元、二级加压泵单元、第二介质补充单元,还可设第二泄漏介质收集单元;当第二循环采取第一种超临界发电循环时,第二循环包括第二蒸发器单元即改进的朗肯循环凝汽器、第二膨胀单元、第二发电单元、第二压缩单元,第二介质补充单元,还可设第二泄漏介质收集元,还可设第二换热单元并放在不同位置;当第二循环采取第二种超临界循环时,第二循环包括第二蒸发单元即改进的朗肯循环凝汽器、第二膨胀单元、第二发电单元、第二压缩单元、第二自换热单元或第二自换热单元和换热单元、第二介质补充单元,还可设第二泄漏介质收集单元;上述四种循环是基本循环,增减基本单元以外的辅助单元或改变辅助 Rankine cycle condenser, a second expansion unit, the second power generation unit, the second compression unit, the second gas-liquid separation unit, the second gas-liquid separation unit separating a liquid pressurizing pump unit, two pressure pump means, the second medium supplement means, a second further provided leaky dielectric collecting unit; when the second supercritical cycle taking a first power cycle, the second cycle comprising a second evaporator unit to improve Rankine cycle i.e. condenser, a second expansion unit, the second power generation unit, the second compression unit, the second medium supplement means, a second further provided leaking medium collecting element, and also provided a second heat exchange unit in different positions; if when the second circulation take the second supercritical cycle, the second cycle comprises a second evaporation unit that is improved Rankine cycle condenser, a second expansion unit, the second power generation unit, the second compression unit, from the second heat exchanger unit or the second unit and from the heat exchanger unit, the second supplemental media unit, the media may be provided a second leakage collection means; above four cycles are substantially circular, other than the changes in the secondary unit or base unit changes the auxiliary 元位置是基本循环的改型。 Membered cycle position substantially modified.
  7. 7.如权利要求1至5之一所述的多循环发电热力系统,其特征在于:所述第二循环是发电-制冷联合循环,可以是第一种亚临界、跨临界发电-制冷联合循环、 第二种亚临界、跨临界发电-制冷联合循环、第一种超临界发电-制冷联合循环和第二种超临界发电-制冷联合循环四种基本发电-制冷联合循环之一,其中:当第二循环采取第一种亚临界、跨临界发电-制冷联合循环时,第二循环包括第二蒸发单元即改进的朗肯循环凝汽器、第二膨胀单元、第二发电单元、第二储液单元、第二加压泵单元、第二供冷单元、第二介质补充单元,还可设第二泄漏介质收集单元;高压低温液态介质在凝汽中吸收第一循环水蒸汽凝结潜热使水蒸汽凝结成水,介质气化进入膨胀单元减压体积膨胀把压力能转化成动能推动膨胀单元运动件运动带动发电单元发电,介质做功后温度降低 7. The multi-cycle thermodynamic power generation system according to claim 5, wherein: said second power generation cycle - Combined refrigerating cycle, may be a first subcritical, transcritical power - Combined cycle refrigeration , the second sub-critical, cross-supercritical power generation - refrigeration combined cycle, the first supercritical power generation - refrigeration combined cycle and the second supercritical power generation - four basic refrigeration combined cycle power generation - one of refrigeration combined cycle, wherein: when a first second circulation take subcritical, transcritical power - when combined refrigeration cycle, second cycle comprises a second evaporation unit that is improved Rankine cycle condenser, a second expansion unit, the second power generation unit, the second reservoir fluid means, pressurizing the second pump unit, a second cooling unit, the second supplemental media unit, the media may be provided a second leakage collection means; high pressure low temperature absorption of the first liquid medium circulating in the condensing water vapor the latent heat of condensation in the water steam condenses into water, the gasification medium into the expansion means expands the reduced volume of the pressure energy into kinetic energy of the moving member to promote the expansion unit to drive power generating unit generating motion, the work medium temperature is decreased 液化进入储液单元,再经加压泵单元加压进入凝汽器重复循环;当第二循环采取第二种亚临界、跨临界发电循环时,包括第二蒸发单元即改进的朗肯循环凝汽器、第二膨胀单元、第二发电单元、第二压縮单元、第二气液分离单元、第二气液分离单元分离出的液体一级加压泵单元、二级加压泵单元、第二供冷单元、第二介质补充单元, 还可设第二泄漏介质收集单元;当第二循环采取第一种超临界发电循环时,第二循环包括第二蒸发单元即改进的朗肯循环凝汽器、第二膨胀单元、第二发电单元、第二压縮单元,第二供冷单元、第二介质补充单元,还可设第二泄漏介质收集元,还可设第二换热单元并放在不同位置:当第二循环采取第二种超临界循环时,第二循环包括第二蒸发单元即改进的朗肯循环凝汽器、第二膨胀单元、第二发电单元、第二压縮单元 Liquefaction unit into the reservoir, and then into the condenser pressure pump pressurizing unit repeating cycle; take a second cycle when the second subcritical, transcritical cycle power generation, a second evaporation unit comprising a Rankine cycle i.e. improved condensate steam, a second expansion element, the second power generation unit, the second compression unit, the second gas-liquid separation unit, the second gas-liquid separation unit separating a liquid pressurizing pump means, two pressure pump unit, a second cooling unit, the second medium supplement means, a second further provided leaky dielectric collecting unit; when the second supercritical cycle taking a first power cycle, the second cycle comprises a second evaporation unit that is improved Rankine cycle condenser, a second expansion unit, the second power generation unit, the second compression unit, a second cooling unit, the second medium supplement means, a second further provided leaking medium collecting element may also be provided a second heat exchanger unit and in different positions: when the second circulation take the second supercritical cycle, the second cycle comprises a second evaporation unit that is improved Rankine cycle condenser, a second expansion unit, the second power generation unit, the second pressure condensing unit 第二自换热单元或第二自换热单元和换热单元、第二供冷单元、第二介质补充单元,还可设第二泄漏介质收集单元。 Since the second heat exchange unit or the second unit and from the heat exchanger unit, a second cooling unit, the second supplemental media unit, the media may be provided a second leakage collection means.
  8. 8. 如权利要求l所述的多循环发电热力系统,其特征在于:还包括第三循环,所述第三循环是发电循环和发电-制冷联合循环之一;所述的第二循环在膨胀单元之后增加凝汽单元或冷却单元,该凝汽单元或冷却单元是第三循环的蒸发单元; 所述第三循环采用的介质沸点比第二循环采用的介质沸点低。 8. The multi-cycle thermodynamic power generation system according to claim l, characterized in that: further comprising a third cycle, the third cycle is a cycle power generation, and - one of the combined-cycle refrigeration; the second circulation expansion after the trap unit to increase the cooling unit or units, the trap unit or the third cooling unit circulating evaporator unit; low boiling-point medium boiling point of the medium employed in the third cycle of use than the second cycle.
  9. 9. 如权利要求8所述的多循环发电热力系统,其特征在于:当所述第二循环采取第一种亚临界、跨临界发电循环时,第二循环包括:第二蒸发单元, 第二膨胀单元、第二发电单元、第二凝汽单元、第二储液单元、第二加压泵单元、第二介质补充单元,还可设第二泄漏介质收集单元,所述凝汽单元即为第三循环蒸发单元;当所述第二循环采取第二种亚临界、跨临界发电循环时,第二循环包括:第二蒸发单元, 第二膨胀单元、第二发电单元、第二压缩单元、第二凝汽单元、第二气液分离单元、第二气液分离单元分离出的液体一级加压泵单元、二级加压泵单元、第二介质补充单元,还可设第二泄漏介质收集单元,所述凝汽器单元即为第三循环蒸发单元;当所述第二循环采取第一种超临界发电循环时,第二循环包括:第二蒸发单元,第二膨胀单元、第二发 9. The multi-cycle thermodynamic power generation system according to claim 8, wherein: when the second circulation take a first subcritical, transcritical power cycle, the second cycle comprising: a second evaporation unit, a second expansion unit, the second power generation unit, the second condensing unit, the second reservoir unit, the second pressure pump unit, the second supplemental media unit, second leakage medium may further collecting unit is provided, namely the condensing unit third circulation evaporation unit; when the second circulation take the second subcritical, transcritical power cycle, the second cycle comprising: a second evaporation unit, a second expansion unit, the second power generation unit, the second compression unit, a second condensing unit, the second gas-liquid separation unit, the second gas-liquid separation unit separating a liquid pressurizing pump means, two pressure pump unit, the second medium supplement means, a second media leaks also be provided collecting unit, the condenser unit is the third circulation evaporator unit; when the second supercritical cycle power take a first cycle, the second cycle comprising: a second evaporation unit, a second expansion unit, the second hair 单元、第二压缩单元、第二过冷单元、第二介质补充单元,还可设第二泄漏介质收集单元;当所述第二循环采取第二种超临界发电循环时,第二循环包括:第二蒸发单元,第二膨胀单元、第二发电单元、第二压縮单元、第二过冷单元、第二自换热单元、第二介质补充单元,还可设第二泄漏介质收集单元;上述四种循环是基本循环,增减基本单元以外的辅助设备或改变位置是基本循环的改型;当所述第三循环采取发电循环时,第三循环是亚临界、跨临界发电循环或超临界发电循环和基本循环改型之一,其中:当所述第三循环是第一种亚临界、跨临界发电循环时,第三循环包括第三蒸发单元即第二循环第二凝汽单元或第二过冷单元、第三膨胀单元、第三发电单元、第三储液单元、第三液体加压泵单元、第三介质补充单元,还可设括第三泄漏介质收集 Unit, the second compression unit, the second subcooling means, the second medium supplement means, a second further provided leaky dielectric collecting unit; when the second supercritical cycle take the second power generation cycle, the second cycle comprising: a second evaporation unit, a second expansion unit, the second power generation unit, the second compression unit, the second subcooling means, from the second heat exchange unit, the second supplemental media unit, the media may be provided a second leakage collection means; cycle is the above four basic cycle, or changing the position of the auxiliary device other than the base unit is increased or decreased substantially modified the cycle; taken when the third cycle power generation cycle, the third cycle is subcritical, transcritical cycle power generation or super one of the critical power cycle and the basic cyclic variations, wherein: when said third loop is the first subcritical, when transcritical cycle power generation, a third loop comprising a third evaporation unit i.e. the second cycle of the second condensing unit or The second subcooling means, the third expansion unit, a third power generation unit, the third liquid reservoir unit, the third liquid pressure pump unit, the third medium supplement means, further comprising a third set of media leaks collection 元;当所述第三循环是第二种亚临界、跨临界发电循环时,第三循环包括第三蒸发单元即第二循环的第二凝汽单元或第二过冷单元、第三膨胀单元、第三发电单元、第三压縮单元、第三气液分离单元、第三气液分离单元分离出的液体一级加压泵单元、液体二级加压泵单元、 第三介质补充单元,还可设第三泄漏介质收集和二次利用单元;当所述第三循环是第一种超临界发电循环时,第三循环包括第三蒸发单元即第二循环的第二凝汽单元或第二过冷单元、第三膨胀单元、第三发电单元、第三压缩单元,第三介质补充单元,还可设第三泄漏介质收集和再利用单元;当所述第三循环是第二种超临界发电循环时,第三循环包括第三蒸发器单元即第二循环的第二凝汽单元或第二过冷单元、第三膨胀单元、第三发电单元、第三压縮单元、第三自换热单元、第三 Element; second when the third is subcritical cycle, when the power transcritical cycle, the third cycle comprises a third second-cycle evaporation unit i.e. the second trap subcooling unit or the second unit, the third expansion unit , a third power generation unit, the third compression means, the third gas-liquid separation unit, a third gas-liquid separation unit separates out a liquid pressurizing pump unit, two fluid pressurizing pump unit, the third medium replenishing means, also be provided a third dielectric leakage collection means and a secondary use; when the third cycle is a first supercritical power generation cycle, the third cycle the third means includes a second evaporator trap unit i.e. the first or the second cycle two subcooling unit, the third expansion unit, a third power generation unit, the third compression means, the third medium supplement means, a third leakage also be provided to collect and reuse the medium unit; when the third cycle is the second super when the critical power generation cycle, a third loop comprising a third cycle of the second evaporator unit that is a second trap subcooling unit or the second unit, the third expansion unit, a third power generation unit, the third compression unit, from the third heat exchange unit, the third 质补充单元,还可设第三泄漏介质收集单元;上述四种发电循环是四种发电循环的基本循环,在循环中增加辅助设备及改变位置即成为基本循环改型;所述单元指包括本体设备及其附属设备、部件、元件、连接以及仪表和控制之全部;当所述第三循环采取发电-制冷联合循环时,第三循环是亚临界、跨临界发电-制冷联合循环或超临界发电-制冷联合循环之一,其中:当所述第三循环是第一种亚临界、跨临界发电-制冷联合循环时,第三循环包括:第三蒸发单元即第二循环凝汽单元或第二过冷单元、第三膨胀单元、第三发电单元、第三储液单元、第三加压泵单元、第三供冷单元、第三介质补充单元,其中供冷单元可放在流程的不同位置; 还可设第三泄漏介质收集单元;当所述第三循环是第二种亚临界、跨临界发电-制冷联合循环时,第三循环包括:第三 Replenishing unit mass, also be provided a third dielectric leakage collecting unit; these four power generation cycle is the basic cycle of four kinds of power generation cycle, an increase in the circulation and the auxiliary device to change the position becomes substantially modified the cycle; means a unit comprising a body equipment and its ancillary equipment, components, elements, connections, and instrumentation and control of the whole; taken when the third cycle power generation - the cooling combined cycle, the third cycle is subcritical, transcritical power - or supercritical refrigeration combined cycle power generation one combined refrigerating cycle, wherein: - when the third cycle is the first subcritical, transcritical power - when combined refrigeration cycle, the third cycle comprising: a third vaporization unit, that a second circulation unit or the second condensing steam subcooling unit, the third expansion unit, a third power generation unit, the third liquid storage unit, a third pressure pump unit, the third cooling unit, the third medium supplement means, wherein the flow of cooling units may placed in different positions ; medium leakage also be provided a third collecting unit; when the second third is subcritical cycle, transcritical power - when combined refrigeration cycle, the third cycle comprising: a third 蒸发单元即第二循环凝汽单元或第二过冷单元、第三膨胀单元、第三发电单元、第三压缩单元、第三气液分离单元、第三气液分离单元分离出的液态介质一级加压泵单元、第三液态介质二级加压泵单元、第三供冷单元、第三介质补充单元,其中供冷单元可放在流程的不同位置; 还可设第三泄漏介质收集单元;当所述第三循环是第一种超临界发电-制冷联合循环时,第三循环包括:第三蒸发单元即第二循环凝汽单元或第二过冷单元、第三膨胀单元、第三发电单元、第三压缩单元、第三供冷单元、第三介质补充单元,还可设第三泄漏介质收集单元,其中供冷单元可放在流程的不同位置;当所述第三循环是第二种超临界发电制冷循环时,第三循环包括:第三蒸发单元即第二循环凝汽单元或过冷单元、第三膨胀单元、第三发电单元、第三压縮单元、第三自 Evaporation unit i.e. the second circulation unit or the second condensing steam subcooling unit, the third expansion unit, a third power generation unit, the third compression means, the third gas-liquid separation unit, a third gas-liquid separation unit separating a liquid medium stage pressure pump unit, the third liquid medium two pressure pump unit, the third cooling unit, the third medium supplement means, wherein the cooling units may placed in different positions of the process; medium leakage also be provided a third collecting unit ; when the third cycle is a first supercritical power - when combined refrigeration cycle, the third cycle comprising: a third vaporization unit, that a second circulation unit or the second condensing steam subcooling unit, the third expansion unit, the third power generation unit, the third compression means, the third cooling unit, the third medium supplement means, a third set may leak medium collecting unit, wherein the cooling unit can be placed in different positions of the process; when the third cycle are when two kinds of power supercritical refrigeration cycle, the third cycle comprising: a third vaporization unit, that a second circulation unit or cold trap unit, the third expansion unit, a third power generation unit, the third compression unit, from the third 热单元、 第三供冷单元、第三介质补充单元,其中供冷单元可放在流程的不同位置;还可设第三泄漏介质收集单元;上述四种发电-制冷联合循环是四种发电-制冷联合循环的基本循环,增减辅助设备及改变设备的位置成为基本循环的改型;所述单元指包括本体设备及其附属设备、部件、元件、 连接以及仪表和控制之全部。 Thermal unit, a third cooling unit, the third medium supplement means, wherein the cooling units may placed in different positions of the process; medium leakage also be provided a third collecting unit; power of the four - four kinds of the refrigerant are combined cycle power generation - the basic combined cycle refrigeration cycle, increasing or decreasing auxiliary equipment and changing the position of the device becomes modifications of the basic cycle; unit refers to the body of the device and its ancillary equipment, components, elements, connections and comprises all the instrumentation and control purposes.
  10. 10. 如权利要求8所述的多循环发电热力系统,其特征在于:循环数可以大于等于四,其中:第一循环是改进的朗肯循环,从第二循环开始,是基本发电循环及改型和基本发电-制冷联合循环及改型的组合之一;从第三循环开始,前一循环的膨胀单元后要增加凝汽单元或冷却单元;该凝汽单元或冷却单元即下一循环的蒸发单元;所述各循环中的单元,指包括本体设备及其附属设备、部件、元件、连接以及仪表和控制之全部。 10. The multi-cycle thermodynamic power generation system according to claim 8, wherein: the number of cycles may be greater than equal to four, wherein: the first cycle is improved Rankine cycle, starting from the second cycle, and to change the generation cycle is substantially type and basic power - combination of one modified refrigeration and combined cycle; the third from the start of the cycle, the previous cycle of the expansion unit to increase the condensing steam unit or cooling unit; the trap unit or a cooling unit, that the next cycle evaporation unit; a unit of each cycle, meant to include all of the body of the device and its ancillary equipment, components, elements, connections, and instrumentation and control purposes.
  11. 11. 如权利要求9所述的多循环发电热力系统,其特征在于:在第二循环和第三循环中,所述介质补充单元是液态介质补充单元或气态介质补充单元或液态介质补充单元和气态介质补充单元;所述介质补充单元,可设计成固定式和移动式, 设计成移动式时,在系统上只做接口;膨胀单元和压縮单元做无泄漏设计时不设介质补充单元,或泄漏量很小时,也可不设介质补充单元;所述单元指包括本体设备及其附属设备、部件、元件、连接以及仪表和控制之全部。 11. The multi-cycle thermodynamic power generation system according to claim 9, wherein: in the second cycle and third cycle, the medium replenishing unit replenishing unit is a liquid medium or gaseous medium or a liquid medium supplemented unit and supplemental cells gaseous medium replenishing unit; the medium replenishing unit may be designed to fixed and mobile, to the mobile design, the interface system only; no compression unit and the expansion unit when doing design leak medium supplement means, or leakage is small, not to set the medium replenishing unit; unit refers to the body of the device and its ancillary equipment, components, elements, connections and comprises all the instrumentation and control purposes.
  12. 12. 如权利要求8所述的多循环发电热力系统,其特征在于:所述多循环的膨胀单元,是透平式膨胀机、容积式膨胀机、喷嘴之一种或组合;可以一级膨胀,也可多级膨胀;可以是一台膨胀设备,也可是多台膨胀设备;所述透平式膨胀机,可采用轴流式、离心式或二者的组合混流式,可采用冲动式或反动式;叶片能承受单相气态或单相液态或二相流液态和气态或三相流气态、液态和固态介质的冲击;透平叶轮材质是在低温下机械性能优良的合金钢以及铝合金、钛合金,可以前数级是合金钢,介质降到某一温度后改用铝合金或钛合金,或前数级是合金钢,介质降到某一温度后改用铝合金,再降到某一温度后改用钛合金或先改用钛合金再改用铝合金,可以在基材上喷涂、刷涂或烧结耐磨损或耐磨损和耐冲刷或耐磨损和耐冲刷和耐腐蚀物质;所述容积式膨 12. The multi-cycle thermodynamic power generation system according to claim 8, wherein: said multi-cycle expansion means is a turbine expander, a positive displacement expander, or a combination of A nozzle; a can be expanded can also be a multi-stage expansion; may be an expansion device, but also a plurality of expansion device; said turbine expander, can be axial, centrifugal, or combinations of both mixed flow, or impulse type can be type reaction; blade can withstand the impact of a single-phase gas or single phase liquid or a two-phase or three-phase flow of liquid and gaseous flow of gaseous, liquid and solid medium; turbine impeller the material is excellent in mechanical properties at low temperatures and aluminum alloy , titanium alloy, after the first few stages may be steel, medium temperature drops after a certain switch aluminum alloy or a titanium alloy, alloy steel or the first few stages, the medium temperature falls below a certain switch to the aluminum alloy, and then lowered again after switching to a temperature of titanium alloy or titanium and then switch to switch to the aluminum alloy, it can be sprayed on a substrate, or brushing, or sintering abrasion and wear resistance, erosion resistance, or abrasion and erosion resistance, and corrosive species; the volumetric expansion 机,可使用活塞汽缸式、滚动活塞式、摆动转子式、涡旋式、螺杆式, 所述膨胀机输出轴有二种输出方式; 一种是只接发电机,第二种是一端联发电机,另一端联压縮机。 Machine, using a piston-cylinder, rotary piston, a swing rotor, scroll, screw, the expander output shaft has two kinds of output modes; only one is connected to the generator, with one end of the second generation machine, with the other end of the compressor.
  13. 13. 如权利要求1或5所述的多循环发电热力系统,其特征在于:所述的加压单元包括用于压縮气态介质的压縮单元和用于液态介质加压的加压泵单元, 用于气态介质的压縮单元可采用轴流、离心、活塞式单级或二级或多级压縮机,可以采用一台及一台以上的压縮机;轴流和离心可分成两台压縮机,也可做成一台:前数级为轴流,后一级或数级为离心,压縮后使介质接近饱和,再用容积式压縮机压縮成液态,也可用透平或容积式压縮机直接压縮成液态;加压泵单元采用单级或多级离心泵或容积式泵把介质加压到必要压力;在超临界循环中,每级压縮后可带冷却单元,冷却单元可用循环水冷却、空气冷却或其他介质冷却或用从前一循环凝汽器膨胀后的低温气体冷却。 Multi-cycle thermodynamic power generation system as claimed in claim 1 or 5, wherein: said pressing means comprises a compression unit for compressing a gaseous medium, and a pressurizing pump for pressurizing the liquid medium unit , a compression unit for gaseous medium can be axial, centrifugal, reciprocating single-stage or multi-stage compressor or two, may be employed more than one and a compressor; axial and centrifugal be divided into two compressor, a table can also be made: the first few stages of an axial flow, after one or several centrifugal stages, the compression of the medium close to saturation, and then compressed into a liquid displacement compressors, may also be used turbine or positive displacement compressor is directly compressed into a liquid; pressurizing pump unit using single or multistage centrifugal pump or a positive displacement pump is pressurized to the necessary pressure medium; after supercritical cycle, each stage of compression may be with a cooling unit, a cooling unit may be circulating cooling water, cooling air or other cooling medium or the low temperature gas expansion cooling condenser previous cycle.
  14. 14. 如权利要求12所述的多循环发电热力系统,其特征在于:所述的膨胀单元和压縮单元中的膨胀机和压縮机可做在一个壳体内,即膨胀压縮机;所述膨胀压縮机的种类和型式可以是轴流透平式、离心透平式、轴流离心混流式、往复活塞式、 滚动活塞式、摆动转子式、滑片式、螺杆式、铰接叶片式等; 14. The multi-cycle thermodynamic power generation system of claim 12, wherein: the expansion unit and the compression unit of the compressor and the expander can do within a housing, i.e. the expansion of the compressor; the said expanded version of the compressor type and may be an axial flow turbine, centrifugal type turbine, Francis axial centrifugal, reciprocating piston, rotary piston, a swing rotor, vane, screw, vane hinge Wait;
  15. 15. 如权利要求1所述的多循环发电热力系统,其特征在于-系统中的设备、装置、管路采取隔热保温保冷措施,使循环成为绝热循环或接近绝热循环。 15. The multi-cycle thermodynamic power generation system according to claim 1, characterized in that - the devices in the system, apparatus, cold pipe insulation measures taken, the circulation loop adiabatic or near adiabatic become cycle.
  16. 16. 如权利要求14所述的多循环发电热力系统,其特征在于:所述膨胀单元、压縮单元、膨胀压縮单元采用机械密封;机械密封有迷宫密封、石墨密封、气体介质密封。 Multi-cycle thermodynamic power generation system as claimed in claim 14, wherein: the expansion unit, the compression unit, the compression unit expands mechanical seal; labyrinth sealing mechanical seals, graphite seals, seal gas medium.
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