CN101397983A - Working fluid phase changing enthalpy difference sea water temperature difference power machine - Google Patents

Working fluid phase changing enthalpy difference sea water temperature difference power machine Download PDF

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CN101397983A
CN101397983A CNA2007101623866A CN200710162386A CN101397983A CN 101397983 A CN101397983 A CN 101397983A CN A2007101623866 A CNA2007101623866 A CN A2007101623866A CN 200710162386 A CN200710162386 A CN 200710162386A CN 101397983 A CN101397983 A CN 101397983A
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sea water
steam turbine
working medium
heat
centrifugal compressor
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CN101397983B (en
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王作国
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王作国
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/30Energy from the sea, e.g. using wave energy or salinity gradient

Abstract

The invention discloses a work medium phase change enthalpy difference sea water temperature difference motor, in particular to a high-efficiency ocean thermal energy motor which relies on the enthalpy difference property when the phases of two work media change at the same temperature and is manufactured for the purpose of utilizing an enclosed circulation device for converting ocean thermal energy into a driving force and a technology thereof. The motor is mainly characterized in that a work medium in an evaporator (19) absorbs heat from surface sea water and then is compressed into a saturated steam by a high centrifugal compressor (1) and then transfers heat to a work medium of a steam turbine (3) with multiple masses in reverse-flow heat exchangers (15) and (14); the work medium of the steam turbine (3) absorbs high-temperature high-pressure steam and then does work; waste steam enters a condenser (5) and is condensed after releasing heat to deep sea water. The motor realizes that a work medium absorbs heat from surface sea water, is compressed, releases heat and is converted into a high-temperature high-pressure work medium and does work which mostly is mostly output as a driving force to the outside world except ensuring the energy consumption of the compressor and the pumping assistant load. The motor can provide driving force required by islands and ocean industries such as sea water industry, undersea mining and metallurgy and the like, and generates powers and provides cheap electrical power.

Description

Working fluid phase changing enthalpy difference sea water temperature difference power machine
Technical field
The Ocean thermal energy power engine that the present invention relates to a kind of ocean thermal energy conversion power equipment that relies on two kinds of working medium enthalpy difference characteristic, the temperature difference of utilizing existing seawater surface and deep layer and closed cycle during gas-liquid phase transition under uniform temp and theory and technology and make.
Background technique
In known theory and technology, the sea surface temperature is higher, and depths then temperature is lower.Ocean thermal energy is exactly that form with this temperature difference is present in the ocean.In most of torrid zone and sea area, subtropics, the water temperature of surface temperature and 1000m depths differs more than 20 ℃, and this is the needed minimum temperature difference of thermal power transfer.Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) power station working method can be divided into open cycle, closed cycle and three kinds of modes of mixed cycle.Open cycle directly is working medium with the surface seawater.Closed cycle generating is that any of low spot liquid refrigerants such as propane, propylene, ammonia or fluorine Lyons injected vaporizer earlier, utilizes the working medium in the surface seawater heating fumigators, and its is vaporized, and utilizes the vapor stream of working medium to promote steam turbine generator and generates electricity.The surface seawater temperature of utilizing approximately reduces by 2~3 ℃, is discharged into the water temperature sea depths suitable with it.The steam of working medium is after pushing turbine, and the exhaust steam that pressure and temperature has all reduced enters in the condenser, is reduced to liquid from the cooled with seawater of deep layer and through the high-speed centrifugal compressor pressurizes, is pumped in the vaporizer to recycle.Through the deep sea water of condenser, temperature approximately raises 2~3 ℃, also is discharged to depths, corresponding sea.Generated by ocean thermal energy power generation maximum conversion efficiency in theory is quite low.During 20 ℃ of the temperature difference, conversion efficiency has only 6.8%, has only 9% during 27 ℃ of the temperature difference.Add (as pump suction etc.) behind the auxiliary burden that the efficient of acquisition is between 2.5%~4%.
Closed cycle generating is removed outside power generating equipment, pump and the pipeline, mainly is made of a steam turbine, high-speed centrifugal vapour compression machine and heat exchanger, and the working state of low boiling working fluid is phase transformation between steam condition, liquid state and gas-liquid.Since the thermal properties of steam than the perfect gas complexity many, the formula that match obtains on the basis of people's gained data in long-term experiment research is very complicated, is difficult in common engineering and uses in calculating.For ease of engineering calculation, worked out the thermal properties chart of various working medium, up to now, people are the parameters of calculating various steam by means of the chart that weaves on engineering.Steady-flow energy equation is applied to various heat power equipments commonly used, and compressor is a Ws=h 2-h 1Or Ws=h 1-h 2+ q, steam turbine are Ws=h 1-h 2, heat exchanger is q=h 2-h 1
The thermal properties chart of my research, more various working medium, and generate electricity from closed cycle and to see with the relevant R123 of working medium (fluorine Lyons 1 or trifluorobichloroethane) saturated liquids and saturated gas property list, R717 (ammonia) saturated liquids and saturated gas property list, R718 (water) saturated liquids and saturated gas property list, R290 (propane) saturated liquids and saturated gas property list, R1270 (propylene) saturated liquids and saturated gas property list and pressure-enthalpy chart:
Can learn from the saturated liquids of above working medium and the parameter of saturated gas: under certain saturation temperature, the vaporization of various working medium (condensing) heat and latent heat of phase change difference, the enthalpy of the working medium that is had is also different.Now make comparisons discovery: when 4 ℃ of temperature with R718 and R123, in the time of 30 ℃, in the time of 100 ℃, in the time of 120 ℃, the vaporization heat of saturated liquids R718 is respectively 13.855 times of vaporization heat of saturated liquids R123,14.35984 doubly, 19.08172 doubly, 18.27282 doubly, thereby can release when 4 ℃ of temperature, in the time of 30 ℃, in the time of 100 ℃, in the time of 120 ℃, must have to equal 13.855 times, 14.35984 doubly, 19.08172 doubly, 18.27282 doubly condense (vaporization) heat and the latent heat of phase change of the R123 saturated gas (liquid) of R718 quality just equal vaporization (condensing) heat and the latent heat of phase change of the R718 saturated liquids (gas) of 1 times of quality.Saturated gas is from 30 ℃ of grand temperature during to 4 ℃, and the thermal discharge 47.45kJ/kg of R718 is 3.024219 times of thermal discharge 15.69kJ/kg of R123; Saturated gas is when 30 ℃ are warming up to 100 ℃, the caloric receptivity 119.66kJ/kg of R718 is 2.973658 times of caloric receptivity 40.24kJ/kg of R123 ... the multiple that can learn the latent heat of phase change of R718 and R123 at last rises or the multiple of enthalpy drop institute calorific requirement reaches more than several times much larger than R718 and R123 saturated gas enthalpy, and according to steady-flow energy equation, the enthalpy drop of saturated gas equals steam turbine and does work in the steam turbine, the enthalpy of saturated gas increases and equals centrifugal vapour compression machine institute wasted work in the centrifugal vapour compression machine, steam turbine and centrifugal steam, compressor is just contrary cycling hot machine, therefore if with R718, R123 etc. are applied to steam turbine in the ocean thermal energy conversion respectively, the high-speed centrifugal compressor is as working medium, under the certain situation of surface seawater heat release, its work done so, wasted work will have very big quantitative difference according to the difference of working medium respectively.
Summary of the invention
The present invention's purpose is the enthalpy difference characteristic (the huge difference of latent heat of phase change and the specific heat capacity difference is little) when society provides two kinds of working medium of a kind of dependence at synthermal gas-liquid phase transition, utilizes existing ocean thermal gradients heat energy and power engine that can the high thermal efficiency cycle operation.
In order to finish the foregoing invention task, the present invention has adopted following scheme when design: at first by high-speed centrifugal compressor [1] and contraflow heat exchanger skin [15], infusion pump [17], vaporizer [19] constitutes the system of remaining silent, by steam turbine [3] and condenser [5], heater [10], infusion pump [13], contraflow heat exchanger internal layer [14] constitutes another system of remaining silent, high-speed centrifugal compressor [1] reaches main shaft [2] rotation altogether with steam turbine [3] with the cycle operation number of times, contraflow heat exchanger skin [15] carries out heat exchange with contraflow heat exchanger internal layer [14] by metallic walls, like this by two remain silent system and high-speed centrifugal compressors [1], contraflow heat exchanger skin [15], infusion pump [17], vaporizer [19], [steam turbine [3], condenser [5], heater [10], infusion pump [13], contraflow heat exchanger internal layer [14] constitutes the capital equipment of Working fluid phase changing enthalpy difference sea water temperature difference power machine.Next is that high-speed centrifugal compressor [1] is remained silent in the system to remain silent with steam turbine [3] and adopted different a kind of working medium separately in the system, and the remain silent latent heat of phase change of same quality working medium in the system and enthalpy of synthermal down high-speed centrifugal compressor [1] be multiple times than steam turbine [3] the remain silent latent heat of phase change and the enthalpy of same quality working medium in the system, and the high temperature condensation thermal discharge of saturated gas conducts heat to the liquid working substance in the contraflow heat exchanger internal layer [14] by metallic walls and makes it the heat absorption vaporization in the contraflow heat exchanger skin [15].Because high-speed centrifugal compressor [1] is total to main shaft [2] rotation with identical the reaching of cycle operation number of times of steam turbine [3], the remain silent latent heat of phase change of the working medium of same quality in the system and enthalpy of high-speed centrifugal compressor [1] is multiple times than steam turbine [3] the remain silent latent heat of phase change and the enthalpy of the working medium of same quality in the system under uniform temp, therefore according to law of conservation of energy must be in each cycle operation the remain silent quality of working medium in the system of steam turbine [3] be multiple times than the remain silent quality of working medium in the system of high-speed centrifugal compressor [1].Secondly be the supplementary equipment that is drawn into the condenser [5] of pipe [6], deep sea water discharge pipe [8] formation by suction pump [7] and deep sea water again, be drawn into the supplementary equipment that pipe [11], surface seawater discharge pipe [9] constitute heater [10] by suction pump [12] and surface seawater, be drawn into the supplementary equipment of pipe [20], surface seawater discharge pipe [18] formation vaporizer [19] by suction pump [21] and surface seawater.When Working fluid phase changing enthalpy difference sea water temperature difference power machine turns round, in high-speed centrifugal compressor [1] was remained silent system: the saturated vapour that has evaporated in the vaporizer [19] was taken in the rotation of high-speed centrifugal compressor [1] away, form the step-down and the vacuum of vaporizer [19], liquid working substance is vaporized the back absorbs heat from surface seawater after because of the step-down boiling point reduces in the vaporizer [19], low temperature (surface seawater temperature) low pressure (the saturated pressure of the corresponding working medium of surface seawater temperature) steam is through the compression of high-speed centrifugal compressor [1], volume reduces, pressure raises, temperature raises and enthalpy increases, form the saturated vapour of High Temperature High Pressure, the saturated vapour of High Temperature High Pressure enters contraflow heat exchanger skin [15], enters through infusion pump [17] after condensing by the working medium heat release that rises to high temperature from low temperature (surface seawater temperature) of middle level metallic walls in contraflow heat exchanger internal layer [14] and steamer [3] are remained silent system again and carries out next one circulation the vaporizer.In steam turbine was remained silent system: liquid working substance in the contraflow heat exchanger internal layer [14] absorbed high-speed centrifugal compressor [1] and remains silent and vaporize behind the heat that the heat release of the working medium in system and the contraflow heat exchanger skin [15] condenses, form high temperature and high pressure steam, the steam of High Temperature High Pressure enters work done in the steam turbine [3], exhaust steam after the work done enters condenser [5], in condenser [5], cool off through deep sea water, condensation after the deep sea water heat release, condensed liquid working substance enter through infusion pump [13] after the surface seawater heating in heater [10] again carries out next one circulation in the contraflow heat exchanger internal layer [14].Simultaneously, be drawn into pipe [20] by surface seawater and extract a large amount of surface seawaters heating fumigators [19] constantly through suction pump [21], the surface seawater temperature of utilizing reduces after surface seawater discharge pipe [18] is discharged into the water temperature sea depths suitable with it; Extract a large amount of deep sea waters cooler condenser [5] constantly by deep sea water inlet pipe [6] through suction pump [7], the deep sea water temperature of utilizing raises a little after deep sea water discharge pipe [8] is discharged into the water temperature sea depths suitable with it; Be drawn into pipe [11] by surface seawater and constantly add hot heater [10] through the certain surface seawater of suction pump [12] extraction, the surface seawater temperature of utilizing reduces after surface seawater discharge pipe [9] is discharged into the water temperature sea depths suitable with it.As above cycle operation, the work done of steam turbine [3] is except that guaranteeing to supply with high-speed centrifugal compressor [1] wasted work, infusion pump [13] [7] wasted work, suction pump [7] [12] [21] wasted work, and the residue work done is sent to the external world as power.
The present invention who contains above-mentioned design proposal is when cycle operation, the system of remaining silent adopts working medium R123 if the system of remaining silent of high-speed centrifugal compressor [1] adopts working medium R718, steam turbine [3], and to establish R718 be that 1kg, condenser [5] and deep sea water temperature are that 4 ℃, surface seawater and vaporizer [19] temperature are that maximum temperature is 100 ℃ in 24 ℃, contraflow heat exchanger skin [15] and the contraflow heat exchanger internal layer [14], so the liquid enthalpy h ' of working medium R718 in the time of 24 ℃ 1Be 100.59kJ/kg, gas enthalpy h " 1Be 2545.47kJ/kg, gas enthalpy h 100 ℃ the time " 2Be 2676.01kJ/kg, the gas enthalpy h of R123 in the time of 4 ℃ " 3Be 383.84kJ/kg, liquid enthalpy h ' 24 ℃ the time 3Be 224.12kJ/kg, gas h 100 ℃ the time " 4Be 439.77kJ/kg, according to steady-flow energy equation:
—Ws=h″ 2—h″ 1=2676.01—2545.47=130.54kJ
Q 1=h″ 2—h′ 1=2676.01—100.59=2575.42kJ
Q 1:(h″4—h′3)=2575.42÷(439.77—224.12)=11.94259kgR123
+Ws=11.94259×(h″ 4—h″ 3)=11.94259×(439.77—383.84)=667.949kJ
W=+Ws—(—Ws)=667.949—130.54=537.409kJ
(caloric receptivity slightly in the heater)
The present invention is in each cycle operation, theoretical calculation and energy conversion conservation law according to the above efficiency of cycle, remain silent quality ten quality of working medium in high-speed centrifugal compressor [1] is remained silent system doubly of working medium in the system of steam turbine [3], the efficiency of cycle of ocean thermal energy conversion reaches more than 20%.Yet the efficient in current ocean thermal energy conversion power station is between 2.5%~4%, every kilowatt investment cost is about 12 difference/also, according to this cost, can't with use oil, gas or etc. do the cogeneration power plant competition of fuel, even cost of investment can descend 67% in the long run, to so just competing mutually with the fuel oil thermal power generation.The present invention removes about 6 times that should be current ocean thermal energy conversion efficient behind the auxiliary burden such as pump suction, far super cost of investment 67% this index that descends, thus cost of electricity-generating of the present invention is low more than using oil, gas or coal etc. to do the cost of cogeneration power plant of fuel.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is a system schematic of the present invention
The high-speed centrifugal compressor [1] of its table Working fluid phase changing enthalpy difference sea water temperature difference power machine remain silent the form that interconnects between system, the pump drainage sea water service system and relevant position and working medium of system, steam turbine [3] of remaining silent circulates direction.
Embodiment
Embodiments of the invention are: with high-speed centrifugal compressor [1], steam turbine [3] totally one main shaft [2] connects, fixing, in order with high-speed centrifugal compressor [1], contraflow heat exchanger skin [15], infusion pump [17], vaporizer [19] is connected into the system of remaining silent, in order with steam turbine [3], condenser [5], heater [10], infusion pump [13], contraflow heat exchanger internal layer [14] is connected into another system of remaining silent, contraflow heat exchanger is by internal and external layer and contraflow heat exchanger internal layer [14] and contraflow heat exchanger skin [15] formation, be heat conduction good metal wall in the middle of the internal and external layer, in contraflow heat exchanger internal layer [14] and the contraflow heat exchanger skin [15] steam turbine [3] remain silent systematic working medium and high-speed centrifugal compressor remain silent systematic working medium to circulate direction opposite, connect, before sealing finishes in two systems of remaining silent of emptying after air and the vacuum with R718 liquid, the R123 liquid of ten times of R718 quality places the remain silent vaporizer [19] of system of high-speed centrifugal compressor [1] respectively, steam turbine [3] is remained silent in the contraflow heat exchanger internal layer [14] of system, connect surface seawater at vaporizer [19] first line of a couplet then and be drawn into pipe [20] surface seawater discharge pipe [18] and suction pump [21], connect deep sea water at condenser [5] first line of a couplet and be drawn into pipe [6], deep sea water discharge pipe [8] and suction pump [7], connect surface seawater at heater [10] first line of a couplet and be drawn into pipe [11], surface seawater discharge pipe [9] and suction pump [12], place Working fluid phase changing enthalpy difference sea water temperature difference power machine on the offshore vessel at last or on the platform, surface seawater is drawn into pipe [20] [11], surface seawater discharge pipe [18] [9], deep sea water is drawn into pipe [6], deep sea water discharge pipe [8] is corresponding to be suspended in respectively in top layer and the deep sea water.The present invention in the running, the running of high-speed centrifugal compressor [1], suction causes the step-down of R718 liquid in the vaporizer [19], heat in the liquid working substance R718 absorption surface seawater is to vaporization, according to Fig. 1 upward arrow → direction and working medium R718 loop direction [16], low temperature (surface seawater temperature) low pressure R718 steam enters the compressed R718 saturated vapour that becomes high temperature (more than 100 ℃) high pressure (quite barometric pressure) of high-speed centrifugal compressor [1], remaining silent for steam turbine [3] by the heat release of intermediate metal wall in contraflow heat exchanger skin [15] then condenses into liquid behind the systematic working medium R123, carries out next circulation after infusion pump [17] enters vaporizer [19].Liquid working substance R123 heat absorption back vaporization becomes the steam of High Temperature High Pressure in the contraflow heat exchanger internal layer [14], according to Fig. 1 upward arrow direction and working medium R123 loop direction [4], flowing through, exhaust steam enters condenser [5] after steam turbine [3] work done, condensation behind the deep sea water that heat release give to be extracted, heater via [10] carries out next circulation again after infusion pump [13] enters contraflow heat exchanger internal layer [14] after the surface seawater heating again.Simultaneously, be drawn into pipe [20] through surface seawater and constantly extract surface seawater heating fumigators [19] by suction pump [21], the surface seawater temperature of utilizing is discharged into the water temperature sea depths suitable with it through surface seawater discharge pipe [18] after approximately reducing by 2~3 ℃; Be drawn into pipe [6] through deep sea water and constantly extract deep sea water cooler condenser [5] by suction pump [7], the deep sea water temperature of utilizing approximately raises after 2~3 ℃, is discharged into the water temperature sea depths suitable with it through deep sea water discharge pipe [8]; Be drawn into pipe [11] through surface seawater and constantly extract surface seawater by suction pump [12] and add hot heater [10], the surface seawater that utilized is discharged into the water temperature sea depths suitable with it through surface seawater discharge pipe [9].Because the quality ten of working medium R123 is doubly to the quality of working medium R718 in each circulation, thereby the work done of working medium R123 and steam turbine [3] institute is times over auxiliary burden institute wasted works such as high-speed centrifugal compressor [1] institute's wasted work and pump suctions, thereby cause the continuous circulation of heat absorption, work done, except that guaranteeing to supply with auxiliary burden [7] [12] [13] [17] [21] wasted works such as high-speed centrifugal compressor [1] wasted work and pump suction, other has the work done of most institute as constantly outwards output of power.

Claims (1)

  1. A kind of Working fluid phase changing enthalpy difference sea water temperature difference power machine, comprising high-speed centrifugal compressor [1], main shaft [2], steam turbine [3], condenser [5], deep sea water is drawn into pipe [6], suction pump [7] [12] [21], deep sea water discharge pipe [8], surface seawater discharge pipe [9] [18], heater [10], surface seawater is drawn into pipe [11] [20], infusion pump [13] [17], contraflow heat exchanger internal and external layer [14] [15], vaporizer [19], it is characterized in that, by high-speed centrifugal compressor [1] and contraflow heat exchanger skin [15], infusion pump [17], vaporizer [19] and steam turbine [3] and condenser [5], heater [10], infusion pump [13], contraflow heat exchanger internal layer [14] constitutes two systems of remaining silent respectively, remain silent enthalpy is big when adopting phase transformation in the system working medium and of high-speed centrifugal compressor [1] by vaporizer [19] heat absorption vaporization evaporation from the surface seawater that extracts, steam turbine [3] remain silent enthalpy is little when adopting phase transformation in the system working medium and by condenser [5] to the deep sea water heat release condensation of extracting, the working medium that working medium condensation heat transfer by metallic walls certain mass in contraflow heat exchanger internal and external layer [14] [15] high speed centrifugal compressor [1] is remained silent system remains silent many times of quality in the system for steam turbine [3], steam turbine [3] working medium heat absorption vaporization work done.
CN200710162386A 2007-09-30 2007-09-30 Working fluid phase changing enthalpy difference sea water temperature difference power machine Active CN101397983B (en)

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Cited By (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104153833A (en) * 2013-05-14 2014-11-19 王作国 Cheap double-working-medium phase change enthalpy difference flow heat power machine
WO2015043551A1 (en) * 2013-09-24 2015-04-02 郭颂玮 High-efficiency power generation system
CN105758063A (en) * 2015-03-02 2016-07-13 熵零控股股份有限公司 Heat pumping method and heat pumping system
ES2601582A1 (en) * 2016-02-26 2017-02-15 Ideadora, S.L. Thermodynamic system for the generation of electrical energy. (Machine-translation by Google Translate, not legally binding)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
SE419128B (en) * 1974-09-05 1981-07-13 Projectus Ind Produkter Ab PROCEDURE FOR OPERATION OF HEAT PUMP INSTALLATION
DE3116308A1 (en) * 1981-04-24 1982-11-18 Wilhelm 2391 Oeversee Behnemann Power plant utilizing environmental heat
US5513494A (en) * 1993-12-14 1996-05-07 Otec Developments Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) system
DE19632019C1 (en) * 1996-08-08 1997-11-20 Thomas Sturm Heat engine operation method
CN1488853A (en) * 2002-10-11 2004-04-14 王作国 Isothermal phase change condensed enthalpy difference power machine
CN1297744C (en) * 2005-03-24 2007-01-31 上海交通大学 Ocean temperature difference energy and solar energy reheat circulating electric generating method

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104153833A (en) * 2013-05-14 2014-11-19 王作国 Cheap double-working-medium phase change enthalpy difference flow heat power machine
WO2015043551A1 (en) * 2013-09-24 2015-04-02 郭颂玮 High-efficiency power generation system
US9797274B2 (en) 2013-09-24 2017-10-24 Songwei GUO High-efficiency power generation system
CN105758063A (en) * 2015-03-02 2016-07-13 熵零控股股份有限公司 Heat pumping method and heat pumping system
ES2601582A1 (en) * 2016-02-26 2017-02-15 Ideadora, S.L. Thermodynamic system for the generation of electrical energy. (Machine-translation by Google Translate, not legally binding)

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