CN102213199B - Method and device for utilizing ocean temperature difference to generate electricity - Google Patents

Method and device for utilizing ocean temperature difference to generate electricity Download PDF

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CN102213199B
CN102213199B CN2011101473530A CN201110147353A CN102213199B CN 102213199 B CN102213199 B CN 102213199B CN 2011101473530 A CN2011101473530 A CN 2011101473530A CN 201110147353 A CN201110147353 A CN 201110147353A CN 102213199 B CN102213199 B CN 102213199B
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working medium
temperature
refrigerant
seawater
outlet
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CN2011101473530A
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CN102213199A (en
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胡佳林
莫尔兵
刘平
王建录
王兵
邓良
李飞
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东方电气集团东方汽轮机有限公司
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/30Energy from the sea, e.g. using wave energy or salinity gradient

Abstract

The invention provides an ocean thermal energy conversion method and an ocean thermal energy conversion device. The method comprises the following steps of: heating a low-boiling-point working medium by using hot seawater on a surface of ocean; evaporating the low-boiling-point working medium; feeding into a turbine to push a turbo generator set to work for power generation; condensing working medium gas which is exhausted from the turbine into liquid by using cold seawater on a deep layer of the ocean; heating by using the hot seawater; feeding into the turbine to make the working medium gas evaporated; pushing the turbo generator set to work for the power generation; cyclically executing the steps; and continuously carrying out power generation. Power is generated by using ocean surface wind power, a heat pump device is driven by the power, the temperature of the working medium is further raised by using a medium of the heat pump device, and the volume expansion ratio of the working medium is improved; and the temperature of the cold seawater is further reduced by using the medium of the heat pump device, the working medium exhausted gas is condensed by using the low-temperature seawater, and a condensing effect of the working medium exhausted gas is improved. The method and the device improve the efficiency of closed cycle generation of ocean thermal energy conversion, realize the comprehensive utilization of ocean thermal energy and wind energy, have an important practical value, provide environment-friendly energy sources, and are easy to use and promote in large scale.

Description

A kind of method and device that utilizes ocean thermal energy conversion
Technical field
The present invention relates to ocean thermal energy and utilize the field, specifically a kind of method and device of ocean thermal energy conversion of using wind energy heat pump for auxiliary heating.
Background technique
The supreme km of the sea surface of tropical area and hundreds of depths exists substantially invariable 20~25 ℃ temperature difference, and this just provides a cold ﹠ heat source that total amount is huge and highly stable for generating.The basic principle of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is exactly to utilize the high temperature seawater heating low boiling working fluid of ocean surface and make its vaporization, or by step-down the seawater vaporization is generated electricity with driving steam turbine.Utilize simultaneously the exhaust condensation after the low temperature seawater (4~6 ℃) that extracts from the seabed will do work, make it again to become liquid.At present, the theoretical estimated reserves of whole world ocean thermal energy is 10,000,000,000 kilowatts, so OTEC is confirmed as in all ocean energy converting systems most important by the United Nations in 1981 new and renewable sources of energy meeting.
China Nansha, the Xisha Islands is away from the continent, the power networking difficulty, yet there solar day according to strong, thermal gradient energy utilizes tool potentiality.According to primary Calculation, the thermal gradient energy resource technical electric motor power that develops in the South Sea is up to 13.21~14.76 hundred million kilowatts, if that can suit measures to local conditions is used, not only the economic development on island produced active influence, the electric energy that can also facilitate for marine engineering operation, oil recovery, coast defence even coastal cities, so Development of Marine thermal gradient energy generation technology is significant.The major way of at present ocean thermal energy conversion has three kinds: i.e. closed circulation system, open-cycle system and the hybrid circulatory system that combines both advantages.These three kinds of circulatory systems technical with the closed cycle scheme near commercial applications.
The system flow chart of the closed cycle ocean thermal energy conversion of prior art as shown in Figure 1, from the top layer high temperature seawater A of sea surface first at the interior low boiling working fluid such as propane that heat is passed to of vaporizer 14, make it evaporation, the working medium evaporation becomes the steam turbine acting in the Steam Actuation steam turbine 6, the working medium that steam turbine is discharged enters condenser 8 again, again become liquid state after the dark deep low-temperature seawater B of the hundreds of rice cooling, and then with working medium pump 2 liquid refrigerant is delivered into vaporizer 14, recycle realizing.Idiographic flow is as follows: at first, the low boiling working fluids such as liquid petroleum gas (liquid propane gas) that working medium pump 2 extracts in the surge drum 1 enter vaporizer 14, pass through high temperature seawater pump 3 suction top layer high temperature seawater A in the vaporizer 14, top layer high temperature seawater A and liquid petroleum gas (liquid propane gas) heat exchange, so that liquid petroleum gas (liquid propane gas) in vaporizer 14 interior vaporizations, become propane vapor, the top layer high temperature seawater A after the heat exchange enters ocean C.Propane vapor enters steam turbine 6, and the pushing turbine acting makes it to produce mechanical energy, and generator 7 is converted to electric energy with mechanical energy again.Afterwards, the propane vapor that steam turbine is discharged enters condenser 8, and condenser 8 is liquid petroleum gas (liquid propane gas) by the deep low-temperature seawater B that low temperature seawater pump 15 extracts with the propane vapor condensation liquefaction, liquid petroleum gas (liquid propane gas) is kept in the surge drum 1, enters ocean C after deep low-temperature seawater B and the propane vapor heat exchange.
Existing ocean thermal energy conversion device operation result shows that because the temperature difference of top layer high temperature seawater A and deep low-temperature seawater B is little, even adopt lower boiling working medium, the efficient of ocean temperature difference power generating system is also extremely low.For example in the ocean temperature difference power generating system take propane as cycle fluid, even the surface seawater temperature is 30 ℃, when the deep sea water temperature was 4 ℃, Ideal Rankine Cycle efficient also only had an appointment 2%.And also have the loss of the parts such as pipeline valve in the actual cycle, the electric power that therefore circulation is sent also is not enough to keep the normal operation of working medium pump and low temperature seawater pump, and this makes ocean temperature difference power generating system be difficult to be promoted application always.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to: on the basis of traditional enclosed ocean temperature difference power generating system, provide a kind of method and device that utilizes wind energy power to drive the ocean thermal energy conversion of heat pump heat tracing, to improve generating efficiency.
The technical solution adopted in the present invention is:
A kind of method of utilizing ocean thermal energy conversion, hot sea water heating low boiling working fluid with sea surface, make it evaporation, send into steam turbine and promote Turbo-generator Set acting generating, the weary gas of working medium that steam turbine is discharged is liquid with bathypelagic Mare Frigoris water condensation, the reusable heat heating of seawater, send into steam turbine, make it evaporation, pushing turbine generator set acting generating, so circulation continues generating; Also utilize the ocean surface wind-power electricity generation, and with this electric drive heat pump system, further improved by the medium of the heat pump system temperature with working medium, increase the working medium specific volumetric dilatation; Further reduced by the medium of the heat pump system temperature with Mare Frigoris water, remove the weary gas of condensation working medium with this low temperature seawater again, strengthen the condensation effect to the weary gas of working medium.
Described low boiling working fluid is liquefied ammonia or propane.
The medium of described heat pump system is monochlorodifluoromethane.
The medium of described heat pump system is heated to 50 ~ 65 ℃ with the temperature of working medium.
By the medium of heat pump system the temperature of Mare Frigoris water is reduced to 1 ℃, removes the weary gas of condensation working medium with this low temperature seawater again.
A kind of ocean thermal energy conversion device comprises:
Turbo-generator Set is comprised of steam turbine and generator, is used for generating;
Working medium storage tank is used for storing turbine working medium;
The working medium preheater has working medium inlet/outlet and surface seawater inlet/outlet, and its sender property outlet connects the import of steam turbine, is used for by surface seawater working medium being heated, and makes it evaporation;
Working medium pump is arranged between working medium storage tank and the working medium preheater, and its import connects working medium storage tank, and outlet connects the working medium preheater, is used for working medium is pumped into the working medium preheater;
The low lift sea water pump connects the working medium preheater, is used for surface seawater is pumped into the working medium preheater;
The working medium condenser has working medium inlet/outlet and deep sea water inlet/outlet, and its working medium import connects the relief opening of steam turbine, and sender property outlet connects working medium storage tank, is used for the weary gas of working medium that steam turbine is got rid of is condensed into liquid state, returns working medium storage tank;
High-lift sea water pump, the seawer inlet of connection condenser is used for deep sea water being pumped into condenser, the weary gas of cooling working medium;
Also comprise heat pump system and drive unit thereof, described drive unit is wind-driven generator, is arranged in coastal beach, utilizes the ocean surface wind-power electricity generation, and described heat pump system comprises:
Coolant storage tank is used for storing refrigerant;
Compressor is driven by wind-driven generator, is used for compression refrigerant, makes it become high temperature refrigerant;
The working medium reheater, be arranged between working medium preheater and the steam turbine, have working medium inlet/outlet and refrigerant inlet/outlet, its working medium import connects the outlet of working medium preheater, its sender property outlet connects the import of steam turbine, its refrigerant import connects the outlet of compressor, is further improved by the temperature of high temperature refrigerant with working medium;
The pneumatic expansion cooler is arranged on the refrigerant exit pipeline of working medium reheater, is used for the refrigerant chilling behind the heating working medium;
Refrigerant evaporator, be arranged between coolant storage tank and the working medium condenser, have refrigerant inlet/outlet and deep sea water inlet/outlet, its refrigerant import connects the refrigerant exit of working medium reheater, its refrigerant exit connects coolant storage tank, its deep sea water import connects high-lift seawater delivery side of pump, and its deep sea water outlet connects the deep sea water import of working medium condenser; Refrigerant evaporation absorbs heat after utilizing chilling, and the temperature of deep sea water is further reduced.
Described pneumatic expansion cooler is made of several a plurality of orifice-plate type throttle elements that are arranged in the refrigerant pipe, is provided with several throttle orifices on the orifice-plate type throttle element.
The refrigerant of described pneumatic expansion cooler after with heating working medium is chilled to-20 ℃.
The compressor of described heat pump system has standby power supply.
The beneficial effect that the present invention produces is:
Method and the device that utilizes ocean thermal energy conversion of the present invention, at traditional enclosed ocean temperature difference power generating system (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Closed Cycle, CC-OTEC) on the basis, when utilizing this eco-friendly power source advantage of ocean thermal energy, utilize wind energy power to drive heat pump raising ocean thermal energy conversion turbine low boiling working fluid inlet temperature and reduce simultaneously sink temperature, namely utilize marine wind energy to be converted into mechanical energy, the direct refrigeration agent that drives heat pump inside evaporates the thermal cycle with condensation, and the proposition heat heats the working medium of ocean thermal energy conversion steam turbine inlet from low temperature seawater.The present invention is take the ocean surface seawater as thermal source, bathypelagic seawater below 800 meters is low-temperature receiver, utilize simultaneously the driven by wind power generation heat pump further to heat the temperature of ocean thermal energy conversion steam turbine inlet cycle fluid and reduce the temperature of Mare Frigoris water, increased the temperature difference of thermal source and low-temperature receiver, compare with the ocean temperature difference power generating system of prior art, greatly improved the efficient of closed cycle.
In the present invention, low boiling working fluid is transported in the preheater by the working medium pump raising, by the sea surface seawater working medium is carried out preheating, the high temperature refrigerant of recycling wind energy drive compression machine compression, working medium is further heated, until it reaches superheat state, this process also can be regarded as refrigerant in chiller-heat pump concerning heat pump.
Overheated Working medium gas enters in the turbine, promotes the turbine acting and drives the generator generating; And the refrigerant that heated working medium is behind pneumatic expansion cooler adiabatic throttling, and temperature reduces rapidly, enters to absorb in the vaporizer from the release heat of Mare Frigoris water of bathypelagic to become gas again.This process, refrigerant temperature raises and the reduction of refrigerated sea water temperature; The refrigerant that becomes gas reenters compressor, realizes heat pump cycle; And the Mare Frigoris water after being cooled enters condenser, is used for working medium after the acting that condensation discharges from steam turbine, and working medium improves pressure by working medium pump after becoming liquid, again is transported in the preheater, and steam turbine has also been realized closed cycle like this.
In this cyclic process, can continuously extra large sample thermal gradient energy be converted to electric energy, realize the generating of ocean thermal gradients closed cycle; The heat pump that the electric energy that utilizes wind-driven generator to send drives, then not only improved the efficient of this closed cycle, increased the temperature difference of thermal source and low-temperature receiver, even and lower at the sea surface coolant-temperature gage, period the present invention that traditional ocean thermal gradients closed cycle can not be moved still can move as usual.In addition, the electric energy that wind-driven generator sends can also be used working medium pump for sea water pump and circulation, and does not need the electricity that uses major circulatory system to send, has improved like this practicability of ocean temperature difference power generating system.Simultaneously, ocean thermal energy and wind energy are renewable energy sources, also can not cause any pollution to environment.
The present invention takes full advantage of the wind energy on the sea auxiliary circulation when having utilized ocean thermal energy be that the efficient of heat pump circulation is generally much larger than 1, wind energy utilization efficiency is much larger than generating efficiency in the auxiliary circulation, can greatly promote so whole efficiency of energy utilization, greatly improve Rankine cycle efficient, realized the comprehensive utilization of ocean thermal energy and wind energy, it is a kind of practical method of ocean thermal energy conversion that makes, has important use value, be beneficial to the energy-saving and emission-reduction of country, the requirement of the environmental protection energy, be easy to use on a large scale and promote.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is traditional enclosed ocean temperature difference power generating system flow chart of prior art;
Fig. 2 is the ocean temperature difference power generating system flow chart of using wind energy heat pump for auxiliary heating of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is the ocean thermal energy conversion method flow diagram of using wind energy heat pump for auxiliary heating of the present invention.
Shown in the number in the figure: 1-surge drum, 2-working medium pump, 3-high temperature seawater pump, 4-preheater, 5-reheater, 6-steam turbine, 7-generator, 8-condenser, 9-coolant storage tank, 10-standby power supply, 11-wind-driven generator, 12-compressor, 13-pneumatic expansion cooler, 14-vaporizer, 15-low temperature seawater pump, A-top layer high temperature seawater, B-deep low-temperature seawater, C-enter ocean, L-refrigerant pipe, M-temperature seawater pipeline, N-Mare Frigoris waterpipe, P-ammonia working medium pipeline, Q-elastic cable paper.
Embodiment
Wind energy is the same with ocean thermal energy, is primary energy, is again renewable energy sources, in the ocean surface wind energy that is richly stored with equally.On wind regime, marine have more advantage than land, and wind speed is generally high by 25% than land wind speed on the sea that offshore is 10 kilometers, and the quiet wind phase is seldom arranged.Method and the device that utilizes ocean thermal energy conversion of the present invention, at traditional enclosed ocean temperature difference power generating system (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Closed Cycle, CC-OTEC) on the basis, utilize wind energy power to drive heat pump raising ocean thermal energy conversion turbine low boiling working fluid inlet temperature and reduce simultaneously sink temperature, to improve the method for generating efficiency.
As shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2, ocean thermal energy conversion method of the present invention, utilize first the top layer high temperature seawater A heating low boiling working fluid (such as liquefied ammonia or propane etc.) of sea surface, make it evaporation, sending into steam turbine 6(is steam turbine set) the pushing turbine acting, produce mechanical energy, generator 7 is converted to electric energy generating with mechanical energy, the weary gas of working medium that steam turbine 6 is discharged is condensed into liquid state with bathypelagic deep low-temperature seawater B.Then with top layer high temperature seawater A heating, send into steam turbine 6, make it evaporation, the 7 acting generatings of pushing turbine group generator, so circulation continues generating.In addition, also utilize the ocean surface wind-power electricity generation, and with this electric drive heat pump system, further improved by the medium monochlorodifluoromethane (CHCLF2) of the heat pump system temperature with working medium, the temperature of working medium is heated to 50 ~ 65 ℃, increases the specific volumetric dilatation of working medium; Further reduced by the medium monochlorodifluoromethane of the heat pump system temperature with deep low-temperature seawater B, the temperature of deep low-temperature seawater B is reduced to 1 ℃, remove the weary gas of condensation working medium with this deep low-temperature seawater B again, strengthen the condensation effect to the weary gas of working medium.
Ocean thermal energy conversion device of the present invention comprises following a few part:
1) Turbo-generator Set is comprised of steam turbine 6 and generator 7, is used for generating.
2) working medium storage tank, namely liquid storage tank 1, is used for storing turbine working medium, stores liquefied ammonia or propane etc.
3) the working medium preheater 4, have working medium inlet/outlet and top layer high temperature seawater A inlet/outlet, and its sender property outlet connects the import of steam turbine 6, are used for by top layer high temperature seawater A liquid refrigerant being heated, and make it vaporization, become working substance steam.
4) working medium pump 2, are arranged between working medium storage tank (liquid storage tank 1) and the working medium preheater 4, and its import connects liquid storage tank 1, and outlet connects working medium preheater 4, are used for working medium pump 2 is entered working medium preheater 4.
5) the high temperature seawater pump 3, and namely the low lift sea water pump connects working medium preheater 4, are used for top layer high temperature seawater A is pumped into working medium preheater 4.
6) the working medium condenser 8, have working medium inlet/outlet and deep low-temperature seawater B inlet/outlet, its working medium import connects the relief opening of steam turbine 6, and sender property outlet connects working medium storage tank (liquid storage tank 1), be used for the weary gas of working medium that steam turbine 6 is got rid of is condensed into liquid state, return liquid storage tank 1.
7) the low temperature seawater pump 15, i.e. high-lift sea water pump connects the seawer inlet of condenser 8, is used for deep low-temperature seawater B being pumped into condenser 8, the weary gas of cooling working medium.
8) heat pump system and drive unit thereof: this is innovation part of the present invention, and the below introduces one by one:
A) drive unit is wind-driven generator 11, is arranged in coastal beach, utilizes the ocean surface wind-power electricity generation.
B) heat pump system comprises:
I. coolant storage tank 9, are gas holder, are used for storing refrigerant.
Ii. compressor 12, driven by wind-driven generator 11, are used for compression refrigerant, make it become high temperature refrigerant, and this compressor 12 is furnished with standby power supply 10.
Iii. the working medium reheater 5, be arranged between working medium preheater 4 and the steam turbine 6, have working medium inlet/outlet and refrigerant inlet/outlet, its working medium import connects the outlet of working medium preheater 4, its sender property outlet connects the import of steam turbine 6, its refrigerant import connects the outlet of compressor 12, is further improved by the temperature of high temperature refrigerant with working medium;
Iv. the pneumatic expansion cooler 13, are arranged on the refrigerant exit pipeline of working medium reheater 5, are used for the gas coolant behind the heating working medium is changed into the liquid coolant of low-pressure low-temperature.This pneumatic expansion cooler 13 has the various structures form, and the present invention adopts the structural type of the adiabatic throttling device that is arranged on refrigerant pipe L inside.This adiabatic throttling device structure and principle are identical with flow controller in the common refrigeration cycle, here the orifice-plate type throttle element that adopts a plurality of orders to arrange, be Rectifier plate, be provided with several throttling pore on the Rectifier plate, the corresponding or not corresponding setting of the throttling pore on the adjacent Rectifier plate.When the throttling pore, because local resistance produces, pressure significantly descends from working medium reheater 5 gas coolant out, and cold media air expands rapidly, temperature sharply descends, and forms the pneumatic expansion cooling.Because this cooling procedure is carried out very soon, fluid can be ignored with extraneous heat exchange amount, can be regarded as adiabatic process, so, total energy through overcooled fluid is constant, but after the throttling, the stream pressure of refrigerant reduces, and specific volume increases, the speed rising of air-flow, so that airflow kinetic energy increases, energy (or enthalpy) reduces in the air-flow, temperature sharply reduces thereby cause, and finally realizes the liquefaction of refrigerant.Repeatedly after the throttling, the temperature of refrigerant can drop to very low, and among the present invention, by pneumatic expansion cooler 13, the refrigerant behind the heating working medium finally can be cooled to about-20 ℃.
V. refrigerant evaporator 14, be arranged between coolant storage tank 9 and the working medium condenser 8, have refrigerant inlet/outlet and deep low-temperature seawater B inlet/outlet, its refrigerant import connects the refrigerant exit of working medium reheater 5, its refrigerant exit connects coolant storage tank 9, its deep sea water import connects the outlet of low temperature seawater pump 15, and its deep sea water outlet connects the deep sea water import of working medium condenser 8; Refrigerant evaporation absorbs heat after utilizing chilling, and the temperature of deep low-temperature seawater B is further reduced.
9) ocean thermal energy conversion device of the present invention also comprises the refrigerant pipe L between the above-mentioned parts, warm seawater pipeline M, Mare Frigoris waterpipe N, ammonia working medium pipeline P and elastic cable paper Q.Refrigerant pipe L closed loop connects coolant storage tank 9, compressor 12, reheater 5, pneumatic expansion cooler 13 vaporizers 14, forms the closed-circuit service line of refrigerant.Ammonia working medium pipeline P closed loop connects surge drum 1, working medium pump 2, preheater 4, reheater 5, steam turbine 6 and condenser 8, forms the closed-circuit service line of working medium.Elastic cable paper Q is delivered to respectively working medium pump 2, high temperature seawater pump 3 and low temperature seawater pump 15 with the electric energy of wind-driven generator 11 generations and the electric energy of standby power supply 10 deposits.
Different from conventional steam turbine 6 in the past, the inlet steam temperature of ocean thermal energy conversion is very low, low-temperature receiver and the thermal source temperature difference are very little, therefore should get the working medium that boiling point is lower, gas phase zone specific heat is large, the latent heat of vaporization is little, can reduce all parts size like this, therefore, this embodiment is chosen the working medium that ammonia is major cycle, and the heat pump refrigerant then adopts monochlorodifluoromethane (CHCLF2).
This embodiment is take the top layer high temperature seawater A of 22 ℃ to 27 ℃ of ocean surfaces as pre-thermal source, take 5 ℃ deep low-temperature seawater B of about 800 meters of bathypelagics as low-temperature receiver, take the cycle fluid of ammonia as the ocean thermal energy conversion turbine, a low boiling closed circulation system of structure.This circulatory system is major circulatory system of the present invention.Simultaneously, use wind-driven generator 11 to send electric energy and consist of a heat pump according to air-condition principle direct driving compressor machine 12, with the ammonia after the heat transferred preheating among the deep low-temperature seawater B, improve heat source temperature and reduce sink temperature, cycle fluid in the heat pump uses monochlorodifluoromethane (CHCLF2), and heat pump has also consisted of an auxiliary closed circulation system like this.Wherein, the heat pump that wind energy drives can improve heat source temperature 30 ~ 45 ℃, and sink temperature is reduced by 4 ℃.
In the major cycle of this embodiment, in the turbine cyclic process of namely generating electricity, liquid about 5 ℃ ammonia, improve pressure by working medium pump 2, at first be transported in the preheater 4, preheated by top layer high temperature seawater A liquid towards ammoniacal liquor, at this moment, the temperature of liquid ammonia is brought up to about 20 degrees centigrade.Then, the High Temperature High Pressure monochlorodifluoromethane (about 70 ℃) that liquid ammonia is transported to after compressor 12 compressions that reheater 5 neutralization drives by wind energy carries out heat exchange, so that liquid ammonia is vaporizated into ammonia, at this moment, out ammonia temperature can reach 50 ~ 65 ℃ from reheater 5, and state is converted to superheat state.At this moment, overheated ammonia enters the acting of expanding in the steam turbine 6, drives generator 7 generatings; The ammonia of discharging from steam turbine 6 is the ammonia gas near saturation state about 7 degrees centigrade, after being cooled to liquid condition by deep low-temperature seawater B by condenser 8 again, improve its pressure by working medium pump 2 and send into preheater 4, finish the power cycle of ammonia working medium, namely major cycle of the present invention.In this circulation, can be continuously the temperature difference of seawater be become electric power, realize ocean thermal energy conversion.
In the heat pump cycle of this embodiment, namely in the auxiliary circulation process, use monochlorodifluoromethane (CHCLF2) to be cycle fluid.At first liquid about-20 ℃ monochlorodifluoromethane is transported in the vaporizer 14 by working medium pump 2, high temperature fluid is the deep low-temperature seawater B that extracts from bathypelagic about 5 degrees centigrade in this vaporizer 14, monochlorodifluoromethane becomes overheated gas after having absorbed the heat of deep low-temperature seawater B, has reduced simultaneously the temperature of deep low-temperature seawater B.Then, overheated monochlorodifluoromethane enters in the compressor 12 that is driven by wind-driven generator 11, be compacted into about 70 ℃ of high temperature and high pressure gas, enter again in the reheater 5 of major circulatory system, but in this reheater 5,70 ℃ of High Temperature High Pressure monochlorodifluoromethane gas is to be used as high temperature fluid to heat liquid ammonia about 20 degrees centigrade.The monochlorodifluoromethane gas-heated when ammonia, also reduced the temperature of oneself, then become monochlorodifluoromethane about-20 ℃ through pneumatic expansion cooler 13 adiabatic throttlings, be sent to vaporizer 14 by working medium pump 2 again, finished heat pump cycle.In this cyclic process, provide energy by wind-driven generator 11, constantly improve the inlet temperature of ocean thermal energy conversion turbine working medium and reduce the temperature of cooling water (being deep low-temperature seawater B), namely increased the cold ﹠ heat source temperature difference, greatly improved ocean thermal energy conversion efficient.
Below with in the ocean thermal energy conversion turbine, ammonia working medium circulation temperature is that 50 ℃, evaporating pressure are that 20bar, condensing temperature are that 7 ℃, condensing pressure are that the operating mode of 5.5bar illustrates idiographic flow of the present invention.In utility unit, can adjust as the case may be parameter:
1. being stored in surge drum 1(is the ammoniacal liquor storage tube) in 5 ℃ liquid ammonia namely supply ammonia pump by working medium pump 2() improve pressure to more than the 20bar, and be transported in the preheater 4;
2. in preheater 4,25 ℃ the top layer high temperature seawater A that extracts from sea surface by high temperature seawater pump 3 is heated to 5 ℃ liquid ammonia about 20 ℃.In order to improve heat exchange efficiency, preheater 4 adopts the plate type heat exchanger structure, enter reheater 5 through liquid ammonia after preheater 4 preheatings, and top layer high temperature seawater A temperature reduces, and enters ocean C.
3. be stored in the gaseous coolant monochlorodifluoromethane (CHCLF2) about-5 ℃ in the coolant storage tank 9, the compressor 12 that the electric energy that is sent by wind-driven generator 11 drives is compressed into the high temperature and high pressure gas about 70 ℃, delivers into reheater 5.If, run into the calm situation of marine minority, then can use standby power supply 10, come drive compression machine 12 to realize this process.
From preheater 4 out about 20 ℃ liquid ammonia and from compressor 12 refrigerant monochlorodifluoromethane heat exchange reheater 5 of about 70 ℃ out, liquid ammonia is heated to form the overheated ammonia about 50 ℃, 20bar, and monochlorodifluoromethane is cooled to about 55 ℃;
5. the overheated ammonia about flow out from reheater 5 50 ℃, 20bar enters steam turbine 6, promotes steam turbine 6 expand acting and output powers, and this power is converted into electric energy output by generator 7; The ammonia of discharging from steam turbine 6 is 7 ℃, the gas of 5.3bar.
From reheater 5 out 55 ℃ refrigerant monochlorodifluoromethane through pneumatic expansion cooler 13 adiabatic throttlings after, temperature sharply is reduced to-20 ℃, then enters vaporizer 14;
7. bathypelagic about 5 ℃ deep low-temperature seawater B below 800 meters is after low temperature seawater pump 15 extracts, be transported to vaporizer 14, heating is through-20 ℃ liquid refrigerants monochlorodifluoromethane after the throttling in vaporizer 14, rise to-5 ℃ through refrigerant monochlorodifluoromethane temperature after the heat exchange, become overheated gas, and deep low-temperature seawater B temperature raises, and enters the ocean.Then ,-5 ℃ monochlorodifluoromethane overheated gas is transported to coolant storage tank 9, for compressor 12, has so just finished the heat pump cycle of auxiliary system.In the vaporizer 14,5 ℃ deep low-temperature seawater B is cooled to 1 ℃, is transported in the condenser 8 again.
8. after process is done work in step 5,5 ℃, the ammonia of 5.3bar enter into condenser 8, deep low-temperature seawater B by 1 ℃ is cooled to 5 ℃, the ammoniacal liquor that becomes 5 ℃ is sent back in the ammoniacal liquor storage tube, after extracting, working medium pump 2 enters again in the preheater 4, finish like this major cycle, realized the output of system power.
The Rankine cycle temperature end temperature of this embodiment is up to 50 ℃, the low-temperature end temperature is reduced to 5 ℃, and ideal efficiency reaches 14%, and temperature end only has 20 ~ 25 ℃ in the ocean thermal energy conversion closed circulation system of prior art, low-temperature end has 10 ℃, and ideal cycle efficiency also only has 1.74%.By comparison, the present invention has increased exponentially cycle efficiency, the electric energy that wind-driven generator 11 sends among the present invention in addition can also offer the uses such as working medium pump 2, high temperature seawater pump 3 and low temperature seawater pump 15 in the ocean thermal energy conversion closed cycle, drive working medium pump 2 and sea water pump and need to consume the electric energy that major cycle sends unlike traditional closed cycle, consider loss and the pipe loss of each parts in the actual cycle, be in 60% the situation in steam turbine 6 and all parts efficient, the generating efficiency of this method can reach 8.4%, has use value fully.

Claims (9)

1. method of utilizing ocean thermal energy conversion, hot sea water heating low boiling working fluid with sea surface, make it evaporation, send into steam turbine and promote Turbo-generator Set acting generating, the weary gas of working medium that steam turbine is discharged is liquid with bathypelagic Mare Frigoris water condensation, the reusable heat heating of seawater, send into steam turbine, make it evaporation, pushing turbine generator set acting generating, so circulation continues generating; It is characterized in that, also utilize the ocean surface wind-power electricity generation, and with this electric drive heat pump system, further improved by the medium of the heat pump system temperature with working medium, increase the working medium specific volumetric dilatation; Further reduced by the medium of the heat pump system temperature with Mare Frigoris water, remove the weary gas of condensation working medium with this low temperature seawater again, strengthen the condensation effect to the weary gas of working medium; The refrigerant that becomes gas reenters compressor, realizes heat pump cycle.
2. the method for utilizing ocean thermal energy conversion as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, described low boiling working fluid is liquefied ammonia or propane.
3. the method for utilizing ocean thermal energy conversion as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, the medium of described heat pump system is monochlorodifluoromethane.
4. the method for utilizing ocean thermal energy conversion as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, the medium of described heat pump system is heated to 50 ~ 65 ℃ with the temperature of working medium.
5. the method for utilizing ocean thermal energy conversion as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that, by the medium of heat pump system the temperature of Mare Frigoris water is reduced to 1 ℃, removes the weary gas of condensation working medium with this low temperature seawater again.
6. ocean thermal energy conversion device comprises:
Turbo-generator Set is comprised of steam turbine and generator, is used for generating;
Working medium storage tank is used for storing turbine working medium;
The working medium preheater has working medium inlet/outlet and surface seawater inlet/outlet, and its sender property outlet connects the import of steam turbine, is used for by surface seawater working medium being heated, and makes it evaporation;
Working medium pump is arranged between working medium storage tank and the working medium preheater, and its import connects working medium storage tank, and outlet connects the working medium preheater, is used for working medium is pumped into the working medium preheater;
The low lift sea water pump connects the working medium preheater, is used for surface seawater is pumped into the working medium preheater;
The working medium condenser has working medium inlet/outlet and deep sea water inlet/outlet, and its working medium import connects the relief opening of steam turbine, and sender property outlet connects working medium storage tank, is used for the weary gas of working medium that steam turbine is got rid of is condensed into liquid state, returns working medium storage tank;
High-lift sea water pump, the seawer inlet of connection condenser is used for deep sea water being pumped into condenser, the weary gas of cooling working medium;
It is characterized in that also comprise heat pump system and drive unit thereof, described drive unit is wind-driven generator, is arranged in coastal beach, utilizes the ocean surface wind-power electricity generation, described heat pump system comprises:
Coolant storage tank is used for storing refrigerant;
Compressor is driven by wind-driven generator, is used for compression refrigerant, makes it become high temperature refrigerant;
The working medium reheater, be arranged between working medium preheater and the steam turbine, have working medium inlet/outlet and refrigerant inlet/outlet, its working medium import connects the outlet of working medium preheater, its sender property outlet connects the import of steam turbine, its refrigerant import connects the outlet of compressor, is further improved by the temperature of high temperature refrigerant with working medium;
The pneumatic expansion cooler is arranged on the refrigerant exit pipeline of working medium reheater, is used for the refrigerant chilling behind the heating working medium;
Refrigerant evaporator, be arranged between coolant storage tank and the working medium condenser, have refrigerant inlet/outlet and deep sea water inlet/outlet, its refrigerant import connects the refrigerant exit of working medium reheater, its refrigerant exit connects coolant storage tank, its deep sea water import connects high-lift seawater delivery side of pump, and its deep sea water outlet connects the deep sea water import of working medium condenser; Refrigerant evaporation absorbs heat after utilizing chilling, and the temperature of deep sea water is further reduced.
7. ocean thermal energy conversion device as claimed in claim 6 is characterized in that, described pneumatic expansion cooler is made of several a plurality of orifice-plate type throttle elements that are arranged in the refrigerant pipe, is provided with several throttle orifices on the orifice-plate type throttle element.
8. ocean thermal energy conversion device as claimed in claim 6 is characterized in that, the refrigerant of described pneumatic expansion cooler after with heating working medium is chilled to-20 ℃.
9. ocean thermal energy conversion device as claimed in claim 6 is characterized in that, the compressor of described heat pump system has standby power supply.
CN2011101473530A 2011-06-02 2011-06-02 Method and device for utilizing ocean temperature difference to generate electricity CN102213199B (en)

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