CN100425925C - Electricity generating, air conditioning and heating apparatus utilizing natural medium and solar energy or waste heat - Google Patents

Electricity generating, air conditioning and heating apparatus utilizing natural medium and solar energy or waste heat Download PDF

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Publication number
CN100425925C
CN100425925C CNB2006100106463A CN200610010646A CN100425925C CN 100425925 C CN100425925 C CN 100425925C CN B2006100106463 A CNB2006100106463 A CN B2006100106463A CN 200610010646 A CN200610010646 A CN 200610010646A CN 100425925 C CN100425925 C CN 100425925C
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China
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heat
turbine
collector
solar energy
energy
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CNB2006100106463A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN1804502A (en
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张信荣
杜培俭
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杜培俭
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A30/00Adapting or protecting infrastructure or their operation
    • Y02A30/27Relating to heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC] technologies
    • Y02A30/274Relating to heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC] technologies using waste energy, e.g. from internal combustion engine
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02BCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO BUILDINGS, e.g. HOUSING, HOUSE APPLIANCES OR RELATED END-USER APPLICATIONS
    • Y02B30/00Energy efficient heating, ventilation or air conditioning [HVAC]
    • Y02B30/62Absorption based systems
    • Y02B30/625Absorption based systems combined with heat or power generation [CHP], e.g. trigeneration
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E10/00Energy generation through renewable energy sources
    • Y02E10/40Solar thermal energy, e.g. solar towers
    • Y02E10/46Conversion of thermal power into mechanical power, e.g. Rankine, Stirling or solar thermal engines

Abstract

The present invention relates to an electricity generating, air conditioning and heating apparatus utilizing natural working substance and solar energy or waste heat, which is composed of a solar energy collector or a waste heat collector, a pump, a turbine, an electric generator, a refrigerator, and a heat exchanger that are connected together by pipelines, wherein an inlet and an outlet of the solar energy collector or the waste heat collector are respectively connected with an outlet of the pump and an inlet of the turbine and form a natural working substance loop, and natural working substance with low-boiling point in liquid state reaches the state of supercritical pressure after pressurized by the pump orderly and is then heated to be supercutical fluid with high temperature and high pressure by the solar energy collector or the waste heat collector. The supercutical fluid with high temperature and high pressure is changed into the state of low-pressure gas after adiabatic expansion, cooled back to the liquid state through the process of heat recovery, and finally delivered back to the solar energy collector or the waste heat collector, so that the thermodynamic cycle is realized. In the thermodynamic cycle, the supercutical fluid with high temperature and high pressure drives the turbine and the electric generator to produce electric power. Additionally, the process of heat recovery utilizes an absorption refrigerator to produce the action of cold and hot air conditioning and heat water for hot water supply as well.

Description

Utilize generating, air-conditioning and the heating installation of natural medium and solar energy or used heat
Technical field:
The invention belongs to heat energy utilization and environmental technology field, particularly a kind of stand alone type generating, air-conditioning and heating installation that effectively utilizes natural medium and solar energy or used heat.
Background technology:
Electricity, heat, cold homenergic used in the modern civilization process mainly utilize fossil fuel to provide, and use fossil fuel that some problems are arranged.The one, discharge many pollutants in the combustion of fossil fuel process, as carbon monoxide, organic carbon hydrogen compound etc., the release of these pollutants causes very big infringement to environment, as generation, depletion of the ozone layer and the greenhouse effects of the earth etc. of acid rain; The 2nd, the total amount of fossil fuel is limited, the problem of energy crisis that has caused us to face at present to its a large amount of utilization.So should use the renewable formula energy as much as possible, as solar energy, wind energy and biomass energy etc.Utilization to solar energy at present mainly contains solar cell (electric power can only be provided) and solar water heater (hot water can only be provided) etc., but existing solar energy equipment all can not simultaneously and provide electric power, cooling and heat supply constantly.On the other hand, along with the intensification of in the global range environment being paid attention to, how to reduce greenhouse gases (as carbon dioxide etc.) and become the thorny problem that the whole world is gazed at.And reclaim with effectively utilizing these gases that are discharged are good methods that effectively reduce greenhouse gases.
Summary of the invention:
The objective of the invention is to design a kind of generating, cooling and heating unit that can effectively utilize regenerative resources such as low boiling natural medium (as carbon dioxide, ammonia etc.) and solar energy or used heat, this device is with natural fluid, as carbon dioxide, ammonia etc. is cycle fluid, effectively utilizes that solar energy or used heat generate electricity, refrigeration and heat supply.These natural sex working medium are nonflammable and nontoxic, can not work the mischief to environment and personal security during use; Effectively utilize and manage carbon dioxide isothermal chamber gas simultaneously, can reduce the greenhouse effects of the earth effect, improve environment.
Purpose of the present invention reaches by following technical measures:
A kind of generating that utilizes natural medium and solar energy or used heat, air-conditioning and heating installation, by solar thermal collector or used heat heat collector, pump, turbine and generator, absorption refrigerating machine, heat exchanger and the pipeline of each members formed, it is characterized in that: the advancing of solar thermal collector or used heat heat collector, the outlet respectively with delivery side of pump, the import of turbine links to each other, the outlet of turbine links to each other with the inlet of absorption refrigerating machine, the outlet of absorption refrigerating machine links to each other with the inlet of heat exchanger, the outlet of heat exchanger links to each other with the inlet of pump and constitutes the natural medium loop, the low boiling natural medium of liquid form is successively through reaching the supercritical pressure state after the pump pressurization, be heated into the HTHP supercritical fluid through solar thermal collector or used heat heat collector again, this HTHP supercritical fluid becomes the low-pressure gas state after entering the turbine adiabatic expansion, the high-temperature low-pressure gas of turbine outlet is as the thermal source of absorption refrigerating machine, through behind the refrigerator, working medium enters returns liquid state after heat exchanger is cooled, pass through pumped back solar thermal collector or used heat heat collector at last, thereby realize thermodynamic cycle.
Described turbine is for being applicable to supercritical CO 2Fluid-operated turbine.
Described heat exchanger is the heat exchanger of shell-and-tube heat exchanger or other high efficient heat exchanging form.
Described natural medium is carbon dioxide or ammonia or air or lower boiling carbohydrate.
Described pump is a heat drive pump.
Between the import of described turbine outlet and pump absorption refrigerating machine and heat exchanger are housed successively, supply electric energy, cold energy and heat energy for the user simultaneously.
Described thermodynamic cycle is Rankine cycle or other thermodynamic cycle form; The high side pressure of thermodynamic cycle is more than critical pressure, and promptly the fluid state of the solar thermal collector or the used heat heat collector port of export is a supercritical fluid.
In the described thermodynamic cycle, the HTHP supercritical fluid drives turbine, and turbine drives generator and obtains electric power; In heat recycle process, utilize absorption refrigerating machine that air conditioner is provided, and add hot water hot water is provided; In this device, omit turbine and generator, and air-conditioning and hot water, heating only are provided; Perhaps omit turbine, generator and absorption refrigerating machine simultaneously, and hot water, heating only are provided; Perhaps omit absorption refrigerating machine, and electric power and hot water only are provided.
The present invention utilizes Rankine thermodynamic cycle principle, and working medium is used natural mediums such as carbon dioxide.The natural medium of liquid form is pressurised into supercritical pressure fluid through pump, and these supercritical fluids are heated in solar thermal collector or used heat heat collector effectively, become the supercritical fluid of high temperature; The high temperature supercritical fluid drives turbine-driven generator, obtains electric energy.The working fluid that leaves turbine is still high temperature, can easily be utilized the thermal source as absorption refrigerating machine, and air conditioner is provided, and perhaps is used for adding hot water and obtains 100 ℃ of left and right sides hot water etc.To enter into heat regenerator be heat exchanger to working fluid then, can further be used to obtain hot water, or realize heating etc.Fluid is further cooled liquid state simultaneously, the pumped back heat collector, thus finish whole thermodynamic cycle.This process has been utilized solar energy or used heat fully, and has utilized natural fluid.These natural fluids come from the Nature, and are nontoxic and nonflammable, all do not have harmful effect to environment with to individual's safety; And greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide are managed, can be alleviated the problem that greenhouse effects, greenhouse effects of the earth etc. work the mischief to human environment.
When using solar thermal collector, this system can not stably supply electric power, inefficiency at cloudy day or night.This problem can adopt storage heater to solve, and by day thermal energy storage is got up, and system can continuous service night or when cloudy day like this.In this covering device, also can utilize the heat energy in solar energy or the heat collector to drive circulating pump, this sampling device just need not any electric energy input.
The independent generating that utilizes solar energy or used heat and natural medium, cooling, the heating plant of the present invention's design are made up of solar thermal collector or used heat heat collector, pump, turbine and generator, absorption refrigerating machine, heat exchanger and pipeline etc.Heat exchanger can be the heat exchanger of shell-and-tube heat exchanger or other efficient type.
The generating that utilizes natural medium, the cooling and heating unit of the present invention's design, can be used on places such as restaurant, school, hotel and villa provides electric power, air conditioner and hot water, heating etc. is provided.
The output of the output electric weight of this device and heat, cold energy depends primarily on the performance of solar thermal collector area (or waste heat source amount and heat collector area), working medium flow and turbine and absorption refrigerating machine.The size of effective output of this device (is example to utilize solar energy) visual device is in following scope: 1.0~15.0kW electric power, 1.0~25.0kW air-conditioning are exerted oneself and 2.0~30.0kW heat supply.
Description of drawings:
Fig. 1 is a process chart of the present invention.
The specific embodiment:
Below in conjunction with embodiment and accompanying drawing, be that example describes the structure of the present invention and the course of work in detail as working fluid with carbon dioxide.
Present embodiment is formed by solar thermal collector 1, turbine 2, generator 3, absorption refrigerating machine 4, heat exchanger 5, pump 6 and with the pipeline that each parts is connected.Wherein the import and export of solar thermal collector is connected with the import of delivery side of pump, turbine respectively, has constituted the loop of natural medium, and absorption refrigerating machine and heat exchanger also are housed in the natural medium loop.Turbine 2 is connected to form electricity generation system with generator 3.Absorption refrigerating machine 4 and heat exchanger 5 have constituted heat recovery system, wherein utilize absorption refrigerating machine 4 that air conditioning function is provided; Utilize heat exchanger 5 to reclaim heat, hot water, heat supply etc. are provided.
The course of work of present embodiment is: overcritical pressure carbon dioxide is through solar thermal collector 1, be heated to form the supercritical fluid of high temperature at heat collector outlet fluid, the supercritical fluid of HTHP enters turbine 2 expansion actings then, drives turbine, drives generator 3 and produces electric power.The fluid of turbine outlet is still high temperature, can be used as the thermal source of absorption refrigerating machine 4.From absorption refrigerating machine 4, can provide air conditioner.The carbon dioxide that leaves absorption refrigerating machine 4 can be passed to water with heat greatly about 70 ℃~120 ℃ in heat exchanger 5, the hot water about 30 ℃~60 ℃ can be provided in heat exchanger 5 exits like this.In heat transfer process, carbon dioxide obtains cooling, becomes liquid state, returns solar thermal collector 1 after pumping, has so just finished a circulation, so goes round and begins again.
In the above-mentioned course of work, electricity generation system that can not use turbine 2 and generator 3 to constitute according to circumstances, the supercritical carbon dioxide of the HTHP in solar thermal collector 1 exit directly enters absorption refrigerating machine 4 as thermal source, and system only provides air-conditioning and hot water, heating; Can not use electricity generation system (turbine 2 and generator 3) and absorption refrigerating machine 4 according to circumstances, the supercritical carbon dioxide of the HTHP of solar thermal collector 1 outlet directly enters heat exchanger, and system only provides hot water; Also can not use absorption refrigerating machine 4 according to circumstances, the carbon dioxide in turbine 2 exits directly enters heat exchanger 5, and system only provides electric power and hot water, heating.
In this embodiment, this device the assembly that uses and natural medium specific as follows:
1, solar thermal collector: U type pipe evacuated solar collector (the selective absorption surface absorptivity is 0.93, and emissivity is 0.19) 100m 2Average insolation amount: 620W/m 2
2, natural medium: carbon dioxide (50.0kg);
3, pump: carbon dioxide drives pump;
4, turbine: gas turbine (generating efficiency 90%);
5, absorption refrigerating machine: efficient 70%;
6, heat exchanger: shell-and-tube heat exchanger, heat exchange area 7.6m 2
The generating efficiency of this device (being the ratio of generated energy and incident solar energy) can reach 13%, and heat recovery rate (ratio of instant heating yield and incident solar energy, recuperation of heat amount comprise the heat that air-conditioning is exerted oneself and hot water absorbs) can reach 70%.
Output electric energy: 6.0kW;
Air-conditioning is exerted oneself: 12.0kW;
Hot water: 16.5kW can provide 1 ton 15 ℃ → 55 ℃ hot water every day;
Save former oil mass: 8.21kl; If use 10,000 such devices, the then annual 82100kl crude oil of saving.

Claims (7)

1, a kind of generating that utilizes natural medium and solar energy or used heat, air-conditioning and heating installation, by solar thermal collector or used heat heat collector, pump, turbine and generator, absorption refrigerating machine, heat exchanger and the pipeline of each members formed, it is characterized in that: the advancing of solar thermal collector or used heat heat collector, the outlet respectively with delivery side of pump, the import of turbine links to each other, the outlet of turbine links to each other with the inlet of absorption refrigerating machine, the outlet of absorption refrigerating machine links to each other with the inlet of heat exchanger, the outlet of heat exchanger links to each other with the inlet of pump and constitutes the natural medium loop, the low boiling natural medium of liquid form is successively through reaching the supercritical pressure state after the pump pressurization, be heated into the HTHP supercritical fluid through solar thermal collector or used heat heat collector again, this HTHP supercritical fluid becomes the low-pressure gas state after entering the turbine adiabatic expansion, the high-temperature low-pressure gas of turbine outlet is as the thermal source of absorption refrigerating machine, through behind the refrigerator, working medium enters returns liquid state after heat exchanger is cooled, pass through pumped back solar thermal collector or used heat heat collector at last, thereby realize thermodynamic cycle.
2, generating, air-conditioning and the heating installation that utilizes natural medium and solar energy or used heat as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: turbine is for being applicable to supercritical CO 2Fluid-operated turbine.
3, generating, air-conditioning and the heating installation that utilizes natural medium and solar energy or used heat as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: heat exchanger is the heat exchanger of shell-and-tube heat exchanger or other high efficient heat exchanging form.
4, generating, air-conditioning and the heating installation that utilizes natural medium and solar energy or used heat as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that: described natural medium is carbon dioxide or ammonia or air or lower boiling carbohydrate.
5, generating, air-conditioning and the heating installation that utilizes natural medium and solar energy or used heat as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: described pump is a heat drive pump.
6, generating, air-conditioning and the heating installation that utilizes natural medium and solar energy or used heat as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that: described thermodynamic cycle is Rankine cycle or other thermodynamic cycle form; The high side pressure of thermodynamic cycle is more than critical pressure, and promptly the fluid state of the solar thermal collector or the used heat heat collector port of export is a supercritical fluid.
7, generating, air-conditioning and the heating installation that utilizes natural medium and solar energy or used heat as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that: in this thermodynamic cycle, the HTHP supercritical fluid drives turbine, and turbine drives generator, obtains electric energy; In heat recycle process, utilize absorption refrigerating machine that cold energy is provided, and utilize heat exchanger that heat energy is provided; In this device, omit turbine and generator, and cold energy and heat energy only are provided; Perhaps omit turbine, generator and absorption refrigerating machine simultaneously, and heat energy only is provided; Perhaps omit absorption refrigerating machine, and electric energy and heat energy only are provided.
CNB2006100106463A 2006-01-23 2006-01-23 Electricity generating, air conditioning and heating apparatus utilizing natural medium and solar energy or waste heat CN100425925C (en)

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CN105604620B (en) * 2016-03-08 2018-08-21 浙江大学常州工业技术研究院 A kind of system and method for refrigeration machine auxiliary Organic Rankine Cycle
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CN102644962A (en) * 2012-05-03 2012-08-22 张德权 Method and device for supplying heat in winter and generating power in summer by aid of solar water heater

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