WO2013138881A1 - Irrigation systems used in the growing of cotton and wheat - Google Patents

Irrigation systems used in the growing of cotton and wheat Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2013138881A1
WO2013138881A1 PCT/BR2012/000080 BR2012000080W WO2013138881A1 WO 2013138881 A1 WO2013138881 A1 WO 2013138881A1 BR 2012000080 W BR2012000080 W BR 2012000080W WO 2013138881 A1 WO2013138881 A1 WO 2013138881A1
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Prior art keywords
irrigation
water
cotton
crop
wheat
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PCT/BR2012/000080
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French (fr)
Portuguese (pt)
Inventor
Paulo Roberto SIBIN
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Sibin Paulo Roberto
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Priority to PCT/BR2012/000080 priority Critical patent/WO2013138881A1/en
Publication of WO2013138881A1 publication Critical patent/WO2013138881A1/en

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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G25/00Watering gardens, fields, sports grounds or the like
    • A01G25/02Watering arrangements located above the soil which make use of perforated pipe-lines or pipe-lines with dispensing fittings, e.g. for drip irrigation
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G25/00Watering gardens, fields, sports grounds or the like
    • A01G25/09Watering arrangements making use of movable installations on wheels or the like
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/22Improving land use; Improving water use or availability; Controlling erosion
    • Y02A40/23Improving water use or availability; Controlling erosion
    • Y02A40/235Improving water use or availability; Controlling erosion in irrigated agriculture
    • Y02A40/237Efficient irrigation techniques, e.g. drip irrigation, sprinkler or spray irrigation

Abstract

Irrigation systems used in the growing of cotton and wheat, which comprises an irrigation hose made from synthetic resin, it being possible for said hose also to be made from other materials for conducting water, it being possible for there to be one, two or more hoses that form elongate irrigation lines, each line comprising a separate passage for water adapted for individual or collective communication with a water-supply source, and a series of spaced irrigation holes, each hole being associated with an irrigation emitter and there being a self-propelled system of winding-reel type, which is a mechanized system that irrigates areas of different formats and gradients, and the equipment is composed of a suction pipe, a motorized pump unit, a principal line, a winding reel and an irrigator carriage, containing a cannon-type sprinkler or an irrigator bar.

Description

 IRRIGATION SYSTEMS APPLIED IN

 COTTON AND WHEAT

This patent application refers to an "IRRIGATION SYSTEMS APPLIED ON COTTON AND WHEAT CROP", which has been developed for the purpose of providing various irrigation through a technique that increases productivity and ensures quality, especially in periods without rain, when traditionally irrigated cultivation tends to decrease productivity, with the drip irrigation system this problem is eliminated and there is also no risk of crop loss.

 Irrigated agriculture occupied around 18% (275 million hectares) of the total cultivated area on the planet (1.5 billion hectares), consuming about 70% of the total quality water used, which is higher than the amount consumed by the sector. (21%) and domestic consumption (9%) (SANTOS, 1998). In Latin America, the irrigated area is approximately 16 million hectares, distributed mainly in Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Peru.

 Despite accounting for a small portion of total cultivated land, the world's irrigated area contributes 42% of total production. In Brazil, in particular, the irrigated area corresponds to 18% of the cultivated area, but contributes to 42% of the total production (CHRISTOFIDIS, 2002).

Irrigated agriculture, in order to remain environmentally sustainable, needs to be efficient in using water for irrigation, as well as in the use of agrochemicals that are applied to plants or soil can cause contamination of groundwater resources. Efficient use of irrigation water can be achieved by acting on: a) the existing irrigation structure, in terms of crop types, irrigation systems and water use management; b) irrigation management methods and c) techniques that allow increased efficiency of water use.

 Cotton, which is considered the most important natural or artificial textile fiber, is also the most complete harnessing plant and offers the most varied utility products.

 In Brazil, since it began to take on the aspect of economic culture, cotton has always been in the leading group of activities that carry foreign currency to the country.

 Although not widely grown throughout the country, cotton until 1980 was ranked among the first seven crops in terms of yield.

 Cotton is very susceptible to weed competition.

In turn, the soil, when superficially scarified, provides more air to the roots of the crop.

 Cotton, in its structure, has a higher amount of nitrogen and potassium than phosphorus; However, it is experimentally known that the need for the provision of this element in the soil is generally much greater than the others.

Corn (Zea m ys), also called abati, auati and avati, is a known food or feed because of its nutritional qualities. All scientific evidence suggests that it is a plant of American origin, as it was grown there since the pre-Columbian period. It's one of the most nutritious foods out there, containing almost all known amino acids, with exceptions being lysine and tryptophan.

 Of the technologies used for food production the most known and important is irrigation. The objective of irrigation is to supply water to the plants in the necessary quantity and at the appropriate time, to obtain adequate production levels and better product quality. An adequate irrigation system should be able to provide the producer with the possibility of making use of the water resource with maximum efficiency, increasing crop productivity, reducing production costs and thus maximizing the return on investments.

 Irrigation in agriculture is an important factor in crop yield. By controlling irrigation, more optimized growing conditions can be created and maintained, thereby increasing crop yield on a given amount of land. Irrigation is achieved at a price, requiring irrigation equipment and water to supply irrigation equipment. In some parts of the world available water is scarce, so it is advantageous to use available water resources in the most conservative and cost-effective way possible.

 Irrigation of soils that do not directly support plant growth is a waste of water. Other forms of loss include evaporation, which varies depending on climate, temperature and relative humidity. In arid regions, these losses are substantial, leading to increased irrigation costs.

There is therefore a need for an irrigation system that supplies water substantially only to crop plants in the field while reducing the amount of water lost through evaporation. Several methods can be used to apply water to plants and must be adapted to suit the different situations that may occur in practice. What is certain is that there is no ideal method. Each particular situation should be studied, suggesting solutions where the inherent advantages can outweigh the natural limitations of irrigation methods.

 Therefore, the appropriate and judicious choice of water application method and system is important for the success of the irrigated agriculture venture, and in this choice all factors must be considered.

 There are basically four methods of applying water to plants, from which the main irrigation systems are derived: the one that uses the soil surface to promote water runoff and infiltration; which uses sprinklers to apply water to the total area in the form of rain; what locates the application of water to areas of interest and what uses the soil profile for the capillary rise of water to the root zone.

 Drip irrigation is a relatively new technology that can save water, energy and increase profits. So drip irrigation can help solve three of the most important problems in irrigated cotton and corn crops - water scarcity, increased pumping (energy) costs and falling farm profits.

Drip irrigation is defined as a frequent, slow and accurate application of water through line or point emitters over the below surface of the at a small operating pressure (20 - 200 kPa) and at a low discharge rate (0.6 to 20 LPH), resulting in partial wetting of the soil surface.

 In literature, "localized" is used interchangeably with "drip". The most popular versions of drip are surface and underground drip.

 Surface Drip: The application of water to the soil surface as drops or small flow through emitters placed at a predetermined distance along the side of the drip is called surface drip irrigation (Fig. 14). It can be of two types - online or integral surface drip system. The full drip line is recommended for sugar cane.

 Underground Drip (SDI): The application of water below the surface through emitters mounted on the inner wall of the (1.0 - 3.0 LPH) discharge ratio drip line generally has the same range as full surface drip irrigation. This method of water application is different and should not be confused with the method where the root area is irrigated by water table control, referred to herein as sub-irrigation. The integral drip line (thin or thick wall) is installed at a predetermined depth in the soil depending on soil type and crop needs. There are two main types of SDI - "mono cultivation" and "multicultural".

 Adoption of the drip irrigation system (surface or underground) is technically easy, economically viable and benefits in several ways:

- Uniformity of application of larger water. - Decreased energy costs due to reduced pumping time to irrigate a given area;

 Water savings of 45 to 50% contributing to more efficient water use

 - Savings on fertilizer (25 to 30%) because of fertigation and consequently efficiency of improved fertilizer use. Ex: agronomic, physiological efficiency and apparent cover fraction;

 - Lower weed growth and labor savings due to lower weed control, fertigation and plant protection operations,

 - Lower incidence of pests and diseases because of better field clearance;

 - Optimum soil, water and air ratios contribute to better sprouting, uniform field emergence and optimal maintenance of the plant population;

 - Harvest earlier;

 - Day / night irrigation schedule is possible;

 - Facilitates cultivation on marginal soils because of frequent irrigation and fertigation;

 - High frequency irrigation, micro-leaching and high soil water potential allow the use of saltwater for irrigation.

Effective drip technology requires more intensive application of crop, soil, climate, engineering, and economic factors than flood irrigation typically does. New management perspectives and skills are required for planting configuration, land preparation, drip design features, irrigation schedule, fertigation, system operation & maintenance

 New management practices induced with drip technology seem to have significantly helped to increase planting results. Planting configuration and drip design characteristics will be mentioned in this section while others will be mentioned in other sections.

 The filtration system is the assembly of independently controlled physical components used to remove suspended solids from irrigation water. Irrigation water filtration is vital for drip irrigation schemes to prevent blocking of emitters as the internal passages of the emitters are very small.

 The choice of filter depends mainly on the type of impurities found in the water and the level of filtration required by the emitter. Filtration system design recommendations should include location, size, specification of available suspended material sizes, filter types, and maintenance requirements.

 • Location: A primary filter should be placed after the pump and fertigation unit to remove fine and large particles from the stream. Secondary filters can be used from the primary filter to remove any particles that may pass through the primary filter during normal or cleaning operations. When secondary filters are used, the size of the openings is usually larger than the primary filter to minimize the attention required.

• Size: The filter flow openings should be small enough to prevent unwanted particles from entering the system. The size of the filter should be based on the diameter of the emitter opening or the type and size of contaminants to be filtered. The filter capacity must be large enough to allow a nominal flow without frequent cleaning. Filters that are manually cleaned should require more than daily maintenance. Sizes should be the most economical with the lowest friction losses ranging from 0.3 to 0.5 bars.

 • Types: Filtering should be done using different types of filters; screen (for inorganic impurities and water of moderate quality or following primary filtration with sand and disc filters) disc (for removal of impurities of organic and inorganic origin, algae included), hydrocyclones (for separation of sand or silt from water well or river filters) and sand or medium filters (for open wells, open reservoirs, streams, etc.).

 In most drip irrigation systems it is driven from the easel assembly to a secondary line to which the drip lines are connected. Although there are several types of dripperlines that are used, they are all designed to distribute water evenly over the entire design area of a given field block. A variation in the discharge rate of the dripperline emitters that is acceptable is on the order of 8 - 10%.

Dripper lines vary in sender design, quality, discharge uniformity, and cost. From the outside, most lines of integral drippers look alike. Even so, there are differences between products, particularly emitters. Consistency and superior performance of an integral dripper line depend on the quality of its emitter. Several years of experience have shown that the following Factors should be considered when selecting the row of drippers that should be on the surface or buried over a complete crop life cycle.

 Dripper lines come in a wide range of wall thickness. Construction and thickness of the dripperline should be sufficient to reduce the risk of the pipe being bent or caught by traffic in the field such as mechanical loaders, farm machinery, etc.

 - Flap mechanism to prevent the risk of suction of fine soil material to drip line emitters leading to clogging.

 - Nominal diameters are 16 mm and 22 mm. A larger diameter will allow water to be supplied to a larger length of dripperline before pressure drops below design requirements. This results in cost savings of secondary lines.

 - Availability of machinery to retrieve dripperlines at the end of the cycle and use them for a second cycle if possible after refurbishment.

Self-propelled sprinkler irrigation system. The mobile or self-propelled sprinkler irrigation system is powered by hydraulic energy, consisting of a hydraulic cannon (cannon sprinkler), mounted under a platform, which moves on the ground simultaneously irrigating. It requires a propulsion engine, a cannon-type sprinkler, a high-pressure hose (up to 500m), a wire rope or a coiled spool (depending on the type of movement) and a platform for installation. Normally the turning angle of the sprinkler is 330 ° to keep the moving range of the car or sprinkler dry, as will be presented later. There are basically two types of self-propelled on the market, according to their moving agent, which will be detailed below. Self-Propelled Wire Rope System The equipment moves by retracting a wire rope. The water that is pumped for irrigation turns a turbine, which drives a gear system, promoting the displacement of the platform (trolley with sprinkler) and its withdrawal by the anchored steel cable. It is mainly used for irrigation of pastures, corn and soybeans. Experiences regarding the use of this equipment worldwide indicate that its feasibility is for irrigation of regions with less severe water deficit, where irrigation is important but not necessary for a long period of the year. The main advantage of the system is that it allows irrigate multiple areas with just one piece of equipment. Generally, you need machinery to wrap the hose after on-site irrigation. The limitations of this type of equipment mainly boil down to a high energy consumption due to the loss of loads in the movement of the equipment, the length of the hose and the operation of the cannon, and the high flow rate. It is the oldest and lowest cost of purchase, its main limitation being the low durability of the hose; It was widely used in the past and is now replaced by the winding reel.

Self-Propelled Reel Winder System is a mechanized system that irrigates areas of different shapes and slopes, with low labor requirements. The equipment consists of a suction pipe, a pump set, a main line, a winding spool and an irrigation carriage, containing a cannon-type sprinkler or a sprinkler bar. The winding spool is formed by the drive assembly and reel with polyethylene hose, mounted on two to six-wheel chassis and coupling to tractor drawbar. The drive assembly consists of a hydraulic turbine and a speed reduction box, which winds the hose to the spool with the irrigation carriage at the other end of the hose, with track irrigation occurring as the hose is coiled. The sprinkler, mounted on two wheels in the irrigation car, travels at a predetermined constant speed on various models via a computerized electronic panel, irrigating up to 115 m wide for up to 650 m at a time. of lenght. After irrigating a particular strip, the set is easily moved to irrigate adjacent strips.

 The self-propelled winding reel advantageously replaces the old self-propelled systems, where the entire drive assembly moved along with the sprinkler along the irrigated track by dragging a flexible hose. Advantages include improved irrigation carriage speed control and smaller cannon droplet size today. The irrigation bar can replace the cannon-type sprinkler in smaller slopes with the advantage of better water distribution uniformity and smaller droplets. The boom, which can be longer than 50 m, is equipped with sprinkler sprinklers operating at working pressure between 1 and 3 kgf cm2, which reduces energy consumption. In this case, the bar is mounted on a four-wheeled carriage, which allows the height of the bar to be adjusted and uses the same reel-reel system.

Central pivot sprinkler irrigation system is characterized by circular movement, self-propelled to hydraulic or electric power. The equipment consists of a lateral line of 200 to 800 m of extension suspended by a structure formed by towers with wheels, triangles and trusses, besides the pumping station and emitters (sprinklers). The distance between towers ranges from 24 to 76 m, the most common being 30, 38, 52 and 54 m. Each tower has its own propulsion system, but there is a central one to control the speed and alignment of the pivot, with reference to the last tower. The propulsion system of each tower is electric, with 0.5 to 1.5 hp motors, which allow better control of the speed of the towers. Their movement occurs through alignment and misalignment of the towers, which, when misaligned, cause the relays to drive, which in turn drive the motors that move the wheels through gearmotor systems and gimbals. The movement ceases the moment the two towers are no longer misaligned and reoccurs the moment the towers are misaligned again. Safety relays are also installed to avoid accidents. The center pivot moves at an average speed in m / h, but to facilitate the handling of equipment in the field, a "percentimeter" is used, which is installed in the gearbox. tower command. The function of this device is to control the travel speed of the equipment, not in terms of meters per hour, but in percentage of uptime. For example when the centimeter is set to 50% the movement of the last tower is not continuous, making stops corresponding to 50% of the travel time, making the travel time in this case double. This travel speed control has to be judicious and based on water management methodologies, because if instead of 100% the equipment is set to 50% the blade will be double to the same point. In central Brazil, this system was the most widely used last by the large agricultural companies. This preference is given for the high level of automation,

 Making it quite versatile in circle-shaped irrigation and can operate in all or part of the area, depending on crop or area management. In Brazil the central pivot irrigated area occupies 21% of the irrigated area, equivalent to 651,548 ha (IBGE 2006). This irrigation system has great versatility to irrigate large areas, commonly larger than 60 ha. Therefore, to lower the unit cost per irrigated area, it is sometimes more economical to install larger units, since the tower (pivot) structure of a small area irrigation equipment has little variation in acquisition value compared to larger equipment. . There are three most common center pivot models: - Medium pressure pivot: Use rotary sprinklers; - Low pressure pivot: They use diffusers as emitters, have less wind loss, and higher water intensity.

 The linear irrigation system, also known as the movable lateral or even, as some incorrectly call it, the linear pivot, can be defined as an automated sprinkler irrigation system, introduced in 1977 from the concept of movement used in the center pivot and taking advantage of parts of its structures and components, but with the innovation of a walking system, which allows mobility of all equipment in a transverse direction on the crop to be irrigated. Today, this technology is responsible for irrigating approximately 600,000 hectares of grain crops, fodder, vegetables, sugar cane, coffee and fruit worldwide.

The control car is the main component that differentiates the linear ones from the other sprinkler automated irrigation systems. Can be located in the center of the equipment and at the same time irradiate piping areas to simultaneously irrigate both sides, or be located on the side of the irrigated area if only one side irrigates. In both situations the displacement occurs along the area along with the whole system.

 The cart consists of a control tower, formed by transverse beams where wheels with gearbox-linked reducers are coupled to small gearmotors that transmit sufficient torque to rotate them across the ground and propel the structure. In it is located the control panel, where the main operating parameters are controlled.

 They may contain, in the case of channel feed, floating suction, motor, pump and generator, these three when coupled in a single set is called a 3x1 set. In the case of hose feeding the operation is done by a water supply cap in place of the floating suction and motor coupled to a generator called a generator set.

 In both there is a fuel tank, a connection pipe between the water inlet and its outlet to supply the pipes of the overhead system and subsequent sprinkling in the crop.

 According to the type of cart and power, linear systems can be divided into linear system, universal linear system and two wheel linear system.

In the so-called linear system four-wheel cart is used and the feed is done by channel. This is the case of the equipment mentioned at the beginning and reach the largest irrigated areas. The universal linear system is built through a structure based on the center tower of a pivot. Assuming that components of the structure of this central tower are also used in this system, the difference is that in the universal, the whole tower is placed on two beams with four tires and transmission units.

 It can irrigate a lane and at the end of the course pivot, that is, cause the entire aerial structure to rotate 180 ° around the cart as if it were a center pivot and back irrigate an adjacent lane. Thus, with the same amount of moves (mobile towers) irrigates twice the area, saving substantially on system acquisition. Its feeding is done by channel.

 The two-wheel linears are hose-fed. In this case, the technological solution allows the common beam base beam itself to be transformed to receive a generator set, alignment system, panel, hose coupling, cap and piping, which will feed all the remaining water. of the system.

 It will not have to suck water and spray it throughout the piping, because in this case the pump that conducts water in the water line already pressurizes the entire system, does not require large motorization or coupled pump, only a generator set to move the units which significantly reduces the weight on the cart, enabling this two-wheeled solution, which gives the system greater versatility and cost savings.

In addition to being pivotable, it can also be towable, that is, a second water intake can be coupled at the end of the last flight of the system and with the help of a tractor, can be towed to an adjunct lane and restart operation. In sprinkler irrigation the application of water to the soil results from the fragmentation of a water jet released under pressure into the atmospheric air through simple sprinkler nozzles or nozzles. In general, irrigation systems have advantages and limitations that should be analyzed when selecting the system to be used.

 Advantages of sprinkler irrigation:

 - does not require the preparation or systematization of the land;

 - allows good control of the water slide to be applied;

 - enables the saving of labor;

 - enables water saving (higher efficiency);

 - allows the application of fertilizers and phytosanitary treatments. Limitations of sprinkler irrigation:

 - high initial costs of operation and maintenance;

 - water distribution greatly affected by climatic factors, especially wind;

 - favors the development of some diseases;

 - risk of soil surface sealing;

 - unsuitable for water with high salt content.

Irrigation is a millennial technique that blends with the development and economic prosperity of the people, as many ancient civilizations developed in arid regions where production was only possible thanks to irrigation. History shows that irrigation has always been a factor of wealth, prosperity and hence safety. With the advancement of irrigation technologies and the increasing demand for water for human activities, the search for more efficient methods that consume less resources and provide better results in productivity and quality has increased.

 The present invention is directed to "SYSTEMS OF

IRRIGATIONS APPLIED ON COTTON AND WHEAT "which consists of an irrigation where water is applied punctually through droplets directly to the soil. These droplets, upon infiltration, form a moistening pattern called a" wet bulb. " not meeting the continuity of irrigation and forming a wet strip, and another objective to provide cannon irrigation, the range of which can reach various positions up to 100, 200, 300 or more meters.

 According to the present invention there is provided an irrigation system comprising an irrigation hose made of synthetic resin, which may have one or two hoses forming elongate irrigation lines, each line comprising a separate waterway adapted for individual communication or with a water supply, and a succession of spaced irrigation holes, each hole associated with an irrigation emitter.

The emitters used in the irrigation hose of the present invention may be of any suitable design, for example they may be drip irrigation emitters or mini sprinklers. Drip emitters are mounted within the irrigation lines so that their irrigation points are concentric to the holes. When the line is formed by two hoses, the holes of each hose can have different diameters. The arrangement of the emitter irrigation outlet holes can be obtained in different ways. An example in accordance with the present invention is forming irrigation lines with holes in the two aligned hoses, so that when one side is irrigating the other side of the plant does not receive water allowing the soil to dry out, and can also be mounted on pivot aerial spreaders. central or linear.

 According to the present invention it is characterized by one or more hoses (1) forming irrigation lines (2) that form water passages (3) and (4) can have any diameter, which can act in isolation or communicating, which are connected to a water supply whose valve is capable of providing water supply at predetermined time intervals, each of the irrigation lines (2) having equidistantly arranged outlet holes (5) which receive mounting of internal irrigation emitters.

 In order to obtain a perfect understanding of what has been developed, drawings are attached to which numerical references are made together with a detailed description:

 Figure 1 shows the plantation with a central irrigation line.

 Figure 2 shows the plantation with two central irrigation lines.

Figure 3 shows a view of the irrigation hose.

 Figure 4 shows aerial irrigation.

 Figure 5 shows cannon irrigation.

Given the described and illustrated we can see that the "IRRIGATION SYSTEMS APPLIED IN COTTON AND WHEAT CROP" brings huge advantages, since drip irrigation comprises the application of small amounts of water directly into the root zone of the plant through a point source or drip line above or below ground with operating pressures, dripper may also be aerial, supported by support or tied to the plant itself, or an irrigation through an air pivot that can be central (round) or linear (horizontal) with spacing can be 0.30 x 0.30, 0.40 x 0.40, 0.50 x 0.50 to 8m x 8m and up to 1.5 meters from the surface (depth) or through cannons.

 The system allows higher yields, as it irrigates a part of the soil where the roots of the plant are located very precisely, constantly and without expelling all air from this soil. Thus, roots always have readily available water, nutrients (fertigation) and oxygen as they breathe to carry out their metabolic and growth processes. At the wetland / bulb site, there is then a large increase in the volume and activity of rootlets, thin roots whose sole function is to absorb water and nutrients. The drip practically does not affect the supporting roots, which are thick and suberinized, that is, they are impermeable and do not absorb water and nutrients.

 Thus, drip crops have higher root activity (root), deep roots, and therefore greater productivity and ability to be manipulated more easily, as these root in the wetland are the perfect target for hormone treatments, systemic pesticide application or induction. water stress (water deficit).

The main characteristic of drip irrigation reflects the efficiency gains of the previous characteristics, since a localized application of water, stimulating a dense and active root structure and a high uniformity of irrigation implies a great gain of efficiency in chemigation, which is the application of chemicals in irrigation systems.

 This efficiency is first observed in the gains with the use of fertigation, since the installment improves the rationality of the application versus the need of the plant, decreases the leaching / fixation losses and improves the application uniformity, since it is determined by the uniformity of the system itself. irrigation.

 The drip irrigation system (surface or underground) in maize and soybean cultivation is technically easy, economically viable and benefits in several ways:

 - Uniformity of application of larger water;

 - Decreased energy costs due to reduced pumping time to irrigate a given area;

 - Water savings of 45 to 50% contributing to more efficient water use;

 - Savings on fertilizer (25 to 30%) because of fertigation and consequently efficiency of improved fertilizer use. Ex: agronomic, physiological efficiency and apparent covering wiring;

 - Lower weed growth and labor savings due to less weed control, fertigation and plant protection operations;

 - Lower incidence of pests and diseases because of better field clearance.

- Optimum soil, water and air ratios contribute to better sprouting, uniform field emergence and optimal maintenance of the plant population; - Day / night irrigation schedule is possible;

 - Facilitates cultivation on marginal soils because of frequent irrigation and fertigation;

Claims

CLAIM
1 - "IRRIGATION SYSTEMS APPLIED ON COTTON AND WHEAT CROP" characterized by a corn and soybean crop irrigation system, which comprises an irrigation hose made of synthetic resin, and may also be of other water conduction materials, and may have one, two or more hoses forming elongate irrigation lines, each line comprising a separate waterway adapted for individual or collective communication with a water supply, and a succession of spaced irrigation holes, each hole associated with a irrigation emitter.
 2 - "IRRIGATION SYSTEMS APPLIED ON COTTON AND WHEAT CROP" characterized by one, two or more hoses (1) forming irrigation lines (2) that form water passages (3) and (4) can have any diameter, which they can act in isolation or communicating, which are connected to a water supply, whose valve is capable of promoting water supply at predetermined time intervals, each of the irrigation lines (2) having outlet holes (5) Equidistantly arranged, which receive the mounting of the internal irrigation emitters.
 3 - "IRRIGATION SYSTEMS APPLIED ON COTTON AND WHEAT CROP" characterized by irrigation being carried out by the mobile or self-propelled sprinkler system.
 4 - "IRRIGATION SYSTEMS APPLIED ON THE CROP
COTTON AND WHEAT "characterized by irrigation being carried out by the self-propelled winding reel Mechanized that irrigates areas of different shapes and slopes, the equipment consists of a suction pipe, a pump set, a main line, a reel spool and an irrigation carriage, containing a cannon-type sprinkler or a sprinkler bar.
 5 - "IRRIGATION SYSTEMS APPLIED ON THE CROP
COTTON AND WHEAT "characterized by irrigation being performed by the central pivot sprinkler system, using various types of nozzles, applied over the planting line.
 6 - "IRRIGATION SYSTEMS APPLIED ON COTTON AND WHEAT CROP" characterized by irrigation being carried out by the linear sprinkler system of two or four wheels.
PCT/BR2012/000080 2012-03-23 2012-03-23 Irrigation systems used in the growing of cotton and wheat WO2013138881A1 (en)

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104350930A (en) * 2014-11-26 2015-02-18 新疆农垦科学院 Water-saving high-yield water-fertilizer management method for use in drip irrigation of spring wheat
CN104472201A (en) * 2014-12-30 2015-04-01 石河子大学 Construction method of drip irrigation spring wheat super-high-yield population structure
CN104904562A (en) * 2015-05-28 2015-09-16 山东农业大学 Method for irrigating winter wheat according to root distribution
CN104938200A (en) * 2015-07-09 2015-09-30 新疆农业科学院经济作物研究所 Water-saving seedling protection method for continuous cropping drip irrigation cotton field without winter irrigation and spring irrigation before sowing in cotton region of South Xinjiang
CN105191636A (en) * 2015-10-12 2015-12-30 石河子大学 Northern Xinjiang drop irrigation spring wheat planting method

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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104350930A (en) * 2014-11-26 2015-02-18 新疆农垦科学院 Water-saving high-yield water-fertilizer management method for use in drip irrigation of spring wheat
CN104472201A (en) * 2014-12-30 2015-04-01 石河子大学 Construction method of drip irrigation spring wheat super-high-yield population structure
CN104904562A (en) * 2015-05-28 2015-09-16 山东农业大学 Method for irrigating winter wheat according to root distribution
CN104904562B (en) * 2015-05-28 2017-03-08 山东农业大学 The method irrigated according to winter wheat root distribution
CN104938200A (en) * 2015-07-09 2015-09-30 新疆农业科学院经济作物研究所 Water-saving seedling protection method for continuous cropping drip irrigation cotton field without winter irrigation and spring irrigation before sowing in cotton region of South Xinjiang
CN104938200B (en) * 2015-07-09 2017-03-01 新疆农业科学院经济作物研究所 Xinjiang South Sinkiang cotton region broadcast before non-winter irrigation or non-spring irrigation continuous cropping Cotton Field under Drip Irrigation water-saving seedling method
CN105191636A (en) * 2015-10-12 2015-12-30 石河子大学 Northern Xinjiang drop irrigation spring wheat planting method

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