WO2013138882A1 - Irrigation systems used in the growing of beans and rice - Google Patents

Irrigation systems used in the growing of beans and rice Download PDF

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Publication number
WO2013138882A1
WO2013138882A1 PCT/BR2012/000081 BR2012000081W WO2013138882A1 WO 2013138882 A1 WO2013138882 A1 WO 2013138882A1 BR 2012000081 W BR2012000081 W BR 2012000081W WO 2013138882 A1 WO2013138882 A1 WO 2013138882A1
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Prior art keywords
irrigation
water
system
rice
growing
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PCT/BR2012/000081
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French (fr)
Portuguese (pt)
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Paulo Roberto SIBIN
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Sibin Paulo Roberto
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G25/00Watering gardens, fields, sports grounds, or the like
    • A01G25/02Watering arrangements located above the soil which make use of perforated pipe-lines or pipe-lines with dispensing fittings, e.g. for drip irrigation
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G25/00Watering gardens, fields, sports grounds, or the like
    • A01G25/09Watering arrangements making use of movable installations on wheels or the like
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/22Improving land use; Improving water use or availability; Controlling erosion
    • Y02A40/23Improving water use or availability; Controlling erosion
    • Y02A40/235Improving water use or availability; Controlling erosion in irrigated agriculture
    • Y02A40/237Efficient irrigation techniques, e.g. drip irrigation, sprinkler or spray irrigation

Abstract

Irrigation systems used in the growing of beans and rice, comprising a system for irrigation in the growing of beans and rice, which comprises an irrigation hose made from synthetic resin, it being possible for said hose also to be made from other materials for conducting water, it being possible for there to be one, two or more hoses that form elongate irrigation lines, each line comprising a separate passage for water adapted for individual or collective communication with a water-supply source, and a series of spaced irrigation holes, each hole being associated with an irrigation emitter and there being a self-propelled system of winding-reel type, which is a mechanized system that irrigates areas of different formats and gradients, and the equipment is composed of a suction pipe, a motorized pump unit, a principal line, a winding reel and an irrigator carriage, containing a cannon-type sprinkler or an irrigator bar.

Description

"IRRIGATION SYSTEMS APPLIED IN THE BEAN AND RICE CROP."

It refers to the application for patent to a "IRRIGATION APPLIED SYSTEMS IN cultivation of beans and rice," which was developed for the purpose of providing irrigation in several through a technique that enhances productivity and ensures the quality, mainly rainless periods when irrigated traditionally tends to decrease productivity, with the drip irrigation system is eliminated this problem and not also run the risk of losing the crop.

The irrigated agriculture occupied about 18% (275 million hectares) of the total acreage on the planet (1.5 billion ha), consuming about 70% of total used water quality, higher than the amount consumed by the sector industrial (21%) and domestic use (9%) (Santos, 1998). In Latin America, the irrigated area is approximately 16 million hectares, distributed mainly in Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Peru.

Although correspond to a small portion of the total cultivated, irrigated area worldwide contributes 42% of total production. In Brazil, in particular, the irrigated area corresponds to 18% of the cultivated area, but contributes 42% of the total production (CHRISTOFIDIS, 2002).

Irrigated agriculture, to remain sustainable in environmental terms, need to be efficient in the use of water for irrigation, as well as in the use of agrochemicals that applied to plants or soil can cause contamination of groundwater resources.

The efficient use of irrigation water can be achieved acting to: a) the then existing irrigation structure in terms of the types of cultivation, irrigation systems and management of the use of water; b) methods in the management of irrigation and c) the techniques that allow increased water use efficiency.

Beans - Originally from South America (according to some authors) and Mexico and Guatemala (according to others) beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L., Fabaceae) is one of the main food of the population especially the low-income. Most of the producing regions dominated by exploration bean by small producers, with reduced use of inputs, resulting in low yields. Bahia in the main production areas are in the semi-arid zone and trays where municipalities out of Irecê, Ribeira do Pombal and barriers such as marketing centers.

Brazil produces about 2.6 million tons of common bean (Phaseolus) with an average productivity of 732 kg / ha; in irrigated areas productivity reaches 3000 kg / ha.

Rice (seven species Oryza barthii, Oryza glaberrima, Oryza latifolia longistaminata Oryza, Oryza punctata, Oryza rufipogon and Oryza sativa) is a plant from the grass family that feeds more than half of the world's human population. It is the third-largest cereal crop in the world, second only to corn and wheat. And rich in carbohydrates.

To be cultivated successfully, rice needs plenty of water to keep the room temperature within appropriate ranges, and in traditional systems of labor-intensive. It grows well even in very steep terrain and is custom in Southeast Asian countries, meet-terraces where it is grown. In either case, the water remains in constant motion while circulating at very low speed.

The technologies used for the production of food the most famous and important is irrigation. The goal is to supply irrigation water the plants in the required quantity and at the appropriate time, to get adequate levels of production and improved product quality. A suitable irrigation system should be able to provide the producer the possibility to make use of water resources with maximum efficiency, increasing crop yields, reducing production costs and thereby maximizing the return on investment.

Irrigation agriculture is an important factor in the productivity of a crop. By controlling the irrigation, more optimized growth conditions can be created and maintained, thereby increasing crop production in a given amount of land. Irrigation is achieved at a price, requiring irrigation and water supply equipment for the irrigation equipment. In some parts of the world water availability is low, then it is advantageous to use available water resources in the best way conservative and cost-effective as possible.

Irrigation of soils that do not directly support the growth of plants is a waste of water. Other forms include evaporation loss, which varies depending on weather, temperature and humidity. In arid regions, these losses are substantial, causing the increase in irrigation costs.

There is therefore the need for an irrigation system that provides water substantially only to the crop plants in the field, while reducing the amount of water lost by evaporation. Several methods can be used to apply water to the plants should be adapted to meet different situations that may occur in practice. The truth is that there is no ideal method. Each particular situation should be studied, suggesting solutions to the inherent advantages may offset the natural limitations of irrigation methods.

Therefore, proper and careful selection of the method and water application system is important to the success of the project with irrigated agriculture, and this choice, all factors must be considered.

There are basically four water methods of application to plants, which derive the main irrigation systems: one that uses the surface of the soil to promote drainage and water infiltration; which utilizes water spray to apply to the total area in the form of rain; which locates the water application areas of interest and using the soil profile to the capillary rise of water up to the root zone.

Drip irrigation is a relatively new technology that can save water, energy and increase profits. Thus, drip irrigation may help solve three of the most important problems in the bean crop and irrigated rice - water shortages, increased pumping costs (energy) and fall in farm profits.

Drip irrigation is defined as a frequent, slow and precise application of water through line emitters or point on below the surface in a small operating pressure (20 to 200 kPa) and a ratio of low discharge (0.6 to LPH 20), resulting in partial wetting of the soil surface.

In the literature, "located" is used in switchable way to "drip". The most popular versions are the drip surface and subsurface drip.

Drip Surface: The application of water on the soil surface as drops or flow through small emitters placed at a predetermined distance along the side is called drip irrigation drip surface (Fig. 14). It can be of two types - drip system online or full surface. The integral drip line is recommended for sugarcane.

Underground drip (SDI): The application of water below the surface by transmitters mounted on the inner wall of the drip line to discharge ratio (1.0 - 3.0 LPH) generally has the same effect as drip irrigation of the surface integral. This water application method is different and should not be confused with the method where the root area is irrigated by water table control, hereinafter referred to as sub-irrigation. The integral drip line (thin or thick wall) is installed at a predetermined depth in the soil depending upon the soil type and the crop needs. There are two main types of SDI - "mono culture" and "multicultivo".

The adoption of drip irrigation system (surface or underground) is technically feasible, economically viable and Draw upon in several ways:

- higher water application uniformity.

- Reduction of energy costs due to the reduction of pumping time to irrigate a given area; -Economy water 45 to 50% contributing to a more efficient use of water;

- savings in fertilizer (25 to 30%) due to fertigation and consequently improved use efficiency of the fertilizer. Ex: agronomic efficiency, physiological and covered apparent fraction;

- lower growth of weed and economy work because of less control of weed, fertigation and plant protection operations,

- Lower incidence of pests and diseases because of better field of cleaning;

- ideal soil relationships, water and air contribute to a better budding, uniform field emergence and maintenance of the ideal plant population;

- Early Harvest;

- Irrigation scheduling day / night is possible;

- Facilitates the cultivation in marginal soil because of irrigation and fertigation f equentes;

- high frequency irrigation, micro-leaching and high soil water potential allow the use of seawater for irrigation.

Effective drip technology requires a more intense application of cultivation factors, soil, climatic, engineering, and economic than normally presents the flood irrigation. New perspectives and management skills are required for planting configuration, land preparation, drip design features, irrigation scheduling, fertigation, operation & maintenance of the system

The new management practices induced with drip technology seem to have helped significantly increased planting results. Planting configuration and drip design features will be mentioned in this section while others will be mentioned in other sections.

The filter mounting system is controlled independently physical components, used to remove solids in suspension irrigation water. Filtering water is vital to irrigation drip irrigation schemes to avoid blocking of senders since the internal passages of the emitters are too small.

The choice of filter depends mainly on the type of impurities found in the water and the level of filtering required by the issuer. The filtering system design recommendations should include location, size, specification of suspended material available, types of filters, and maintenance requirements.

· Location: A primary filter should be placed after the pump and fertigation unit to remove fine particles and large flow. Filters can be used side of the primary filter to remove any particles that may pass through the primary filter during normal or cleaning operations. When secondary filters are used, the size of the apertures is usually greater than the primary filter to minimize the necessary attention.

• Size: The filter flow openings should be small enough to prevent the passage of unwanted particles to the system. The filter size should be based on the diameter of the opening of the issuer or the size and type of contaminants to be filtered. The filter capacity must be large enough to allow a nominal flow rate without frequent cleaning. Filters that are manually cleaned should require more than a daily maintenance. The size should be more economical with the lower friction losses ranging from 0.3 to 0.5 bars.

• Types: Filtering must be done through the use of different types of filters; screen (for inorganic impurities and moderate quality water or following a primary filtration with sand and disc filters) disc (for the removal of organic and inorganic origin impurities, including seaweeds) hydrocyclones (for the separation of sand or silt water the well or river) and sand filters or medium (for open wells, open reservoirs, streams, etc.).

In most drip irrigation systems is conducted to the mounting rack in which a secondary line dripper lines are connected. While there are several types of drip lines are used, they are all designed to distribute water evenly over the entire area of ​​the design of a given field block. A variation in discharge rate from the drip line emitters is acceptable is about 8 - 10%.

Driplines vary in emitter design, quality, uniformity of discharge and cost. From the outside, most lines of integral drip looks like. Still there are differences between products, particularly issuers. Consistency and superior performance of a full-line drippers depends on the quality of its issuer. Years of experience have shown that the following factors should be considered when selecting the dripline that should be on the surface or buried along a complete life cycle of the crop. Driplines come in a wide variety of wall thickness. Construction and thickness of the dripline should be sufficient to reduce the risk of the pipe being crushed or caught by the traffic in the field such as mechanical loaders, farm machinery, etc.

- flap mechanism to prevent the risk of sucking fine ground material to drip emitters leading line clogging.

- The nominal diameters are 16 mm and 22 mm. A larger diameter will allow the water supply to a greater extent drip line before the pressure drops to below the design requirements. This results in cost savings from the sidelines.

- machinery availability to retrieve the rows of emitters at the end of the cycle and use them for a second cycle if possible after refurbishment.

Irrigation system by sprinkling the self-propelled type. The irrigation system for mobile or self-propelled spray is moved by hydraulic energy, comprising a hydraulic cylinder (spray gun) mounted on a platform that moves over the ground while irrigating. It requires a motor for the propulsion, a gun type sprayer, a high pressure hose (up to 500m), a steel cable or a wound reel (depending on the type of handling) and a platform for installation. Normally the sprinkler turning angle is 330 °, to keep dry the car drive range or sprinkler, as will be discussed later. There are basically two types of self-propelled on the market, according to his agent mover, which will be detailed below. System Self-Propelled Type Steel Cable Equipment moves by the gathering of a steel cable. The water is pumped for irrigation turns a turbine, which drives a gear system, promoting the platform shift (stand with sprinkler) and its collection by anchored steel cable. And mainly used for irrigation of pastures, corn and soybeans. Experiences regarding the use of this equipment around the world indicate that the viability of it is for irrigation of areas under water deficit where lawn watering are important, but not necessary, for an extended period of the year The main advantage of the system is to allow irrigate several areas in a single unit. Generally, you need contrived to wind the hose after irrigation on site. The limitations of such equipment comes down mainly to a high energy consumption, due to the loss of loads on the drive equipment, the length of the hose and the operation of the gun, and a high flow application. And the oldest and lowest cost of acquisition, being the main limitation to low durability of the hose; It was widely used in the past and is now replaced by the reel spool.

Self-Propelled type spool reel system is a mechanical system that irrigates areas of different shapes and slopes with low demand for hand labor. The equipment comprises a suction pipe of a pump assembly, a main line, a winder reel drive sprinkler and containing a cylinder type or sprinkler irrigating bar. The reel spool is formed by the drive assembly and polyethylene hose reel, mounted on the chassis with six wheels and two coupling to the tractor drawbar. The drive assembly consists of a hydraulic turbine and a speed reduction box, which makes the winding of the hose on the reel being the sprinkler car at the other end of the hose, wherein the irrigation range occurs as the hose is being wound. The sprinkler mounted on two wheels on the sprinkler car moves at a predetermined constant speed in several models by a computerized electronic panel, irrigating, a time, a range of up to 115 m wide and up to 650 m of lenght. After irrigate a given band, the joint is easily moved to irrigate adjacent tracks.

The self-propelled reel spool replaces with advantages the old self-propelled systems where the entire powertrain moved along with the sprinkler irrigated along the track by dragging a hose. Among the advantages it highlights the best ground speed control sprinkler car and the smallest droplet size of the current guns. The irrigating bar can replace the cylinder type rotor in lower slope areas with the advantage of a more uniform distribution of water droplets and smaller. The bar, which may have length exceeding 50 m, is provided with nozzles of the type "sprays" working with working pressure from 1 to 3 kgf cm 2, which reduces power consumption. In this case, the bar is mounted on a car with four wheels, which lets you adjust the height of the bar and use the same reel spool system.

Irrigation system for center pivot sprinkler is characterized by the circular movement, self-propelled hydraulic or electrical power. The equipment consists of a lateral line 200-800 m long suspended by a structure formed by towers fitted with wheels, triangles and trusses, besides the pumping station and transmitters (nozzles). The distance between towers affect 24 at 76 m, the most common are 30, 38, 52 and 54 m. Each tower has its own propulsion system, but there is a central, for controlling the speed and alignment of the pivot, with reference to the last tower. The tower of each electric propulsion system is with 0.5 to 1.5 horsepower engines, which allows better control of the speed of the towers. His movement is by alignment and misalignment of the towers, which, when desalinharem, cause the activation of the relay, which in turn drive the motors that drive the wheels by means of geared motors and axes of the gimbal systems. The movement ceases when the two towers are no longer misaligned and happen again at the time the towers misaligned again. They are also installed safety relays so there are no accidents The center pivot moves there is a medium speed in m / h, but for ease of handling of the equipment in the field, it uses a "percentimetro", which is installed in the box tower command. The function of this device is to control the traveling speed of the equipment, not in terms of meters per hour, but uptime percentage. For example when the percentimetro is set at 50% of the last tower motion is not continuous, performing corresponding stops 50% of the travel time, making the travel time in this case is double. This displacement speed control has to be careful and water-based management methodologies, because if instead of 100%, the equipment is set to 50% the blade will be doubled for the same point. In central Brazil, this system was the most used in the past to the large agricultural companies. This preference is given the high level of automation, making it very versatile in irrigation circle format and can operate in total area or part thereof, as the management of culture or area. In Brazil, the area irrigated by center pivot occupies 21% of the irrigated area, the equivalent of 651 548 ha (IBGE 2006), this system of irrigation has great versatility to irrigate large areas, commonly greater than 60 ha. So to lower the unit cost per irrigated area, sometimes it is more economic to install larger units, since the structure of the tower (pivot) of equipment to irrigate small areas shows little variation on the acquisition value compared with a larger equipment . There are three common models of central pivot: - medium pressure Pivot: They use rotary sprinklers; - Low pressure Pivot: They use diffusers as issuers, has lower loss by the wind, and increased intensity of water.

The linear irrigation system, also known as moving side or, as some incorrectly call, linear pivot, can be defined as a system of irrigation by automated spraying, introduced in 1977 from the concept of drive used in the central pivot and taking advantage of parts of their structures and components, but with the innovation of a pathway system that allows mobility of all equipment in a transverse direction on the culture that you want to irrigate. Today, this technology is responsible for the irrigation of approximately 600,000 hectares of grain crops, forage, vegetables, sugarcane, coffee and fruit around the world

The command car is the main component that differentiates the linear of other automated irrigation sprinkler. Can be located in the center of the machine and it radiate perpendicularly pipes to irrigate fields simultaneously the two sides, or find yourself on the side of the irrigated area in the case of irrigating only one hand. In both situations the displacement occurs along the area along with the entire system.

The card consists of a control tower, formed by cross beams which are coupled with reducing wheels connected by a small geared motors drive shaft to transmit enough torque to rotate them the land and boost structure. It is located the control panel, where the main operating parameters are controlled.

It may contain, if channel power floating suction motor, pump and generator, when these three coupled together in a single collection is called 3x1. In the case of hose-feeding operation is performed by a water supply barrilhete in place and the floating suction motor coupled to a generator is called, the generator set.

In either has a fuel tank, connecting pipe between the water inlet and supplies its output to the air system of the spraying tubes and later in the field.

According to the type of card and board, can be divided linear systems linear system, linear system and universal linear system two wheels.

The so-called linear system is used four-wheel cart and power is made by channel. And the case of the equipment mentioned in the beginning and reach the largest irrigated areas.

The linear universal system is built through a structure based on the central tower of a pivot. It assumes that this central tower structure components are also used in this system, the difference is that the universal, the whole tower is placed on top of two beams with four tires and transmission units.

Can irrigate a track, the end of travel, hold the pivot, i.e., to make the entire aerial structure 180 rotate around the card like a central pivot back and irrigating an adjacent track. Thus, with the same amount of bids (mobile towers) irrigates twice the area, saving substantially on system purchase. Their food is made by channel.

Linear two wheels are powered by hose. In this case, the technological solution allows the beam itself basis of a common lance is transformed to receive a generator, the alignment system, the panel coupling hoses, the barrilhete and tubing which feed water around the rest of the system.

He will not have to suck water and aspergíla throughout the pipe, in which case the pump leading to water in the water main line already pressurizes the whole system does not require major engine or coupled pump, only a generator set to move units transmission which significantly reduces the weight on the cart, allowing this solution only two wheels, which gives the system greater versatility and reduced cost.

Besides pivotable, it can also be towable, or can be coupled a second water outlet at the end of the last bid and the system with the help of a tractor can be towed to an adjacent track, and resume operation.

In sprinkler irrigation water application to the soil results in the fragmentation of released a jet of water under pressure in the atmospheric air, through simple holes or spray nozzles. In general, the irrigation systems have advantages and limitations that should be considered when the system selection to be used.

Advantages of sprinkler irrigation:

- dispensing the preparation or systematization of the land;

- allows good control of the water level to be applied;

- enables the saving hand labor;

- enables water savings (efficiency);

- allows the application of fertilizers and agrochemical treatments. Irrigation limitations by spraying:

- high initial cost, operation and maintenance;

- Water distribution greatly affected by weather conditions, especially the wind;

- favors the development of some diseases;

- risk of soil sealing surface;

- unfit for water with a high salt content.

Irrigation is an ancient technique that merges with the development and economic prosperity of the people, for many ancient civilizations developed in arid regions where production was only possible thanks to irrigation. History shows that irrigation has always been a factor of wealth, prosperity and consequently security.

With the advancement of irrigation technologies and the increasing demand for water by human activities, accentuated the search for more efficient methods that use less resources and provide better results in productivity and quality.

The present invention aims to "IRRIGATION SYSTEMS APPLIED IN THE BEAN FARMING AND RICE" consisting of an irrigation where water is applied in a timely manner through drops directly to the ground. These drops to infiltrate form a pattern of wetting called "wet bulb". These bulbs may or may not meet the continuity of irrigation and form a wet track, and another objective to provide an irrigation through cannon whose range jet can reach several positions up to 100/200/300 or more meters away.

According to the present invention, an irrigation system is provided comprising a hose irrigation made of synthetic resin and may have one or two hoses forming elongated irrigation lines, each line comprising a separate water passage adapted to individual communication or press with a source of water supply, and a succession of spaced irrigation holes, each hole associated with an irrigation emitter.

The emitters used in the irrigation hose of the present invention may have any suitable design, for example they can be irrigation emitters drip or mini-sprinklers. The drip emitters are mounted within the irrigation lines to have their concentric points of the irrigation holes. They can when the line is formed by two hoses each hose holes have different diameters.

The provisions of the holes of the irrigation emitters outputs can be obtained in different ways. An example according to the present invention is forming irrigation lines with holes on the two lined hose, so that when one side is by irrigating the other side of the plant does not receive water allowing the soil to dry, may also be monatdos in air disperser with pivo central or linear. According to the present invenão this carcaterizado by one or more hoses (1) forming irrigation lines (2) forming water passagnes (3) and (4) can have any diameter that can act separately or adjoining that are connected to a source of water supply, the valve is able to promote the supply of water with predetermined time intervals, each of the irrigation line (2) provided with outlet holes (5) arranged equidistant way that receive the installation of internal irrigation emitters.

In order to get a clear understanding of what had been developed are appended drawings which are made numerical references together with a detailed description, and to:

Figure 1 shows the planting with a central irrigation line.

Figure 2 shows the planting rows with two central irrigation. Figure 3 shows a view of the irrigation hose.

Figure 4 shows the air supply.

Figure 5 shows the irrigation tube.

Before described and illustrated can be seen that the "IRRIGATION SYSTEMS APPLIED IN THE BEAN FARMING AND RICE" brings enormous advantages because drip irrigation with the application of small amounts of water directly to the root of the plant area, through point source or Drip line modulators on or below the ground, with operating pressures, dri evaporator can also be air, supported by support or bound in the plant itself, or irrigation through an air pivot which can be central (round) or straight (horizontal ) with spacing can be x0,30 0.30, 0.40 x 0.40, 0.50 x 0.50 8m x 8m and up to 1.5 meters from the surface (depth) or through guns.

The system allows to obtain higher yields, it irrigates a portion of the soil where the roots of the plant form very precise, constant and without expelling all the air of this land. Thus the root always have readily available water, nutrients (fertigation) and oxygen breathing for these to perform its metabolic and growth processes. In place of the wet track / bulb, then there is a large increase in the volume and activity of rootlets, fine roots whose sole function is to absorb water and nutrients. The drip hardly affects the supporting roots, which are thick and suberinizadas, ie, are waterproof and do not absorb water and nutrients.

Thus, plants grown with drip have greater root activity (rootlets), deep-rooted, and thus increased productivity and ability to be handled more easily, since these radicles the wet area are the perfect target for hormone treatments, application of systemic pesticides or induction water stress (drought).

The main feature of drip irrigation translates the above characteristics efficiencies because a localized application of water, encouraging a dense and active structure of fibrous root and a high irrigation uniformity implies a large efficiency gain in Chemigation, which is the application of chemicals in irrigation systems.

This efficiency is first observed in gains in the use of drip irrigation, because the installment enhances rational application versus needs of the plant, reduces losses by leaching / fixing and improves the uniformity of application, since this is determined by the uniformity of the system itself of irrigation.

The drip irrigation system (surface or underground) in corn and soybeans is technically feasible, economically viable and Draw upon in several ways:

- higher water application uniformity;

- Reduction of energy costs due to the reduction of pumping time to irrigate a given area;

- water saving 45 to 50% contributing to a more efficient use of water;

- savings in fertilizer (25 to 30%) due to fertigation and consequently improved use efficiency of the fertilizer. Ex: agronomic efficiency, physiological and wiring apparent covered;

- lower growth of weed and economy work because of less control of weed, fertigation and plant protection operations;

- Lower incidence of pests and diseases because of better field cleaning.

- ideal soil relationships, water and air contribute to a better budding, uniform field emergence and maintenance of the ideal plant population;

- Irrigation scheduling day / night is possible;

- It facilitates the cultivation on marginal soils because of frequent irrigations and fertigation.

Claims

REIVIDICAÇÃO
1 - "IRRIGATION APPLIED SYSTEMS IN THE BEAN GROWING AND RICE" characterized by an irrigation system in beans and rice crop comprising a hose irrigation made of synthetic resin, and may be even other water conducting materials may have one, two or more hoses forming elongated irrigation lines, each line comprising a separate water flow adapted for individual or collective communication with a source of water supply, and a succession of spaced holes irrigation, each hole associated with a emitter irrigation.
2 - "IRRIGATION APPLIED SYSTEMS IN THE BEAN GROWING AND RICE" characterized by one, two or more hoses (1) forming irrigation lines (2) forming water passagnes (3) and (4) can have any diameter, can act alone or interconnecting, which are connected to a source of water supply, the valve is able to promote the supply of water with predetermined time intervals, each of the irrigation line (2) provided with exit holes (5) arranged in equidistant fashion, receiving the assembly of internal irrigation emitters.
3 - "IRRIGATION SYSTEMS applied on cotton and wheat cultivation" characterized by irrigation or be performed by the mobile self-propelled sprinkler system.
4 - "IRRIGATION APPLIED SYSTEMS IN THE BEAN GROWING AND RICE" characterized by irrigation be made by the self-propelled system type reel winder that is a mechanical system that irrigates areas of different shapes and slopes, the equipment consists of a suction pipe, one pump assembly, a main line, a winder reel, and a drive sprinkler, comprising a sprinkler irrigating tube type or a bar.
5 - "APPLIED IRRIGATION SYSTEMS IN GROWING AND RICE BEAN" characterized by irrigation be made by the sprinkler system with central pivot, using various types of nozzles, applied to the planting line.
6 - "IRRIGATION SYSTEMS APPLIED IN THE BEAN FARMING AND RICE" characterized by irrigation be done by linear sprinkler system in two or four wheels.
PCT/BR2012/000081 2012-03-23 2012-03-23 Irrigation systems used in the growing of beans and rice WO2013138882A1 (en)

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Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
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US3726478A (en) * 1971-03-29 1973-04-10 Irrigation Power Equip Inc Moving pivot sprinkler irrigation system
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