发明名称：可再生资源的利用装置 技术领域 Title of Invention: Device for Utilizing Renewable Resources Technical Field
本发明涉及一种地下农业及观光游乐设施， 特别是涉及以冰雪为主的冰雪观光 游乐和以农业为主的观光农业设施， 和反季节农产品生产。 背景技术 The present invention relates to an underground agriculture and sightseeing amusement facility, in particular to ice and snow sightseeing amusement based on snow and ice, agricultural agriculture based sightseeing agricultural facility, and production of off-season agricultural products. Background technique
随着人们生活水平的提高， 对观光游乐的需求与日倶增， 特别是以自然景观为 主题的项目更是倍受人们的青睐。但是不论是冰雪游乐还是自然景观的观光游乐， 目 前的状况是仍然依赖于自然条件，冬天， 而且还需是冬季冷源丰富的地区才能有冰雪 类的观光游乐项目。而植物类的项目更是季节性很强， 春天只能观春色， 秋天也只能 看秋景， 受自然气候、时间、地点的制约性很强， 无法满足人们随时随地对冰雪和季 节性植物类的观光游乐需求， 季节性农产品仍然无法四季生产。 发明的公开 With the improvement of people's living standards, the demand for sightseeing and entertainment is increasing day by day, and especially the theme of natural landscape is more popular. However, whether it is snow and ice amusement or natural landscape sightseeing, the current situation is still dependent on natural conditions. In winter, it also needs to be in areas with abundant cold sources in winter to have snow and ice tourism amusement programs. The botanical items are more seasonal. Spring can only be viewed in spring, and autumn can only be seen in autumn. Due to the constraints of natural climate, time, and place, it cannot meet people's needs for ice, snow, and seasonal plants at any time. Demand for tourism and recreation, seasonal agricultural products are still unable to produce in four seasons. Disclosure of invention
本发明的目有是提供一种不受时间和地点限制的地下观光游乐设施， 四季提供 冰雪、动植物和食用菌类的观光游乐景物，以满足人们随时随地进行观光游乐的需求， 也提供一个不受自然气候影响的地下工厂化农业设施，从而达到随时随地生产任何农 产品的目的。 The purpose of the present invention is to provide an underground sightseeing and amusement facility that is not limited by time and place. Four seasons provide snow and ice, flora and fauna, and edible fungi sightseeing attractions to meet people's needs for sightseeing anytime, anywhere. Underground industrialized agricultural facilities that are not affected by the natural climate, thereby achieving the purpose of producing any agricultural product anytime, anywhere.
实现本发明目的关键在于冷、 热能源的廉价获得和高效利用。 本技术廉价获取 冷、热能源的方法之一是开发利用地下土壤或岩石具有储存冷、热的功能 在地下深 处建造一种由介质材料纵横上下叠置并留有均匀空隙的冷热转换裝置，通过该冷热转 换装置的传递作用，可将天然冷热、低谷电所制冷热或工业炉余热等天然和或再生冷 热源贮存进介质材料四周深层的土壤、岩石及介质材料中，从而能使廉价冷热源得以 贮存， 或对地下的环境温度得以低成本的人为调整。本技术高效利用上述冷、热源的 方法是在贮存冷、热的土壤或岩石之外仍有一层厚的土、石、炉碴或矿碴等导热性能 差的隔热层与外界隔离，从而能使所贮自然冷、热源能贮存至反季节时应用；能将夜 间低谷电源所制冷、热源贮存至白天用电峰值期或更长时期内应用；在地下游乐园的 地下室壁外贮存和调节地下宣温度的土壤或岩石与外界之间也有如前所述的隔热层 与外界相隔离， 使调节好的地下宣室温易于保持， 从而达到高效应用能的目的。 The key to achieving the object of the present invention lies in the cheap acquisition and efficient utilization of cold and hot energy. One of the methods for cheaply obtaining cold and hot energy by this technology is to develop the use of underground soil or rocks with the function of storing cold and heat, and to construct a cold and heat conversion device that is stacked vertically and horizontally with medium materials and leaves a uniform gap in the deep underground Through the transmission effect of the cold-heat conversion device, natural and / or regenerative cold and heat sources such as natural cold and heat, cooling heat of the trough power plant, or industrial furnace waste heat can be stored in the deep soil, rocks and medium materials around the medium material, thereby It can enable cheap cold and heat sources to be stored or artificially adjust the underground ambient temperature at low cost. The method for efficiently utilizing the above cold and heat sources by this technology is to keep a thick layer of soil, stone, grate, or mine heat insulation layer with poor thermal conductivity in addition to cold or hot soil or rock, so as to isolate the outside from the outside. The stored natural cold and heat sources can be stored until the off-season; it can be used for cooling and heat sources in the night trough power source during the daytime peak period or longer; stored and adjusted outside the basement wall of the underground park As mentioned above, the temperature or temperature of the soil or rock is also isolated from the outside, so that the adjusted underground temperature is easy to maintain, so as to achieve the purpose of efficient application.
地下贮存冷、 热的方法是： 在地下深处建造条状长洞， 在长洞的底部纵向设通 风道并在末端与主洞相通， 通风道与主洞之间用土层相隔。主洞内满置留有均匀空隙 的介质材料， 介质材料可以是卵石、块石或塑料袋内裝有湿土、湿砂等， 也可以是容 器内盛裝相变潜热材料。在洞首处将主洞与通风道用通风管引出地面后再将洞口厚土
回瑱。 自然冷能的贮存方法是在冬季的夜间， 以自然冷空气为一传介质， 用风机将其 从通风道送入主洞末端，再经主洞内介质材料之间的空隙穿越整个主洞后从设在洞口 的管道排出地面，连续送风使主洞内介质材料充分吸收冷源换出热源， 直至排出气温 接近送入气温时停止送风，留出一段时间让洞内介质材料以二传介质的作用再与洞壁 内的土壤或岩石冷热交换，待到介质材料温度上升时可再行向其通风换热，如此可在 夜间多次通风换热， 白天气温回升时停止通风， 留出整个白天时间让吸冷换热的介质 材料与洞壁深层的土壤或岩石再行冷热交换。夜间气温下降时再如上述方法向洞壁贮 冷， 如此日复一日， 可在整个冬季将大量自然冷能贮存到地下深层的土壤或岩石中。 贮热的方法与贮冷相同，即以夏日白天的热空气或周年经太阳能集热裝置集热升温的 热空气为一传介质。除自然冷热外， 还可将夜间低谷电转换成冷源或热源；将工业炉 排气除去灰尘用前述设施和方法，将冷源和热源分别贮存于地下的土壤或岩石中。上 述泠、 热贮存是地下游乐园廉价开发能源的具体设施和方法。 The method for underground storage of cold and heat is to construct a long strip-shaped hole deep in the ground, set up a ventilation channel at the bottom of the long hole vertically and communicate with the main hole at the end, and separate the soil layer with the ventilation channel. The main hole is filled with a medium material with uniform voids. The medium material can be pebbles, stones, or plastic bags filled with wet soil, wet sand, etc., or it can be a container containing phase change latent heat materials. Lead the main tunnel and the ventilation duct out of the ground at the beginning of the tunnel, and then thicken the soil at the entrance. Come back. The natural cold energy storage method is to use natural cold air as a transmission medium at night in winter, and send it from the ventilation duct to the end of the main cave with a fan, and then pass through the entire main cave through the gap between the dielectric materials in the main cave. The air is discharged from the pipe at the entrance of the cave. Continuous air supply allows the medium material in the main cave to fully absorb the cold source and replace it with the heat source, until the discharge temperature is close to the incoming temperature, the air supply is stopped, and a period of time is allowed for the medium material in the cave to pass through The role of the medium is then exchanged with the soil or rocks in the cave wall. When the temperature of the medium material rises, ventilation can be conducted to it. This can be used for ventilation and heat exchange at night. When the temperature rises during the day, the ventilation is stopped. In the whole daytime, the heat-absorbing and heat-exchanging medium material is exchanged with the soil or rock deep in the cave wall. When the nighttime temperature drops, the cold storage of the cave wall as described above can be used, so day by day, a large amount of natural cold energy can be stored in deep underground soil or rocks throughout the winter. The method of heat storage is the same as that of cold storage, that is, the hot air during the daytime in summer or the hot air collected and heated by the solar heat collector in the anniversary as a medium. In addition to natural cold and heat, it can also convert nighttime trough electricity into a cold or heat source; use the aforementioned facilities and methods to remove dust from industrial furnace exhaust, and store the cold and heat sources in underground soil or rocks, respectively. The above-mentioned thermal and thermal storage is a specific facility and method for cheaply developing energy in underground parks.
其中地下冰雪园是在地下建造大空间的地下室， 在地下室的室外土壤中， 或隔 土建造如前所述的冷热转换裝置；或在室壁与土壤之间建造不设通风道的条带状冷热 转换装置，将两条或两条以上的该裝置的末端或首端相通连接成一端进风另一端排风 的一体：或者上述两种裝置同时设置。上述冷热转换裝置既可以在地下室包括顶部和 底部在内的四周全部设置，也可以根据当地气候等条件选择设置。为了更好地隔绝园 内与外界的冷热交换， 还可以在贮冷裝置以外的土壤中设置一层隔热性能比土壤、岩 石更好的隔热材料层。与前述地下贮冷的方法一样，将冬天的自然冷源或低谷电所制 冷源经园外设置的冷热转换裝置转贮进四周的土壤中，与此同时也可将外界冷源从园 内空间的一端送入另一端排出直接向园内贮冷。 当园内温度稳定在 o°c以下时， 利用 天然冰雪或人造冰雪在园内建造冰雕、 滑冰、 滑雪等景物。在冰雪园的运作过程中， 随时可将外界冷源或前述专门地下贮冷库所贮冷源送入园内或园外的冷热转换装置 或园内空间进行贮冷调温， 使园区内长期保持 o°c以下园温。 Among them, the underground ice and snow park is a basement where a large space is built underground, in the outdoor soil of the basement, or the cold and heat conversion device as described above; or between the room wall and the soil, a strip without ventilation channels is constructed. The hot and cold conversion device connects two or more ends or head ends of the device to form an integrated body that receives air at one end and exhausts air at the other end: or both devices are installed at the same time. The above-mentioned cold and heat conversion device can be installed all around the basement, including the top and bottom, or can be selected according to local climate and other conditions. In order to better isolate the cold and heat exchange between the park and the outside world, a layer of heat-insulating material with better thermal insulation performance than soil and rock can also be set in the soil outside the cold storage device. Same as the above-mentioned method of underground cold storage, the natural cold source in winter or the refrigeration source of the trough power station is transferred to the surrounding soil through the cold and heat conversion device installed outside the park, and at the same time, the external cold source can be removed from the park One end of the space is fed into the other end and discharged directly into the garden for cold storage. When the temperature in the park is below o ° c, natural ice or artificial snow will be used to build ice sculptures, skating and skiing in the park. During the operation of the ice and snow park, the external cold source or the cold storage source of the aforementioned special underground cold storage can be sent to the cold or heat conversion device or the space outside the park for cold storage and temperature adjustment at any time, so that the park can be stored for a long time. Keep the temperature below o ° c.
在冰雪园内建造仿真景物。 即在园底部建造沟状河槽， 河槽内注入冰点温度低 于园内最低温度的盐水， 使 "河水" 保持液态。 用冰雕造冰船， 将冰船放入 "河水" 内划行可行減流动和倒影景观。冰船可以全部由冰雕造， 也可以上水下或甲板以下是 金属、木质或混凝土等非冰材料制造。在冰雪园内还可以用盐水塑造溪流、瀑布、喷 泉等景物。 Build simulation scenes in the ice and snow park. That is, a ditch-shaped river trough is constructed at the bottom of the park, and the river is filled with saline water having a freezing point lower than the lowest temperature in the park, so that the "river water" remains liquid. Use ice sculptures to make ice boats and place them in the "river water" to reduce the flow and reflection landscape. Ice boats can be made entirely of ice sculptures, or they can be made of non-ice materials such as metal, wood, or concrete above or below the deck. In the ice and snow park, you can also use salt water to shape streams, waterfalls, and springs.
利用光缆传光时可将光和热分离的特性， 用发光纤維做薄、 细冰雕物的光源， 既可避免热能对冰雕物的影响， 又可以形成连续的线状光源。如仿真菊花冰雕， 将发 光纤維的透明包层加厚，并将发光纤維的外部线形做成与菊花舌状花瓣的纵向形状相 一致，将其伸入带颜色的低温水中蘸水后再于 0 °c以下低温环境冻结，逐层蘸水逐层 冻结， 粗、厚处多蘸， 细、 薄处少蘸'， 最后经局部加工成仿真形状的带光、 带色的花
瓣。也可以用塑料等透明材料做成硬质的花瓣骨架、将发光纤維附着其上， 然后再如 上述方法向 ''骨架"外层蘸水结冰、成形。利用分叉传光束的光分配器， 在花托处或 花朵外将花瓣光纤与光分配器相连通。利用光纤做光源也可以花瓣内不设光纤， 而将 传光束设在花托或花芯处照亮花朵。 利用光纤传光还可以将冰雕物做成设有 "发光" 纤維的无色体， 光源外提供不同颜色的光， 能使同一冰雕物发出不同颜色的效果。如 同一花朵可通过光源 '的变换成为不同的颜色， 或者是不同部位是不同颜色。利用发光 纤維还可以塑造条线状的景观， 如在冰雪园建造观光缆桥， 用发光纤維做缆束光源。 即用细钢丝做承重缆束， 将发光纤維与细钢丝紧贴， 用胶或细绳将两者合为一体。也 可以将细钢丝和发光纤維同穿入一小孔经透明塑料管内， 并向管内注水结冰。缆桥的 桥面和护栏等既可用冰做成，也可以用透明度近似冰的塑料或玻璃等材料做成， 而光 源仍可用线状的发光纤维。发光纤維还可以直接编织成 "鱼网"挂置于冰船上。地下 冰雪园还可以设置耐寒的真实动物和植物景观， 如企鹅、梅花等， 其景物来源于动植 物观光游乐园的生产地。 Utilizing the characteristics of separating light from heat when transmitting light through optical cables, and using light-emitting fibers as light sources for thin and fine ice sculptures, it can not only avoid the impact of thermal energy on ice sculptures, but also form continuous linear light sources. For example, simulate the ice sculpture of chrysanthemum, thicken the transparent cladding of the luminescent fiber, and make the outer linear shape of the luminescent fiber consistent with the longitudinal shape of the tongue-shaped petals of the chrysanthemum. Frozen in a low temperature environment below 0 ° C, dip water layer by layer, freeze layer by layer, thicken the thick and thick parts, and dip the thin and thin parts', and finally process them into artificially shaped light and colored flowers. Petals. You can also use a transparent material such as plastic to make a rigid petal skeleton, attach the light-emitting fiber to it, and then dipped the water into the outer layer of the "skeleton" to form the shape as described above. The light distribution using the split beam The device connects the petal fiber to the light distributor at the torus or outside the flower. The fiber can be used as a light source, and there can be no optical fiber in the petals. Instead, the beam can be set at the torus or core to illuminate the flower. The ice sculpture can be made into a colorless body with "luminous" fibers. Different colors of light are provided outside the light source, which can cause the same ice sculpture to emit different colors. For example, the same flower can be changed to different colors by the light source. Or different parts are different colors. Using luminous fibers can also shape a linear landscape, such as the construction of a tourist cable bridge in the ice and snow park, using luminous fibers as the light source for the cable harness. The optical fiber and the thin steel wire are closely attached, and the two are integrated into one with a glue or a thin rope. The thin steel wire and the light-emitting fiber can also be inserted into a small hole through a transparent plastic pipe, and water is poured into the pipe to freeze. Bridge decks and guardrails can be made of ice, or plastic or glass with transparency similar to ice, and the light source can still be linear light-emitting fibers. Light-emitting fibers can also be directly woven into "fishnets" and hung on On the ice boat. The underground ice and snow park can also be set up with cold-resistant real animal and plant landscapes, such as penguins and plum blossoms. The scenery comes from the production place of the animal and plant sightseeing amusement park.
其动植物观光游乐园包括生产和观光两部分。 其中动植物生产即是利用前述地 下冷、热贮存和其它天然和可再生资源及一系列实施技术， 解决地下温度、温差、湿 度、光照、空气和病虫害防治等一系列生产因素， 最终促成可四季随时生产出自然农 业只能季节性生产出的各种植物、动物、食用菌等观光景物。将其再于观光园内重新 組合， 即可向游人提供包括极地动植物的观光景物。 附图简要说明 Its animal and plant sightseeing amusement park includes production and sightseeing. Among them, the production of animals and plants is to use the aforementioned underground cold and heat storage and other natural and renewable resources and a series of implementation technologies to solve a series of production factors such as underground temperature, temperature difference, humidity, light, air, and pest control, which ultimately contribute to the four seasons. A variety of plants, animals, edible fungi and other tourist attractions that can only be produced seasonally by natural agriculture are produced at any time. Recombining them in the tourist garden can provide tourists with sightseeing scenery including polar animals and plants. Brief description of the drawings
以下结合附图进一步详细说明： The following further describes in detail with reference to the drawings:
图 1是地下 冷或贮热的冷热转换裝置示意图； · Figure 1 is a schematic diagram of a cold-to-heat conversion device for underground cold or heat storage;
图 2是地下室示意图； Figure 2 is a schematic diagram of the basement;
图 3是地下冰雪园土木结构示意图； Figure 3 is a schematic diagram of the civil structure of the underground ice and snow park;
图 4是植物循环栽培和流水生产时的环形栽培宣示意图； FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of circular cultivation in the case of plant circular cultivation and flowing water production;
图 5是可对植物根际湿度和氧气调节的栽培床示意图； 5 is a schematic diagram of a cultivation bed capable of adjusting humidity and oxygen of a plant rhizosphere;
图 6是食用菌栽培箱示意图； 6 is a schematic diagram of an edible fungus cultivation box;
图 Ί是保温隔热管横断面示意图； Figure Ί is a schematic cross-sectional view of a thermal insulation pipe;
图 8是水丼中冷源和热源开发利用示意图； Figure 8 is a schematic diagram of the development and utilization of cold and heat sources in leech;
图 9是地下水池冷热贮存示意图； Figure 9 is a schematic diagram of cold and hot storage of a groundwater tank;
图 10是悬河河床以下自然冷热资源开发利用示意图； Figure 10 is a schematic diagram of the development and utilization of natural cold and heat resources below the suspended river bed;
图 11是地下自然冷热资源开发利用示意图； Figure 11 is a schematic diagram of the development and utilization of underground natural cold and heat resources;
图 12是海、 湖、 江、 河、 水库、 水池等水中自然泠热源开发利用示意图； 图 13是江、 河、 溪等河床下的地下水、 土所贮冷热源升发利用示意图；
图 14是换气裝置示意图； Figure 12 is a schematic diagram of the development and utilization of natural heat sources in the sea, lakes, rivers, rivers, reservoirs, ponds and other waters; Figure 13 is a schematic diagram of the rise and utilization of cold and heat sources stored in groundwater and soil under riverbeds such as rivers, rivers, and streams; 14 is a schematic diagram of a ventilation device;
图 15是换气、 除湿装置示意图。 实现本发明的最佳方式 Figure 15 is a schematic diagram of a ventilation and dehumidification device. The best way to implement the invention
图 1中的 101是建造于地下深处的长洞，该长洞可以是从山脚向山体内挖出的； 也可以是平地下先挖斜堑沟或竖井后再于底部向地下控出的；还可以是地面下先控出 长深沟， 在沟底部先砌通风道 104、 隔土 103和介质材料 102后再将沟上部回填； 还 可以是自然无水的峡沟底部先顺峡沟如上述方法露天筑通风道、垒介质材料， 然后再 从峡沟两侧山顶取土回填， 将回填土填足 2— 3米厚， 并整平夯实后可再筑洞再回填， 每层可多条， 最上层更厚的土覆盖， 如此还可在峡沟内顺便建成蓄水坝。洞的顶部可 以是平直的， 也可以是拱形的。 104是洞底部与主洞末端相通的通风道。 105可以是 另一条通风道， 当洞底部设有多条通风道时可将多条通风道设置成不同长度， 并在道 末端与主洞内的介质材料相通。设置多条通风道的作用在于可分段贮进或取出冷源或 热源。 103为主洞与通风道之间的隔土层， 一起隔离洞与道之间的直接影响， 二起贮 存冷、 热的作用。 但当长洞末端与外界相通时， 其上述通风道 104、 105和隔土 103 可设也可不设。 当不设通风道时， 其长洞的一端为进风口， 另一端为排风口。 102为 主洞及设在主洞内的介质材料， 其可以是卵石、块石；也可以是塑料袋内装湿土或湿 砂后纵横堆叠而成； 还可以是相变潜热材料。 当水做介质材料时可以是淡水， 也可以 上盐水。其主洞内的放置方法可以是将水装入筒状的塑料袋内， 在袋口处排出不少于 10%的水和空气后将袋口密封， 然后纵横叠置于主洞内， 在洞的顶部亦需留出因水升 降温体积膨大的空间， 并且在顶部预留空间处顺洞长方向每隔数米设一挡风裝置， 以 免进风或出风从空间处直通而过。此挡水裝置可以是一边固定于洞顶部， 另一端裹压 于顶部塑料袋下的软质布， 如塑料布等， 也可以用顶部空间处无孔， 而伸入塑料袋之 间部分设孔的板每隔数米设置一个进行挡风。包括水在内的相变材料的放置方法还可 以如上述方法先裝塑料袋后再置通透气的箱框内， 然后再将装有相变材料的箱、框纵 横相错叠置于主洞内。也可将相变材料直接装入不发生化学反应的管内， 或先裝入同 孔径的塑料袋并如前述方法封口后再裝入塑料或导热性更好的金属管内。然后将其竖 直排列， 并使管与管之间留出通气空隙置于主洞底部， 逐层叠置， 在洞顶部不留出空 隙。 以相变潜热材料做介质材料时， 可以是同一洞内一种材料， 也可以同一洞内分段 设置不同的相变材料， 并按熔点温度的逐渐升高或降低的次序排列， 用于贮热时， 最 高熔点温度略低于所贮热源温度； 用于贮冷时最低熔点略高于所贮冷源温度， 如此设 置可将工业炉余热或低谷电所制冷热源等量大集中的冷热源逐段快速贮存进相变潜 热材料中。也可以是多条洞中每洞设置一种， 各洞设置不同熔点溫度的相变材料， 然 后再将相邻两洞的末端或首端相通串联为一体， 进出气不经通风道， 从一洞首端的主
洞送入冷风或热风， 穿越多条洞后， 再从最后一条洞的主洞口排出。上述多洞串联为 一体的方法， 也适用于非相变材料介质的应用。前述各种主洞的垂直面布置是， 将多 条主洞横向隔土平行或大致平行并列， 垂直向高低相错布置。从底层洞的上部顺洞的 纵向相隔数米向上方洞方向打小孔经孔并于上方洞的中下部位相通，小孔经孔的直径 可大可小， 以 5— 20厘米最为适宜。如此可将多条洞在垂直面上形成互通。 贮热时先 向最低处洞内贮存， 利用其热空气比重轻向上移的特性， 可使热空气经小孔向两洞之 间的土壤深处换冷贮热， 贮冷时则从最高处的洞内先贮冷， 利用冷空气下移的特性同 样向两洞之间的土中快速贮冷。取出冷源或热源时与贮进的方位正好相反。在最上层 或靠近地面处的主洞内将小孔打出地面， 可自动贮冷。上述冷热转换裝置内设置相变 潜热材料及多个装置互联互通的设置更适合于量大集中的冷热源贮存。 如工业炉排 气，首先除去灰尘后将高热排气送入熔点温度与排气温度相近的相变材料段或洞内贮 热， 经多段或多个裝置的逐渐吸热贮热可将大部分热源贮存。最后温度相对较低的排 气还可再送非相变材料介质的裝置继续贮存， 直到将余热基本贮尽。贮热后的排气可 继续开发利用。即将其暂时贮存， 待到夜间时用低谷电进行压縮排气对二氧化碳和氮 气分离。 或当即用非低谷电进行分离 '。 在分离过程中， 当排气压力增大气温升高时， 可先将热源换出送贮热库， 即冷热转换裝置内贮存， 待压缩气温度下降将二氧化碳液 化分离出时， 再将高压和相对低温的氮气膨胀降温， 并将降温后的氮气也送地下贮冷 库贮冷， 贮冷后的氮气可暂贮待用。二氧化碳和氮气的利用方法是在后述的农业观光 植物生产中， 将植物栽培室的空气调节成高氮， 高二氧化碳和低氧的状态。如此环境 下进行植物栽培， 既可提高光合率， 又可抑制呼吸消耗， 还可抑制病虫害的发生。 101 in FIG. 1 is a long hole built deep in the ground, and the long hole may be excavated from the foot of the mountain into the mountain body; or it may be excavated in a trench or shaft first and then controlled underground at the bottom; It is also possible to control the long deep trench under the ground first, and then build the ventilation channel 104, the partition 103 and the dielectric material 102 at the bottom of the trench and then backfill the upper part of the trench; The above-mentioned method is to construct ventilation channels and barrier materials in the open air, and then take soil backfill from the mountain tops on both sides of the ditch, fill the backfill soil with a thickness of 2 to 3 meters, and level and ram, and then build a tunnel and backfill. The uppermost layer is covered with thicker soil, so that a storage dam can be built in the ditch. The top of the hole can be straight or arched. 104 is a ventilation channel communicating with the bottom of the cave and the end of the main cave. 105 may be another ventilation channel. When there are multiple ventilation channels at the bottom of the tunnel, the multiple ventilation channels can be set to different lengths and communicate with the dielectric material in the main tunnel at the end of the channel. The function of providing multiple ventilation channels is to store or remove the cold or heat source in sections. The soil barrier layer 103 between the main tunnel and the ventilation channel isolates the direct influence between the tunnel and the channel together, and serves as a cold and hot storage. However, when the end of the long hole communicates with the outside world, the above-mentioned ventilation ducts 104, 105 and partition soil 103 may or may not be provided. When no ventilation duct is provided, one end of the long hole is an air inlet, and the other end is an air outlet. 102 is a main hole and a dielectric material provided in the main hole, which may be pebble or block stone; it may also be formed by stacking wet soil or wet sand in a plastic bag vertically and horizontally; it may also be a phase change latent heat material. When water is used as the medium material, it can be fresh water or salt water. The placement method in the main hole may be to put water in a cylindrical plastic bag, discharge not less than 10% of water and air at the mouth of the bag, and then seal the mouth of the bag, and then place it in the main hole vertically and horizontally. The top of the cave also needs to leave space for volume expansion due to the temperature rise and fall of the space, and a wind shield device is set up every few meters along the length of the cave at the reserved space on the top to prevent the wind from entering or leaving the space. This water retaining device can be one side fixed to the top of the hole, and the other end wrapped with a soft cloth under the top plastic bag, such as plastic cloth, etc., or there can be no holes in the top space, and some holes can be inserted between the plastic bags. The boards are set every few meters for wind protection. The method of placing phase change materials including water can also be put in a plastic bag and then placed in a ventilated box frame as described above, and then the box and frame containing the phase change material are stacked vertically and horizontally in the main hole. Inside. The phase change material can also be directly filled into a tube that does not undergo a chemical reaction, or a plastic bag with the same aperture and sealed as described above before being filled into a plastic or metal tube with better thermal conductivity. Then arrange them vertically and leave a ventilation gap between the tube and the bottom of the main hole, one by one, without leaving a gap at the top of the hole. When the phase change latent heat material is used as the dielectric material, it can be one kind of material in the same hole, or different phase change materials can be set in sections in the same hole, and arranged in the order of gradually increasing or decreasing melting point temperature for storage. When it is hot, the highest melting point temperature is slightly lower than the stored heat source temperature. When used for cold storage, the lowest melting point temperature is slightly higher than the stored cold source temperature. This setting can concentrate the same amount of cold and heat from the industrial furnace waste heat or the trough power source as the cooling heat source. The source is quickly stored into the phase change latent heat material piece by piece. It is also possible to set one in each of multiple holes, and set phase change materials with different melting temperatures in each hole, and then connect the ends or heads of adjacent two holes in series to form a whole. Lord of the cave head The cave sends cold or hot wind, and after passing through multiple holes, it exits from the main hole of the last hole. The above method of integrating multiple holes in series is also applicable to applications of non-phase-change material media. The vertical planes of the aforementioned various main holes are arranged in such a manner that a plurality of main holes are horizontally parallel or substantially parallel to each other, and are arranged vertically and horizontally. From the upper part of the bottom hole, a few meters from the longitudinal direction of the hole are drilled in the direction of the upper hole and pass through the middle and lower parts of the upper hole. The diameter of the small hole can be large or small. The most suitable is 5-20 cm. In this way, multiple holes can communicate with each other on the vertical plane. When storing heat, store it in the cave at the lowest place first. Using its characteristic of light air moving up, the hot air can be used to change the cold heat storage through the small hole to the soil depth between the two holes. Cold storage is performed in the cave first, and cold air is also used to quickly store cold in the soil between the two holes. The cold or heat source is taken out in exactly the opposite direction as it was stored. Small holes are punched out of the ground in the uppermost level or in the main hole near the ground, which can automatically store cold. The setting of the phase-change latent heat material in the cold-heat conversion device and the interconnection of multiple devices is more suitable for the storage of large-scale concentrated cold-heat sources. For industrial furnace exhaust, first remove the dust and send the high-temperature exhaust gas to a phase change material section or cavity with a melting point close to the exhaust temperature to store the heat. After gradually absorbing heat and storing heat in multiple stages or devices, most Heat source storage. Finally, the relatively low temperature exhaust gas can be sent to the non-phase-change material medium and stored until the waste heat is basically stored. The exhaust gas after heat storage can continue to be developed and utilized. That is, temporarily store it, and use the trough electricity to compress the exhaust gas to separate carbon dioxide and nitrogen at night. Or immediately use non-trough electricity for separation '. In the separation process, when the exhaust pressure increases and the temperature rises, the heat source can be replaced first and sent to a heat storage, that is, stored in a cold-heat conversion device. When the compressed gas temperature drops and the carbon dioxide is liquefied and separated, the high pressure And the relatively low temperature nitrogen expands and cools down, and sends the cooled nitrogen to the underground cold storage for cold storage. The cold nitrogen can be temporarily stored for use. The method of using carbon dioxide and nitrogen is to adjust the air in the plant cultivation room to a state of high nitrogen, high carbon dioxide, and low oxygen in the production of agricultural and tourist plants described later. Plant cultivation under such an environment can not only improve photosynthetic rate, but also suppress respiratory consumption, and also suppress the occurrence of pests and diseases.
氮气资源开发利用的另一方法是配套或与用氧单位合建 "压缩空气制氧"设施， 在制取氧气的同时既可获得氮气资源， 又可将制氧时的冷源或热源地下贮存。而地下 贮存冷源又可反过来促成降低制氧成本。 Another method for the development and utilization of nitrogen resources is to complete or co-build "compressed air oxygen production" facilities with oxygen-using units. While producing oxygen, both the nitrogen resource can be obtained and the cold or heat sources for oxygen production can be stored underground. . The underground storage of cold sources can in turn contribute to reducing the cost of oxygen production.
二氧化碳和氮气资源开发利用的另一途径是： 在地下深处建造沼气发酵池， 池 壁外设置图 2中 208所示的调温床， 池内还可再设换热器或换热管， 利用前述地下贮 热， 将池温调控成沼气发酵的最适温度。将垃圾、秸杆和人畜粪便等沼气原料投入池 内适温发酵， 可廉价获得含 30%左右二氧化碳的沼气。将沼气做为燃料燃烧后所产生 排气又可同上述工业炉排气升发利用一样， 可再次获得冷、 热、 二氧化碳和氮气资源 的综合开发利用效果。 因沼气发酵适温为 60°C左右， 为使沼气池热源高效利用， 可 在沼气池顶与地面之间的厚覆土中再设置一层面积大于沼气池平面的泡膜塑料保温 层。还可以在建池时于沼气池四周隔土也设泡膜塑料保温层。为使泡膜塑料易于更换， 还可将保温层建成夹层状， 并设连通地面的通管， 夹层内设泡膜塑料粒， 需更换泡粒 时将其从通管抽出或排出后， 将新的泡粒再重新送入。地下沼气发酵池更适宜建造成 条带状的长池，一端连续投料， 另一端连续排渣。该地中沼气池的特点在于： 池顶厚
土覆盖， 进而池四周设保温层， 可高度維持池温；地下贮热库可提供廉价热源；所产 沼气在地下贮存冷、 热的促成下可对综合资源高效开发应用。 Another way to develop and utilize carbon dioxide and nitrogen resources is to build a biogas fermentation tank deep underground, and set a temperature-controlled bed as shown in Figure 208 outside the tank wall, and a heat exchanger or heat exchange tube can be set in the tank. Underground heat storage adjusts the tank temperature to the optimal temperature for biogas fermentation. Biogas raw materials such as garbage, straw, and human and animal manure are put into the pond for moderate temperature fermentation, and biogas containing about 30% carbon dioxide can be obtained at low cost. Exhaust gas produced after the biogas is burned as fuel can be used in the same way as the above-mentioned industrial furnace exhaust gas is used for the development and utilization, and the comprehensive development and utilization effect of cold, heat, carbon dioxide and nitrogen resources can be obtained again. Because the suitable temperature for biogas fermentation is about 60 ° C, in order to make efficient use of the heat source of the biogas digester, a layer of foamed plastic thermal insulation layer with an area larger than that of the biogas digester can be set in the thick covering soil between the top of the biogas digester and the ground. When the pool is built, a bubble film thermal insulation layer can also be provided around the soil around the biogas digester. In order to make the bubble film plastic easy to replace, the insulation layer can also be formed into a sandwich shape, and a through pipe connected to the ground is provided. The bubble film plastic granules are arranged in the sandwich layer. When the bubble particles need to be replaced or removed from the through pipe, the new Re-feed the foam particles. The underground biogas fermentation tank is more suitable to be constructed as a strip-shaped long tank with continuous feeding at one end and continuous slag discharge at the other end. The characteristics of the biogas digester in this area are: The soil cover, and furthermore, a thermal insulation layer around the pool, can maintain the pool temperature to a high degree; the underground heat storage can provide a cheap heat source; the produced biogas can be efficiently developed and applied to comprehensive resources under the promotion of cold and hot underground storage.
图 2中的 201为建造于地面下， 顶部有土层覆盖的， 用于地下动、植物生产或 观光游乐的场所——地下室。其顶部覆土厚度与当地年平均气温与地下室运作时的年 平均气温之差成正比。 如地下冰雪园和地下企鹅生产室的顶部就需更厚的土层覆盖， 南方要比北方厚， 以大于 5米厚最为适宜。但并非一定要遵此规， 总原则是覆土越厚 贮能保热效果越好， 但成本也高， 具体覆土厚度可根据多方因素而定， 最薄可顶部无 覆土， 仅将顶部以下建于地中， 但以 1—3米的覆土最为适宜。 202为包括盖板、地 板和墙壁的砖混结构。 203为设在地下室壁内的调温床， 即在墙面上先制成多条水平 状隔离兼承放介质材料的带 204 , 在相邻两带之间的端部相通成 S状通道， 然后在通 道内放置介质材料，最后将通道与室内之间用导热性较好的塑料或金属薄板 205相隔 离。将外界冷源或热源以空气或水做一传介质， 从 S状通道的一端送入， 贯穿 S状通 道内的介质材料，使其吸收源或热源后从 S状通道的另一端排出。吸冷或吸热的介质 材料可对室温进行调节。其中介质材料以水和其它相变材料最为适宜。 206是塑料袋 裝水的介质材料，即将 S状通道的高度做成略大于宽度的矩形或等于宽度的正方形槽 状，其内放置直径略小于或等于槽宽的长筒状厚塑料袋， 同 S状通道一样使塑料筒状 袋也成 S状的一体， 并在两端口处与管道相密接。向调温床进行换热调温时， 可将冷 水或热水直接通入塑料筒内；或保持塑料筒内的水不动， 而从塑料筒与通道之间的空 隙中通入冷、 热风或冷、 热水， 使筒内水吸收冷或热后对室温进行调节。 207是塑料 管内装有包括水在内的相变潜热材料，其相变材料的选择原则是室内所需温度要与相 变材料的熔点温度相接近。利用其液态蓄热， 固态蓄冷的特性进行室温调节， 或向壁 外土中贮存冷、 热。相变材料的设置和换热方法与前述地下贮存冷热时的方法相同， 但一般情况下同一室内只选择一种相变材料。用水做介质材料时可以是淡水，也可以 是盐水。将调温床设在室内的最大好处在于：可拆开隔离板 205随时更换床内介质材 料； 隔离板 205的导热性强， 易于冷、 热传递， 可对室温进行更快的调节。 208是设 在壁外的调温床， 由于床内介质材料不易更换， 所以多以卵石、 块石等材料为介质'。 209为隔离带。 210为隔离兼加固带。 211为设在底部的调温床。 212为设在顶部的调 温床。 同一室内在何处设置何种调温床可根据具体情况任意选择， 既可多处设置， 也 可部分设置，还可以不设置。当室内不设调温床时，可通过向室内直接换气进行调温。 213是设在顶部的通风管道。 214是设在底部的通风管。 201 in Figure 2 is a basement built under the ground and covered with a soil layer on the top, which is used for underground animal and plant production or sightseeing. The thickness of the top soil layer is directly proportional to the difference between the local average annual temperature and the annual average temperature during the operation of the basement. For example, the top of the underground ice and snow park and the underground penguin production room need a thicker soil cover. The south is thicker than the north, and it is most suitable to be more than 5 meters thick. However, it is not necessary to comply with this rule. The general principle is that the thicker the soil is, the better the heat storage effect is, but the cost is also high. The specific thickness of the soil can be determined according to various factors. The thinnest can be covered with no soil. In the ground, 1-3 meters of soil cover is most suitable. 202 is a brick-concrete structure including a cover plate, a floor and a wall. 203 is a temperature-adjusting bed provided in the basement wall, that is, a plurality of horizontally-shaped belts 204 for separating and holding dielectric materials are first made on the wall surface, and the ends of two adjacent belts communicate into an S-shaped channel, and then A dielectric material is placed in the channel, and finally, the channel and the room are separated by a plastic or metal sheet 205 with better thermal conductivity. The external cold or heat source is air or water as a transmission medium, and is fed in from one end of the S-shaped channel, passes through the dielectric material in the S-shaped channel, and is absorbed or discharged from the other end of the S-shaped channel. The endothermic or endothermic material can be adjusted to room temperature. Among them, water and other phase change materials are most suitable. 206 is a plastic bag-filled medium material, that is, the height of the S-shaped channel is made slightly larger than the width of the rectangular or equal to the width of the square trough, and a long cylindrical thick plastic bag with a diameter less than or equal to the width of the trough is placed in the same shape. The S-shaped channel also makes the plastic cylindrical bag into an S-shaped body, and is in close contact with the pipeline at the two ports. When performing heat exchange and temperature adjustment to the temperature control bed, cold water or hot water can be directly passed into the plastic cylinder; or the water in the plastic cylinder can be kept still, and cold, hot air or cold air can be passed from the gap between the plastic cylinder and the channel. Cold or hot water, adjust the room temperature after absorbing cold or hot water in the cylinder. 207 is a phase change latent heat material including water in a plastic tube. The selection principle of the phase change material is that the temperature required in the room should be close to the melting point temperature of the phase change material. Use its liquid heat storage and solid cold storage characteristics to adjust room temperature, or store cold and heat in the soil outside the wall. The method of setting and exchanging the phase change material is the same as the aforementioned method for cold and hot storage underground, but generally only one phase change material is selected in the same room. When using water as the medium material, it can be either fresh water or salt water. The biggest advantage of setting the temperature control room indoors is that the isolation plate 205 can be disassembled to change the media material in the bed at any time; the isolation plate 205 has strong thermal conductivity, is easy to transfer cold and heat, and can adjust the room temperature faster. 208 is a temperature-regulating bed located outside the wall. Because the material of the medium in the bed is not easy to replace, many materials such as pebbles and stones are used as the medium. 209 is an isolation belt. 210 is an isolation and reinforcement belt. 211 is a tempering bed provided at the bottom. Numeral 212 is a tempering bed set on the top. Where and what type of temperature control bed is installed in the same room can be arbitrarily selected according to the specific situation. It can be installed in multiple places, partly, or not. When no temperature control bed is set in the room, the temperature can be adjusted by directly ventilating the room. 213 is a ventilation duct provided on the top. 214 is a ventilation pipe provided at the bottom.
图 3中的 301是地下冰雪园的大空间地下室， 其结构除宣内需增设梁、柱扩大 空间外，调温床的设置与图 2所示的地下室相同。调温床 203内的介质材料以冰点温 度低于园内温度的盐水为宜。 302是地下室四周隔土而建， 包围冰雪园四周的面状贮 冷隔热带。该带的通风抅造与图 2中的调温床构造相同，也即在一个平面内设 S状的
通道。图 b是该通道的放大和組合图， 其中 303是内设卵石的 5 &冷道。而 304则是内 设泡膜塑料粒的隔热道。 302贮冷隔热带有以下几种选择： 其一为只设贮冷道 303 , 通过向道内介质材料送冷风贮冷可起到更大范围保持园温的作用。其二为只设隔热道 304, 即在隔热道内填充进泡膜塑料粒， 如聚苯乙烯泡粒， 可起到更高效益地隔离园 内外冷、热对流交换的作用。该道的另一作用在于可随时抽排出道内泡粒后送冷风于 空道内换热贮冷，如利用低谷电制取的冷源或冬季夜间的自然冷源贮冷后再送入泡粒 隔热保温。其三为贮冷道与隔热遒合并建成一体，即靠园区一側为贮冷遒 303 ,而 303 以外层为隔热道 304。此組合的优势在于贮冷与隔热互不影响， 而且向 303贮冷时大 部分冷能贮存进靠向园区的土壤中， 304隔热道则可隔阻内外冷热交换。其四为贮冷 道 303与贮热道 304的任意組合，如园上方设置贮冷与隔热合为一体的双层道， 而园 四周则只设贮冷道或隔热道。其五为贮冷隔热道可以隔土多层设置，在低纬度地区设 置多层道就更显其重要性。 305是地面。 306是地面与最上层贮冷隔热道之间的隔土， 该隔土之内还可再设一层直接埋入地下的板状泡膜塑料隔热层。上述不论是粒状的还 是板状的泡膜塑料隔热层， 还是以卵石为介质的贮冷层， 既可设也可不设， 既可多设 也可少设。当顶部覆土厚度大或当地年平均气温和地温低下时可少设或不设，相反可 多设。冰雪园的底部也可设也可不设。图中 307为设在园底部与植物栽培室相连通的 观赏植物通道，设在园面以下的作用在于使栽培床置于园面下，栽培物正好于园面处， 通道内可以是铺以铁轨， 用轨道车载栽培植物， 也可以是混凝土面， 用非轨道车载栽 培植物从栽培室运至冰雪园内。 308是盐水 "河" 。 309是 "河水" 上行驰的冰船。 301 in Figure 3 is a large space basement in the underground ice and snow park. The structure is the same as the basement shown in Figure 2, except that the structure requires additional beams and columns to expand the space. The medium material in the temperature control bed 203 is preferably salt water having a freezing point lower than the temperature in the garden. 302 is a surface cold storage heat insulation belt built around the basement with soil around it. The ventilation of the belt is the same as the structure of the temperature control bed in Fig. 2, that is, an S-shaped aisle. Figure b is an enlarged and combined view of the channel, where 303 is the 5 & cold channel with built-in pebble. The 304 is a heat insulation channel with plastic film inside. 302 cold storage heat insulation has the following options: One is to set only cold storage channels 303. By sending cold air to the medium materials in the channels, cold storage can play a larger role in maintaining the temperature of the garden. The second is to only set the heat insulation channel 304, that is, the foam film is filled with plastic particles such as polystyrene foam particles, which can more effectively isolate the cold and heat convection exchange inside and outside the park. Another function of this channel is that the foam particles in the channel can be pumped out at any time and then the cold wind can be exchanged in the empty channel for heat storage and storage. Insulation. The third is the combination of the cold storage channel and the heat insulation concrete, that is, the cold storage area 303 is located on the side of the park, and the outer layer 303 is the heat insulation channel 304. The advantage of this combination is that the cold storage and heat insulation do not affect each other, and most of the cold energy is stored in the soil adjacent to the park when the cold storage is to 303, and the 304 heat insulation road can block the internal and external cold and heat exchange. The fourth is any combination of cold storage lanes 303 and heat storage lanes 304. For example, a double-layered lane that integrates cold storage and heat insulation is set above the park, and only cold storage lanes or heat insulation lanes are set around the park. Fifth, cold storage and heat insulation roads can be set up with multiple layers of soil, and it is even more important to set up multiple layers of roads in low latitudes. 305 is the ground. 306 is a partition between the ground and the uppermost layer of cold storage and heat insulation road. A layer of foamed plastic insulation layer directly buried in the ground can be set in the partition. Regardless of whether the foregoing is a granular or plate-shaped foamed plastic thermal insulation layer or a pebble-based cold storage layer, it may or may not be provided, and it may be provided more or less. When the thickness of the top soil is large or the local average annual temperature and ground temperature are low, it can be set less or not. Instead, it can be set more. The bottom of the ice and snow park may or may not be provided. In the picture, 307 is an ornamental plant channel connected to the plant cultivation room at the bottom of the garden. The function below the garden surface is to place the cultivation bed under the garden surface, and the culture is just above the garden surface. The channel can be paved with Railroad tracks can be used to cultivate plants on rails, or they can be concrete surfaces, and non-track cultivated plants can be transported from the cultivation room to the snow and ice garden. 308 is a saltwater "river". 309 is an "Ice River" ice boat.
图 4中的 a图是地下环形栽培室的平面示意图， 图中 401是环状的地下宣， 其 平面结抅可以是图中所示的两端圆弧形中间直线形， 也可以是圆形、椭圆形、扁圆形 等任何可循环的形状。其横断面构造和调温床的选择设置与图 2所示地下室相同。402 是具有隔离光、热的隔门， 该门可以是设在室壁内的推拉门， 也可以是设在顶部的卷 门。 403是土壤， 其内既可不设任何设施， 也可再造一般的地下室进行生产。环形室 的作用在于将环形宣内的宣温在隔门的作用下通过调温床调控成不同的溫度区段，在 环形室底部设置相应的轨道，轨道上再设首尾连接成环， 并在连接处的板面之间留有 转弯和关门所需空间的平板轨道车， 轨道车上设驱动设备和栽培床进行植物循环栽 培， 以此解决地下室植物栽培中的温差难题。其方法之一是用两道或两道以上隔门将 整个环形宣相隔成两段或多段，按照所栽植物一日中不同温度时段的时间比例，将整 个环形室各段调控成不同温度的区段，驱动设备驱动轨道车一日内循环一周即可满足 所栽植物的日温差需求。其二是将环瑚室整体建造成倾斜状，将相对高的一段设为光 照区， 利用热空气向高处流动的特性， 可自然形成高处温度高而低处温度低的温差， 加之隔门的作用可形成不同区段不同温度的高度模拟自然气候的环境，驱动轨道车定 时定量或不断緩慢移动， 一日内完成一个循环同样可解决日溫差需求。上述方法是解
决一日内的日温差的具体措施。在整个植物生产过程中不同生产阶段的不同温度需求 则可通过调整区段内的室温而得以实现。 Figure a in Fig. 4 is a schematic plan view of the underground circular cultivation room, and 401 in the figure is a circular underground declaration. The planar scab may be a circular arc-shaped middle straight line at both ends, or a circle. , Oval, oblate, and any recyclable shape. The cross-section structure and the setting of the temperature control bed are the same as those of the basement shown in FIG. 402 is a partition door with light and heat isolation. The door can be a sliding door located in the wall of the chamber, or a rolling door located on the top. 403 is soil, which can be set up without any facilities or can be rebuilt into a general basement for production. The function of the annular chamber is to adjust the temperature in the annular chamber into different temperature sections through a temperature control bed under the function of a partition door. A corresponding track is set at the bottom of the annular chamber. A flat rail car with space for turning and closing the door is left between the slab surfaces. The rail car is provided with driving equipment and cultivation beds for plant cycle cultivation to solve the problem of temperature difference in plant cultivation in the basement. One of the methods is to use two or more partition doors to separate the entire ring shape into two or more sections. According to the time proportion of different temperature periods in the plant, the entire ring room is adjusted to different temperature sections. The driving equipment can drive the railcar to circulate for one week in one day to meet the daily temperature difference demand of the plant. The second is to make the whole chamber room inclined, and use a relatively high section as the light area. Using the characteristics of hot air flowing to a high place, the temperature difference between high temperature and low temperature can be formed naturally. The function of the door can form a highly simulated natural climate environment in different sections and at different temperatures, and drive the railcar to quantify or move slowly slowly. Completing a cycle in a day can also solve the daily temperature difference requirement. The above method is the solution Specific measures to determine the daily temperature difference within a day. Different temperature requirements in different production stages in the entire plant production process can be achieved by adjusting the room temperature in the section.
上述环形室还可用于整个生产阶段温差耍求更大的多年生植物栽培， 如牡丹、 挑、蕨菜等， 在整个生产周期内 7°C以下的低温是必须需求。该环形室栽培上述植物 的方法是按照所栽植物不同季节的必须时间比例，将环形室调控成相应的春、夏、秋、 冬适温室， 加强隔热门功能，在一个生产周期内完成一次循环。每日的日温差则通过 前述的地下冷、热贮存及氣气资源和后述的各种冷热源及换气设施和方法，每日通过 换气对室温调整一次， 可直接或间接地解决日温差的问题。 The above-mentioned annular chamber can also be used for the cultivation of perennial plants, such as peonies, pickles, brackens, etc., which require greater temperature differences throughout the production stage. Low temperatures below 7 ° C are required during the entire production cycle. The method for cultivating the above plants in the annular room is to adjust the annular room to the corresponding spring, summer, autumn, and winter greenhouse according to the necessary time ratio of the planted plants in different seasons, strengthen the function of the heat insulation door, and complete a cycle in a production cycle. . The daily daily temperature difference can be directly or indirectly resolved through the above-mentioned underground cold and hot storage, gas and gas resources, and various cold and heat sources and ventilation facilities and methods described below. The problem of day temperature difference.
图 4中的 b图是将多个环形室再互联成一个大循环体的栽培模式。 图中 401是 小环形室。 404是连通相邻两环形室的连通道。 405是连通首尾端两环形室的长道。 406是连通 401与 405之间的连通道。整体組合时每个小环形室的周长必须相等， 连 通道 405的长度需大于小环形室的周长。所有连通道都设铁轨。举例说明栽培方法： 假设某栽培物为多年生需冷植物， 最小需冷温度为 7°C , 最运生长温度为 18— 28°C , 包括最少需冷期在内的整个生产周期为 180天， 其中最少需冷期为 30天， 则小环形 室的数量必须是 6个或以 6为倍数的数量， 即将其中一个小环形宣的室温调控成 7 °C 以下的低温室， 将另外两个小环形室调控成 7--18°C的类似早春、晚秋的过渡宣， 并 分别与 7°C冷环形室前后相连通。将其余 3个调控成 18— 28°C的适温栽培室连接在两 "过渡室" 之间， 如此排列组合后， 每 30天将首端小环形室内所栽植物牵引至 405 过渡道内， 然后再将其余 5个小环形室内植物逐一牵入前一环形室， 最后再将过渡道 内原首端植物牵至末端环形宣内。 30夭后再重复上述循环， 如此形成循环流水栽培。 在整个栽培过程中， 再根据不同栽培时段控制光照时间和强度， 在光、温控制下可促 成随时生产出任何季节的任何植物供冰雪园和农业观光园观光之用。上述栽培模式中 的日温差仍按前述每日一次小循环得以解决；光照除人工光源外还可利用发光纤维可 将光、热分离的特性， 将发光纤维布置于植物的四周及技叶间， 利用电脑控制同步电 机 使太阳能收集器随时朝向太阳收集光和热，将所收集热源送前述地下贮热库贮存, 而将所集光源通过发光纤維送地下室植物栽培之用。在阴雨天或夜间则可利用人工光 源通过发光纤維向地下室提供光源。利用发光纤维做光源可用于包括地下冰雪园、农 业栽培和农业观光园等一切地下室应用， 它的最大好处在于提供光源时不产生热量。 除上述解决日温差方法外，利用前述工业炉排气资源开发中所开发的二氧化碳和氮气 资源， 将地下室的空气成分调控成二氧化碳 1%左右， 氮气 94%左右， 氧气 5%左右， 在促进光合作用和抑制病虫害发生的同时还可抑制植物的呼吸消耗，是解决植物日温 差需求的另一途径， 上述栽培模式也可不设轨道， 用一般的车轮上设平板、设床进行 同样方法的栽培。 关于上述栽培中的栽培床和除湿方法将在以后逐一介绍。 Figure b in Figure 4 is a cultivation model that interconnects multiple annular chambers into a large circulation body. 401 in the picture is a small circular chamber. 404 is a connecting passage connecting two adjacent annular chambers. 405 is the long path connecting the two annular chambers at the ends. 406 is a connecting channel connecting 401 and 405. In the overall combination, the perimeter of each small annular chamber must be equal, and the length of the connecting channel 405 must be greater than the perimeter of the small annular chamber. All connecting passages have railroad tracks. Examples of cultivation methods: Assume that a certain cultivation is a perennial plant that requires cold, the minimum cold temperature is 7 ° C, and the maximum growth temperature is 18-28 ° C. The entire production cycle including the minimum cold period is 180 days. The minimum cooling period is 30 days. The number of small circular chambers must be six or a multiple of six, that is, the temperature of one small circular chamber is adjusted to a low-temperature greenhouse below 7 ° C, and the other two small chambers are controlled. The annular chamber is regulated to a transitional declaration similar to early spring and late autumn at 7--18 ° C, and communicates with the cold annular chamber at 7 ° C, respectively. The remaining three temperature-adjustable cultivation chambers adjusted to 18-28 ° C are connected between the two "transition chambers". After arranging and combining in this way, the plants planted in the first small circular chamber are drawn into the 405 transition lane every 30 days, and then Then the remaining 5 small circular indoor plants are drawn into the previous circular chamber one by one, and finally the original head plants in the transition path are pulled into the end circular xuan inside. After 30 hours, the above-mentioned cycle was repeated, thus forming a circulating water culture. During the entire cultivation process, the time and intensity of light are controlled according to different cultivation periods. Under the control of light and temperature, any plant in any season can be produced at any time for ice and snow gardens and agricultural sightseeing gardens. The day-to-day temperature difference in the above cultivation mode is still resolved according to the aforementioned small once-a-day cycle; in addition to artificial light sources, light can also use the characteristics of light-emitting fibers to separate light and heat, and arrange light-emitting fibers around plants and between technical leaves. A computer-controlled synchronous motor is used to make the solar collector collect light and heat toward the sun at any time, and the collected heat source is sent to the aforementioned underground thermal storage for storage, and the collected light source is sent to the basement for plant cultivation through light-emitting fibers. In rainy days or at night, artificial light sources can be used to provide light sources to the basement through luminous fibers. The use of luminescent fiber as a light source can be used in all basement applications including underground ice and snow parks, agricultural cultivation and agricultural sightseeing parks, and its biggest advantage is that it does not generate heat when providing the light source. In addition to the above-mentioned method for solving the difference in daily temperature, the carbon dioxide and nitrogen resources developed in the development of exhaust gas resources of the industrial furnace described above were used to adjust the air composition of the basement to about 1% of carbon dioxide, about 94% of nitrogen, and about 5% of oxygen, which promoted photosynthesis. The function and the inhibition of the occurrence of diseases and insect pests can also suppress the respiratory consumption of plants, which is another way to solve the needs of the daily temperature difference of the plants. The above cultivation mode can also be set up without the track, and the same method can be used to set up a flat plate and a bed on a common wheel. The cultivation beds and dehumidification methods in the above cultivation will be introduced one by one in the future.
图 5是可人为控制根际温度和氧气的栽培床示意图。 图中 501是外箱。 可以是
塑料或混凝土预制箱。 502是外箱内壁的保温层， 可以是泡膜塑料。 保温层内侧还可 以再套一层与箱体尺寸符合的塑料袋以防水渗入保温层。 503是调温层， 层内设有介 质材料， 该介质材料可以是前述塑料管内裝有包括水在内的相变材料， 也可以是将冷 水或热水直通入层内； 还可以是导热和贮热强的金属球。 504是内箱。 503是支承内 箱的支承。 511是设在底部的通风或通水管。 512是设在箱另一端上部的通风或通水 管。调节根际温度的方法是选择熔点温度与根际最适温度相近的相变材料裝塑料管内 竖直立于箱四周， 装塑料管或袋内均匀置箱底部， 同前述地下室壁调温床的调温方法 一样， 需降温保根温时， 将冷水或冷空气从箱的一端送入另一端排出， 使相变材料从 液态吸冷凝固为固态， 需升温保温时则将热水或热空气送入调温层内， 使相变材料从 固态吸热熔化为液态。利用其相变潜冷或法潜热可在较长时间内保持根际恒温。 当用 水直接调温时， 调温层内不再设其它介质材料， 直接将冷水或热水送入调温层内， 待 水温上升或下降到控温范围以外时， 将原水排出， 再送入温度适宜的泠水或热水， 或 在原水内再注入更冷或更热的水使水温恢复至保温所需状态。当用金属球或石等做介 质材料时， 通入泠、 热水或冷热空气向介质材料调温。 至此即可用于无土栽培。 水培 时箱顶设定植板， 定植板即起定植作用， 也起隔阻箱内外冷热交换作用； 固体基质栽 培时， 可对基质和基质水的营养水起到调温作用。 图 5所示的是土壤栽培。 即 506是 长宽与内箱内径相同， 板面均匀设有通气小孔的通气板， 507是支撑通气板并相隔出 通气层的支柱， 513是通气层。 508是设在通气层内的通气管， 通气管另一端设在箱 外并与通气设备相接。 509是小卵石或砾石。 砾石与通气板之间设一层无纺布。 砾石 之上再设小砾石、 粗砂， 粗砂之上还可再设一层无纺布。 无纺布上再裝栽培土 510。 为增强栽培土的透气性， 可增加有机肥； 可增飼少量蚯蚓； 还可以掺以少量的沙。根 际供氧的方法是在栽培室外设一密封的水箱， ， 水箱顶部留出一层无水层， 在水中设 一組换热器、水箱内再设两条通风管， 其中进风管的端头伸至箱底水中， 排风管的端 头设在箱上部无水空间内， 进风管另一端与压力风机或自动控制压气箱相接，排风管 的另一端与栽培床通气管相接，中途管道或埋入地下保温，或外襄保温材料隔热保温。 通过水箱内的换热器将水温调整至与栽培床根际所需温度相同，然后将一般空气或富 氧气体除杂或消毒无菌处理后送入上述水箱底部，调温和增温后再送入栽培床通气层 内， 在一定压力的作用下调氧气可穿过栽培土排出床外， 从而可对土壤中提供足够的 氧源， 规模生产时还可以在栽培室外设一储气箱或储气室， 用自动控压设备将调温调 湿的气体送入箱或室内， 使其自动保持一定压力。用管道将压力气体通向栽培床可自 动定压供气。 同时各栽培床还可通过设在床外的控制开头调节供气量。 Fig. 5 is a schematic diagram of a cultivation bed which can artificially control rhizosphere temperature and oxygen. In the figure, 501 is an outer box. Can be Plastic or concrete prefabricated boxes. 502 is a thermal insulation layer on the inner wall of the outer box, which may be a foamed plastic. The inside of the insulation layer can also be covered with a plastic bag in accordance with the size of the box to prevent water from penetrating into the insulation layer. 503 is a temperature regulating layer, and a dielectric material is provided in the layer. The dielectric material may be a phase change material including water in the aforementioned plastic pipe, or cold water or hot water may be directly passed into the layer; Strong heat storage metal ball. 504 is the inner box. 503 is a support for supporting the inner box. 511 is a ventilation or water pipe at the bottom. 512 is a ventilation or water pipe provided on the upper part of the other end of the box. The method of adjusting the rhizosphere temperature is to choose a phase change material with a melting point close to the optimum temperature of the rhizosphere. The plastic pipe is placed vertically around the box, and the plastic pipe or bag is placed uniformly at the bottom of the box. The temperature method is the same. When it is necessary to lower the temperature and maintain the root temperature, send cold water or cold air from one end of the box to the other end to discharge it, so that the phase change material is absorbed from the liquid to condense and solidify. Into the temperature control layer, the phase change material is melted from a solid state and melted into a liquid state. Using its phase change latent cold or French latent heat can maintain the rhizosphere constant temperature for a long time. When the temperature is directly adjusted with water, no other media materials are set in the temperature adjustment layer, and cold or hot water is directly sent into the temperature adjustment layer. When the water temperature rises or falls outside the temperature control range, the raw water is discharged and then sent to the temperature. Appropriate water or hot water, or inject colder or hotter water into the raw water to restore the water temperature to the state required for thermal insulation. When metal balls or stones are used as the dielectric material, the temperature of the dielectric material is adjusted by passing in hot, cold or hot air. At this point, it can be used for soilless cultivation. During hydroponics, the planting plate is set on the top of the box. The planting plate not only plays a role of planting, but also acts as a cold and heat exchange between the inside and outside of the barrier box. When the solid substrate is cultivated, it can regulate the nutrient water of the substrate and the substrate water. Figure 5 shows soil cultivation. That is, 506 is a ventilation plate having the same length and width as the inner diameter of the inner box, and the plate surface is evenly provided with ventilation holes, 507 is a pillar supporting the ventilation plate and separating the ventilation layer, and 513 is a ventilation layer. 508 is a ventilation tube provided in the ventilation layer, and the other end of the ventilation tube is provided outside the box and connected with the ventilation equipment. 509 is pebble or gravel. A layer of non-woven fabric is set between the gravel and the ventilation plate. Small gravel and coarse sand are placed on the gravel, and a layer of non-woven fabric can be placed on the coarse sand. The non-woven fabric was loaded with cultivation soil 510. In order to enhance the air permeability of the cultivation soil, organic fertilizer can be increased; a small amount of earthworms can be fed; and a small amount of sand can be mixed. The method for supplying oxygen in the rhizosphere is to set a sealed water tank outside the cultivation room. A dry layer is left on the top of the water tank. A group of heat exchangers are set in the water, and two ventilation pipes are set in the water tank. The end extends into the water at the bottom of the box. The end of the exhaust pipe is set in the dry space at the upper part of the box. The other end of the air inlet pipe is connected with a pressure fan or an automatic control air box. The other end of the exhaust pipe is connected with the cultivation bed vent pipe. In the middle of the pipeline, the pipeline may be buried in the underground insulation, or heat insulation of Waixiang insulation materials. The water temperature is adjusted to the same temperature as the rhizosphere of the cultivation bed through the heat exchanger in the water tank, and then the general air or oxygen-enriched gas is removed or sterilized and sent to the bottom of the above water tank. In the aeration layer of the cultivation bed, under a certain pressure, oxygen can be adjusted to pass through the cultivation soil and be discharged out of the bed, so that sufficient oxygen source can be provided to the soil. During large-scale production, an air storage tank or gas storage room can be set up outside the cultivation room. Use an automatic pressure control device to send the temperature- and humidity-adjusting gas into the box or room, so that it automatically maintains a certain pressure. The pipeline can be used to direct the pressure gas to the cultivation bed to automatically supply air at a constant pressure. At the same time, each cultivation bed can also adjust the air supply through the control opening located outside the bed.
上述土壤栽培床还可以在地面挖坑或挖槽状长坑， 除外箱后， 将栽培床置地面 下土坑内进行调温调氧栽培。或者仅设调温设施控温栽培； 或者仅设供氧设施增氧栽 培， 该方法既适合地面保护地栽培， 也适用于露天栽培。
图 6是食用菌栽培箱示意图。a图是栽培箱横断面示意图，图中 601为栽培箱体。 602为箱檐。 603为代料培养基。 604为用培养基延箱料结合处压出的档水图， 作用 在于在培养基表面打孔补水时挡住补水不从箱、 料结合处渗漏下。 605为透明塑料盖 板。 606为盖板边缘， 其宽度小于箱檐。 607为设在盖板上的接种杯及塞于杯内的棉 塞。 608为盖板上的接种孔及贴于接种孔的胶布。 盖板的厚度以不易变形， 注射器针 头能穿透为度。接种杯和接种孔可任选一种，根据栽培品种可在盖板上纵横均匀设置。 盖板可以是图中所示的紧贴料面的凹形。也可以是平直形， 使盖板与料面之间形成一 空气层或紧贴料面。栽培方法是将培养料装箱后压实， 并用模具在表面压出四周挡水 圈。之后加盖盖板， 并在盖檐与箱檐搭接处用胶布密封， 最后在接种孔处加塞棉塞或 贴封胶布后即可进行灭菌。在接种后的培养过程中， 若发生病菌可用注射器穿透盖板 向病菌部位注药灭菌， 拨出针头后用透明胶帝封贴注射口。以香茹栽培为例举例说明 箱栽法。 假设香菇在出菇阶段于 10°C催蕾、 15°C出菇、 25 °C养菌的条件下其各阶段 所需时间比例为 1： 3 : 2。则将六个栽培面积相同的地下室組成一条流水循环生产线， 其中将一室调控成 10。C的催蕾室， 将三室调控成 15。C的出菇室， 将两室调控成 25 °C 的养菌室。 或者按整个生产线总栽培面积的 1/6、 1/2、 1/3分别调控成催蕾、 出菇、 养菌室。在菌料培养好并转色的栽培箱的料面上先盖一催蕾板。该板可以是木板、塑 料板或泡膜塑料板， 或者是将泡膜塑料板与塑料薄板合为一体， 板面纵横向均匀打有 透明通孔。相邻两孔中心之间的距离不小于孔径直径的两倍。板面长宽各小于箱内径 长宽， 其差值为大于孔径， 小于两孔径中心之间长度減去孔径长度之值。将催蕾板一 角紧靠栽培箱一角覆盖于料面后， 送 1(TC催蕾宣低温适光催蕾， 由于透孔处菌料马 上接受低温和光照刺激， 所以能促成菌蕾在透孔处先产生。 菌蕾生成、催菌完毕后再 将栽培箱送 15°C出菇室适温、 适光出菇栽培。 采菇后将培养基均匀打出细孔， 然后 将水份补充， 营养补充和 PH调节三者合一配成补充液后按量注入料面， 在挡水圈的 作用下， 补充液能均匀地顺细孔渗入培养基中。 补液后的栽培箱再送 25°C的养菌室 无光养菌。养菌完成前将催蕾板也送养菌室升温。养菌完成后将催蕾板的一角紧靠栽 培箱上次尚未相靠的另外三角中的任意一角 。然后再进入下一次的催蕾、出菇、补液、 养菌的循环流水栽培。上述栽培方法也可以不设催蕾室， 养菌完成后， 直接送出菇室 在温差、 光照和催蕾板的作用下先催蕾、后出菇栽培。 上述不同温度和不同光照的流 水生产模式也适用于植物栽培和动物饲养的应用。 The above-mentioned soil cultivation bed can also be dug in the ground or trench-shaped long pits. After removing the box, the cultivation bed can be placed in the soil pit under the ground for temperature and oxygen cultivation. Or only temperature-controlled facilities are used for temperature-controlled cultivation; or only oxygen-supply facilities are used for aerobic cultivation. This method is suitable for both ground-protected cultivation and open-air cultivation. Fig. 6 is a schematic diagram of an edible fungus cultivation box. Figure a is a schematic cross-sectional view of a cultivation box, and 601 in the figure is a cultivation box. 602 is a box eaves. 603 is a substitute medium. Reference numeral 604 is a water retaining map formed by pressing the medium at the junction of the box and the material. The function is to prevent the replenishment of water from leaking from the junction of the box and the material when the surface of the medium is perforated. 605 is a transparent plastic cover. 606 is the edge of the cover, and its width is smaller than the box eaves. 607 is an inoculation cup set on the cover plate and a tampon stuffed in the cup. 608 is the inoculation hole on the cover plate and the adhesive tape attached to the inoculation hole. The thickness of the cover plate is difficult to deform, and the syringe needle can penetrate to a degree. One of the inoculation cup and the inoculation hole can be selected. According to the cultivar, it can be uniformly arranged on the cover plate vertically and horizontally. The cover plate may have a concave shape which is close to the material surface as shown in the figure. It can also be straight, so that an air layer is formed between the cover plate and the material surface or close to the material surface. The cultivation method is to compact the culture material into a box, and then use a mold to press the surrounding water retaining ring on the surface. Then cover the cover and seal with adhesive tape at the overlap between the cover and the box eaves. Finally, add a tampon or seal tape to the inoculation hole to sterilize. In the culture process after inoculation, if a germ occurs, a syringe can be used to penetrate the cover to inject the medicine to the germ and sterilize it. After removing the needle, seal the injection port with transparent glue. Take Xiangru cultivation as an example to illustrate the box cultivation method. Assume that the ratio of the time required for each stage of the mushrooms at the mushrooming stage of 10 ° C, 15 ° C, and 25 ° C to grow bacteria is 1: 3: 2. Then, six basements with the same cultivated area are combined to form a circulating water production line, and one of them is regulated to 10. C's stimulating room, the three rooms are adjusted to 15. The mushroom chamber of C is adjusted to a 25 ° C bacteria culture chamber. Or according to 1/6, 1/2, and 1/3 of the total cultivation area of the entire production line, they can be adjusted into bud-producing, mushroom-producing and fungi-cultivation rooms, respectively. Cover the material surface of the cultivation box that has been cultured and transformed with fungus material, and firstly cover a budding board. The board may be a wooden board, a plastic board or a blister film plastic board, or a blister film plastic board and a plastic thin board are integrated into one, and the board surface is uniformly punched with transparent through holes in the vertical and horizontal directions. The distance between the centers of two adjacent holes is not less than twice the diameter of the holes. The length and width of the plate surface are each smaller than the length and width of the inner diameter of the box, and the difference is greater than the hole diameter and less than the length between the center of the two holes minus the hole length. After covering the corner of the cultivation board close to the corner of the cultivation box and covering the material surface, send 1 (TC to promote the low temperature and light to stimulate the bud, because the bacteria in the through hole immediately receive the low temperature and light stimulation, so it can promote the bacteria in the through hole. After the bacteria are generated and the bacteria are promoted, the cultivation box is sent to a 15 ° C mushroom room for proper temperature and light to grow. After the mushrooms are collected, the medium is evenly perforated, and then the water is supplemented and nourished. The three supplements and the pH adjustment are combined into a supplement solution and poured into the material surface according to the amount. Under the action of the water retaining ring, the supplement solution can evenly penetrate the pores through the pores. The cultivation box after the supplement is sent to 25 ° C. There is no light culture in the bacterial cultivation room. Before the bacterial cultivation is completed, the budding board is also sent to the bacterial growing room to warm up. After the bacterial cultivation is completed, one corner of the budding plate is close to any one of the other triangles that the cultivation box has not touched last time. And then enter the next cycle of cultivation of buds, mushrooms, rehydration, and bacterial cultivation. The above cultivation method can also be set without a budding room, and after the culturing is completed, it is sent directly to the mushroom room in the temperature difference, light, and budding board. Under the action, it first cultivates buds and then mushrooms are cultivated. With the light water production mode is also suitable for plant cultivation and animal feeding applications.
图 6中的 b图是专为观光农业园布景的栽培箱平面示意图。 图中 609为与 a图 中 602相同的箱檐。 610是与箱檐等高的凸出体。 凸出体之外则是 A字型的四状栽培 箱或栽培槽， 611是 A字型用于盛料的栽培槽。 盖板是小于箱檐外径， 大于箱壁内径 的三角状平直透明塑料薄板。 618是盖板檐搭接于箱檐处并用胶布密封。 盖板也可以 是 A字型凹状的。 612是盖板上的接种杯或接种孔。 上述凸凹相间的造型箱也适用于
其它字母， 汉字和非字状的其它任何平面造型的应用。其栽培方法与 a图所示的矩形 箱不同之处在于： 当栽培槽较窄时可不设挡水圈； 当栽培金针菇时， 箱槽需加深， 料 面与箱檐之间留有 5— 10厘米的挡菌槽。其它栽培方法与前述方法完全相同。 当 a图 或 b图所示的栽培箱栽培银耳时， 料面裝至箱檐， 平直盖板上设接种孔、贴胶布， 不 揭盖板直接出耳。 Figure b in Figure 6 is a schematic plan view of a cultivation box designed for the scenery of a tourist agricultural park. 609 in the figure is the same box eaves as 602 in a. 610 is a protrusion with the same height as the box eaves. Outside the protruding body is an A-shaped four-shaped cultivation box or cultivation tank, and 611 is an A-shaped cultivation tank for holding material. The cover plate is a triangle-shaped straight transparent plastic sheet smaller than the outer diameter of the box eaves and larger than the inner diameter of the box wall. 618 is that the cover eaves are overlapped on the box eaves and sealed with adhesive tape. The cover plate may be A-shaped concave. 612 is a seed cup or a seed hole on the cover. The above convex and concave modeling box is also suitable for Application of other letters, Chinese characters and non-character shapes. The cultivation method differs from the rectangular box shown in Figure a in that: when the cultivation groove is narrow, no water retaining ring may be provided; when the cultivation of Flammulina velutipes, the groove of the box needs to be deepened, leaving 5-10 between the material surface and the box eaves. Centimeter bacteriostatic slot. The other cultivation methods are exactly the same as the aforementioned methods. When the Tremella fuciformis is cultivated in the cultivation box shown in Fig. A or b, the material surface is mounted on the eaves of the box, the inoculation hole and adhesive tape are arranged on the flat cover plate, and the ear is directly exposed without removing the cover plate.
图 6中的 c图是立体造型栽培箱示意图。图中 613是箱檐。614是凸状箱底。 615 是培养基。 616是凸状盖板。 617是盖板檐。 该箱裝料时需做一与盖板造型相同的模 具， 并在其顶部开一裝料口。装料时将模具与箱檐夹住， 从顶部装料口向其内装料并 压实，最后将装料口处用弧状压板压成圆弧形，拆去模具加盖盖板即可进入灭菌阶段。 出菇后补液则需料面打孔后加盖盖板或模具于水中浸泡。栽培金针菇时亦需做一底部 与盖板造型相同的凸状放射型的挡菇栅栏板。 其它栽培方法与前述相同。 Figure c in Figure 6 is a schematic view of a three-dimensionally shaped cultivation box. 613 is the box eaves. 614 is a convex box bottom. 615 is the culture medium. 616 is a convex cover. 617 is a cover eave. When filling the box, a mold with the same shape as the cover plate needs to be made, and a charging port is opened at the top. During the charging process, the mold is clamped with the box eaves, and the material is loaded from the top loading port and compacted. Finally, the charging port is pressed into an arc shape with an arc-shaped platen, and the mold cover is removed to enter the Bacteria stage. After the mushrooms are refilled, you need to punch the surface and cover with a cover or mold to soak in water. When cultivating Flammulina velutipes, it is also necessary to make a mushroom radial fence plate with the same bottom shape as the cover plate. The other cultivation methods are the same as above.
食用菌栽培中的地下室功能和构造； 冷、 热能源的来源与前述植物栽培完全相 同。 生产过程中的换气、 除温、调温的方法与资源见后述。 利用前述冷热贮存， 四季 生产出各式各样的食用菌。将各种食用菌拼成不同颜色、 不同造型的景观， 是地下观 光农业的重要组成部分。 - 图 7中的 701是保温隔热管。 702是塑料外管。 703是塑料内管。 704是隔离内 外管的支柱。 705是塑料泡粒。该管的作用在于隔离内外冷热交换传输冷、热水或风。 其构造也可以不设支柱 704 , 将泡膜塑料直接制成管状， 并在泡膜塑料管上， 单独外 套或内套塑料或金属管， 或内外都套塑料或金属管都可达到保温目的。该管的用途之 一是传输高山上的冷空气。即自山顶至山底顺山坡在地面下挖出一条沟，在沟底砌出 一条通风遒， 也可用该管或用混凝土预制管、 陶瓷管等铺出一条通风道， 然后用土回 填沟。 在石质地段或跨越河流、 建筑等地下无法挖沟 的地段则用该管露天与两端地 下通风道连通。用同样的方法通将通风道从山底引至生产应用地。由于地下本身冬暖 夏凉， 该管又能隔热， 所以在应用地用抽风机从管道中可抽得高山冷空气用于热季降 温应用。其用途之二是将一条该保温管、 另一条导热性强的金属管并列， 并在一端连 通， 将连能端伸入江、 河、 湖、 海、 水库、 水井等深处， 热季将外界空气从金属管送 入， 从该管排出即可降温获得冷空气； 冬季又可如法获得热空气。 用途之三， 可用于 其它需保温隔热的场合。 The function and structure of the basement in the cultivation of edible fungi; the source of cold and heat energy is exactly the same as the aforementioned plant cultivation. The methods and resources of ventilation, temperature removal and temperature adjustment in the production process are described later. With the aforementioned cold and hot storage, various edible fungi are produced in the four seasons. Integrating various edible fungi into landscapes of different colors and shapes is an important part of underground light agriculture. -701 in Figure 7 is a heat insulation pipe. 702 is a plastic outer tube. 703 is a plastic inner tube. 704 is the pillar that separates the inner and outer pipes. 705 is a plastic foam particle. The role of this pipe is to isolate the cold and hot heat exchange between the inside and outside to transmit cold, hot water or wind. The structure can also be provided without pillars 704, and the bubble film plastic can be directly made into a tube, and on the bubble film plastic tube, a single outer sleeve or an inner sleeve plastic or metal pipe, or both inner and outer plastic or metal pipes can achieve the purpose of heat insulation. One use of this tube is to transport cold air over high mountains. That is, a trench is dug under the ground from the top of the mountain to the bottom of the mountain, and a ventilated trench is built at the bottom of the trench. You can also use this pipe or prefabricated concrete pipe, ceramic pipe, etc. to form a ventilation channel, and then fill the trench with soil. This pipe is used in open air to connect with underground ventilation ducts at both ends in stone areas or in areas where trenches cannot be dug underground, such as across rivers and buildings. Use the same method to lead the ventilation channel from the bottom of the mountain to the production and application site. Since the underground itself is warm in winter and cool in summer, the pipe can also be insulated, so the exhaust fan can be used to extract mountain cold air from the pipe for hot season cooling applications. The other purpose is to connect one insulation pipe and another metal pipe with strong thermal conductivity, and connect them at one end to extend the connecting end into the depth of river, river, lake, sea, reservoir, well, etc. Outside air is sent in from a metal pipe, and it can be cooled down to get cold air when discharged from the pipe; hot air can also be obtained in winter. The third purpose can be used for other occasions requiring heat insulation.
图 8中的 a图是自然水井天然冷、 热源开发应用示意图。 图中 801是水井。 802 是图 7所示的保温管或者是一般管。 803是金属管， 可以是直管， 也可以是图示的 S 状管。水井中冷源或热源的提取方法是将外界热空气或冷空气从金属管 802送入， 经 丼水换热后从通风管 802排出的空气即可得以降温或升温。将所获冷或热空气经前述 地下管道送至应用地可进行降温或升温。当向井中取冷或取热至水温高于当时的最低 气温或低于当时的最高气温时，还可将自然冷空气或热空气经该设施送入井内进行人
为的贮冷或贮热。也可在热季过后不需冷源时将当时的热空气通入井中向丼水及井壁 的土壤预贮热源。以使冬季能取得比自然井中更高更多的热源。在向丼中^热时既可 用白天的自然热空气为热源，也可用太阳能集热裝置所集的热空气、热水或其它热源 送入井中贮存。为使所贮热源不从井口散失， 可用桶状或帽状的塑料袋套在井口， 将 袋四周埋入井口周围的土中。如此既可阻止热气外散， 冷气侵入， 又可用桶状或帽状 袋緩沖并保持丼内常压。同样， 当冬季水中热源的大部分用尽时也可通入冷空气向水 及土中贮冷。为不使贮冷贮热相互影响，也可同一井只取、贮冷源， 或只取、贮热源。 804是设在金属管水中段内的另一管，作用在于可随意取出不同深度的冷或热源。805 是冷凝水积水箱，在箱内裝有抽水管可随时抽出冷凝水。 当丼深不宜抽出冷凝水， 或 不设置积水箱时， 在进出管的地面端用换热器将两管连通， 并将换热器置水箱内， 环 状管道上设通风设备， 用同一空气循环换冷，将冷源转贮进地上水箱后再于水箱内再 设另外的换热器换出冷源，如此可解决换冷时的冷凝水或冷凝霜的问题。但为解决循 环空气因温度升高而膨胀增压， 温度降低減压问题，在循环管道上再引出一细管， 细 管的另一端接一装有半袋空气的塑料、橡胶等软质袋， 以此平衡循环空气的压力。上 述解决冷凝水的方法，适应于以后所有水中换冷的设施中，在以后的叙述中不再重复。 Figure a in Figure 8 is a schematic diagram of the development and application of natural cold and heat sources in natural water wells. 801 in the figure is a water well. 802 is an insulation pipe or a general pipe shown in FIG. 7. 803 is a metal pipe, which may be a straight pipe or an S-shaped pipe as shown in the figure. The extraction method of the cold or heat source in the water well is to send hot or cold air from the outside into the metal pipe 802, and the air discharged from the ventilation pipe 802 can be cooled or warmed after being exchanged with water. The obtained cold or hot air is sent to the application site through the aforementioned underground pipeline for cooling or heating. When taking cold or hot water from the well until the water temperature is higher than the lowest temperature or lower than the highest temperature at the time, natural cold air or hot air can be sent into the well through the facility For cold storage or heat storage. It is also possible to pass hot air at that time into the well to pre-storage the water and soil on the wall of the well when the cold season does not require a cold source. In order to obtain higher and more heat sources in winter than in natural wells. During the heat treatment, the natural hot air in the daytime can be used as the heat source, or the hot air, hot water or other heat sources collected by the solar heat collecting device can be sent to the well for storage. In order to prevent the stored heat source from being lost from the wellhead, a barrel-shaped or cap-shaped plastic bag can be used to cover the wellhead, and the surroundings of the bag can be buried in the soil around the wellhead. In this way, it is possible to prevent the hot air from diffusing outside and the cold air to invade. It can also be buffered in a bucket or hat bag and maintain the normal pressure inside the cymbal. Similarly, when most of the heat source in the water is exhausted in winter, cold air can be passed into the water and soil to store cold. In order not to cause the cold storage and heat storage to affect each other, it is also possible to use only the cold storage source or the same well, or only the heat storage source. 804 is another pipe set in the water section of the metal pipe, which is used to take out cold or heat sources of different depths at will. 805 is a condensate water storage tank. A suction pipe is installed in the tank to extract condensate water at any time. When it is not suitable to draw out condensed water or set up a water storage tank, connect the two tubes with a heat exchanger at the ground end of the inlet and outlet pipes, and place the heat exchanger in the water tank. Ventilation equipment should be installed on the annular pipes. The air is circulated for cooling, and the cold source is transferred to the ground water tank, and then another heat exchanger is set in the water tank to exchange the cold source. This can solve the problem of condensed water or frost when changing the cold. However, in order to solve the problem that the circulating air expands and increases due to the temperature rise, and the temperature decreases and decompresses, a thin tube is led out of the circulating pipe, and the other end of the thin tube is connected to a soft bag containing half a bag of air such as plastic, rubber, etc. To balance the pressure of the circulating air. The above-mentioned method for resolving condensed water is suitable for all facilities that change water in the future, and will not be repeated in the following description.
图 8中的 b图是打于无水或低水位处的旱井， 图中 806是旱井。807是保温管或 一般管。 808是金属管。 809是接于金属管上的另一通管。 810是井口的散热、 集冷 池。 811是埋于池口的桶状塑料帽。该帽只在井内外需隔热时才设置， 池水需冷却时 则不设此帽。与天然井不同之处在于井中主要冷源或絷源并非来自地下渗出水， 即井 水。而是人为向旱井内灌水至井口的池底以上， 利用夜间气温下降时冷却池内水， 使 冷水自然下沉， 逐渐冷却逐渐下沉， 可将夜间的冷源自动贮存， 白天气温升高时可如 前述方法换出冷源应用。待到夜间时再行冷却贮冷。为使有限的水能贮存更多的冷能 ' 可向水内加盐并混合均匀， 因盐水在低温状态下比淡水的比热大， 因而可贮存更多的 冷源。在向旱丼灌水前还可将孔经与井孔相同的厚塑料袋先套于井壁， 袋口埋于池外 的土中， 如此可降低井壁防渗水建造标准。其它人为向井内贮冷或贮热； 池口加帽状 袋等与前述自然井的方法相同。为使旱丼口的散热集冷池 810更快散热集冷， 还可将 其建造于地面以上，将池体用金属制成更能提高导热性。上述所贮冷热源除生产应用 外， 室内安装换热器， 将冷水或热水经换热器转换， 冬天可取暖， 夏天可降温。或者 直接将室内空气送井内循环换热更为经济实用。上述旱井也可在高水位地区应用， 即 打出水丼后集中将大部分丼水抽出， 然后再放入如前述塑料长袋并加水， 直至将袋内 水引至井口上池内。 Figure b in Figure 8 is a dry well hit at dry or low water level. Figure 806 is a dry well. 807 is an insulated pipe or a general pipe. 808 is a metal tube. 809 is another through pipe connected to the metal pipe. 810 is a cooling and collecting pool at the wellhead. 811 is a barrel-shaped plastic cap buried in the mouth of the pond. This cap is only installed when the inside and outside of the well needs to be insulated, and it is not required when the pool water needs to be cooled. It differs from natural wells in that the main cold or radon source in the well does not come from underground seepage water, that is, well water. Instead, the water in the dry well is artificially irrigated above the bottom of the well, and the water in the pool is cooled when the temperature drops at night, so that the cold water sinks naturally, and gradually cools down, and the cold source at night can be automatically stored. When the temperature rises during the day Cold source applications can be swapped out as previously described. Wait until night before cooling. In order to allow more limited cold water to store more cold energy, salt can be added to the water and mixed evenly. Because brine has a higher specific heat than fresh water at low temperatures, it can store more cold sources. Before irrigating the dryland, the hole can be placed on the wall of the well through the same thick plastic bag as the well hole, and the mouth of the bag is buried in the soil outside the pond. This can reduce the construction standard of the well wall against seepage. Others store cold or heat in the well; the method of adding a hat-shaped bag at the mouth of the well is the same as that of the natural well. In order to make the heat sink pool 810 of the dry mouth faster heat sink and cool, it can also be built above the ground, and the pool body is made of metal to improve the thermal conductivity. In addition to the production and application of the cold and heat sources stored above, a heat exchanger is installed indoors to convert cold or hot water through the heat exchanger, which can be heated in winter and cooled in summer. Or it is more economical and practical to directly send indoor air to the well for circulating heat exchange. The above dry wells can also be applied in high water level areas, that is, after pumping out the leeches, most of the leeches are pumped out, and then put into the plastic long bag as described above and add water until the water in the bag is led to the wellhead pool.
图 9是利用地下水池贮存利用冷热资源的结构及应用示意图。 图中 901是建于 地下土中的地中水池。水池内装有淡水或盐水。 902是设在水也内的换热器或换盐管。 903是从池顶通出地面的通水管或道。 904是建在地面下的散热集冷池， 池底斜向中
心， 在最低处与通水道 903相通。上述即为地下贮存冷热的基本构造。其自然的贮存 与应用方法与图 8所示的旱井的方法相同。为使地面散热集冷池 904能在夜间更有效 地散出热能吸收冷能， 可将其建造于地面以上， 使其悬空四周散热。 905虑线所示即 为悬空建池时的地面线。 911是支柱。 为使缺水地区減少水蒸发， 可用导热性强的金 属桶或其它具有换热器功能的金属組管等散热集冷。图中 906虑线所示即是该选择时 的金属管。 907则是金属桶。 当冬季向池内水中及池壁土中贮冷时， 既可用盐水液态 贮冷， 也可用淡水或盐水结冰贮存更多的冷能。 当以冰状贮冷时， 可通过向换热器 902送冷风或冷盐水贮冷。 当地上水池 904结冰后再向地下水池 901换热结冰时， 为 降低因水结冰体积膨胀的压力， 可在附近配套建一旱井 908。 909是连通旱井与地下 水池的排水管。 910是旱井上的散热池。 当冬季地上池自然结冰时可在冰上打孔排水 減压。 当地下池贮冷冰层加厚， 打孔排水困难时可将旱井内水位降低自比地下池 901 或通水道 903稍高的液态状水位，继续向地下池换热结冰直到将池内水全部冻结。保 持旱井不结冰或上部结冰后打孔排水減压即可解决地下池因结冰增压的问题。除上述 方法外还可象露天自来水管一样于地下挖坑，将通水管 909引入坑内设开关或压力阀 自动排水。换出冷源应用时丼或坑内保持高水位以补充地下池 901 ,使其长期处在水、 冰相接触状态。 Fig. 9 is a schematic diagram of the structure and application of the use of groundwater pools to store and use cold and heat resources. In the picture, 901 is an underground pool built in underground soil. The pool is filled with fresh or salt water. 902 is a heat exchanger or a salt exchange tube provided in the water. 903 is a water pipe or channel leading from the top of the pool to the ground. 904 is a heat collecting and cooling pool built under the ground, the bottom of the pool is inclined diagonally Heart, communicates with waterway 903 at the lowest point. The above is the basic structure for cold and hot storage underground. The natural storage and application method is the same as the dry well method shown in FIG. 8. In order to make the ground heat sink pool 904 more efficiently dissipate thermal energy at night to absorb cold energy, it can be built above the ground to allow it to hang around to dissipate heat. The line 905 shows the ground line when the pool is suspended. 911 is the backbone. In order to reduce water evaporation in water-scarce areas, heat can be collected and collected by using metal buckets with strong thermal conductivity or other metal group pipes with heat exchanger functions. The line 906 in the figure shows the metal pipe in this selection. 907 is a metal bucket. When storing cold water in the water in the pond and the soil of the wall in winter, both cold liquid storage can be used to store cold water, and fresh water or salt water can be used to store more cold energy. When storing cold in ice, cold air or cold brine can be sent to the heat exchanger 902 to store cold. When the local upper pond 904 freezes and then heats and freezes to the groundwater pond 901, in order to reduce the pressure of the volume expansion due to the freezing of water, a dry well 908 can be built nearby. 909 is a drain pipe connecting the dry well to the groundwater tank. 910 is a heat sink on a dry well. When the aboveground pool freezes naturally in winter, it can be perforated on the ice for drainage and decompression. The cold ice layer in the local lower pond is thickened. When drilling and drainage is difficult, the water level in the dry well can be lowered to a liquid level slightly higher than the underground pond 901 or the water channel 903, and the heat transfer to the underground pond will be frozen until the water in the pond is completely frozen. . Keeping the dry well free of ice or punching drainage and decompression after the upper part of the ice can solve the problem of the underground pool being pressurized due to icing. In addition to the above methods, it is also possible to dig underground pits like an open-air water pipe, and introduce a water pipe 909 into the pit to set a switch or pressure valve for automatic drainage. When replacing the cold source, keep the water level high in the concrete pit or pit to supplement the underground pool 901 and keep it in contact with water and ice for a long time.
利用地中保温隔热特性建池贮存冷热的方法除上述方法外， 还可将池建于地下 深处， 池顶以上不设水池而厚土覆盖。 通过设在池水中的换热器人为贮进、 换出冷、 热， 如夜间送冷风贮存自然冷源或用低谷电制冷贮冷， 白天取出冷源应用； 或白天送 自然热风或其它热源贮热，夜间或短期内取出应用；或冬季长期贮冷，夏季长期贮热。 池内水压变化亦可用管引出地面得以平衡。也可在山内建洞， 洞口厚土回填， 洞内注 水设换热器如上述方法贮冷贮热。 In addition to the above-mentioned method, the method of building a pool to store cold and heat by utilizing the characteristics of heat insulation in the ground can also be used to build the pool deep underground. There is no pond above the top of the pool and it is covered with thick soil. The heat exchanger set in the pool water is used to artificially store in and exchange out cold and heat, such as sending cold air at night to store natural cold sources or using trough electricity to cool and store cold, and taking out the cold source during the day; or sending natural hot air or other heat sources to store during the day. Heat, take out at night or in a short period of time; or long-term cold storage in winter, long-term heat storage in summer. Water pressure changes in the pool can also be balanced out by drawing pipes out of the ground. It is also possible to build a cave in the mountain, backfill the cave with thick soil, and inject water into the cave to set a heat exchanger as described above to store cold and heat.
还可将地下池建成池口露天的一般水池。 池内也设一組或多組换热器。在露天 水池自然或强制贮存冷或热时， 为了減少热源的散出或侵入， 可做一平面尺寸稍大于 池面的双层网，在网面均匀用绳将两网之间的距离控制在设计所需的等距状态， 然后 将粒经大于网孔的泡膜塑料粒装入网内，封口后置于池面水中， 泡膜塑料粒在水中可 自动均匀分布， 可起到隔热作用。 当不需隔离水与外界冷热时， 将网拉至池外。池面 大时可用绳索于池四同拴住网，池面更小时可将泡膜塑料粒裝在一个比池面更大的网 袋或塑料袋内直接投入池面， 同样泡粒可自动均匀覆盖池面。该方法最适用于前述旱 井及浅水池 904应用。降低池或丼内水位，加厚泡粒的覆盖厚度可用于贮存与自然温 度温差更大的冷能或热能， 如低谷电转换成冷源或热源的贮存利用。 The underground pool can also be built into a general pool with an open pond. There are also one or more sets of heat exchangers in the pool. When the open-air pool naturally or forcibly stores cold or heat, in order to reduce the dissipation or invasion of the heat source, a double-layer net with a plane size slightly larger than the pool surface can be made, and the distance between the two nets is controlled by a rope on the net Design the required isometric state, and then put the granules into the net through the foamed plastic granules larger than the mesh, and place them in the pool water after sealing. The foamed plastic granules can be automatically and uniformly distributed in the water, which can serve as heat insulation. . When it is not necessary to isolate the water from the hot and cold outside, pull the net outside the pool. When the pool surface is large, you can use a rope to tie the net to the pool. When the pool surface is smaller, you can put the plastic foam film in a larger net bag or plastic bag than the pool surface and directly put it into the pool surface. Cover the pool surface. This method is most suitable for the aforementioned dry well and shallow pool 904 applications. Reduce the water level in the pond or hoe, and the thickness of the thick foam particles can be used to store cold or heat energy that has a larger temperature difference from the natural temperature, such as the storage and utilization of low valley electricity converted into cold or heat sources.
另一方法是在池面覆盖一双层塑料膜， 两膜之间也用塑料膜粘接成同双层网一 样的扁平等距状态， 双层塑料膜的两端各设通孔， 膜四周固定于池面外四周， 使池内 外不通气。 当池内需与外界隔热时， 用风机或其它机械将泡膜塑料粒送入或吸入双层
塑料膜内， 使其均匀布于水面上， 既隔热也隔气。 当无需隔热时再将泡粒排出， 排出 泡粒后还可进行太阳能集热；也可将双层塑料膜不固定于池面外，而是直接投入水中； 或也用绳索简单拉固防其风吹移动；还可将裝有泡粒的塑膜同日光温室卷草帘一样一 边固定， 另一边用绳拉动于水面上将其卷起， 双向设绳， 当池面需隔热时， 从固定边 的对面用绳拉又可将其重新覆盖于水面， 池面大时可分块覆盖。还可以将水面露天的 池或丼的水位降低， 使水面与地南距离不小于需保温的泡粒厚， 然后将泡粒直接投入 水面并裝至与地面平， 最后在池或井面用网或塑料膜或防水而将泡粒覆盖并固定。池 或丼内若满贮冰时， 为使快速贮冷， 还可在池外建散热浅水池， 用盐水向池内换热器 贮冷， 浅水池散热。或者将池或丼内水部分或全部排出， 从底部或中部逐层注水通冷 风， 夜间结冰， 白天如上述隔热。平衡池内水压的方法与前述方法相同。当池面较大， 泡膜塑料不裝入双层网或双层塑料膜中时也可用泡膜塑料板直接覆盖于水面，或者泡 膜塑料板与粒混合而用。 当池内长期贮存冬季冷能时，在池上方的壁外墙与土之间还 可再设一层泡膜塑料； 或者在池面四周的地面下埋一层泡膜塑料隔热保冷。 Another method is to cover a double-layer plastic film on the surface of the pool. The two films are also bonded with a plastic film in the same flat and equidistant state as the double-layer net. Two ends of the double-layer plastic film are provided with through holes. It is fixed around the outside of the pool surface, so that the inside and outside of the pool are not ventilated. When the pool needs to be insulated from the outside, use a fan or other machinery to feed or suck the plastic film pellets into the double layer Inside the plastic film, it is evenly distributed on the water surface, which is both heat insulation and gas barrier. When the insulation is not needed, the foam particles are discharged, and the solar heat collection can be performed after the foam particles are discharged. The double-layer plastic film can not be fixed outside the pool surface, but can be directly put into the water; The wind blows and moves; the plastic film with foam particles can also be fixed on the same side as a solar greenhouse roll grass curtain, and the other side is pulled by a rope on the water surface to be rolled up. A rope is set in both directions. When the pool surface needs to be insulated, Pull it from the opposite side of the fixed side to cover the water surface again. When the pool surface is large, it can be covered in blocks. You can also lower the water level of the open-air pond or sampan so that the distance between the water surface and the ground is not less than the thickness of the foam particles that need to be kept warm. Then, the foam particles are directly poured into the water surface and installed to be level with the ground. Or plastic film or waterproof to cover and fix the foam particles. If the pool or rafter is full of ice, in order to quickly store cold, you can also build a shallow heat sink outside the pool, use salt water to store heat in the pool heat exchanger, and the shallow pool to dissipate heat. Alternatively, the water in the pond or rafter can be partially or completely discharged, and water can be poured from the bottom or the middle layer to pass the cold wind layer by layer. It freezes at night and heat-insulates during the day as described above. The method of balancing the water pressure in the tank is the same as the previous method. When the surface of the pool is large, the foam film plastic can be directly covered on the water surface when the foam film plastic is not loaded into the double-layer net or the double-layer plastic film, or the foam film plastic plate is mixed with the pellets and used. When the winter cold energy is stored in the pool for a long time, a layer of foam plastic can be set between the wall and the outer wall above the pool and the soil; or a layer of foam plastic is buried under the ground around the pool surface to keep it cold.
利用地下水池和水井以电源、 特别是低谷电源为能源进行冷或热能的贮存时， 既可在前述水池和水丼中贮存，更适合将水池或水井建于地下深处，池口或井口密封， 顶上厚土覆盖。池或丼内也设换热器或换热管。在池或井底部设电热原件， 接上电源 线并引出地面。还可在池内增设探温器， 并将探温器导线也引出地面与自动控制器相 接通。地上接通电源即可向池水或井水自动贮热。 同样也可在地上设置制冷设备 将 其蒸发器引入地下水池或水井的上部，或上下均布。在制冷设备与水池或水井之间段， 将连通蒸发器的管道外设隔热保温层。 在水池或水井内也设探温器并引入制冷设备 中。接通电源同样可自动贮冷。还可将制冷设备的蒸发器和冷凝器分别引入隔土的两 个池或井中， 在设有蒸发器的贮冷池或井中设探温器， 泠凝器还可前段设水中， 后段 裸露空气中。 接通电源制冷贮冷的同时， 也可在设有冷凝器的水中贮热， 一举两得。 为在有限的容积内贮存更多的冷能或热能，可在贮热池或井中的水中再增设高熔点的 相变材料介质， 即如前述 "冷热转换装置" 中的设置一样， 将相变材料装入塑料管或 袋内， 直接置水中， 或设架分层置架上， 或置框内叠放均可。在贮冷池或井内， 当贮 存 o °c左右的冷源时可用盐水， 当需结冰贮存更多更冷的冷源时盐水淡水均可。 解决 因结冰或水温变化水压增加的问题， 既可用前述方法， 也可在池或丼内设一根或两根 管并引出地面，在一根管上正向安裝排气压力与设计压力相府的压力阀， 即当水中正 压接近设计压力时， 压力阀自动开启排气或排水減压；在另一根管上还可反向安裝与 设计负压相府的压力阀， 即当水中负压接近设计负压时， 阔门自动打开吸气增压。 当 水中结冰排水时， 装有压力阀的管需从池或井底部隔土引出地面。水池或水井顶部与 地面之间的土中还可设一层泡膜塑料隔热层。上述水中设电热元件、蒸发器、冷凝器、 相变材料或带阀排气或排水管的设施和方法也适用于前述自然丼、旱井、地中水池和
露天水池的应用。 When using underground water tanks and wells to store cold or heat energy with power sources, especially trough power sources, they can be stored in the aforementioned pools and leeches, which is more suitable for building pools or wells deep underground and sealing the mouths or wellheads. Thick soil cover on top. Heat exchangers or heat exchange tubes are also provided in the pool or rafter. An electric heating element is set at the bottom of the pool or well, and the power cord is connected and led out of the ground. It is also possible to add a temperature detector in the pool, and lead the temperature detector wire out of the ground to connect with the automatic controller. When the power is connected to the ground, the pool or well water can automatically store heat. It is also possible to set refrigeration equipment on the ground to introduce its evaporator into the upper part of the groundwater tank or water well, or evenly distribute it up and down. In the section between the refrigeration equipment and the pool or water well, the pipelines connected to the evaporator are insulated and insulated. A temperature detector is also set in the pool or water well and introduced into the refrigeration equipment. The same can be done automatically when the power is turned on. The evaporator and condenser of the refrigeration equipment can also be introduced into two separate ponds or wells separated by soil, a temperature detector can be set in the cold storage tank or well provided with the evaporator, and the condenser can be provided with water in the front section and the rear section exposed. in the air. At the same time that the power is turned on for refrigeration and storage, heat can also be stored in water with a condenser, which serves two purposes. In order to store more cold or heat energy in a limited volume, a high-melting phase change material medium can be added to the water in the heat storage tank or well, that is, as set in the "cold-heat conversion device", the phase Change the material into a plastic tube or bag, place it directly in the water, or set it on a layered rack, or stack it in a frame. In cold storage tanks or wells, brine can be used when storing cold sources around o ° C, and fresh water can be used when freezing is needed to store more colder cold sources. To solve the problem of increased water pressure due to icing or water temperature changes, you can use the method described above, or you can set one or two pipes in the pool or sampan and lead out of the ground, and install the exhaust pressure and design pressure on one pipe in the forward direction. The pressure valve of Xiangfu, that is, when the positive pressure in the water is close to the design pressure, the pressure valve automatically opens the exhaust or drains and reduces the pressure; on another pipe, a pressure valve that is opposite to the designed negative pressure can also be installed. When the negative pressure in the water is close to the design negative pressure, the wide door automatically opens to inhale and pressurize. When the water freezes and drains, the pipe equipped with a pressure valve needs to be led out of the ground from the bottom of the pond or well. A layer of foamed plastic thermal insulation layer can also be set in the soil between the top of the pool or well and the ground. The above-mentioned facilities and methods provided with electric heating elements, evaporators, condensers, phase change materials, or exhaust or drain pipes with valves are also applicable to the aforementioned natural radon, dry wells, underground pools and Application of open-air pool.
另一冷热贮存方法是从山体的侧面横向向山体内挖出长洞， 将洞内用混凝土浇 注并依洞做成水池。在水池及洞的上方垂直或斜向上打出通出山体外的一条或多条通 孔或通洞，在通孔或通洞的地面口处再建散热集冷水池或水桶。山内水池内设置换热 器或换热管， 还可根据需要选择设置电热元件或制冷蒸发器、探温器。或者电热元件 和蒸发器同时都设， 应用时选择。 水池内也可设前述的排水管、控压自动阀或如图 9 所示的配套旱井 910及排水管 909等。在水池或通出山体的通孔或通道内还可设一层 与其结抅尺寸相同的， 用较厚塑料膜制成的隔水袋，将塑料袋覆于壁上可大大降低防 渗漏建筑标准，特别是在土山中打出的小孔径通孔或通洞内， 甚至仅覆以塑料袋就可 向袋内裝水传导冷热。通孔或通道内也可以套塑料管或金属管等通管， 既加固也防漏 水。将池内管道、 电源线或探温器导线等引出山外后洞口厚土回瑱。 向水池、 通孔、 通道及散热集冷池内注入淡水或盐水。在散热集冷池也设置前述泡膜塑料保温设施， 如前述调整散热集冷池或桶的水位，即可如前述方法，贮存、取出自然或再生冷热源。 Another hot and cold storage method is to dig a long hole from the side of the mountain into the mountain laterally, pour the inside of the hole with concrete and make a pool by the hole. One or more through-holes or through-holes leading out of the mountain are punched vertically or obliquely above the pools and holes, and a heat sink or bucket is constructed at the ground opening of the through-holes or through-holes. A heat exchanger or a heat exchange tube is set in the mountain pool, and an electric heating element, a refrigeration evaporator, and a temperature detector can also be set as required. Or both the heating element and the evaporator are set at the same time. The aforementioned drainage pipe, pressure-controlled automatic valve, or matching dry well 910 and drainage pipe 909 as shown in FIG. 9 may also be provided in the pool. A water-proof bag made of a thicker plastic film with the same size as the knots can be set in the pool or through hole or channel leading out of the mountain. Covering the plastic bag on the wall can greatly reduce the leakage-proof building Standards, especially in small-diameter through-holes or through-holes made in dirt mountains, can even be filled with plastic bags to conduct heat and cold into the bags. Through holes or channels can also be covered with plastic or metal pipes, which are both reinforced and leak-proof. Lead back to the thick soil at the entrance of the tunnel after piping the pipeline, power line, or thermometer wire out of the mountain. Inject fresh water or salt water into the pool, through-holes, channels and heat sinks. The aforementioned bubble film plastic thermal insulation facility is also installed in the heat sink and cooling pool, and the water level of the heat sink and bucket can be adjusted as described above, and the natural or regenerative cold and heat sources can be stored and taken out as described above.
为使自然热源或温度更低的自然冷源能自动贮存， 可将山内水池建在高出山体 最低处的山体内，在低于水池底部的山坡或山下设置太阳能集热器，将集热器底部的 通水管与山内水池的底部接通；将集热器顶部的通水管与山内水池的顶部或顶部以上 的通水孔、洞相接通， 顶部散热地高度覆盖保温， 如此即可利用热水上浮、冷水下沉 的原理自动向山内水池贮热。同样，在低于水池底部的背阴山坡或山脚处设置密封棵 露的散热集冷水箱或多条金属管并联为一体的密封状散热集冷器，从山内水池底设较 粗的通水管与其相通， 并在通水管上设阀门， 在散热集冷箱或器上再设排水开关， 如 此即可进行自动集冷。即当冬季由设在水池上方的散热集冷水池将山中水池中的水集 冷至 4°C以下， 所集冷水不能下移时， 可开启设在山中水池以下的散热集冷器或水箱 的通水阀门， 使 4°C左右的水注入其内， 在夜间低温时使箱或器内水进行散热集冷， 所集低于 4°C的冷水与山中水池中相对热的水形成自动循环， 当白天气温升高， 水箱 内水温将升至 4°C以上时， 可关闭阀门阻止水流通， 或在水箱上覆盖保温隔热材料阻 止水箱吸热， 晚上时再重复集冷， 直至将山内水池及水池以上通洞或通孔内的水从上 至下逐层冻结。在山内水冻结时排水減压的方法与前述方法相同。上述贮冷方法也可 用盐水液态贮冷，利用盐水液态贮冷更有利于池上部通水道或通水孔向四周土壤或岩 石内贮存冷能。为使更快地集热或集冷， 可设置多个上述集热或集冷裝置， 集热与集 冷既可在不同水池内单独进行，也可同一水池 '内设置集热和集冷两种裝置，依需要任 意选择。 In order to allow the natural heat source or the colder source of colder temperature to be stored automatically, the mountain pool can be built in the mountain above the lowest point of the mountain, and a solar heat collector can be installed on the slope or below the bottom of the pool to heat the collector. The water pipe at the bottom is connected to the bottom of the mountain pool; the water pipe at the top of the collector is connected to the water hole or hole at the top of the mountain pool or above, and the top heat radiation cover covers the heat insulation, so that the heat can be used. The principle of floating on water and sinking in cold water automatically stores heat in the mountain pool. Similarly, a sealed heat sink or a plurality of metal pipes connected in parallel to form an integrated sealed heat sink is installed on a shady hillside or at the foot of the mountain below the bottom of the pool, and a thicker water pipe is connected to the bottom of the pool to communicate with In addition, a valve is set on the water pipe, and a drain switch is set on the cooling and collecting box or device, so that automatic cooling can be performed. That is, in the winter, the water in the mountain pool is cooled to below 4 ° C by the cooling and collecting pool located above the pool. When the collected cold water cannot be moved down, the radiator or water tank located below the mountain pool can be opened. The water-passing valve allows water at about 4 ° C to be injected into it, and allows the water in the tank or container to be radiated and collected at low temperatures at night. The cold water collected below 4 ° C and the relatively hot water in the mountain pool form an automatic circulation. When the temperature rises during the day and the water temperature in the water tank will rise above 4 ° C, you can close the valve to prevent water circulation, or cover the water tank with thermal insulation material to prevent the water tank from absorbing heat. Repeat the cold collection at night until the The water in the mountain pool and the through holes or through holes above the pool are frozen layer by layer from top to bottom. The method of dewatering and decompressing when mountain water is frozen is the same as the previous method. The above-mentioned cold storage method can also use brine liquid for cold storage. The use of brine liquid for cold storage is more conducive to the passage of water in the upper part of the pool or through holes to store cold energy in the surrounding soil or rocks. In order to collect heat or cool more quickly, multiple heat collection or cooling devices can be set up. The heat collection and cooling can be performed separately in different pools, or both heat collection and cooling can be set in the same pool. Any device can be selected arbitrarily as required.
图 10是高于地面的悬河河床下土壤中所储自然冷热源开发利用的示意图。图中 1001是河槽下土壤。 1002是河提。 1003是河水及河床。 1004是顺河流方向挖出的渗 水孔。可以是在枯水季节从河床下挖而建， 也可以用无开挖地下打孔技术从地面向下
打出。 当挖土筑道时可用卵石或块石垒成， 道中心处用较大的卵石， 外围逐渐用中、 小卵石、砾石、砂筑成， 以防泥土渗入堵塞通道。 当机械打出可不设任何材料； 也可 用管壁打有小孔的管送入做支撑；还可以抽干孔内水、用风机送入泡膜塑料粒满塞孔 内以防壁土下掉堵孔。 1005是连通纵向孔的横向孔道。 不论纵向还是横向孔， 均需 有坡度以利排水。 1006是建造于堤外地下的蓄水池。 1007是设在池内的换热器。 当 河内水或地下水经渗水孔渗出流入蓄水池时自然地将地下冷热能源带出，经池内换热 器换热， 夏天可获得冷源， 而冬天则可获得热源。换冷或换热后的池内水排出再行蓄 水。也可将池中排水管关闭使成密封状， 用水泵将池内抽成真空负压， 强制向渗水孔 四周吸水。 当渗水孔高于地面时， 也可将蓄水池建造于堤外的地面上， 有利于自动排 水。 图中 1008即是建于堤外地面上的蓄水池。 1009是连通堤内外的引水管。 1010是 池四周覆土， 作用是隔热保温。 渗水孔也可建于地面以下， 1011即是建于地面以下 的纵横渗水孔。 1012是排水管。 可将管引至低于蓄水池的地方排出地下， 也可用抽 水机抽出。 1013是地上蓄水池排水管， 在排水管设开关， 可控制地下水渗出。 Fig. 10 is a schematic diagram of the development and utilization of natural cold and heat sources stored in the soil under the suspended river bed above the ground. 1001 in the picture is the soil under the river. 1002 is Heti. 1003 is river water and river bed. 1004 is a seepage hole dug down the river. It can be constructed by digging from the river bed during the dry season, or it can be lowered from the ground by using underground excavation technology without excavation. Hit. When excavating soil to build a road, it can be made of pebble or block rock, the center of the road is made of larger pebbles, and the periphery is gradually made of medium, small pebbles, gravel, and sand to prevent soil from infiltrating the channel. When the machine is driven, no material is required; it can also be piped with a small hole punched in the pipe wall to support it; the water in the hole can be drained and the fan can be used to fill the plastic hole filled with plastic film to prevent the hole from falling down . 1005 is a transverse channel that communicates with the longitudinal holes. Both vertical and horizontal holes need slopes to facilitate drainage. 1006 is a cistern built underground outside the embankment. 1007 is a heat exchanger installed in the pool. When the river water or groundwater seeps into the reservoir through the seepage holes, the underground hot and cold energy is naturally taken out, and heat is transferred through the heat exchanger in the pool to obtain a cold source in summer and a heat source in winter. The water in the pool after cooling or heat exchange is discharged and then stored. The drainage pipe in the pool can also be closed to form a sealed shape, and the inside of the pool can be evacuated to a negative pressure with a water pump to forcibly absorb water around the seepage hole. When the seepage hole is higher than the ground, the reservoir can also be built on the ground outside the dyke, which is conducive to automatic drainage. 1008 in the picture is a reservoir built on the ground outside the embankment. 1009 is a water diversion pipe connecting the inside and outside of the dyke. 1010 is covered with soil around the pool for thermal insulation. The seepage hole can also be built below the ground, 1011 is the vertical and horizontal seepage hole built below the ground. 1012 is a drainage pipe. The pipe can be led below the reservoir and drained underground, or it can be pumped out by a pump. 1013 is the drainage pipe of the above ground reservoir. A switch is installed in the drainage pipe to control groundwater seepage.
图 11是平地下的地下冷热源开发利用示意图。图 a中 1101是地面。1102、1103、 1104和 1105分别是与图 10中 全相同的渗水 "^、 蓄水池、换热器和连通多条渗水 孔的横向连通孔。 1106是从蓄水池通向河道的自动排水管， 在该管上设有开关控制 排水。 1107是河水。 1108是河槽。 该设施的冷、 热源的收集、提取的原理和方法与 图 10所示的完全相同。 区别在于该设施的适用范围更广、 特别适宜在高水位地区及 稻田下应用。在枯水季节将池中水抽出浇地还可循环应用水资源。图 b是将渗水孔和 蓄水池建于河流与地面之间高差小或需获取地下更深处冷热源的应用。 图中 1109是 通向河流的带阀排水管。 1110是强制抽水管。 c图是附近无排水河溪的平地、 凹地、 沼泽地、稻田等地下冷热开发利用的另一实施例。 与上述 a、 b图所示的不同之处在 于没有向河流排水的排水管。 池内仅设换热器， 抽水管 1111和散热管 1112。 d图是 利用强制抽出蓄水池内水于地成进行循环贮存或提取冷热的示意图。 1113是田埂。 111 是两田埂之间的地下土。 贮冷的方法是在冬季地冻以前将蓄水池内水或其它水 源抽至地上两田埂之间的田内， 使散热吸冷的水自然下渗或池内负压吸渗再反回池 内， 循环抽水、 渗水， 并使渗水孔 1106和 1102与地上存水面上下对应。 如此可在 1115所示的范围内贮的比自然贮存更低的冷源。 冷源的取出及热源的贮进和取出方 法与之相同。 该方法也适宜于鱼池底的地下实施。 Figure 11 shows the development and utilization of underground cold and heat sources in flat ground. In figure a, 1101 is the ground. 1102, 1103, 1104, and 1105 are the same water seepages as in Fig. 10, the reservoir, the heat exchanger, and the lateral communication holes connecting multiple water seepage holes. 1106 is the automatic drainage from the reservoir to the river. A pipe is provided with a switch to control drainage. 1107 is river water. 1108 is a river trough. The principle and method of collecting and extracting cold and heat sources at this facility are exactly the same as those shown in Figure 10. The difference lies in the scope of application of the facility Wider, especially suitable for high water level areas and paddy fields. Pumping out water from the pond in dry seasons can also recycle water resources. Figure b is the construction of seepage holes and reservoirs between the river and the ground The difference is small or the application needs to obtain a deeper underground cold and heat source. In the figure, 1109 is a valved drainage pipe leading to the river. 1110 is a forced suction pipe. C Picture is the flat, concave, marshland, paddy field of the nearby undrained river. Another embodiment for the development and utilization of underground heating and cooling. The difference from the a and b above is that there is no drainage pipe that drains to the river. There are only heat exchangers in the pond, and the suction pipe 1111 and the heat dissipation pipe 1112. Figure d Is good Schematic diagram of forced extraction of water from the reservoir to the ground for cyclic storage or extraction of cold and heat. 1113 is the field salamander. 111 is the underground soil between the two field salamanders. The method of cold storage is to put water in the reservoir or other water before the ground freezing in winter. The water source is pumped to the field between the two field rafters on the ground, so that the heat absorbing and cooling water naturally infiltrates or the negative pressure in the pool is sucked back into the pool, and the water is circulated for pumping and seepage, and the seepage holes 1106 and 1102 correspond to the water stored on the ground. In this way, the cold source that can be stored in the range shown by 1115 is lower than the natural storage. The method of taking out the cold source and storing and taking out the heat source are the same. This method is also suitable for underground implementation at the bottom of the fish pond.
图 12是海、湖、江、河、水库、水池等水中冷热源开发利用的示意图。图中 1201 是水面及水。 1202是金属换热管， 可以是直通管或纵向 S状。 1203是保温管。 同前 述井下设置一样， 可以在金属换热管的不同部位设置多条保温管 （1210) 以用于选择 不同深度水中的不同冷、 热源。 1204是通风设备。 用通风设备从 1202送入热空气即 可从 1203的出口提到降温后的冷空气； 从 1202管抽空气则可换出热源。 1205是冷
凝水积水箱， 水箱内设有抽水管或潜水泵， 当有积水时可用抽水设备抽出。 当落差大 不易抽出或不该积水箱时， 再于岸上设水箱 1206 , 水箱内设换热器 1207将进风管与 出风管联通， 由风管或出风管处再设调气袋 1208。 水箱内再设换热器 1209即可固定 空气循环换冷或换热， 可避免冷凝水的产生。上述水中冷、热源亦可用一般水管或保 温水管和抽水机将冷水或热水抽至水池 1206中， 再由换热器用空气将冷源或热源换 出； 保温输送应用地； 或直接将冷水或热水保温输送应用地。 Figure 12 is a schematic diagram of the development and utilization of cold and heat sources in the sea, lakes, rivers, rivers, reservoirs, and ponds. In the picture, 1201 is the water surface and water. 1202 is a metal heat exchange tube, which may be a straight tube or a longitudinal S-shape. 1203 is an insulation tube. As with the aforementioned downhole setting, multiple insulation tubes (1210) can be set at different locations of the metal heat exchange tube to select different cold and heat sources in different depths of water. 1204 is a ventilator. Use a ventilating device to send hot air from 1202 to mention the cooled cold air from the outlet of 1203; draw air from the 1202 pipe to exchange the heat source. 1205 is cold Condensate water storage tank. There is a suction pipe or submersible pump in the water tank. When there is water accumulation, it can be pumped out by pumping equipment. When the drop is not easy to pull out or the water storage tank should not be pulled out, a water tank 1206 is set up on the shore, and a heat exchanger 1207 is installed in the water tank to connect the air inlet pipe and the air outlet pipe, and an air bag is installed at the air pipe or the air outlet pipe. 1208. An additional heat exchanger 1209 in the water tank can fix the air circulation for cooling or heat exchange, and avoid the generation of condensed water. The above-mentioned cold and heat sources in the water can also be pumped with cold water or hot water into the pool 1206 by general water pipes or heat preservation pipes and pumps, and then the cold or heat sources can be replaced by air through the heat exchanger. Application site of water insulation transportation.
图 13是河床下的地下冷热源开发利用示意图。 a图是纵剖面示意图。 b图是横 剖面图。图中 1301是河床。1302是河床下隔土渗水孔。1303是渗水孔下端的集水池。 1304是集水池内的换热器。 1305是连通集水池与河道的排水管， 管上设有控制排水 的开关。 其地下冷热贮存、 提取的原理和方法与前述图 10 .所示的相同。 Figure 13 shows the development and utilization of underground cold and heat sources under the river bed. Figure a is a schematic longitudinal section. Figure b is a cross-sectional view. 1301 in the picture is the river bed. 1302 is a soil seepage hole under the river bed. 1303 is a sump at the lower end of the seepage hole. 1304 is a heat exchanger in a sump. 1305 is a drainage pipe connecting the catchment pool and the river, and the pipe is provided with a switch for controlling drainage. The principle and method of underground hot and cold storage and extraction are the same as those shown in Figure 10.
以上水中提取冷、 热源的方法既可以如前述以空气为介质换出应用； 也可以用 保温管将水直接抽出应用。既可以就地应用； 也可以于地下建通道或管遒， 利用地下 冬暖夏凉的地温环境及覆土隔热保温的特性将冷、热水或空气远距离传输应用。还可 以用保温车载前述裝有相变材料的箱运至冷源或热源地， 利用水中抽出的冷、热风或 水将相变材料固化蓄冷或液化蓄热后再运至应用地或中转地应用。 The above methods of extracting cold and heat sources in water can either be replaced with air as the medium and applied as described above; or the water can be directly pumped out using an insulated pipe for application. It can be applied on-site; it can also be used to build passages or pipes in the underground, and use the characteristics of the ground temperature environment that is warm in winter and cold in the ground and the characteristics of soil-covered insulation to transmit cold, hot water, or air over long distances. It can also be transported to the cold source or heat source by the above-mentioned box containing the phase change material on the insulated vehicle. The cold, hot air or water extracted from the water will be used to solidify the phase change material to store cold or liquefied heat, and then transport it to the application place or transit application .
图 14是换气裝置示意图， 1401是水箱， 箱内裝有淡水或盐水。 1402是设在水 箱内的换热器或换热管， 两端通出箱外。 1403是连通两箱内换热器的连通管。 该换 气裝置由上述多个内设水和换热器的箱串联为一体，并在串联体内的各箱内再设一組 与上述完全相通的换热器 1404, 并使两組换热器一組在上一組在下， 即可进行最基 本的换气。 即将需换的热季冷空气或寒季热空气从串联体一端的其中一組换热器送 出， 与此同时从串联体另一端的另一組换热器送入室外空气， 如此形成一进一出的换 气，换出气中的冷源或热源逐箱贮存入箱中的水中， 而换进气则再逐箱吸收水中冷源 或热源。 为使水中冷、 热源自动循环， 换出冷空气时从箱内上部管换出， 而换进的热 空气则从下部管换入。为使换入的空气达到调温所需温度，在其换入气的排出端设两 个水箱 X和 Y, 每个水箱内也设两組换热器， 其中一組换热器与串联体中的换热器再 串联为一体， 并在连通处增设一引出管 1407。 另一組换热器则与该裝置以外的冷、 热源相接通。 举例说明其应用方法。 假设外界气温是 30°C , 需换气场所的气温是 20 °C , 而该场所最适温度需求则是 15°C。 换气兼调温的过程是将 20°C的换出空气首先 从 a箱中的上方换热器送入， 经&、 b、 c和图中未示出的 d、 e等全部箱后从末端箱 排出， 与此同时将外界 30 °C热空气从末端箱的下方换热器送入， 经 a箱后再引入 y 箱。 此前用 y箱内另一組换热器 1406接通前述地下所 5 &冷源或其它冷源， 将 y箱水 温调在 15 C以下。 引入 y箱的空气在 15 °C以下冷水中进一步降温'。 在较长时间的大 量换气过程中，随时调节 y箱水温可达到整个换气完成时场所内的气温也达到所需的 要求。同样需升温时则于 X箱进一步调温。该裝置内设盐水更适合于冰雪园换气应用。
为使同一裝置对温度不同的多个场所换气时， 或于外界白天气温高和晚上气温 低换气时的部分冷源或热源得以保存或换出，可在每两箱的连接处的每組换热箱的连 通管 1403处再向串联体两端方向各设两組支出管 1408和 1409 , 该两组支出管可根 据其换气场所、调温冷热源和当地气候等多方因素或全设， 或只在进气方向设， 或选 择某段或某两箱之间设置。设置支出管的作用在于换出或换入的空气可从任意段或某 一设定段排出或进入。 如白天换气时的外界气温为 30°C， 而晚上换气时的气温则是 20 °C , 白天换出低温空气时于 20— 30 V之间箱内所贮冷源可在夜间换气时跨越该段， 暂时贮存以利第二天 30 °C气温时换气利用。 该支出管的增设， 对两个以上温差较大 的换气场所利用同一换气裝置先后换气时节能效果更佳。在两組换热器的两箱连接管 1403处再设一连通管 1410并设开关， 该管的设置与支出管共同作用可将外界冷、 热 源从任一箱或任段的一組换热器送入， 经该管后从另一組换热器排出，从而达到调节 箱内水温或储存外界冷、热的作用。所有引出管道及两組换热器之间的连通管（1410) 上都设有开关， 即图中 T型所示。 引出管可以如图中 1411所示各管独立设置， 也可 以如 1412所示连为一体再设一总管， 或仅对支出管连为一体单独设总管。 Fig. 14 is a schematic diagram of a ventilation device, 1401 is a water tank, and the tank is filled with fresh water or brine. 1402 is a heat exchanger or heat exchange tube located in the water tank, and the two ends open out of the tank. 1403 is a connecting pipe connecting the heat exchangers in the two boxes. The ventilation device is composed of the above-mentioned multiple tanks with water and heat exchangers connected in series, and a set of completely connected heat exchangers 1404 is provided in each tank in the series, and two sets of heat exchangers are connected. One group is above the other group, and the most basic ventilation can be performed. The hot season cold air or cold season hot air to be replaced is sent out from one group of heat exchangers at one end of the tandem body, and at the same time, the other group of heat exchangers at the other end of the tandem body is sent into outdoor air, thus forming an inlet. Once the air is exchanged, the cold or heat source in the exchanged air is stored into the water in the tank one by one, and the air is absorbed in the water to absorb the cold or heat source in the water. In order to circulate the cold water and heat source automatically, when the cold air is replaced, it is replaced from the upper tube in the box, and the hot air is replaced from the lower tube. In order to make the incoming air reach the temperature required for temperature adjustment, two water tanks X and Y are set at the discharge end of the air exchange, and two sets of heat exchangers are also set in each water tank, one of which is connected with the tandem body. The heat exchangers in the series are integrated in series, and an outlet pipe 1407 is added at the connection. Another group of heat exchangers is connected to cold and heat sources outside the unit. Give an example of its application. Assume that the outside temperature is 30 ° C, the temperature of the place to be ventilated is 20 ° C, and the optimal temperature requirement of the place is 15 ° C. The process of ventilation and temperature adjustment is to send the exchanged air at 20 ° C from the upper heat exchanger in the a box first, and then pass through all the boxes such as &, b, c and d and e not shown in the figure. The end box is discharged. At the same time, the external 30 ° C hot air is sent from the heat exchanger below the end box, and then it is introduced into the y box after the a box. Previously, another group of heat exchangers 1406 in the y box was used to connect the above 5 underground and cold sources or other cold sources, and the water temperature in the y box was adjusted below 15 C. The air introduced into the y-box is further cooled in cold water below 15 ° C '. During the large-scale ventilation for a long period of time, adjusting the water temperature of the y box at any time can reach the required temperature when the entire ventilation is completed. When the temperature needs to be increased, the temperature is further adjusted in the X box. The built-in brine of this device is more suitable for ice and snow park ventilation applications. In order to save or exchange some of the cold or heat sources when the same device is ventilating in multiple places with different temperatures, or when the outside air temperature is high during the day and low at night, it can be stored at the connection of every two boxes. There are two sets of expenditure pipes 1408 and 1409 at the connecting tubes of the group heat exchange box 1403 toward the two ends of the tandem body. The two sets of expenditure pipes can be based on various factors such as the ventilation place, temperature and heat source, and local climate. All settings, or only in the intake direction, or select a section or between two boxes. The function of setting the expenditure tube is that the air exchanged in or out can be discharged or entered from any section or a certain set section. For example, the outside temperature during ventilation during the day is 30 ° C, and the temperature during ventilation at night is 20 ° C. During the day when the low-temperature air is exchanged, the cold source stored in the box can be ventilated at night between 20-30 V Spanning this section from time to time, temporary storage to facilitate ventilation at 30 ° C the next day. The addition of the expenditure pipe has better energy saving effect when using the same ventilation device for two or more ventilation places with large temperature differences. A connecting pipe 1410 and a switch are provided at the two box connecting pipes 1403 of the two sets of heat exchangers. The setting of this pipe and the discharge pipe can work together to exchange heat and heat from any box or section of the outside. The device is fed in and discharged from another group of heat exchangers after passing through the tube, so as to adjust the water temperature in the box or store the cold and hot outside. All the outlet pipes and the connecting pipes (1410) between the two groups of heat exchangers are provided with switches, which are shown as T in the figure. The lead-out pipes can be set independently as shown in 1411 in the figure, or they can be connected as a whole and set up as a header as shown in 1412, or only the expenditure pipes can be set as a whole and set up as a separate header.
图 15是换气、 除湿装置示意图。 该裝置是图 14所示装置重新組合， 强化除湿 功能的集换气和除湿为一体的又一装置。其中 1501、 1502、 1503、 1504、 1505和 1506 与图 14中的 1401、 1402、 1403、 1404、 1408和 1409的结构、 功能和应用方法完全 相同。不同之处在于： 上述一箱设有两組换热器的水箱多箱串联为一体后， 两组串联 体再并联为一整体。图中 1507是从两組串联体相对应的纵向连通管 1503处再横向连 通的并联管。其连通原则是其中一組换热器 1502和连通管 1503在箱的上方， 而另一 组则是在箱的下方。 1508是顺纵向将各个横向连通管 1507再连通的纵向连通管， 两 条连通管的连通处为四个方向互通， 并在横向连通管 1507的连通处的两侧各设一开 关。 为方便说明， 图中 A2、 B,B2 和
表示纵向四组串联的换热器或换热管。 换气的方法与图 14所示裝置相同， 即从 A 2组送出排气或送入进气， 而从 組送 入进气或送出排气。 和！) tD2两组也可单独运行进行换气。 在每两組的一端还 再 设^图 14所示的 x、 y箱进行进一步调温。 FIG. 15 is a schematic diagram of a ventilation and dehumidification device. This device is another device that integrates ventilation and dehumidification by recombining the device shown in FIG. 14 to enhance the dehumidification function. Among them, 1501, 1502, 1503, 1504, 1505, and 1506 have the same structures, functions, and application methods as 1401, 1402, 1403, 1404, 1408, and 1409 in FIG. The difference is that after the above-mentioned water tank with two sets of heat exchangers and multiple tanks is connected in series, the two series bodies are connected in parallel to form a whole. In the figure, 1507 is a parallel pipe connected laterally from the longitudinal communication pipes 1503 corresponding to the two series bodies. The communication principle is that one group of heat exchangers 1502 and communication pipes 1503 are above the box, and the other group is below the box. Reference numeral 1508 is a longitudinal communication pipe that reconnects each of the horizontal communication pipes 1507 in a longitudinal direction. The two communication pipes communicate with each other in four directions. One switch is provided on each side of the connection of the horizontal communication pipe 1507. For convenience, A 2 , B, B 2 and Represents four groups of heat exchangers or tubes in series. The ventilation method is the same as the device shown in FIG. 14, that is, the exhaust gas is sent from the A 2 group or the intake air is sent, and the intake air is sent from the group A or the exhaust gas. with! ) t D 2 The two groups can also be operated separately for ventilation. The x and y boxes shown in Figure 14 are set at one end of each group for further temperature adjustment.
该裝置除湿的方法是： 先将 AB組串联水箱的水温调节成依次降低的状态。 同时 将 CD組水温也调节成依次降低的状态， 并较 AB組相对应的水箱再降低一級， 如 ^ 与 ai箱， Cl与 b2 箱同温。 举例说明， 将 AB組水箱从 ai箱到最后箱从 30°C起每箱降 低 5 °C , 在最后第 8箱降至 -5 °C； 将 CD組水箱的水溫从 25 °C起每箱亦降 5 °C， 在最 后第 8箱降至- 10 °C。打开连通第 8箱末端横向连通管 1507中的两个开关。关闭其它 连通管 1507的所有开关。将 28 °C的湿热气体从 C组或 D组的 32水箱中的换热管送入， 穿越该組内所有水箱后再通入 A組或 B組第 8箱， 并同样穿越该組 8个水箱后从 &i 箱排出。如此形成被除湿气体在 C組或 D组水箱内气温逐渐降低， 湿气中的水份冷凝
成水达到除湿目的。 进入 A或 B組后再逐箱升温， 待排出该裝置时恢复 28°C气温。 若需进一步调温： 需降温时选择分支管 1506的适温段， 直接排出， 需升温时可通过 调节 ^水箱水温或 ai水箱以外再设如图 14所示的 X、 y箱进一步调温。 水箱内的水 温变化是 CD组水箱水温依次逐渐升高， 而 AB組水箱的水温则是依次逐渐降低。连续 通气除湿， 当 AB组的水溫普遍降低至低于 CD组水温时， 改变送气方向， 从 A或 B組 中的换热管送入， 从 C或 D組排出。 当多次转换换气方向， AB与 CD組水箱内水温相 差不大时， 可通过非通气除湿的另外两组换热器或管， 用另外冷或热源对各組各箱水 温再进行一次调整， 使两組水箱的水温再恢复设计的温差。该装置用于除湿时， 当水 温需调至 0 °C以下时， 箱内水可以是冰点温度低于水温的盐水， 也可以是淡水。但因 水在液态下因温度和比重不同可上下自动循环， 更宜于将气体的冷、热源储下， 将水 内的冷、 热源换出。但水的特性是 4°C时比重最大， 水箱内因此有上热下冷或上冷下 热的两种状态，为了使降温或升温的换气始终保持从箱内低水温或高水温区通过，使 箱内水形成自动循环， 可在水温 4°C左右的两箱之间设置图中 1509所示的转换管， 即将两箱内两組换热器在连通管 1503处交叉设两个连通管 1509并各设一开关，在两 条转换管 1509与连通管 1503连通处的中间也各设一开关， 如此打开 1509管上的开 关， 关闭 1503管上开关， 即可使 C组换气在此处转入 D组， 或 D组转入 C组， 从而 达到上述目的。该转换管也可以在其它两箱之间设置。解决冷凝霜的方法有三， 其一 是快速通入热水或热气使霜快速溶化后排出；其二是在该装置以外再设一空箱， 并在 空箱内设水管与该裝置中各箱相通， 用抽水机将两組水箱中同温水抽至空箱内， 然后 再向抽水后的水箱内换热器， 通热水或气化霜排水， 除霜后再将原水送回。其三为通 入盐水使霜化入水中排出， 但通入盐水浓度需保证霜水淡化后不结冰。 The method of dehumidifying the device is as follows: first, adjust the water temperature of the series AB water tanks to a state of sequentially decreasing. At the same time, the water temperature of the CD group is also adjusted to be sequentially lowered, and lowered by one level than the water tank corresponding to the AB group, such as ^ and ai boxes, and Cl and b 2 boxes at the same temperature. For example, lower the water tank of Group AB from ai tank to the final tank by 5 ° C from 30 ° C, and lower it to -5 ° C in the last 8th tank; The box also dropped by 5 ° C, and in the last 8th box it dropped to -10 ° C. Turn on the two switches in the horizontal communication tube 1507 at the end of the eighth box. Turn off all switches of other communication pipes 1507. Send the hot and humid gas at 28 ° C from the heat exchange tubes in the 3 or 2 water tanks of group C or D, pass through all the water tanks in the group, and then pass into the 8th box of group A or B, and also pass through the group 8 Drain the water tank from the & i tank. In this way, the temperature of the dehumidified gas in the water tank of the group C or D gradually decreases, and the moisture in the moisture condenses. The formed water can achieve the purpose of dehumidification. After entering the A or B group, the temperature rises from case to case, and the temperature will be restored to 28 ° C when the device is discharged. If further temperature adjustment is needed: When the temperature needs to be lowered, select the proper temperature section of the branch pipe 1506 and discharge directly. When the temperature needs to be increased, you can adjust the temperature of the ^ water tank or the ai water tank and then set the X and y tanks as shown in Figure 14 to further adjust the temperature. The temperature change in the water tank is that the water temperature in the water tank of the CD group gradually increases, while the water temperature in the water tank of the AB group gradually decreases in order. Continuous ventilation and dehumidification. When the water temperature of group AB is generally lower than the water temperature of group CD, the air supply direction is changed, and it is fed in from the heat exchange tubes in group A or B and discharged from group C or D. When the ventilation direction is changed many times, and the water temperature in the water tanks of the AB and CD groups is not much different, the other two groups of heat exchangers or tubes that are not ventilated and dehumidified can be used to adjust the water temperature of each box in each group with another cold or heat source. The water temperature of the two sets of water tanks is restored to the designed temperature difference. When the device is used for dehumidification, when the water temperature needs to be adjusted below 0 ° C, the water in the tank can be salt water with freezing point lower than the water temperature, or fresh water. However, water can be circulated up and down automatically due to the difference in temperature and specific gravity in the liquid state. It is more suitable to store the cold and heat sources of the gas and replace the cold and heat sources in the water. However, the characteristic of water is that the specific gravity is the largest at 4 ° C. Therefore, there are two states in the water tank: heating up and cooling down or heating up and cooling down. In order to keep the cooling or heating ventilation through the low or high temperature zone of the tank In order to make the water in the tank automatically circulate, a conversion tube shown in 1509 in the figure can be set between the two tanks with a water temperature of about 4 ° C, that is, two sets of heat exchangers in the two tanks are set to cross two communication tubes at the connection tube 1503. Each of the tubes 1509 is provided with a switch, and a switch is also provided in the middle of the connection between the two conversion tubes 1509 and the communication tube 1503. In this way, the switch on the tube 1509 is turned on and the switch on the tube 1503 is turned off. Here transfer to group D, or group D into group C, so as to achieve the above purpose. The conversion tube can also be set between the other two boxes. There are three ways to solve the condensed frost. One is to quickly pass hot water or hot gas to melt the frost quickly and discharge; the other is to set an empty box outside the device, and set a water pipe in the empty box to communicate with each box in the device. Use the water pump to pump the same temperature water from the two sets of water tanks into the empty tank, and then drain the hot water or vaporized frost to the heat exchanger inside the pumped water tank, and then return the raw water after defrosting. The third is to pass the brine to discharge the frost into the water, but the concentration of the brine needs to ensure that the frost does not freeze after it is desalinated.
上述换气、 除湿装置也可以每箱只设一組换热器。 当每箱只设一組换热器时， 箱内介质可以是水； 也可以是包括水在内的其它相变材料； 还可以在 0°C以上水中再 增设熔点温度与该箱水温相近的其它相变材料， 并将其装入塑料管内竖排于箱内水 中。 The above-mentioned ventilation and dehumidification device may also be provided with only one set of heat exchangers per box. When there is only one set of heat exchangers in each box, the medium in the box can be water; it can also be other phase change materials including water; It is also possible to add water with a melting point close to the temperature of the box in water above 0 ° C. Other phase change materials, and put them into plastic pipes and drain them in the water in the tank.
上述水中或土中冷热源及前述高山冷空气的开发， 主要用于地下观光及生产场 所的调温和换气所用。当上述从土中或水中所换出的冷或热源的温度达不到生产所需 时， 可利用前述地下所贮冷、 热进一步调温。 而二氧化碳和氮气资源的开发和调温、 调氧、栽培床、环形及流水生产宣、换气、除湿设施则针对地下特殊环境， 解决所有 生产及运作因素的具体设施和方法。 综合作用的结果可达到本技术提出的最终目的。 The development of the cold and heat sources in the water or soil and the cold air in the mountains mentioned above is mainly used for underground sightseeing and temperature regulation and ventilation of production sites. When the temperature of the cold or heat source exchanged from the soil or water is not enough for production, the cold and heat stored underground can be used to further adjust the temperature. The development and temperature regulation of carbon dioxide and nitrogen resources, oxygen regulation, cultivation beds, annular and flowing water production declaration, ventilation, and dehumidification facilities are specific facilities and methods that address all special production and operational factors for special underground environments. The combined effect can achieve the ultimate purpose proposed by this technology.
本发明公开了一种地下观光游乐园技术， 其开发利用地下土壤和岩石具有贮存 冷热和隔热保温的双重特性，在地下建造一种冷热转换裝置， 可将天然和可再生冷热 贮存于土壤或岩石中， 在地下建造观光游乐场所和动、植物生产场所， 利用地下所贮 冷热， 江、 河、湖、海水中所贮冷热及直接利用自然和可再生资源， 可将地下场所的
温度等必需因素人为、低成本地任意调控， 从而可在地下建造不受时间、地点限制的 四季冰雪园和动植物观光游乐园的目的。 工业应用性 The invention discloses an underground sightseeing amusement park technology. The development and utilization of underground soil and rocks have the dual characteristics of cold and heat storage and heat insulation. A cold and heat conversion device is built underground to store natural and renewable cold and heat. In the soil or rocks, construct sightseeing playgrounds and animal and plant production sites underground, use the cold and heat stored in the underground, store the cold and heat in rivers, rivers, lakes, and seawater, and directly use natural and renewable resources to convert underground Place Necessary factors such as temperature can be controlled arbitrarily and at low cost, so that the purpose of constructing four seasons ice and snow park and animal and plant sightseeing amusement park regardless of time and place can be built underground. Industrial applicability
本发明既开发出天然和可再生资源的全新应用途径， 也在现有耕地以外开辟出 一片地下新田地， 既能促成农产品完全摆脱自然季节影响而反季节生产， 又创造出地 下四季冰雪和农业观光游乐园， 在能源和耕地出现危机的 21世纪具有极积的实用价 值。
The invention not only develops a new application method of natural and renewable resources, but also opens a new underground field outside the existing arable land, which can not only enable agricultural products to completely get rid of the natural seasonal influence and counter-season production, but also create underground seasonal snow and agriculture Sightseeing amusement parks have extremely practical value in the 21st century when energy and cultivated land are in crisis.