可再生资源的综合开发及其在农业生产方面的应用技术 技术领域 . Comprehensive development of renewable resources and its application technology in agricultural production
本发明涉及可再生资源的综合开发， 具体地说是涉及天然冷热、 地温、 日较差、 低谷电、 工业炉排气中的余热、 二氧化碳、 氮气、 生活垃圾和作物 秸杆等可再生资源的综合开发， 本发明还涉及上述资源在农业生产方面的应 用。 The present invention relates to the comprehensive development of renewable resources, and in particular to renewable resources such as natural cold and heat, ground temperature, poor day, low valley electricity, waste heat in industrial furnace exhaust, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, domestic waste, and crop straw The invention also relates to the comprehensive application of the above resources in agricultural production.
众所周知， 取之不尽的天然冷热， 昼高夜低的日较差和冬暖夏凉的地温 是一种潜在的可再生资源， 但是目前开发利用自然冷热的技术仅是对太阳能 热源的现集现用或短期内贮存利用， 尚无一种将天然热能低成本、 长期贮存 应用技术， 而天然冷资源、 日较差资源和地温资源的开发应用还处在一种空 白状态； 同样， 夜间低谷电也是一种巨大的资源， 但是目前开发利用的方法 也是将其转化为冷能或热能后短期内应用， 也无一种低成本、 大范围、 长期 贮存的开发利用方法； 工业炉排气中包括热能、 二氧化碳和氮气三种资源， 目前幵发利用的方法多为城镇工业炉余热短期内回收利用， 而农村砖瓦、 石 灰和陶瓷等工业炉排气连余热短期内回收利用都很少， 目前的状况是一方面 工业炉余热、 二氧化碳、 富氮气体连同灰尘和有害气体任其排入大气中， 既 造成了资源的浪费， 也造成了环境的污染， 而另一方面在农业生产中特别是 保护地作物栽培中， 既严重缺乏热源和二氧化碳， 更无将富氮气体作为一种 资源应用于农业生产的方法， 也就是说目前尚无一种可适用于农村综合开发 利用工业炉排气资源的方法； 利用沼气发酵和饲养蚯蚓处理生活垃圾、 人畜 粪便和作物秸秆是有机物转化利用效率最高的一种方法， 目前利用废物进行 沼气和蚯蚓生产的方法可分为两大类， 其一是农户依靠自然冷热的小规模生 产， 人为控制生产因素的能力差， 投资虽小但效益也差。 其二为大型的工厂 化生产， 虽然工厂化生产能人为控制各种生产因素， 但一方面所消耗的是有 限的能源， 另一方面投资大成本高很难大面积推广， 同样缺乏一种利用自然 冷热周年适温可大面积推广应用的技术和方法 e As we all know, the inexhaustible natural heat and cold, day and night, low day, and warm winter and cool summer ground temperature are a potential renewable resource. However, the current development of natural cold and heat technology is only for solar heat sources. There is no current application technology for short-term storage and utilization of natural thermal energy, and the development and application of natural cold resources, poor daily resources, and geothermal resources are still in a blank state; similarly, Low-peak power at night is also a huge resource, but the current development and utilization methods are also used in the short term after converting it to cold or thermal energy, and there is no low-cost, large-scale, long-term storage development and utilization method; industrial grate There are three kinds of resources in the gas: thermal energy, carbon dioxide and nitrogen. At present, most of the methods used for recycling are the waste heat of industrial furnaces in cities and towns. In the short term, the exhaust gases of industrial furnaces such as bricks, lime, and ceramics in the rural areas are even recycled in the short term. The current situation is that on the one hand, waste heat from industrial furnaces, carbon dioxide, nitrogen-rich gases, together with dust and harmful gases, are allowed to be discharged into the atmosphere. Not only caused waste of resources, but also caused environmental pollution. On the other hand, in agricultural production, especially in the cultivation of protected crops, there was a serious lack of heat sources and carbon dioxide, and it was not possible to use nitrogen-rich gas as a resource in agriculture. The production method, that is, there is currently no method applicable to the comprehensive development and utilization of industrial furnace exhaust resources in rural areas; the use of biogas fermentation and breeding of earthworms to treat domestic waste, human and animal manure, and crop straws is one of the most efficient conversion and utilization of organic matter. This method can be divided into two categories: biogas and earthworm production using waste. One is that farmers rely on natural hot and cold small-scale production. The ability to artificially control production factors is poor. Although the investment is small, the benefits are also poor. The second is large-scale factory production. Although factory production can artificially control various production factors, on the one hand, it consumes limited energy, on the other hand, it has a large investment and high cost, and it is difficult to promote it on a large scale. It also lacks a utilization. Techniques and methods for large-scale popularization and application of natural cold and hot anniversary temperature e
在世界人口骤增耕地锐减得这样一个不可逆转的大趋势下， 人类将面临 着食物不足的生存危机。 目前人们普遍认可的解决方法是发展高效益的工厂 化精准农业。 但是在有限能源亦以面临危机的今天， 高耗能的工厂化农业与 能源危机又形成了不可抗拒的矛盾。 那麽能不能在现有耕地以外再大量开发 出新的田地， 能否将天然冷、 热等可再生资源大量、 长期贮存， 将可再生资
源综合应用于新田地， 最终促成全新的工厂化、 立体精准农业目前尚未发现 这方面的任何报道。 Under such an irreversible megatrend that the world ’s population has rapidly increased and arable land has fallen sharply, humanity will face a crisis of survival due to insufficient food. At present, the commonly accepted solution is to develop high-efficiency factory precision agriculture. However, in the face of the crisis of limited energy, the energy-intensive factory agriculture and the energy crisis have formed an irresistible contradiction. Then, can new fields be developed in large quantities outside the existing arable land, can renewable resources such as natural cold and heat be stored in large quantities for a long time, and renewable resources can be stored? The comprehensive application of the source to the new field has finally led to a brand-new industrialized, three-dimensional precision agriculture. No report has been found in this regard.
本发明的一个目的是利用地下土壤或岩石能大量贮存冷、 热的这一功能， 在地下深处建造一个极为简单的转换装置， 通过该转换装置的二次传递功能， 可将天然冷热、 工业炉余热和利用低谷电所制的冷或热大量、 长期地处存于 地下深层土壤或岩石中； An object of the present invention is to use the function that underground soil or rocks can store a large amount of cold and heat, and build an extremely simple conversion device deep underground. Through the secondary transfer function of the conversion device, natural cold and heat, Industrial furnace waste heat and the use of cold or hot electricity produced by trough electricity are stored in deep underground soil or rocks for a long time;
本发明的另一目的是提供地下贮冷库或贮热库进行冷热贮存的方法； 本发明的再一目的是提供一种建于地下深处的液化空气贮存库， 利用其 易贮冷保冷和耐高压特性， 将低谷电和天然冷能转化为液化空气长期贮存、 异地应用是低谷电和天然冷能的又一开发利用方法； Another object of the present invention is to provide a method for cold and hot storage in an underground cold storage or heat storage; another object of the present invention is to provide a liquefied air storage built in a deep underground, which can be used for cold storage and cold storage, and High voltage resistance, transforming trough electricity and natural cold energy into liquefied air for long-term storage, remote application is another development and utilization method of trough electricity and natural cold energy;
本发明的又一目的是提供一种利用地下贮存冷热装置和地下贮存冷热源 进一步促成的低谷电、 生活垃圾、 作物秸杆和工业炉排气中的余热、 二氧化 碳、 富氮资源的综合开发利用方法； Another object of the present invention is to provide a comprehensive utilization of low-temperature electricity, domestic waste, crop straws, and waste heat, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen-rich resources in the exhaust of underground storage cold and heat devices and underground storage cold and heat sources. Development and utilization methods;
本发明的又一目的是提供一种利用地下贮存冷热、 地温和日较差资源综 合应用开发地下田的一种方法； Another object of the present invention is to provide a method for developing underground fields by comprehensively using underground storage of cold and heat, ground temperature, and poor daily resources;
本发明的又一目的是提供一种用于农业保护地生产应用的除湿调温设备 和除湿调温方法； Another object of the present invention is to provide a dehumidification and temperature adjustment device and a method for dehumidification and temperature adjustment for agricultural protected area production applications;
本发明的又一目的是提供一种用于地下田日温差和温周期调控的环形栽 培或流水栽培的设施和方法； Still another object of the present invention is to provide a facility and method for annular cultivation or water-flow cultivation for regulating and controlling the daily temperature difference and temperature cycle of underground fields;
本发明的又一目的是提供一种可对作物根际进行温度和氧气调控的栽培 床和应用方法； Another object of the present invention is to provide a cultivation bed and application method capable of regulating temperature and oxygen of crop rhizosphere;
本发明的又一目的是提供一种利用前述可再生资源进行保护地作物栽培 的病虫害防制方法； Another object of the present invention is to provide a method for controlling plant diseases and insect pests in protected field crops by utilizing the aforementioned renewable resources;
本发明的又一目的是提供一系列综合利用前述可再生资源和各种生产因 素调控技术的植物栽培方法； Another object of the present invention is to provide a series of plant cultivation methods that comprehensively utilize the aforementioned renewable resources and various production factor regulation technologies;
本发明的又一目的是提供一种食用菌箱栽装置和栽培方法； Another object of the present invention is to provide an edible fungus box planting device and a cultivation method;
本发明的又一目的是提供一种利用可再生资源进行地下田食用菌流水循 环的栽培方法； · Another object of the present invention is to provide a cultivation method for circulating water of edible fungi in underground fields by utilizing renewable resources;
本发明的又一目的是提供一种利用可再生资源进行地下田的动物流水饲 养方法； Another object of the present invention is to provide a method for feeding water from animals in underground fields using renewable resources;
本发明的又一目的是提供一种利用可再生资源的果蔬保鲜、 冷藏或冷冻 方法； Another object of the present invention is to provide an off-season cultivation method for extending the dormant period of plants by using renewable resources; Another object of the present invention is to provide a method for keeping fresh, refrigerating or freezing fruits and vegetables using renewable resources;
本发明的又一目的是提供一种利用前述作物或食用菌栽培方法的居民居 家半成品栽培方法； Another object of the present invention is to provide a method for cultivating a semi-finished product in a residential home using the aforementioned crop or edible fungi cultivation method;
本发明的又一目的是提供 种利用可再生资源和地下田环形作物栽培的 地下冰雪游乐园技术； Yet another object of the present invention is to provide an underground ice and snow amusement park technology using renewable resources and underground field circular crop cultivation;
本发明的又一目的是提供一种利用地下贮存冷源的地下冰雪园技术。 本发明的可再生资源的贮存技术， 其是利用地下土壤和岩石既能贮存冷 热， 又具有隔热保温的这一功能性资源， 在地下深处的土壤或岩石中建造一 个冷热传递的转换装置， 然后将冬天的冷能、 夏天的热能、 周年的太阳能和 工业余热等冷热能源通过该转换装置大量贮存于地下深处的土壤或岩石和转 换装置的介质材料中。 由于被贮的冷、 热与外界之间有足够的厚土覆盖， 所 以深层土壤能不受外界影响而大量贮存冷、 热， 距地表的层土壤则能起到良 好的隔热保温作用， 从而能达到在地下深层土壤或岩石中大量贮存冷、 热的 目的。 进一步催化促成地温资源日较差资源、 低谷电资源和工业炉排气中的 余热、 二氧化碳、 氮气等一系列资源的高效益开发； Another object of the present invention is to provide an underground ice and snow park technology utilizing underground storage cold sources. The renewable resource storage technology of the present invention utilizes the functional resources of underground soil and rocks that can store cold and heat, as well as heat insulation, to build a cold and heat transfer in the soil or rocks deep underground. The conversion device, and then cold and hot energy sources such as winter cold energy, summer heat energy, anniversary solar energy and industrial waste heat, are stored in the soil or rocks in the deep underground and the medium material of the conversion device through the conversion device. Because there is sufficient thick soil cover between the stored cold and heat and the outside, the deep soil can be stored in large quantities without the influence of the outside, and the layer of soil from the ground can play a good role in heat insulation, thus It can achieve the purpose of storing cold and heat in large quantities in deep underground soil or rocks. Further catalyze the efficient development of a series of resources such as poorly ground temperature resources, low valley electricity resources and waste heat, carbon dioxide and nitrogen in industrial furnace exhaust;
本发明的可再生资源在农业生产方面的应用， 其是在地下建造地下室， 利用前述一系列资源及相应的配套技术， 可将地下室的各种生产因素进行人 为的任意调整， 最终达到完全利用可再生资源， 既能开辟地下新田地， 又能 人为控制各种生产因素， 可四季生产成本低、 质量高的农产品的目的。 附图的简要说明 The application of the renewable resources of the present invention in agricultural production is to construct a basement underground. Using the aforementioned series of resources and corresponding supporting technologies, various production factors of the basement can be artificially adjusted arbitrarily. Renewable resources can not only open up new underground fields, but also artificially control various production factors, and can produce low-cost, high-quality agricultural products for the purpose of four seasons. Brief description of the drawings
图 1是本发明的长周期冷、 热贮存库中的转换装置的主洞横断面示意图; 图 2是本发明的建于山体内的网状贮存库的横断面示意图； FIG. 1 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a main hole of a conversion device in a long-period cold and hot storage according to the present invention; FIG. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a mesh storage built in a mountain according to the present invention;
图 3是本发明的建于土山中的自动排土贮存库示意图； FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of an automatic soil dumping storage constructed in the earth mountain according to the present invention; FIG.
图 4是本发明的地下室示意图； 4 is a schematic diagram of a basement of the present invention;
图 5是本发明的除湿调温床的示意图； 5 is a schematic diagram of a dehumidification and temperature-regulating bed of the present invention;
图 6是图 5中的调温换热器 503的示意图； FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram of the temperature control heat exchanger 503 in FIG. 5;
图 7是图 5中的调温换热器 503的管内调温细管纵向布置的示意图； 图 8是本发明的一种圆形循环室平面的示意图； FIG. 7 is a schematic view of the longitudinal arrangement of the temperature-adjusting thin tubes in the tube of the temperature-adjusting heat exchanger 503 in FIG. 5; FIG. 8 is a schematic view of the plan of a circular circulation chamber of the present invention;
图 9是本发明的另一种圆形循环室平面的示意图； FIG. 9 is a schematic plan view of another circular circulation chamber according to the present invention; FIG.
图 10是本发明的跑道式循环室平面的示意图； FIG. 10 is a schematic diagram of a runway-type circulation chamber plane of the present invention; FIG.
图 1 1是本发明的大循环生产示意图； FIG. 11 is a schematic diagram of a large-cycle production of the present invention;
图 13是本发明的塑棚养土示意图； FIG. 12 is a schematic diagram of planting a sandy soil bed according to the present invention; FIG. FIG. 13 is a schematic diagram of soil cultivation in a plastic shed according to the present invention; FIG.
图 14是本发明的地下室大型沙土床栽果树示意图； FIG. 14 is a schematic diagram of planting fruit trees on a large sandy soil bed in the basement of the present invention; FIG.
图 15是本发明的食用菌箱式栽培示意图； FIG. 15 is a schematic diagram of edible mushroom box cultivation of the present invention; FIG.
图 16是本发明的食用菌栽培箱底部的施氧透气板的示意图； 16 is a schematic diagram of an oxygen-permeable vent plate at the bottom of the edible fungus cultivation box of the present invention;
图 17是本发明的地下冰雪园的设施布置示意图； FIG. 17 is a schematic layout of facilities of the underground ice and snow park of the present invention;
图 18是本发明的建于山内的连栋式冰雪园示意图； FIG. 18 is a schematic diagram of a multi-story ice and snow park built in the mountain according to the present invention; FIG.
图 19是本发明的冰雪园内鲜活植物轨道车循环展出的示意图。 实施本发明的最佳方式 FIG. 19 is a schematic diagram of the fresh plant track car in the ice and snow park of the present invention in circulation display. Best Mode for Carrying Out the Invention
一、 可再生资源的综合利用 I. Comprehensive utilization of renewable resources
1、 地下长周期冷、 热贮存库 1. Long-term underground cold and hot storage
如图 1 所示的地下贮冷库或贮热库中的冷热转换装置， 即主洞横断面示 意图， 其中 101 为主洞及主洞内的介质材料， 102 为主洞底部的通风道， 103 为介质材料与通风道之间的隔土， 104为主洞四周的小孔洞。其建造方法如下： 首先在地下深处包括平地下或山内深处挖出一条型长洞， 即主洞， 在主洞的 底部砌出一条或多条不同长度的通风道， 最长的一条通风道通至主洞的末端， 所有通风道的末端与主洞相通， 通风道上覆一层土。 在主洞的两侧及顶部垂 直于洞长方向每隔一定距离分层均匀打出细长的小洞， 将等长于小洞长度， 直径略小于小洞孔径的塑料袋装水并留出因贮存冷热时水膨胀体积增大的空 余后放入小洞内， 或者在小孔洞内置以导热性能好的如金属等介质材料， 也 可在主洞内设一与主洞等长、 末端封闭的专为小孔洞通风换热的总通风管， 每个小孔洞内再设以孔径更小的塑料细管并与总通风管相通。 当主洞壁外是 岩石或为了减少投资时小孔洞也可以不设。 在主洞内满填介质材料， 介质材 料可以是卵石或块石等， 也可以是用塑料袋装湿土或 湿砂后纵横叠放， 还可 以是用塑料管、 塑料袋、 陶瓷管或其它容器盛装相变潜热材料后叠放于主洞 内， 不论何种介质何种叠放方式， 都需留出均匀的通气空隙。 用管道将主洞、 主洞底部的通风道和设在主洞内的专为小孔洞通风的总通风管引出地面并将 主洞口厚土回填即告贮存库内的转换装置建成。 天然冷能的贮存方法是： 在 冬季的夜间， 以自然冷空气为一传介质， 用 风机将冷空气从通风道送入主 洞末端后再经主洞内介质材料之间的空隙换热后从主洞管排出， 连续通风直 至排出气温与送入气温相同或相近时停止通风。 此时洞内介质材料充分吸冷， 在停止通风的时段内洞内介质材料再以二传介质的角色向洞壁土壤或岩石传 冷换热， 待洞内介质材料温度升高时再行通冷风换热， 如此可在夜间向洞内 多次通风换热， 待到白天气温回升时停止换热， 在整个白天的时间里， 洞内
介质材料与洞壁土壤或岩石有足够的时间进行冷、 热交换， 待到晚上气温下 降， 洞内介质材料温度升高时再重复如前通冷风换热， 如此在整个冬季日复 一日贮冷换热， 可在洞壁深层土壤或岩石中大量贮存冷源。 当主洞壁设有小 孔洞时， 主洞内介质材料吸收冷能后可较快地传递给小孔洞内的介质材料， 而小孔洞内的介质材料吸冷换热后则以三传介质的角色可向洞壁更深部传冷 换热， 从而能加快贮冷速度加大贮冷范围。 当小孔洞内还设有通风管时， 在 向主洞内介质材料换热的同时也用鼓风机从总管道向小孔洞送入冷风， 经小 孔洞换热排至主洞后再从主洞管道排出， 这样能更进一步提高贮速、 加大贮 量、 扩大贮存范围。 贮热的方法与贮冷相同， 所不同的是一传介质为白天的 热空气或经太阳能集热装置所集的更高温度的热空气。 当利用太阳能集热获 取热源时， 既可用现有太阳能集热装置， 也可充分利用农村地域广的优势， 在地下控出直径 3米左右， 深 1 .3米左右的锅底状大坑， 坑面用惨有 5— 10 % 烟黑的三七灰土夯实成厚 6— 1 0 厘米的吸热面， 地面坑四周用竹片按太阳能 集热的角度弓型支撑， 将塑料膜依型裁制粘接后严密覆盖， 在塑料膜外再用 10 X 10 厘米的在尼龙网罩住加以固定， 在集热坑两端设进出风口即可集热。 集 热坑既可单独集热， 也可多个串联集热， 还可多组串联组再并联集热， 当所 集热源送入地下贮热库贮热后排出气温仍高于外界自然气温时， 可将排出气 引入集热坑进行循环集热贮热。 为了减少集热坑夜间散热， 还可在每个串联 组上加设塑料拱棚进行非集热时段的保温。 As shown in Figure 1, the cold and heat conversion device in the underground cold storage or heat storage, that is, a cross-sectional schematic diagram of the main cave, where 101 is the main cave and the dielectric material in the main cave, 102 is the ventilation channel at the bottom of the main cave, 103 It is the partition between the dielectric material and the ventilation channel. 104 is a small hole around the main hole. The construction method is as follows: Firstly, a long hole is dug in the deep underground, including the flat underground or deep inside the mountain, that is, the main hole, and one or more ventilation channels of different lengths are built at the bottom of the main hole, and the longest one is ventilated. The road leads to the end of the main tunnel, and the ends of all ventilation tunnels communicate with the main tunnel, and the ventilation tunnel is covered with a layer of soil. On both sides and the top of the main hole, stratified holes are punched out at regular intervals at regular intervals in the direction of the length of the hole. Plastic bags of water equal to the length of the hole and slightly smaller than the diameter of the hole are stored for storage. The space that the volume of water expansion increases during cold and hot is put into a small hole, or a medium material such as metal with good thermal conductivity is built in the small hole, or a length equal to the main hole and closed at the end can be provided in the main hole. A main ventilation pipe designed for ventilation and heat exchange of small holes, and a small plastic hole with a smaller diameter is set in each small hole and communicates with the main ventilation pipe. Small holes can also be omitted when the main cave wall is rocky or to reduce investment. The main hole is filled with dielectric material. The dielectric material can be pebble or block stone, or it can be stacked vertically and horizontally in plastic bags packed with wet soil or wet sand. It can also be plastic pipes, plastic bags, ceramic pipes or other materials. The container is filled with the phase change latent heat material and stacked in the main hole. No matter what kind of medium is used for stacking, a uniform ventilation gap must be left. The main hole, the ventilation channel at the bottom of the main hole, and the main ventilation pipe provided for the ventilation of the small holes are led out of the ground by pipes, and the thick soil at the mouth of the main hole is backfilled and the conversion device in the storage is completed. The natural cold energy storage method is: at night in winter, using natural cold air as a transmission medium, using a fan to send cold air from the ventilation duct to the end of the main cave, and then heat exchange through the gap between the medium materials in the main cave It is discharged from the main tunnel pipe, and ventilation is continued until the discharge temperature is the same as or similar to the input temperature, and the ventilation is stopped. At this time, the dielectric material in the cave is fully absorbing cold. During the period when the ventilation is stopped, the dielectric material in the cave acts as a second medium to transfer heat and heat to the soil or rock on the wall of the cave. It will pass when the temperature of the medium material in the cave increases. Cold air heat exchange, so it can be ventilated and heat-exchanged into the cave many times at night, and it will stop heat exchange when the air temperature rises during the day. The medium material has sufficient time to exchange cold and heat with the soil or rock of the cave wall. When the temperature in the cave decreases at night and the medium material temperature in the cave rises, it repeats the heat exchange like cold air before, so it is stored day by day throughout the winter. Cold heat exchange can store a large number of cold sources in the deep soil or rock of the cave wall. When a small hole is provided on the main cave wall, the medium material in the main hole can be quickly transferred to the medium material in the small hole after absorbing cold energy, and the medium material in the small hole functions as a three-pass medium after cold absorption and heat exchange. It can transfer cold and heat to deeper part of the cave wall, which can speed up the cold storage speed and increase the cold storage range. When a small hole is also provided with a ventilation pipe, while exchanging heat to the medium material in the main hole, a blower is also used to send cold air from the main pipe to the small hole. After the small hole is heat-exchanged, it is discharged to the main hole and then from the main hole pipe. Discharge, which can further increase the storage speed, increase the storage capacity, and expand the storage range. The method of heat storage is the same as that of cold storage, except that a medium is hot air during the day or hot air collected at a higher temperature by a solar heat collector. When using solar heat collection to obtain a heat source, both the existing solar heat collection device and the advantages of a wide rural area can be used to control a large pot bottom pit with a diameter of about 3 meters and a depth of about 1.3 meters. The surface of the pit is tamped with 5-10% smoke-stained Sanqi gray soil to form a heat-absorbing surface with a thickness of 6-10 cm. The ground around the ground pit is supported by bamboo arches according to the angle of solar heat collection, and the plastic film is cut according to the shape. After the bonding, it is tightly covered, and then it is fixed with a nylon mesh cover of 10 x 10 cm outside the plastic film to fix it. Set air inlets and outlets at both ends of the heat collecting pit to collect heat. The heat collection pit can collect heat alone or in series, and can also collect heat in series in multiple groups in series. When the collected heat source is sent to the underground heat storage to store heat, the exhaust temperature is still higher than the outside natural temperature. The exhaust gas can be introduced into a heat collecting pit for circulating heat collection and heat storage. In order to reduce the heat dissipation of the heat collecting pits at night, a plastic arch shed can be added to each series group to perform heat insulation during non-heat collecting periods.
当贮冷库或贮热库内的介质材料是相变潜热材料时， 用于贮热的可将熔 点温度略低于被贮热源温度的相变材料装入耐高温的金属、 陶瓷、 混凝土预 制或塑料等制成的槽或管内叠放于主洞首段,然后逐段放置熔点温度相对降低 的相变材料， 洞末端段放置熔点温度相对最低的相变材料， 反之亦然， 贮热 时将热源从熔点温度高的一端送入， 从熔点温度低的一端排出。 也可在贮热 库的主洞内放置同一熔点温度的相变材料， 将多个贮热库内置以不同熔点温 度的相变材料， 然后依照熔点温度逐步降低的次序将多个贮热库用管道串联， 同样被贮热源从高熔点库送入， 从低熔点库排出， 可达到一次性将高温热源 贮尽的效果。 当然， 也可以在一主洞内设置单一相变材料单独贮热。 用于贮 冷的相变材料为水， 在水内加盐可降低冰点 度， 最低能降至一 55 °C。 将淡 水及盐水装入筒状的塑料袋内， 留出约 10 %的空袋， 排出空气后将袋口结扎， 将塑料水袋纵横叠放于主洞内， 并在洞顶部留出因水结冰膨胀时所需的空洞， 顺洞长每隔一定距离在顶部空间处设一挡风板， 以防贮进或取出冷源时换热 空气从顶部空间直通而过。 不同冰点温度的盐水和淡水在主洞内的设置方法 与贮热库完全相同。
地下贮存库对非自然冷、 热源的贮存方法是： 在贮冷库外设制冷设备， 在夜间低谷电期利用廉价电源进行制冷， 将所制冷送冷库进行贮存。 由于制 冷的同时也有热能生成， 如压缩空气制冷时， 由于空气体积縮小而使气温升 高， 此时可将热源换出送贮热库贮存， 待高压空气温度降至常温时再膨胀降 温， 并将所制冷源送贮冷库贮存， 这样能将低谷电转换成冷能和热能贮存于 地下， 而且能制得和贮存比自然冷源更低的冷源， 既适合于各地各季应用， 更适合于自然冷源较少的地区制冷贮冷。 将农村砖瓦石灰等工业炉与地下贮 热库配套建造， 将工业炉排气、 除尘后用热风机送入地下贮热库进行余热贮 存， 可将第一个贮热库贮热后排出的温度仍高的气体再送第二个第三个贮热 库贮存余热直至将余热贮尽。 低谷电制冷和工业炉余热既可贮存于卵石等非 相变材料介质的贮存库， 更适于贮存于以相变材料为介质的冷库或库。 When the medium material in the cold storage or heat storage is a phase change latent heat material, the phase change material with a melting point slightly lower than the temperature of the heat storage source can be used for heat storage into high temperature resistant metal, ceramic, concrete prefabricated or A groove or tube made of plastic is stacked in the first section of the main hole, and then a phase change material with a relatively lower melting point temperature is placed step by step, and a phase change material with a relatively lower melting point temperature is placed in the end section of the hole, and vice versa. The heat source is fed in from the end with a high melting temperature and discharged from the end with a low melting temperature. It is also possible to place phase change materials with the same melting point temperature in the main hole of the heat storage, build multiple heat storage with phase change materials with different melting points, and then use multiple heat storage in accordance with the order of gradually lowering of the melting point temperature. The pipelines are connected in series and are also sent in from the high melting point reservoir by the heat storage source and discharged from the low melting point reservoir, which can achieve the effect of storing the high temperature heat source at one time. Of course, a single phase change material can also be provided in a main hole to store heat separately. The phase change material used for cold storage is water. Adding salt to the water can reduce the freezing point, and the lowest can be -55 ° C. Put fresh water and salt water in a cylindrical plastic bag, leave about 10% empty bag, ligate the mouth of the bag after exhausting the air, place the plastic water bag vertically and horizontally in the main hole, and leave water on top of the hole. For the cavity required for icing expansion, a wind deflector is arranged at the head space at a certain distance along the length of the hole to prevent heat exchange air from passing through the head space when storing or taking out the cold source. The setting method of salt water and fresh water with different freezing temperatures in the main cave is exactly the same as that of the heat storage. Underground storages store non-natural cold and heat sources by: cooling equipment outside the cold storage, using low-cost power for cooling during low-peak electricity periods at night, and sending the refrigerated storage to the cold storage for storage. Because cooling also generates heat energy, for example, when compressed air is cooled, the air volume is increased due to the reduction in air volume. At this time, the heat source can be replaced and sent to a heat storage for storage. When the high-pressure air temperature drops to normal temperature, it will expand and cool. The refrigerated source is sent to a cold storage for storage, so that the trough electricity can be converted into cold and heat energy and stored underground, and a cold source lower than the natural cold source can be prepared and stored, which is suitable for applications in each season and is more suitable. Refrigerate and store cold in areas with few natural cold sources. The industrial bricks, bricks, limes, and other industrial furnaces are built together with the underground heat storage. After the industrial furnace is exhausted and dusted, it is sent to the underground heat storage with a heat fan for waste heat storage. The first heat storage can be discharged after the heat is stored. The still high temperature gas is sent to a second and third heat storage tank to store the waste heat until the waste heat is exhausted. The trough electric refrigeration and industrial furnace waste heat can be stored in non-phase change material medium storage such as pebbles, and more suitable for cold storage or storage using phase change material as the medium.
被贮冷源应用时只需将外界空气或从通风道送入经主洞内介质材料之间 换热后从主洞管排出， 或从主洞管送入从通风道排出， 都可将空气温度降低 而取出冷源。 当设有多条不等长通风道时， 还可从任一管道送入空气经主洞 内部分或全部介质材料换热后从另外任一管道排出， 设置多条不等长通风道 的作用在于， 冷库内的冷源可分段取出， 可根据生产所需选择同一库内的不 同温度的冷源， 从洞首端逐段取出冷源还可降低洞内霜堵塞。 为降低洞内霜 堵塞， 可用间壁式换热器换出冷源， 进入冷库的换冷空气循环换冷， 避免外 界湿空气进入库内可从根本上解决霜堵问题， 同时还能避免杂质和杂菌进入 库内。 热源的取出方向与冷源取出法相同。 When it is used as a cold storage source, it only needs to send outside air from the ventilation duct or heat exchange between the medium materials in the main tunnel and exhaust it from the main tunnel pipe, or it can be sent from the main tunnel pipe to the ventilation duct and discharged. Remove the cold source as the temperature decreases. When there are multiple unequal-length ventilation ducts, air can also be sent from any duct through some or all of the medium in the main tunnel, and then discharged from any other duct. The effect of multiple unequal-length ducts is provided. The reason is that the cold source in the cold storage can be taken out in sections, and cold sources with different temperatures in the same storage can be selected according to the production needs. Taking out the cold source from the head of the cave one by one can also reduce frost blockage in the cave. In order to reduce frost clogging in the tunnel, the cold source can be replaced with a partition wall heat exchanger, and the cold air entering the cold storage can be circulated to change the cold. Avoiding outside air from entering the storage can fundamentally solve the frost blocking problem, while avoiding impurities and Miscellaneous bacteria enter the library. The direction of taking out the heat source is the same as the method of taking out the cold source.
贮冷库和贮热既可建在平地下， 也可从山脚处向山体内挖洞建在山内， 既可建在土山内也可建在石山内， 但建在土山内的贮存库成本最低， 效益最 好。 由于大量的冷源或热源是贮存在主洞以外四周的深层土壤或岩石中， 而 贮冷或贮热土壤或岩石以外还需有一定厚度的土壤或岩石进行隔热保温， 所 以贮存库与外界之间的隔土 （石） 厚度是影响贮存效果的一个很重要原因。 但隔土 （石） 厚度取决于两个因素， 其一， 被贮冷源式热源的强度， 强度大 则需厚覆盖， 反之可相对地薄覆盖。 其二， 投资因素。 在平地以下建贮存库， 覆盖厚度与投入成正比关系。 所以覆盖多厚需根据所贮冷、 热强度和投入大 小而具体确定。 本发明中所述的 "地下 "是 地下、 山地下即善终、 土壤中 或岩石中的总称。 Cold storage and heat storage can be built on flat ground, or can be dug into the mountain from the foot of the mountain and built in the mountain. It can be built in Tushan or Stone Mountain, but the storage cost is the lowest. the best. Because a large number of cold or heat sources are stored in deep soil or rocks around the main cave, and a certain thickness of soil or rock is required for heat insulation outside the cold or heat storage soil or rocks, the storage room and the outside world The thickness of the soil (stone) between them is a very important reason for the storage effect. However, the thickness of the soil (rock) depends on two factors. One is the strength of the cold-source heat source. If the strength is large, it needs to be thickly covered, otherwise it can be relatively thinly covered. Second, investment factors. Build a storage below flat ground, and the thickness of coverage is directly proportional to the input. So how thick the coverage is depends on the cold storage, heat intensity and input size. The term "underground" as used in the present invention is a general term for underground, mountainous and underground, namely, cultivar, soil or rock.
本发明地下贮存冷、 热的突出特点及与现有地下贮存冷、 热的不同之处 在于： 主要冷源或热源是贮存于地下深层的土壤或岩石之中， 地下深层土壤 或岩石起了贮存冷或热的载体作用， 而距地表浅层的土壤或岩石又起了阻隔 自然冷、 热的保温作用， 也就是说既利用了地下土壤或岩石的贮存冷、 热的
贮存功能， 又利用了其导热性较差的隔热保温功能。 而贮存库主洞内的介质 材料则主要起了传递冷或热的二传作用， 二传和三传介质材料的设置， 除起 转换作用外也有效地克服了土壤或岩石导热性能较差的不足， 从而能达到大 量贮存冷或热的目的。 The outstanding characteristics of cold and hot underground storage of the present invention and the differences from the existing cold and hot underground storage are: The main cold or heat source is stored in deep underground soil or rock, and the deep underground soil or rock is stored. It acts as a carrier of cold or hot, and the soil or rock from the shallow layer of the ground plays a role of insulation against natural cold and heat, that is, it uses both the storage of cold and hot underground soil or rock. The storage function also makes use of its thermal insulation function with poor thermal conductivity. The medium material in the main hole of the storage mainly plays the role of second or third heat transfer. The setting of the second and third medium materials can effectively overcome the poor thermal conductivity of soil or rock in addition to the conversion effect. Insufficient, so as to achieve the purpose of storing a large amount of cold or hot.
2、 地下网状贮冷、 贮热库- 所谓网状贮存库就是将多个贮存库建为一体， 即相邻两库的主洞之间以 均勾密集的网道互通连为一体， 为此进一步促进 "三传" 功能， 更进一步提 高贮存速度和效率。 如图 2 所示的建于山体内的网状贮存库横断面示意图， 其中 201为山体外形， 202为与如图 1所示的结构完全相同的主洞， 所有主洞 的末端以不小于通风道孔径的通道互通。 203为两主洞之间互通的网道， 即顺 洞长方向， 每隔数米向相邻上方主洞打出若干条互通的网洞， 网洞可以是孔 径较小， 洞内不放任何介质材料的空洞， 也可以是孔径相对较大， 洞内置以 较小卵石等介质材料的实洞。 增设网洞的作用在于可利用不同温度空 气的比 重差， 即冷空气自然下移而热空气自动上升的原理进行自动换热， 以此促进 冷源或热源向两主洞之间的土壤快速贮进或取出， 最大程度上克服土壤导热 性差的不足。 贮冷时先从最高处逐层往下贮存， 当主洞内温度较大幅度降低 时， 处于主洞下方网洞内的热空气就会自动上升， 而主洞内的冷空气则自动 下降形自动交换冷热而达到向两主洞之间深层土壤快速大量贮冷的目的。 取 出冷源应用时， 先从最底部的主洞换热取冷。 同样能使上方网洞内的冷源快 速换出。 同理， 贮热时先从底部逐层向上贮存， 用热时先从顶部逐层向下取 热。 网状贮存库的另一作用还在于： 当贮存象工业炉余热这样既高温又量大 集中的热源时， 可将热源从中部主洞的通风道送入， 从另一主洞排出， 当排 出气体的温度明显升高时通过开关控制改从另一主洞贮热， 如此可逐洞贮热， 贮冷也一样。 204为只适用于贮冷库的通出地面的网洞， 其作用在于： 当贮冷 库的温度低于外界夜间气温时， 外界冷空气和库内热空气能自动对流换热贮 冷， 或者用抽风机从底部主洞抽气， 外界冷空气从网道 4 吸入进行横向换热 贮冷， 当纵向贮冷时关闭网道 4 即可。 通向外界的网道 4 既可设也可不设， 即使设置也无须象库内网道那样密集， 少量设置即可。 当山体较小需充分利 用时， 可将网状库建成金字塔形， 如图中与 i 线所示的在底部再建主洞并与 上方主洞相联通。 206为山体中土壤功能的大致区划线， 即虚线以内土壤起贮 存冷或热的贮存作用， 而虚线以外土壤则起隔热保温作用。 网状贮存库也可 以整体矩形布置建在平地下。 也可以建在两山之间的峡沟内， 即在峡沟底部 平整压实场地后， 用卵石或块石露天垒成如前主洞及通风道， 洞四周用塑料 管或混凝土预制件扣成网洞， 然后从山顶取土回填、 夯实， 逐层筑洞回填，
最上层和沟两端厚土覆盖， 利用峡沟建网库最适合中国的黄土高源， 而且在 建 "库" 的同时还能顺便建成蓄水坝， 一举两得。 2. Underground mesh cold storage and heat storage-The so-called mesh storage is the construction of multiple storages as a whole, that is, the main holes of two adjacent storages are interconnected by densely-connected network channels. This further promotes the "three pass" function and further improves storage speed and efficiency. A schematic cross-section of a mesh storage built in a mountain as shown in Figure 2, where 201 is the shape of the mountain and 202 is the main hole with the same structure as shown in Figure 1. The ends of all main holes are not less than ventilation The channels of the channel aperture communicate with each other. 203 is an interconnecting network channel between the two main holes, that is, along the length of the hole, several interconnected holes are punched every few meters to the adjacent upper main hole. The hole can have a small aperture and no medium is placed in the hole. The hollow material can also be a solid hole with a relatively large pore size and a small material such as pebble inside the hole. The function of adding a network hole is to use the principle of the difference in the specific gravity of air at different temperatures, that is, the principle that the cold air moves naturally and the hot air automatically rises for automatic heat exchange, thereby promoting the rapid storage of cold or heat sources to the soil between the two main holes. In or out, the problem of poor thermal conductivity of soil can be overcome to the greatest extent. When storing cold, first store the layers down from the highest place. When the temperature in the main cave decreases greatly, the hot air in the network below the main cave will automatically rise, and the cold air in the main cave will automatically descend. The cold and heat are exchanged to achieve the purpose of quickly storing a large amount of cold to the deep soil between the two main holes. When the cold source is taken out for application, the heat is taken from the bottom main hole for heat exchange. It can also quickly replace the cold source in the upper hole. Similarly, when storing heat, first store it layer by layer from the bottom to the top, and when using heat, first take it layer by layer from the top to the bottom. Another function of the net storage is that: When storing a heat source that is both high temperature and large in quantity, such as waste heat from an industrial furnace, the heat source can be sent in from the ventilation duct in the central main tunnel and discharged from the other main tunnel. When the temperature of the gas rises significantly, it is possible to store heat from another main tunnel through switch control, so that heat can be stored hole by hole, as well as cold. 204 is a network hole that is only applicable to the ground of the cold storage, and its role is: When the temperature of the cold storage is lower than the nighttime outside temperature, the external cold air and the hot air in the cold storage can be convectively heat-exchanged for cold storage, or an exhaust fan is used. Extract air from the main hole at the bottom, outside cold air is sucked in from network channel 4 for horizontal heat exchange and cold storage, and it is sufficient to close network channel 4 when storing vertically. The network channel 4 to the outside can be set or not set. Even if it is set, it does not need to be as dense as the network channels in the library. When the mountain is small and needs to be fully utilized, the mesh library can be formed into a pyramid shape. As shown in the figure, the main hole at the bottom is rebuilt and connected with the main hole above. 206 is a rough outline of the soil function in the mountain body, that is, the soil within the dotted line plays a role of cold or hot storage, and the soil outside the dotted line plays a role of heat insulation. The reticulated storage can also be built on flat ground in an overall rectangular arrangement. It can also be built in the gully between the two mountains, that is, after the site is flattened and compacted at the bottom of the gully, the pavement or block stone is used to open up the main tunnel and ventilation channel as before. Form a network cave, then take soil backfill from the top of the mountain, compact it, build the cave backfill layer by layer, The uppermost layer and the thick soil at both ends of the ditch are covered. The use of a gorge to build a network library is most suitable for China's loess high source. In addition to building a "bank", a dam can be built in one fell swoop.
3、 快速冷、 热贮存库 3.Rapid cold and hot storage
工业炉余热的特点是温度高、 量大且集中； 利用低谷电又能制得更低温 度、 量大集中的冷源。 前述以主洞外土壤或岩石为主要冷、 热贮存载体的贮 存方法很难在短时间内将大量冷、 热高效贮存。 快速贮存库即是在地下深处 建成横断面相对较大的条状型主洞， 主洞侧可设也可不设小孔洞， 洞底部也 设通风道和隔土层， 洞内设置相变潜热介质材料， 介质材料的配置方法和冷、 热贮存方法与前述以相变潜热材料为介质的长周期贮存库相同， 快速贮存库 以洞内介质贮存为主， 洞壁土、 石贮存为辅。 由于快速贮存库是快存快取短 周期循环贮进、 取出， 所以主洞与外界之间的覆盖厚度可相对薄些。 快速贮 存库主要应用于后叙的工业炉综合资源开发和低谷电资源开发。 Industrial furnace waste heat is characterized by high temperature, large amount, and concentration; low-temperature electricity can be used to produce colder sources with lower temperature and large amount of concentration. The aforementioned storage method that uses soil or rocks outside the main cave as the main cold and hot storage carrier is difficult to efficiently store a large amount of cold and heat in a short time. The rapid storage is a strip-shaped main hole with a relatively large cross section built deep in the ground. The side of the main hole may or may not be provided with a small hole. The bottom of the hole is also provided with a ventilation channel and a soil barrier. The medium material, the method of disposing the medium material, and the cold and heat storage methods are the same as those of the long-term storage using the phase change latent heat material as the medium, and the rapid storage is mainly based on the storage of the medium in the cave, supplemented by soil and stone storage in the cave. Since the quick storage is a quick storage and a short cycle of cyclic storage in and out, the covering thickness between the main hole and the outside can be relatively thin. The quick storage library is mainly used in the development of comprehensive industrial furnace resources and low-level electricity resources.
建于土山中的自动排土冷、 热贮存库 Automatic soil drain cold and hot storage built in the mountains
如图 3 所示， 首先选择土质好、 山体适宜的土山， 在山脚处先挖出一堑 沟， 从堑沟底部以斜向上能自动排土的角度向山内开挖出一条主洞， 为降低 斜度并减小排土摩擦力， 在挖洞时可在洞底铺一层农用厚塑料膜排土。 主洞 可以不挖出地面， 如其中 301 所示的实线段， 也可以挖出地面达到即 302 所 示的虚线段， 洞底也设通风道和隔土层， 当主洞末端不挖出地面时将主洞底 部做成宽台阶状， 在台阶面上井字型叠放用塑料袋内袋水或装湿土的二传介 质。 当主洞挖出地面时既可如法设台阶并叠放塑料袋介质， 也可不设台阶从 主洞高处端向洞内满填卵石或塑料袋装湿土的介质材料。 主洞口处的通风道 和主洞两端口用管道引出后将洞口厚土回填。 主洞高处端引出地面管道既可 在就地直立， 也可再顺山坡向山顶处挖出一条深沟， 将管道埋沟内引至更高 处后将沟回填， 管道端口设阀门。 冷、 热贮进和取出的方法与前述长周期贮 存库的自然冷、 热贮存法相同。 该模式贮存库最突出的特点在于投资成本极 低， 最适合在象中国的黄土高原建库贮存天然冷、 热。 As shown in Figure 3, first select a good mountain with good soil quality and excavate a trench at the foot of the mountain. From the bottom of the trench, you can excavate a main hole into the mountain at an angle that can automatically discharge soil. The slope and reduce the friction of the soil, when the hole is dug, a layer of agricultural thick plastic film can be laid on the bottom of the hole. The main hole may not be dug out of the ground, such as the solid line segment shown at 301, or the dotted line segment shown at 302 may be dug out of the ground. The bottom of the cave is also provided with a ventilation channel and a soil layer. When the end of the main cave is not dug out, The bottom of the main hole is made into a wide step shape, and a plastic bag is used to stack water or wet soil in a square shape on the step surface. When the main hole is dug out of the ground, either steps can be set and the plastic bag medium can be stacked in the same way, or there can be no steps from the high end of the main hole to the hole filled with pebble or plastic bags filled with wet soil. The ventilation channel at the main entrance and the two ports of the main entrance are piped out and backfill the thick soil at the entrance. The ground pipe leading from the high end of the main tunnel can either be upright on the spot, or a deep trench can be dug down the hillside to the top of the mountain, and the trench can be backfilled after the buried trench is led to a higher level. Valves are set at the port of the pipeline. The method of cold and hot storage and removal is the same as the natural cold and hot storage method of the long-term storage. The most prominent feature of this model storage is that the investment cost is extremely low, and it is most suitable for storing natural cold and heat in the storage on the Loess Plateau in China.
5、 地下大容积冰雪贮存， 植物延长休眠贮存或农产品保鲜贮存 5. Large underground ice and snow storage, extended dormant storage of plants or fresh-keeping storage of agricultural products
在地下深处建大断面大容积的长洞， 洞内设通风道引至洞底， 洞口设多 道隔热保温门， 在洞内均匀设置临时床架， 库架上置以塑料水袋， 待到冬季 夜间时， 向洞内通冷风换热贮冷， 在塑料水袋的 "二传 " 作用下日复一日向 洞壁的土壤或岩石中贮冷， 待到洞壁深层大量贮冷后撤出床架， 然后将自然 冰或雪贮存于洞内。 也可在洞壁贮冷后一边向洞内喷水或注水， 一边通冷风 在洞内逐层结冰贮冰。 必要时在洞外门处覆土隔热。 洞内还可将处于休眠状 态的植物置箱内在洞内延长休眠贮存； 还可贮存冷冻食品； 调节洞温还可进
行果蔬保鲜。 在作物和食品贮存过程中， 利用地下贮冷或贮热随时进行洞内 温度调控。 A long section with large cross section and large volume is built deep in the underground. Ventilation channels are set in the cave to lead to the bottom of the cave. Multiple thermal insulation doors are set at the entrance of the cave. Temporary bed frames are evenly arranged in the cave. Plastic water bags are placed on the shelf. When it arrives at night in winter, cold air is exchanged into the cave for heat exchange and storage, and it is stored in the soil or rock of the cave wall day after day under the "second pass" of the plastic water bag. Withdraw the bed frame and store natural ice or snow in the cave. You can also spray water or inject water into the cave while storing cold in the cave wall, and freeze the ice layer by layer in the cave while passing cold wind. Cover the outer door of the cave with soil insulation if necessary. The dormant plants can be placed in the cave to extend the dormant storage in the cave; frozen food can also be stored; the temperature of the cave can also be adjusted. Fresh fruits and vegetables. During the storage of crops and food, underground temperature storage or cold storage is used to adjust the temperature inside the cave at any time.
6、 工业炉余热开发利用 用矿碴或碎石建成的贮热、 贮冷库。 6. Development and utilization of waste heat from industrial furnaces Heat storage and cold storage built with mine ore or crushed stone.
建造一种可用于车载的贮热箱， 箱壁设隔热保温层， 箱内做成如同快速 贮存库结构的相变潜热介质贮存装置， 贮热时将贮热箱车载运至热源地， 当 热源为蒸汽或热气等气体热源时， 可直接通入贮热箱熔化相变材料进行贮热。 当热源为炉碴等非气体热源时， 可在热源地或弃碴地建一个密封隔热的转换 室， 将热炉碴先置一个耐高温的平板车， 然后推进转换室， 关闭转换室后或 通入空气换热后向贮热箱贮热， 或通入水产生蒸汽换热贮热。 贮热后的贮垫 箱再运至生产地或直接利用， 或再次转贮于地下贮热库。 郊区工业炉余热可 在地下铺设隔热管将热源直送附近地下贮垫库贮存余热。 Build a heat storage box that can be used for vehicles. The wall of the box is provided with a thermal insulation layer. The inside of the box is made of a phase change latent heat medium storage device like a rapid storage structure. When the heat is stored, the heat storage box is transported to the heat source. When the heat source is a gas heat source such as steam or hot gas, it can be directly passed into the heat storage box to melt the phase change material for heat storage. When the heat source is a non-gas heat source such as a grate, a sealed and insulated conversion room can be built in the heat source area or abandoned area. The heat furnace is first placed in a high-temperature resistant flatbed vehicle, and then the conversion room is pushed forward. After the conversion room is closed or After passing in air for heat exchange, heat is stored in a heat storage tank, or when water is passed in to generate steam for heat exchange and heat storage. After storage, the storage cushion box is transported to the production place or used directly, or re-stored in the underground heat storage. Suburban industrial furnace waste heat can be laid underground to send heat directly to nearby underground storages to store the waste heat.
将矿碴或碎石垒成大型的长状贮存床， 四周用土覆盖， 长床两端的上下 层分别设多个通风口， 将冷源或热源从一端任一通风管送入， 通过控制设在 通风口的开关可从另一端的任一通风口排出， 由于整个床内互通， 所以能大 量快速贮存各种冷、 热源， 由于该贮存床内互通， 所以贮热时可从底部先贮， 利用热空气自动上升原理使热源自动上移贮存， 贮冷时先从顶部贮存。 The mine ore or gravel barrier is formed into a large long storage bed, and the surrounding area is covered with soil. The upper and lower layers of the two ends of the long bed are respectively provided with multiple vents, and the cold or heat source is fed from any vent pipe at one end. The switch of the vent can be discharged from any vent on the other end. Because the entire bed is interconnected, various cold and heat sources can be stored quickly and in large quantities. Because the storage bed is interconnected, the heat can be stored from the bottom first and used. The principle of hot air automatic rise makes the heat source automatically move up for storage. When it is stored cold, it is stored from the top first.
7、 地下无开挖打孔建造的贮存库。 7. Underground storage without excavation and drilling.
利用无开挖地下铺管打孔机在地下深处打出多条长孔洞， 将多条长孔洞 相互串联或相互并联， 孔洞两端设总管引出地面后将两端厚土回填。 孔内既 可再设预制管， 也可不设， 既可在孔中再设二传介质， 也可仅以冷热空气为 一体介质直接向土中贮冷或贮热。 冷、 热贮存的方法与前述方法相同。 Use no-digging underground pipe-laying puncher to punch multiple long holes deep in the ground, connect multiple long holes in series or in parallel with each other, and set a main pipe at both ends of the hole to lead out the ground and backfill the thick soil at both ends. The hole can be provided with a prefabricated tube or not. It can also be provided with a second transmission medium in the hole, or it can store cold or heat directly into the soil using only hot and cold air as an integrated medium. The method of cold and hot storage is the same as the aforementioned method.
8、 峡沟内建造的冷、 热贮存库 8. Cold and hot storages built in gorge
自然峡沟为地下建造贮存库创造了自然条件， 峡沟建库的方法是先将峡 沟底部顺沟势整形整平， 然后顺沟长方向用卵石或块石平行垒出多条如前述 长周期贮存库主洞中的二传介质道， 之后从山顶取土回填夯实， 隔土再建二 传介质道再取土回填， 逐层隔土建道回填， 整体建成如图 2 所示的网状库， 顶部及沟前后端厚土覆盖即可进行冷、 热贮存。 在峡沟内建贮冷库时还可在 整个贮存库的中下部位建造拱型大容积长洞， 整个贮冷库和洞内贮冷后则可 在洞内冷冻贮存食品， 或多年生宿根作物延长休眠贮存， 上部可建地下室用 于农业生产， 峡沟内建贮存库最适合于在土质沟内。 Natural gullies create natural conditions for underground storage. The method of building a gully is to first shape and level the ditch along the bottom of the ditch, and then use pebbles or rocks to parallel the length of the ditch to create a number of lines. The second medium channel in the main hole of the periodic storage is then taken from the top of the mountain for backfilling and tamping. The second medium channel is then separated and the soil is backfilled. The road is filled layer by layer and the soil is backfilled. The net library is shown in Figure 2. The top and front and back of the trench are covered with thick soil for cold and hot storage. When building a cold storage in a ditch, it is also possible to construct a long arch-shaped large-volume hole in the middle and lower parts of the entire storage. After the whole cold storage and the cold storage, the food can be stored frozen in the cave, or the perennial perennial crops can be extended to sleep. For storage, a basement can be built in the upper part for agricultural production. The built-in storage in the ditch is most suitable for soil ditch.
9、 利用废旧矿井、 天然洞贮存冷、 热 9.Using waste mines and natural holes to store cold and heat
在废矿井或天然洞内设置通向洞底的通风道， 洞口厚土回填， 以冷空气 或热空气为介质从通风道送入洞底经洞内空间排出， 即可换热贮冷或贮热， 或者在洞末端再挖洞通出地面， 使之形成直通洞， 从一端送入冷源或热源，
换热后从另一端排出进行贮冷或贮热， 也可在洞内顺洞长每隔一段距离用石 块横向垒成如同前述长周期贮存库中的转换装置一样的二传介质道用以二次 向洞壁土壤或岩石转换冷热。 贮存自然冷、 热时也同前述方法一样日复一日 换热贮存， 直至向洞壁大量贮存冷、 热。 Ventilation channels leading to the bottom of the cave are set up in the waste mine or natural cave. The thick soil at the mouth of the cave is backfilled. Cold air or hot air is used as the medium to be sent from the ventilation channel to the bottom of the cave and discharged through the space inside the cave. Heat, or dig a hole at the end of the hole to get out of the ground to form a through hole, and send it into the cold or heat source from one end, After exchanging heat, it is discharged from the other end for cold storage or heat storage. It can also be used to horizontally block the rocks along the tunnel every other distance to form a two-channel medium channel like the conversion device in the long-cycle storage. Transform the cold or hot to the cave wall soil or rock a second time. When storing natural cold and hot, it is heat-exchanged day by day as in the previous method, until cold and hot are stored in large quantities in the cave wall.
10、 利用地下贮存冷、 热促成的用低谷电和天然冷能液化空气地下贮存 方法 10. Utilizing underground storage of cold and heat for underground storage of liquefied air using trough electricity and natural cold energy
液化空气贮存库的建造方法是： 首先在地下深处， 最好是在山内深处开 挖出一条长洞， 在洞内用钢筋混凝土浇筑出液化空气贮存库， 库内设置用以 向库内贮冷和贮存液化空气的管道并引出洞外后将洞口厚土夯实回填， 然后 利用自然冷源如同前述方法向库内通冷风换热贮冷， 经长期贮冷使库壁土壤 或岩石大量贮冷后再利用低谷电制取温度更低的冷源继续向库壁贮冷， 直至 库内温度稳定达到设计温度时即可进行液化空气贮存。 在建液化空气贮存库 的同时， 同前述方法一样配套建造地下贮冷库和贮热库， 并向贮冷库贮存天 然或低谷电所制冷源。 液化空气贮存方法是： 在冬季的夜间， 利用低谷电和 自然冷空气， 用空气压缩机首先压缩空气， 当被压缩空气压力增大气温升高 时， 将所产生热源换出送入地下贮热库贮存， 待高压空气降温至与外界气温 相同时， 再利用地下贮冷库所贮冷源或压缩设备所制冷源进一步降温直至将 空气液化并送入地下液化空气库贮存。 在取出液化空气运至异地应用时， 在 应用地也建地下贮冷库， 最好是快速贮冷库。 其应用方法是： 用空气分离设 备对液化空气进行氧气和氮气的分离， 同时将气化分离时所产生的冷能转送 入地下贮冷库贮存， 如此能获得氧气、 氮气和冷能三种资源。 利用上述方法 还可以在最初液化空气时就将氧气和氮气先分离出来后再分别液化并贮存于 地下液化空气贮存库。 液化空气地下贮存的优点在于： 贮存库建于地下深处， 既能耐高压， 更能利用库壁土壤或岩石贮冷、 隔热保冷、 长期维持低温环境； 充分利用了冬季自然冷能， 是天然冷能和低谷电缩合开发利用的又一方法。 上述方法也可用于各地各季的低谷电资源开发应用。 The construction method of the liquefied air storage is as follows: firstly, a long hole is excavated in the deep underground, preferably in the mountain, and the liquefied air storage is poured with reinforced concrete in the cave, and the storage is provided to the inside of the storage. The pipes for cold storage and storage of liquefied air are led out of the cave, and the thick soil at the entrance of the cave is tamped and backfilled. Then, the natural cold source is used to exchange cold air into the storehouse as described above. After cooling, the low-temperature cold source is used to produce colder cold source and continue to store cold to the storage wall, and the liquefied air storage can be carried out until the temperature in the storage reaches the design temperature stably. At the same time as the construction of the liquefied air storage, the underground cold storage and heat storage are built in the same way as the previous method, and the natural or low-temperature power station refrigeration source is stored in the cold storage. The liquefied air storage method is: at night in winter, using trough electricity and natural cold air, the air is first compressed by an air compressor. When the pressure of the compressed air increases and the temperature rises, the generated heat source is replaced and sent to underground heat storage. Storage in the warehouse. When the high-pressure air is cooled to the same temperature as the outside temperature, the cold source in the underground cold storage or the refrigeration source in the compression equipment is used to further reduce the temperature until the air is liquefied and sent to the underground liquefied air storage. When the liquefied air is taken out and transported to an off-site application, an underground cold storage is also established at the application site, preferably a rapid cold storage. The application method is: use air separation equipment to separate the oxygen and nitrogen from the liquefied air, and at the same time transfer the cold energy generated during the gasification separation to the underground cold storage, so that three resources of oxygen, nitrogen and cold energy can be obtained . Using the above method, oxygen and nitrogen can be separated at the time of initial liquefaction of the air and then separately liquefied and stored in an underground liquefied air storage. The advantages of underground storage of liquefied air are: The storage is built deep underground, which can withstand high pressure, and can use the soil or rock on the wall of the storehouse to store cold, heat insulation, and maintain low temperature for a long time. It makes full use of the natural cold energy in winter and is natural. Another method for the development and utilization of cold energy and trough electric condensation. The above-mentioned method can also be used for the development and application of trough electricity resources in each season.
1 1、 利用地下贮存冷、 热促成的工业炉排气、 生活垃圾和作物桔杆等可 再生资源的综合开发利用方法 1 1. Comprehensive development and utilization of renewable resources such as industrial furnace exhaust, domestic waste, and crop orange stems promoted by underground storage of cold and heat
本发明是将地下沼气发酵， 农村砖瓦、 石灰等高耗能工业炉生产， 酒精 或食品加工等低耗能工业生产， 保护地农业生产和地下贮存冷热， 地下液化 贮存空气、 氮气、 二氧化碳或甲垸的综合资源综合幵发应用的模式。 其中地 下液化气贮存库和地下贮冷、 贮热库的建库和贮存方法与前述方法完全相同。 沼气发酵池也建在地下， 池顶厚土覆盖保温， 池壁外设置如图 4 所示的地下 室外的贮热调温床， 池内设换热器。 综合开发利用的方法是： 首先用风机送
自然空气于地下贮热库换出热源后再送地下沼气发酵池壁的贮热调温床或池 内换热器内换热， 连续换热贮热， 使池壁土壤大量贮热， 池温稳定达到沼气 发酵最佳温度时为止。 然后将作物秸杆、 生活垃圾和人畜类便等投池内进行 沼气发酵， 在沼气发酵过程中随时利用地下贮热对沼气池调温。 将所产沼气 或贮存一定量后， 或直接用于高耗能的砖瓦或石灰炉做燃料进行烧制， 与此 同时将工业炉排气先送地下快速贮热库进行贮热， 将贮热后的气体或直接用 空气压縮机进行二氧化碳和氮气的压缩分离， 或暂时于贮气装置中贮存， 待 到夜间时利用低谷电进行压缩分离， 在分离过程中再将所产生热源换出贮存 于地下贮热库， 之后或利用自然冷空气或利用地下贮冷库冷源对高压气体进 一步降温使二氧化碳液化分离出并进行贮存， 所剩高压氮气或气化制冷并送 地下快速贮冷库贮冷后直接用于保护地农业生产， 或利用地下贮冷继续液化 后贮存于地下贮液库。 将地下所贮高温热源用于低耗能的酒精或仪器加工生 产所用， 将酒精渣和食品加工废料再用于沼气发酵。 将地下所贮低温热源、 冷源、 二氧化碳、 氮气、 沼气肥用于保护地农业生产， 如此不但能将可利用 资源全部用尽， 而且还能促进环保。 利用上述方法也可对燃煤工业炉排气进 行综合开发利用， 也可将沼气中的二氧化碳和甲垸分离后再液化贮存。 综合 资源开发利用的另一方法是： 在高耗氧企业如冶金企业附近建造上述设施并 进行压缩空气制氧， 如前述将制氧时所产热能和冷能地下贮存， 将所制氧用 管道送用氧企业生产应用， 将所制氮或液化贮存， 或直接用于农业生产或其 它生产所用。 将冶炼炉排气再用保温管道送资源开发地进行如前所述的工业 炉排气资源综合开发利用。 废物资源幵发利用的又一方法是在如图 4 所示的 地下室中， 利用地下冷、 热贮存对地下室进行温度调控， 在地下室用床架立 体适温工厂化蚯蚓饲养。 The present invention is for the production of high-energy-consuming industrial furnaces such as underground biogas fermentation, rural bricks and limes, and low-energy-consuming industrial production such as alcohol or food processing. The agricultural production and underground storage of cold and heat in protected areas, underground liquefied storage of air, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide Or a comprehensive application model of comprehensive development of comprehensive resources. The method for building and storing underground liquefied gas storage, underground cold storage, and heat storage is exactly the same as the foregoing method. The biogas fermentation tank is also built underground. The top of the tank is covered with thick soil for heat preservation. The outside of the tank wall is equipped with an underground outdoor thermal storage bed as shown in Figure 4, and a heat exchanger is installed in the tank. The method of comprehensive development and utilization is: After the natural air is replaced in the underground heat storage, the heat is transferred to the heat storage thermostat bed on the wall of the underground biogas fermentation tank or the heat exchanger in the pool. The heat is continuously exchanged and stored, so that the soil on the wall is stored in a large amount of heat. Until the optimal fermentation temperature. Then, the crop straws, domestic garbage, human and livestock stools are put into the pond for biogas fermentation, and the underground heat is used to adjust the temperature of the biogas tank at any time during the biogas fermentation process. After the produced biogas is stored for a certain amount, it can be directly used for burning bricks or lime furnaces with high energy consumption as fuel. At the same time, the exhaust gas from the industrial furnace is first sent to the underground rapid heat storage for heat storage. The heated gas can be compressed and separated by carbon dioxide and nitrogen directly with an air compressor, or temporarily stored in an air storage device. When nighttime, the trough electricity is used for compression and separation, and the generated heat source is replaced during the separation process. Stored in underground heat storage, and then use natural cold air or underground cold storage cold source to further cool the high-pressure gas to liquefy the carbon dioxide and store it. The remaining high-pressure nitrogen or gasification refrigeration is sent to the underground rapid storage cold storage. It is then used directly for agricultural production in protected areas, or it is stored in underground liquid storage after it is liquefied by underground storage. The high-temperature heat source stored underground is used for low-energy consumption alcohol or instrument processing production, and the alcohol residue and food processing waste are used for biogas fermentation. The use of low-temperature heat sources, cold sources, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and biogas fertilizers stored underground for protected agricultural production will not only exhaust all available resources, but also promote environmental protection. The above method can also be used for comprehensive development and utilization of the exhaust gas from coal-fired industrial furnaces, and it can also separate carbon dioxide and formazan from biogas and then liquefy and store it. Another method for the development and utilization of comprehensive resources is to build the above facilities near high-oxygen consumption enterprises such as metallurgical enterprises and carry out compressed air for oxygen production. As mentioned above, the thermal and cold energy produced during oxygen production will be stored underground, and the oxygen production pipelines will be used. Send it to an oxygen enterprise for production and application, store the nitrogen or liquefaction, or directly use it for agricultural production or other production. The smelting furnace exhaust gas is sent to the resource development site through the heat preservation pipeline for the comprehensive development and utilization of the industrial furnace exhaust resource as described above. Another method for the utilization of waste resources is to adjust the temperature of the basement by using cold and hot storage in the basement as shown in Figure 4, and use a three-dimensional, moderate-temperature, factory-scale earthworm breeding in the basement with a bed frame.
12、 太阳能光、 热资源开发利用 12. Development and utilization of solar light and heat resources
利用电脑控制电机使专门收集太阳能中光和热的收集器随时朝太阳集光 集热、 将所集热源送地下贮热库贮存， 将所集光源用普通传光束光缆送至地 下田用于植物枝叶密集， 人工光源难以照射或光照不足的部位以提高光合作 用。 The computer-controlled motor is used to make the collector that collects the light and heat in the solar energy at any time towards the sun. The collected heat source is sent to the underground thermal storage for storage. The collected light source is sent to the underground field with ordinary optical fiber cable for plants. Branches and leaves are dense, and artificial light sources are difficult to illuminate or insufficiently irradiated to improve photosynthesis.
二、 农业生产应用技术 . Application technology of agricultural production.
1、 地温及地下田资源开发 1. Ground temperature and underground field resource development
所谓地下田即是在地下建造地下室， 在冬保暖夏保凉的地温基础上， 利 用前述地下贮存冷、 热等一系列资源和技术将地下室的各种生产因素调控到 最佳状态的，可用于农业生产的新田地。如图 4所示的地下室示意图，其中 401 为墙壁； 402为设在墙壁外的贮热调温床， 即在墙壁与土壤之间做成如前贮存
库般的介质材料层， 该介质材料层将冷源或热源从一床送入， 从另一床排发， 即可将床内介质材料贮冷或贮热， 从而达到调整室温的目的， 同时还能隔阻 土壤中水份向地下室渗入， 兼起隔水作用； 403为防护、 隔离带， 将墙体与床 外土壤连成一体起加固作用， 同时也起两床之间的隔离作用； 404为两床之间 的隔土， 也起隔离作用； 405为_两床之间的隔离层。 地下室壁外的贮热调温床 和顶部的覆土厚度可由当地的地温、 投资的大小及所栽培品种等因素而定， 贮热调温床可设也可不设， 可四周墙外全设， 也可任意选择设置， 当不设贮 热调温床时可直接向室内换热调温， 或在室内设换热器进行调温同样能达到 任意调整室温的目的。 顶部覆土厚则投资大， 但地温利用率高， 保温效果好， 相反， 覆土薄虽然投资小， 但地温利用和保温效果都差， 所以可根据具体情 况选择覆土厚度。 地下室既可建成单层， 也可建成多层。 顶部既可覆土保温， 也可建成半地下式温室冬保暖夏保凉。 以上仅是地下田开发的一部分， 即地 温的利用和地下田温度的调控， 其它生产困素的调控技术将在以后逐一说明。 The so-called underground field is to build a basement in the basement. Based on the ground temperature to keep warm in winter and cool in summer, use the aforementioned series of underground storage cold and heat resources and technologies to regulate the various production factors of the basement to the optimal state, which can be used for New fields for agricultural production. Schematic diagram of the basement as shown in Figure 4, where 401 is the wall; 402 is a heat storage temperature bed located outside the wall, that is, it is stored between the wall and the soil as before A library-like medium material layer. The medium material layer sends a cold source or a heat source from one bed and discharges it from another bed, so that the medium material in the bed can be stored cold or heat, so as to achieve the purpose of adjusting the room temperature. It can also prevent the water in the soil from penetrating into the basement, and also serves as a water barrier; 403 is a protection and isolation zone that connects the wall with the soil outside the bed to strengthen it, and also acts as a barrier between the two beds; 404 is the soil between the two beds, which also acts as an isolation; 405 is the insulation layer between the two beds. The thermal storage temperature bed outside the basement wall and the thickness of the top soil cover can be determined by factors such as the local ground temperature, the size of the investment, and the cultivated species. The thermal storage temperature bed may or may not be provided. Selecting the setting, when no thermal storage temperature bed is provided, the temperature can be directly exchanged to the room, or the temperature can be adjusted indoors by setting a heat exchanger in the room. The thickness of the top soil is large, but the ground temperature is high, and the heat preservation effect is good. On the other hand, although the thin soil cover has a small investment, the ground temperature utilization and heat insulation effect are poor, so the thickness of the soil cover can be selected according to the specific situation. The basement can be built as a single floor or multiple floors. The top can be covered with soil for insulation, or a semi-underground greenhouse that can be kept warm in winter and cool in summer. The above is only a part of the development of underground fields, that is, the use of ground temperature and the regulation of underground temperature. Other technologies for the production and control of production factors will be explained one by one in the future.
2、 日较差资源开发及利用 2. Development and utilization of poor daily resources
昼高夜低象潮汐般的日较差显然是一种潜在的能源， 特别是在高纬度和 高海拔地区潜力更大， 如北纬 53°28'的中国漠河， 3月份平均日较差达 21.4'C , 平均日较差也达 16 °C ; 北纬 29°40'， 海拔 3659.4米的中国拉萨年均日较差达 14.5 °C， 有着巨大的开发潜力。 地下贮存冷、 热促成了地下田的开发， 而地下 田又进一步促成了日较差资源的开发。 由于地下田不受外界自然冷、 热、 光、 暗的影响， 而且封闭性强保温性好， 最适合集中换气及调温。 如春秋季节温 差大， 可结合地下田的光照作业， 将夜间的低温、 午间的高温和高低温之间 的任何冷源或热源对地下田进行通风换气或室温调节， 即使在生产中需要更 低或更高的冷、 热源， 也仅需将自然冷、 热空气经地下贮存冷、 热源稍加调 节即可满足生产所需。 同样， 即使是夏季高温期也可利用夜间相对的低温空 气经贮冷库冷源进一步调节后用于生产， 冬季的白天利用太阳能集热， 特别 是前述并联式土坑太阳能集热后或直接利用或经贮热库热源进一步调节后用 于生产。 除地下田利用外， 还可在半地下日光温室的后墙内也设贮热调温床， 并在床与外界之间用较厚的土保温， 利用日较差资源可向床内进行贮冷或贮 热， 从而达到对温室调温的目的。 . The day and night are low and the tide-like day is obviously a potential source of energy, especially in high latitudes and high altitudes. For example, the Chinese Mohe at 53 ° 28 'north latitude, the average daily difference in March was 21.4. 'C, the average daily range is 16 ° C ; the north latitude is 29 ° 40', and the average daily range of Lhasa in China is 14.5 ° C, which has huge development potential. Cold and hot underground storage has led to the development of underground fields, which in turn has contributed to the development of poorer resources. Since the underground field is not affected by the natural cold, heat, light and darkness of the outside world, and has a strong sealability and good thermal insulation, it is most suitable for centralized ventilation and temperature regulation. If the temperature difference between the spring and autumn seasons is large, the underground field can be combined with the lighting operation to ventilate or adjust the room temperature of the low temperature at night, any high or low temperature between noon or high temperature, even if production needs more For low or higher cold and heat sources, it is only necessary to adjust the cold and heat sources of underground cold storage and heat sources to meet production requirements. Similarly, even in the high temperature period in summer, the relatively low-temperature air at night can be further adjusted by the cold storage cold source for production, and in the winter, solar heat is used during the daytime, especially after the aforementioned parallel type pit solar heat collection or directly used or It is used for production after being further adjusted by the heat storage heat source. In addition to the use of underground fields, a thermal storage temperature bed can also be set in the back wall of a semi-underground solar greenhouse, and thicker soil can be used to maintain heat between the bed and the outside world. Use of poor daily resources can be used to store cold in the bed. Or store heat, so as to achieve the purpose of tempering the greenhouse. .
3、 地下田除湿调温技术 3. Dehumidification and temperature regulation technology for underground fields
如图 5 所示的除湿调温床示意图， 其中 501 为除湿调温箱， 整个除湿调 温床是由多个除湿调温箱串联成完全相同并对称并列的两组串联箱组合而 成。 箱内满置介质材料， 根据箱内介质材料的不同分为 X型和 Y型两种， 其 中 X 型床箱内介质材料为水， 当除湿要求高时， 在末端箱的水中适当加盐以
降低结冰温度。 X型床箱内的水中设有两组完全独立的换热器， 502为被除湿 气体流通的换热器， 503 为调节箱内水温的换热器， 504 为三通开关， 其作用 在于通过控制开关可使气体既可以从换热器中通过， 也可以从箱中的水里穿 过。 505为设在两箱之间的通出床外的管道， 管道上设开关， 通过控制开关， 可使换热器内的气体排出床外， -或将外界空气吸入换热器内。 506为横向连通 两组串联箱的管道，每条管道上设两个开关（图中所有 T型标号全部为开关）， 通过控制各个开关可使换热器内的气体从一组的任一箱排出而进入另一组的 任一箱内的换热器。 507为连通每一箱的管道， 每条管道各设一个开关并在首 端汇总接入总管道。 508为设在总管道上的灭菌箱， 箱内装有液体灭菌剂， 连 接灭菌箱的管道和总管道上各设一个开关， 通过控制两开关， 可使气体或通 过灭菌箱灭菌， 或直接从总管道通过。 509 为设在总管道上的通风机。 510 为 设在两条总管道之间的联通管， 如图在联通管和总管上各设幵关， 通过控制 4 个开关， 可使总管道的进气与排气互换。 51 1 为地下室， 在地下室的顶部和底 部纵向设置多条并联的通风管， 每条通风管纵向均匀打出小孔， 多条并联通 风管在中部联通后再与除湿调温床的总管道接通。 图中 A和 B 是表示在除湿 调温过程中功能不同的两组串联箱。 图 6 是正图 5 中调温换热器 3 的详细说 明图， 601 为冷源进出管。 将地下贮存冷源或其它冷源以水或空气为介质， 用 水泵或风机可送入串联箱中任一箱内进行箱内水温调节。 图中 602 为热源进 出管， 如法可对前中段各箱进行水温调节。 图中管道与开关表示形式与正图 中完全相同。 以下举例说明除湿调温的原理和过程： 假设地下室的空气温度 为 30°C， 需降温 3— 5 °C， 湿度为高湿， 需降低其相对湿度， 空气含量为高浓 度二氧化碳气体， 不能排弃掉需继续利用， 空气中有杂菌污染需灭菌。 调温 除湿的方法是， 首先通过换热系统 503将 A组四箱内的水温依次将调控为 25 °C、 15 °C、 5 °C和一 5 °C， 使之成为相对的低温组， 而将 B 组四箱的水温依次 调控为 28 °C、 18 °C、 8 °C和 0 °C的相对高温组， 用抽风机从地下室的顶部将高 温高湿气体抽出， 经灭菌箱 8后再送入 A组总管道， 当气体流经 a、 b、 c、 d 四箱时各箱内逐级吸热换冷， 使气体到达 d 箱时温度降至 -5 °C— 0°C之间， 大 幅度降温使水汽冷凝达到除湿目的， 除湿后的低温气体再依次经过 B组 e、 f、 g箱内的换热器， 或在适当的时段跨越 g箱后.送至地下室的底部， 如此不断循 环并随时通过换热器 503 向部分箱内适当补充冷源， 当 A组箱内水温普遍提 高而 B 组水温普遍降低时， 通过转换设在两总管及支管 510 的开关， 使湿热 空气从 B组进入， 降温除湿后再从 A组升温后返回地下室。 如此两组交替升 温、 降温既能达到除湿和调温的目的， 又能充分利用冷、 热源。 利用水做介 质除湿降温的关键在于多设水箱， 使相邻两箱内的水温差达到尽可能的小，
水温差越小， 冷、 热源的利用率也越高， 至于每组设多少个水箱， 每箱多长， 最后一个水箱的温度调到多少度等可根据具体的条件而定。 所有水箱都用泡 膜塑料等隔热材料高度隔热， 外面再覆土隔热效果更好。 γ 型除湿调温床与As shown in the schematic diagram of the dehumidification and temperature-adjusting bed shown in FIG. 5, 501 is a dehumidification and temperature-adjusting box. The entire dehumidification and temperature-adjusting bed is a combination of two dehumidification and temperature-control boxes connected in series to form identical and symmetrical two sets of series boxes. The box is full of dielectric materials, which are divided into X-type and Y-type according to the different media materials in the box. Among them, the medium material in the X-bed box is water. When the dehumidification requirements are high, add salt to the water in the end box appropriately. Reduce the freezing temperature. There are two sets of completely independent heat exchangers in the water in the X-shaped bed box. 502 is a heat exchanger through which dehumidified gas flows, 503 is a heat exchanger that adjusts the water temperature in the box, and 504 is a three-way switch. Its function is to pass The control switch allows the gas to pass both through the heat exchanger and through the water in the tank. 505 is a pipe provided between the two boxes that leads out of the bed. The pipe is provided with a switch. By controlling the switch, the gas in the heat exchanger can be discharged out of the bed, or external air can be sucked into the heat exchanger. 506 is a pipe that horizontally connects two sets of series boxes. Each pipe is provided with two switches (all T-type symbols in the figure are switches). By controlling each switch, the gas in the heat exchanger can be changed from any box in a group. Discharge and enter the heat exchanger in any box of another group. 507 is a pipe connecting each box, and each pipe is provided with a switch, and the head pipe is collectively connected to the main pipe. 508 is a sterilization box provided on the main pipe. The box contains a liquid sterilant. A switch is installed on the pipe connected to the sterilization box and the main pipe. By controlling the two switches, the gas or the sterilization box can be sterilized. , Or directly from the main pipeline. 509 is a ventilator located on the main pipe. 510 is a connecting pipe set between two main pipes. As shown in the figure, each of the connecting pipes and the main pipe is set to have a switch. By controlling 4 switches, the intake and exhaust of the main pipe can be interchanged. 51 1 is a basement. A plurality of parallel ventilation pipes are longitudinally arranged at the top and bottom of the basement. Each of the ventilation pipes is uniformly punched in the longitudinal direction. After the plurality of parallel ventilation pipes are connected in the middle, they are connected to the main pipe of the dehumidification and temperature control bed. . In the figure, A and B are two series boxes with different functions during dehumidification and temperature control. Fig. 6 is a detailed explanatory diagram of the temperature control heat exchanger 3 in Fig. 5, and 601 is a cold source inlet and outlet pipe. The underground storage cold source or other cold source uses water or air as a medium, and a water pump or fan can be sent to any box in the series box to adjust the water temperature in the box. In the picture, 602 is the heat source inlet and outlet pipe. In this way, you can adjust the water temperature of each box in the front section. The representation of pipes and switches in the figure is exactly the same as the front figure. The following example illustrates the principle and process of dehumidification and temperature adjustment: Assume that the air temperature in the basement is 30 ° C, and the temperature needs to be reduced by 3-5 ° C. The humidity is high, and the relative humidity needs to be reduced. The air content is high concentration of carbon dioxide gas. Discard it and continue to use it. If there is contamination in the air, it needs to be sterilized. The method of temperature adjustment and dehumidification is to first adjust the water temperature in the four boxes of group A to 25 ° C, 15 ° C, 5 ° C, and 5 ° C by heat exchange system 503 in order to make it a relatively low temperature group. And the water temperature of the four boxes of group B was adjusted to the relatively high temperature group of 28 ° C, 18 ° C, 8 ° C and 0 ° C in order, and the high temperature and high humidity gas was extracted from the top of the basement with an exhaust fan. Then it is sent to the main pipeline of Group A. When the gas flows through the four boxes of a, b, c, and d, the heat is gradually absorbed and cooled in each box, so that when the gas reaches the box d, the temperature drops to -5 ° C-0 ° C. In the meantime, the temperature is greatly reduced to make the water vapor condense to achieve the purpose of dehumidification, and the low-temperature gas after dehumidification passes through the heat exchangers in the e, f, and g boxes of group B in sequence, or after passing the g box in a suitable period of time. In this way, the cold source is continuously replenished to some of the boxes through the heat exchanger 503 at any time. When the water temperature in the group A is generally increased and the water temperature in the group B is generally reduced, the switches located on the two main pipes and the branch pipe 510 are switched to make the hot and humid air. Enter from Group B, return to the basement after cooling down and dehumidifying, and then heat up from Group A. In this way, the two groups of alternating heating and cooling can not only achieve the purpose of dehumidification and temperature regulation, but also make full use of cold and heat sources. The key to using water as a medium for dehumidification and temperature reduction is to set up more water tanks to make the water temperature difference between the two adjacent tanks as small as possible. The smaller the water temperature difference, the higher the utilization rate of the cold and heat sources. As for how many water tanks are set up in each group, how long each tank is, and how many degrees the temperature of the last water tank is adjusted can be determined according to specific conditions. All water tanks are highly insulated with thermal insulation materials such as blister plastic. γ-type dehumidification thermostat bed with
X 型不同之处在于箱内的介质材料不同， 即每组的各个箱内各设置一种不同 熔点温度的相变材料， 从高熔点温度依次向低熔点温度顺序排列。 可用于除 湿调温床的相变材料很多， 如熔点温度为 33 °C的十水碳酸钠； 29.4°C的六水 氯化钙； 25 _ 2(TC的聚乙二醇 600; 13 °C的 Na2S04， NaC l , NH4C1; 7.2°C的 Na2S04, NH4C1; KC1;3.3 °C的 Na2S04， KCl; 0°C的水和 0— -55 °C的各种浓度 盐水等。 各种相变材料先装入不发生化学反应的塑料或金属长管内， 然后将 装有相变材料的管子再纵横密排于装内， 管子顶端与箱顶部密贴不留出空间， 箱的前后端各留出一层空间， 将被除湿和调温的空气先送入前端空间后再向 管间的空隙均匀通过均匀以达到换热除湿或调温之目的， 在除湿调温过程中 对相变材料进行调温的方法是在相变材料管内的相变材料中间再设一细管， 通过向细管内送入冷源或热源进行调温， 如图 7 所示是管内调温细管纵向布 置示意图， 其中 701为盛装相变材料的管， 702为相变材料， 703为调温细管， 调温细管在箱内的整体布置是纵向串联横向并联， 引出箱外的管道设置与 X 型床中如图 6 所示的调温管道布置完全相同。 由于水在冻结时体积膨胀， 为 防止胀破管子， 所以用以装水的管子不易长， 可用多层短管， 叠放于同一箱 内加以弥补。 Y 型床的除湿调温过程是： 首先将两组箱内的相变材料一组调 温至温度稍低于熔点温度的固态， 而另一组则调温到稍高于熔点温度的液态， 然后将被除湿空气从固态组的高熔点端送入， 穿越各箱逐级冷凝除湿后， 再 进入液态组的低熔点端逐箱升温， 当升温至所需温度后通过开关控制箱外的 通风道直送地下室。 如此连续通风除湿调温， 直至大部分相变材料固态组吸 热换冷变为液态， 而液态组吸冷换热变为固态时， 通过控制开关将两组的空 气流向转换为反向， 即原先进气的改为排气， 原先排出的改为送进， 然后继 续除湿调温。 在整个除湿调温的过程中， 当被调温气体需升温时， 则需通过 如图 6 所示的调温装置向气体排除的高温段补充热源， 需降温时则向排出组 低温段补充冷源， 当连续除湿调温至两组相态没有明显的故态与 1 液态区分 时， 则需再通过如图 6 所示的调温装置对两缉的相变材料的相态进行依次彻 底地调整， 即恢复一组的固态， 另一组的液态。 之后再重复上述的方法进行 除湿调温， 直至达到除湿调温的目的。 地下室空气抽出与送出的原则是： 当 降温时从顶部抽出， 从底部送入， 当升温时从底部抽出从顶部送入。 当除湿 要求低或调温幅度大时， 可通过设在各管道上的开关控制， 可从一组的任一 箱或任一段进入， 从另一组的仍一箱进入， 从另一组的任一箱或任一段排出。
Y 型床的优势在于利用介质材料相变的巨大潜热 （冷） 能维持相对稳定的温 度环境， 整个床内的温度变化幅度较小， 有利于自动化操作， 相比之下， X 型床内的温度变化大， 每时每箱的温度都在变化， 除湿和调温的效率都较 Y 型床为差些。 除水和相变材料做介质外， 其它导热性强， 比热熔大的材料如 金属等均可做为除湿调温床的介质。 除上述床式除湿外， 也可利用地下贮冷 直接降温除湿， 或在寒冷季节将生石灰直接放置地下室， 利用其熟化吸水除 湿的同时还能增温。 还可利用日较差资源， 选择适温时段连续通风换气达到 除湿目的。 还可利用吸附法等现有除湿技术进行除湿。 The difference between the X-types is that the dielectric materials in the boxes are different, that is, a phase change material with a different melting temperature is set in each box of each group, and they are arranged in order from high melting point to low melting point. There are many phase change materials that can be used in the dehumidification and tempering bed, such as sodium carbonate decahydrate with a melting point of 33 ° C; calcium chloride hexahydrate at 29.4 ° C; polyethylene glycol 600 at 2 _ 2 (TC; 13 ° C Na2S04, NaC l, NH4C1; Na2S04, NH4C1; 7.2 ° C Na2S04, KCl; 3.3 ° C Na2S04, KCl; 0 ° C water and various concentrations of brine at 0-55 ° C, etc. Various phase change materials first Put into a long plastic or metal tube that does not undergo chemical reaction, and then arrange the tubes containing phase change material in the package vertically and horizontally. The top of the tube and the top of the box are closely attached without leaving any space. In the layer space, the dehumidified and tempered air is sent into the front space first, and then the air between the tubes is evenly passed to achieve the purpose of heat exchange, dehumidification or temperature regulation. The phase change material is tempered during the dehumidification and temperature regulation process. The method is to set a thin tube in the middle of the phase change material in the phase change material tube, and adjust the temperature by sending a cold or heat source into the thin tube. As shown in FIG. Is a tube containing phase change material, 702 is a phase change material, 703 is a thermostat thin tube, and the thermostat thin tube is The overall arrangement inside is longitudinally connected in series and horizontally in parallel, and the arrangement of the pipes outside the lead-out box is exactly the same as the arrangement of the temperature-adjusting pipes in the X-bed as shown in Figure 6. Because water expands in volume when freezing, in order to prevent the pipe from bursting, so The pipe filled with water is not easy to grow, and it can be compensated by multi-layer short pipes stacked in the same box. The dehumidification and temperature regulation process of the Y-bed is: First, adjust the temperature of the group of phase change materials in the two groups of boxes to a slight temperature. Solids below the melting point temperature, while the other group is tempered to liquids slightly above the melting point temperature, and then the dehumidified air is sent from the high melting point end of the solid group, passed through each box to condense and dehumidify, and then enter the liquid state. The low-melting end of the group heats up from box to box, and when it reaches the required temperature, it is directly sent to the basement through the ventilation channel outside the control box. In this way, continuous ventilation, dehumidification, and temperature adjustment are performed until most of the solid-state group of phase change materials absorbs heat and changes to cold. When the liquid group absorbs heat and changes to solid, the air flow direction of the two groups is reversed through the control switch, that is, the original gas is changed to exhaust, the original exhaust is changed to feed, and then the removal is continued. In the whole process of dehumidification and temperature adjustment, when the temperature-adjusted gas needs to be heated, the heat source needs to be supplemented to the high-temperature section of the gas exhausted by the temperature adjustment device shown in FIG. The cold source is supplemented with a cold source. When the temperature is continuously dehumidified and the two phases have no obvious failure state and 1 liquid state, the phase state of the two phase change materials needs to be adjusted by the temperature adjustment device shown in FIG. 6. Adjust thoroughly in order to restore the solid state of one group and the liquid state of the other group. Then repeat the above method to perform dehumidification and temperature adjustment until the purpose of dehumidification and temperature adjustment is achieved. The principle of basement air extraction and delivery is: Withdraw from the top and feed from the bottom. When warming up, draw from the bottom and feed from the top. When the dehumidification requirement is low or the temperature adjustment range is large, it can be controlled by the switch set on each pipe. It can be entered from any box or section of one group, from another box or another box, and from the other group. Eject in any box or section. The advantage of the Y-bed is that it can maintain a relatively stable temperature environment by using the huge latent heat (cold) of the phase change of the dielectric material. The temperature change in the entire bed is small, which is conducive to automated operation. The temperature changes greatly, and the temperature of each box changes every time. The efficiency of dehumidification and temperature regulation is worse than that of the Y-bed. In addition to water and phase change materials as the medium, other materials with strong thermal conductivity and greater heat fusion than metals, such as metals, can be used as the medium for the dehumidification and temperature control bed. In addition to the above-mentioned bed-type dehumidification, the underground cold storage can also be used to directly cool down and dehumidify, or put quick lime directly in the basement in the cold season, and use its mature water absorption and dehumidification to increase temperature. You can also take advantage of the poor daily resources and choose continuous ventilation for a dehumidification period. Dehumidification can also be performed using existing dehumidification technologies such as adsorption.
4、 地下田的温周期技术 4. Thermal cycle technology of underground fields
植物对温度的周期性需求包括两个方面， 即一日内昼高夜低的温度需求 和整个生长期内不同生长阶段的高、 低温需求， 本技术解决温周期的主要方 法有三种， 其一为循环生产模式， 即在地下建造环型地下室， 在环型地下室 铺以铁轨、 轨道上设置环状平板轨道车， 在平板车上再设无土栽培床或砂土 栽培床和驱动电机， 在环型地下室分段设置保温遮光的推拉门或卷帘门， 将 各段室温调控成生产所需不同温度的相对的恒温室， 通过电机驱动轨道车所 载栽培床进行循环流动， 从而达到植物对日温差的要求。 There are two aspects to the cyclical demand for temperature in plants, namely the temperature requirement of high day and night low in a day and the high and low temperature requirements of different growth stages throughout the growing period. There are three main methods for this technology to solve the temperature cycle. One is Recycling production mode, that is, a ring-shaped basement is built underground, a ring-shaped flat rail car is laid on the ring-shaped basement, and a soilless bed or a sand-growing bed and a driving motor are set on the flat bed. The basement is provided with heat-insulating and light-proof sliding doors or rolling doors. The room temperature is adjusted to the relative constant temperature rooms with different temperatures required for production. The cultivation bed carried by the rail car is driven to circulate through the motor, so as to meet the plant's requirements for the daily temperature difference. .
如图 8 所示的圆形循环室示意图， 其中 801 为外环型室， 802 为内环型 室， 803 为作业室， 804 为连通内外环型室与作业间的连通道， 805 为两环型 室之间的隔土层， 806为建于环道壁内的推拉门， 也可以是固定在顶部的卷帘 门， 门的作用于隔热隔光， 圆形循环室既可以建成水平状的， 也可以整体建 成倾斜状， 使之一边高一边低形成高差， 由于热空气向高处流动， 而冷空气 则向低处流动， 所以会自然形成一个高处温度高， 低处温度低， 中部温度居 中的这样一个更接近自然界昼高夜低的温度环境， 加之人工进行温度的进一 步调节更适宜模拟自然气候环境， 该循环室的另一特点就是轨道车可象地球 自转一样连续缓慢向一个方向运动， 每 24 小时循环一圈， 或隔一定时间运动 一段距离， 一日内完成 360 度的一个循环。 环型室墙外分段设有卵石贮热调 温床。 As shown in the schematic diagram of the circular circulation chamber shown in Figure 8, 801 is an outer ring chamber, 802 is an inner ring chamber, 803 is an operation chamber, 804 is a connecting passage connecting the inner and outer ring chambers and the work chamber, and 805 is a two-ring chamber. The soil layer between the chambers, 806 is a sliding door built in the wall of the ring road, or a roller shutter door fixed on the top. The door functions as heat insulation and light insulation. The circular circulation room can be built horizontally. It can also be built as a whole, so that one side is high and the other is low to form a height difference. Because hot air flows to the high place and cold air flows to the low place, it will naturally form a high temperature at a high place, a low temperature at a low place, and a middle part. Such a temperature centered environment is closer to the natural day and night high temperature environment, and further artificial adjustment of the temperature is more suitable for simulating the natural climate environment. Another feature of the circulation chamber is that the rail car can continuously and slowly move in one direction like the rotation of the earth. Exercise, circulate once every 24 hours, or move a certain distance at a certain time, and complete a 360-degree cycle in one day. A pebble heat-regulating temperature bed is arranged in sections outside the annular chamber wall.
如图 9 所示是另一种形式的圆形循环室， 其是在前述圆形循环室的基础 上顺直径方向开出一条较为宽敞的作业道、 环型室与作业道相通处和室内分 别设门， 一道隔出两半圆， 一半高温室另一半低温室。 在作业道处将两半圆 轨道车连杆相接即可整体循环。 As shown in Fig. 9 is another form of circular circulation chamber, which is based on the aforementioned circular circulation chamber, a relatively spacious working path is opened in the diameter direction, where the ring-shaped chamber is connected with the working path and indoors are respectively Set up gates, one partitioning two semicircles, half high greenhouses and half low greenhouses. The two semicircular railcar connecting rods can be connected at the working lane for complete circulation.
如图 10所示的是跑道式的循环室， 其中 1001 为环形室， 1002为非循环 室， 可进行育苗或温差要求低的作物栽培。 1003 为作业道。 该循环模式适合 于地形比较狭窄地段应用。 上述循环调温既可满足作物一日内的温差需求，
也可全面调高或调低室温促成整个生产周期的温差需求。 循环车上的供电可 象城市的无轨电车一样在车上设两个 "电辫" 提供电源。 在车上设水箱， 水 箱上再设大漏斗， 在固定供水点由环型室的顶部或上侧部向漏斗内注水。 在 车底部两轴之间设贮气箱， 同样在固定供气地点向箱内高压压进砂土床栽所 需气体。 将多个环形室的室温调控成在一个生产周期内不同时段的不同温度 的恒温室， 如模拟春、 夏、 秋、 冬气温的恒温室， 然后将多个环型室联通可 进行整个生产期的大温差循环生产。 As shown in Fig. 10, there is a runway-type circulation room, of which 1001 is a circular room and 1002 is a non-circulation room, which can be used for seedling cultivation or crop cultivation with low temperature difference requirements. 1003 is the work path. This circulation mode is suitable for applications with relatively narrow terrain. The above-mentioned cyclic temperature adjustment can meet the temperature difference demand of the crop within a day, It can also fully increase or decrease the room temperature to promote the temperature difference demand throughout the production cycle. The power supply on the cycle car can be provided by two "electric braids" on the car like the trolleybus in the city. A water tank is set on the car, and a large funnel is set on the water tank. Water is injected into the funnel from the top or upper side of the annular chamber at a fixed water supply point. An air storage tank is set between the two shafts at the bottom of the car, and the required gas is pressed into the sand bed at a high pressure in the fixed air supply location. Regulate the room temperature of multiple annular chambers into constant temperature chambers with different temperatures in different periods in a production cycle, such as a constant temperature chamber that simulates the temperature of spring, summer, autumn, and winter, and then connect multiple annular chambers for the entire production period Large temperature difference cycle production.
如图 1 1 所示的大循环生产示意图， 其中 1 101 为环型生产室， 1 102为用 道岔和轨道连通两个环型生产室的连通道。 1 103 为工作道及铺在工作道内的 轨道， 1 104 为连通工作道与环型室之间的连通轨道， 1 105 为环型室与工作道 之间的连通道。 环型室的数量组合要与作物的生产周期及需冷天数配合一致， 如植物生长周期五个月， 需冷量为 30 天， 则环形室应为六个一组合， 即一个 冬季室， 其余五个可细分为早春、 春夏、 夏、 夏秋、 晚秋室， 这样才能形成 全理的循环生产。 循环过程很简单， 即当植物生长到需要变温时， 先将 a 室 的轨道车牵引至工作道内的轨道上空出 a室， 然后将 b、 c、 d、 e室顺序转入 前一环型生产室， 最后工作道内轨道车再转入 e 环型室。 每次如此循环即可 达到高度模拟自然气候的四委鲜品生产目的。 大循环栽培最适合用于具有休 眠习性的如桃树、 牡丹的反季节栽培。 环形栽培模式既可用铁轨和轨道车进 行循环， 也可不设轨道， 在设有一般轮子的平板车上进行循环栽培。 其二为 流水生产模式， 即将作物栽培于带轮子的小型栽培床上， 将多个栽培室按照 作物不同生长阶段所需温度调控成不同温度的相对的恒温室， 按照作物不同 生长期的时间比例将不同温度的恒温室组合成一组流水生产线， 将作物从育 苗、 营养生长、 生殖生长到出品生产进行不同温度栽培室的流水生产。 其三 为通过大调整室温满足温周期模式。 即利用冷、 热贮存， 通过地下室贮热调 温床直接向室内调温， 将室温随时调控成作物不同生长期所需温度。 此模式 最适合不宜移动的固定栽培的果树类， 如地下桃树栽培， 若要在冬季或早春 产出鲜桃， 则需在夏季或秋季将地下室的室温逐步调控到 5 °C左右进行冷冻休 眠， 休眠期满后再逐步逐段调整室温， 使桃树形成解除休眠、 开花、 结果、 花芽分化、 再休眠的循环生产， 此法虽然耗冷量大， 但是一方面调低温度时 换出的冷源可用于其它栽培室的降温所用， 另一方面在热季的低温室既可生 产低温型食用菌， 也可进行果蔬保鲜贮存， 还可对其它作物进行冷处理等， 所以从能源利用的角度看也是可行的。 作物栽培日温差的洞控方法有四种， 其一为利用除湿调温床在除湿的同时进行温差调节。 其二为利用地下冷、 热 贮存和日较差资源， 选择适当时段通过通风换气或经室内换热器调温进行日
温差调节。 其三为流水生产与循环生产相结合模式， 即在前述流水生产模式 的基础上将日温差需求高的生产段的栽培室设置成两组， 一组为高温室， 而 另一组为低温室， 两组内作物 24 小时内互换场所即可满足日温差需求， 当作 物光照需求大于或小于 12 小时时， 可根据具体情况将两组不同温度的地下室 再按光照要求进行非等量组合，·或者等量组合， 通过控制两组的光照时间满 足光周期要求。 其四为将环型栽培室相对两端调控成高温室和低温室， 通过 驱动环型的栽培床满足作物日温差需求。 除上述四种方法外通过调控地下室 空气成分的组成比例也能间接地满足作物日温差需求， 这是因为作物要求夜 间温度相对要低的原因之一是为了抑制夜间的呼吸消耗， 而利用前述二氧化 碳和氮资源开发， 将地下田的空气调节成高二氧化碳、 高氮、 低氧成份， 在 促进光合作用和防治病虫害的同时也能有效地抑制呼吸消耗， 间接地满足了 作物对日温差的部分要求。 As shown in the schematic diagram of large-cycle production shown in Fig. 11, 1 101 is a ring-shaped production room, and 1 102 is a connecting passage that connects two ring-shaped production rooms with a turnout and a track. 1 103 is the working track and the track paved in the working track, 1 104 is the connecting track connecting the working track and the ring chamber, and 1 105 is the connecting passage between the ring chamber and the working track. The combination of the number of annular chambers must be consistent with the production cycle of the crop and the number of cold days. If the plant growth cycle is five months and the cold demand is 30 days, the annular chamber should be a six-in-one combination, that is, a winter chamber, and the rest The five can be subdivided into early spring, spring and summer, summer, summer and autumn, and late autumn rooms, so as to form a full-cycle production. Cycle is very simple, i.e. when the plants grow to the required temperature change, the first rail vehicle a compartment traction to the orbits over the working path out of a chamber, and then transferred to the previous ring production b, c, d, e chamber order Room, and finally the rail car in the working lane turns into the e-ring room. Each such cycle can achieve the purpose of producing fresh products of the Fourth Committee, which highly simulates the natural climate. The large-cycle cultivation is most suitable for the off-season cultivation of dormant habits such as peach trees and peony. The circular cultivation mode can be performed by using rails and railcars to circulate, or it can be performed on flat-bed carts with general wheels without rails. The second is the flow production mode, that is, the crops are cultivated on a small cultivation bed with wheels, and multiple cultivation rooms are adjusted to different constant temperature rooms at different temperatures according to the temperature required for different growth stages of the crop. The constant temperature chambers with different temperatures are combined into a set of flowing water production lines, and the crops are produced from the nursery, vegetative growth, reproductive growth to the production of different temperatures in the cultivation room with different temperatures. The third is to meet the temperature cycle mode by adjusting the room temperature. That is, cold and hot storage is used, and the temperature is adjusted directly to the room through the basement heat storage temperature control bed, so that the room temperature can be adjusted at any time to the temperature required for different growth stages of the crop. This mode is most suitable for fixed cultivated fruit trees that should not be moved, such as underground peach cultivation. If you want to produce fresh peaches in winter or early spring, you need to gradually adjust the basement room temperature to about 5 ° C in summer or autumn for freezing and dormancy. After the dormancy period expires, the room temperature is gradually adjusted step by step to make the peach tree form a cyclic production of lifting dormancy, flowering, fruiting, flower bud differentiation, and resleeping. Although this method consumes a large amount of cold, it is exchanged when the temperature is lowered. The cold source can be used to cool other cultivation rooms. On the other hand, in the low-temperature greenhouse in the hot season, it can produce low-temperature edible fungi, can also be used for fresh-keeping storage of fruits and vegetables, and can also perform cold treatment on other crops. Therefore, from the perspective of energy utilization, Seeing is also feasible. There are four methods for controlling the daily temperature difference of crop cultivation. One is to use a dehumidification and temperature-adjusting bed to perform temperature difference adjustment while dehumidifying. The second is to use underground cold and hot storage and poor daily resources, and choose appropriate time to carry out daily Temperature difference adjustment. The third is the combined mode of flow production and circular production, that is, based on the aforementioned flow production mode, the cultivation rooms of the production section with high daily temperature difference requirements are set into two groups, one is a high greenhouse, and the other is a low greenhouse. The exchange of places within 24 hours of the crops in the two groups can meet the daily temperature difference. When the demand for crop lighting is greater than or less than 12 hours, the two basements of different temperatures can be combined non-equally according to the specific conditions. · Or an equivalent combination to meet the photoperiod requirements by controlling the lighting time of the two groups. The fourth is to regulate the opposite ends of the annular cultivation room into a high greenhouse and a low greenhouse, and drive the annular cultivation bed to meet the daily temperature difference demand of the crop. In addition to the above four methods, by adjusting the composition ratio of the air composition in the basement, the daily temperature difference demand of the crop can also be indirectly met. This is because one of the reasons why the crop requires relatively low night temperature is to suppress the breathing consumption at night and use the aforementioned carbon dioxide. And nitrogen resource development, adjusting the air in the underground fields to high carbon dioxide, high nitrogen, and low oxygen components, which can effectively suppress respiratory consumption while promoting photosynthesis and controlling pests and diseases, and indirectly meet some of the crop's requirements for daily temperature differences .
5、 砂土床栽及二氧化碳、 氧气、 氮气应用技术 5. Sand bed planting and application technology of carbon dioxide, oxygen and nitrogen
无土栽培虽然能提高作物产量， 但完全依赖于化学肥料使得其产品质量 低下， 利用土壤施用有机肥栽培虽然能保证产品的质量， 但产量不高， 不论 是无土栽培还是土壤栽培， 作物根际氧气和温度很难达到始终最佳的水平。 而砂土床栽则是解决了这一系列问题。 如图 12 所示的砂土床栽示意图， 其中 1201 为砂土床外壳， 可以是塑料、 金属或混凝土预制的矩形箱； 1202 为泡膜 塑料保温层， 1203为介质材料调温层， 介质材料可以是塑料管内装相变材料， 也可以是导热性强， 比热熔大的金属球或块直接置于床内， 还可以是用水直 接做介质材料， 介质材料的作用在于通过外部向介质材料输送冷或热源， 使 其吸收贮存冷、 热， 从而达到对根际调温控温的目的。 1204 为砂土床内箱， 内箱可以是矩形塑料箱。 1205 为置于内箱底部的塑料板， 板面做成筛网状或 纵横密打小孔， 板上面再覆一层通透气强的无纺布， 板下面密设小支柱， 使 板与箱底形成一空隙层。 1206 为供氧管， 从外部将空气或富氧气体通过供氧 管送入砂土床的底部， 可使床内砂土中形成一个至下向上的强制供氧机制。 1207为置于无纺布上的小卵石、砾石或岩棉等，其作用仅是提高通透气性。1208 为砂土， 所谓砂土是将一定的砂、 土、 有机肥、 蚯蚓粪、 沼气渣肥等按比例 混而成的栽培土， 砂土内同时饲养一定数量的蚯蚓， 使之达到既具有良好的 通气性， 又具有良好的肥力， 砂土在栽培前和栽培后都要进行一定时间的养 土。 1209 为定植板， 1210 为定植杯。 定植板与定植杯是用透明硬塑膜制为一 体的， 将定植板覆盖在砂土床上并用塑料胶带将四周密封。 121 1 为与供氧管 配套的供水与抽气两用管， 即在非供水时段由供氧管 1206微压向砂土中供氧， 而由 121 1 反压将排出气体抽出床外另做它用； 当供水管喷水供水时， 供氧管
1206 停止供氧， 必要时反压抽气使水均匀快速渗透整个栽培床， 当床底有水 排出时也通过供氧管将积水排出床外另做它用。 1212 为置于定植杯内的密封 土， 即将预先培育好的幼苗定植于定植杯后， 在杯内填以透气性差的一般土 并适度压实， 使床面排出气体不易从杯口排出而集中从排气管 1 1 排出。 砂土 床栽时， 当床内有机肥和蚯蚓较多时， 土壤通透气好时， 可不加砂而用纯土 栽培， 床顶的定植板可设也可不设。 沙土床栽要实现的目的有三； 其一为根 温的调节。 大多数作物的根际适温范围为 1 5— 25 °C， 如选择熔点温度为 20— 25 Ό的聚乙二醇 600 相变材料做砂土床的调温介质材料， 根际需降温保根温 时， 利用地下冷贮存将水温调控在相变材料熔点温度以下， 从床的一端送入 床内， 经过床内介质材料吸冷换热后从另一端排出， 连续换热使床内介质材 料从液态吸冷凝固为固态。 在此后的很长一段时间内可利用相变材料的潜热 (冷） 保持根际相对恒定的适温环境； 当根际需升温保根温时， 则利用地下 贮热， 将水温调控在相变材料熔点温度以上， 同样从床的一端送入， 经相变 材料吸热换冷后从另一排出， 使相变材料从固态吸热熔化为液态， 利用相变 潜热保持根际恒温状态。 利用介质材料的相变潜热可以在较长时间内进行恒 温保温， 但为了减少一次性投资， 也可以直接用水或非相变材料做床内的调 温介质材料蓄冷蓄热进行调温， 同样也能达到调控根际温度的目的。 其二为 根际氧气的调节， 向砂土床中的砂土强制供氧既可促进根系的呼吸、 生长和 营养的吸收， 又可促进砂土中的微生物生长， 促进微生物对物质的矿质化转 化， 促进生长刺激素和抗菌素的生成， 还可以促进砂土中蚯蚓的新陈代谢， 加速蚯蚓对土壤中有机物的分解和转化， 供气的方法之一是先将空气或富氧 气体调温加湿后贮存入贮气装置内， 然后或在贮气装置上加一定压力， 或用 适度的压力风机将气体送入砂土床的底部， 使气体均匀穿越砂土后排出床外， 排气途径可按如图 12 所示的经排气管 121 1 由抽风机抽出。 由于排气中富含 二氧化碳， 所以排气仍可用于其它保护地栽培的二氧化碳增施所用， 但是当 排气抽出室外另做它用时， 栽培室气体含量必须是高二氧化碳。 也可以在砂 土床上不设定植板， 排气直接排向室内供作物直接利用二氧化碳。 供气的方 法之二为室外的地下控出一条长沟， 沟内置以卵石或塑料水袋等介质材料后 将土回填成一地下供氧通风道， 将供气从通风道经过后可起到调温作用， 如 白天气温高时， 经通风道可起降温作用， 而晚上气温低时， 经通风道可起升 温作用， 在气温昼夜偏低的季节可在中午高气温时段向通风道大量通热风贮 热， 在昼夜气温偏高的季节则可在凌晨低气温时段向通风道大量通冷风贮冷， 在向通风道贮冷或贮热时， 向砂土床的供气不经通风道而直接向床底通气， 沙土床栽的作用之三为提高产品质量。 少施或不施化学肥料和农药， 充分应
用有机肥和微生物， 返璞归真， 恢复农产品原有的色、 香、 味是砂土床栽的 最终目的。 而实现这个目的的措施除对根际的温度和氧气调控外， 砂土的组 成， 砂土的培养和砂土床栽 程中的施肥亦是措施之一。 其中砂土的组成原 则是既要保证肥力， 又要确保具有良好的通气性。 砂土的培养方法是在半地 下式塑料大棚下建成一大形养土池， 池底部用卵石或块石等垒成一通透气强 的通气层并设通气管， 通气层上置砂土， 经通气管向砂土内强制供氧可促进 微生物和蚯蚓对砂土内有机质的分解和转化， 起到养土作用， 砂土面上还可 进行作物栽培。 一举两用。 Although soilless cultivation can improve crop yields, it is completely dependent on chemical fertilizers to make its products low. Although the application of organic fertilizer cultivation using soil can ensure the quality of the products, the yield is not high. Whether soilless or soil cultivation, crop roots It is difficult for international oxygen and temperature to reach the optimal level all the time. The sand bed planting has solved this series of problems. As shown in the schematic diagram of the sandy soil bed shown in Fig. 12, 1201 is a sandy soil shell, which can be a rectangular box prefabricated with plastic, metal or concrete; 1202 is a thermal insulation layer of foamed plastic, 1203 is a temperature regulating layer of a dielectric material, and a dielectric material. It can be a phase change material inside a plastic tube, or it can be a metal ball or block that has a higher thermal conductivity and is larger than heat fusion and is placed directly in the bed. It can also be made directly with water as a dielectric material. Transport the cold or heat source to make it absorb and store the cold and heat, so as to achieve the purpose of adjusting and controlling the temperature of the rhizosphere. 1204 is the inner box of the sand bed. The inner box can be a rectangular plastic box. 1205 is a plastic board placed at the bottom of the inner box. The surface of the board is made of screen mesh or small and vertical holes. The top of the board is covered with a layer of non-woven fabric with air permeability. Small pillars are arranged under the board to make the board and the bottom of the box close. A void layer is formed. 1206 is an oxygen supply pipe. Air or oxygen-enriched gas is sent from the outside to the bottom of the sandy soil bed through the oxygen supply pipe, which can form a bottom-up forced oxygen supply mechanism in the sand and soil in the bed. 1207 is a pebble, gravel, or rock wool placed on a non-woven fabric. Its function is only to improve air permeability. 1208 is sandy soil. The so-called sandy soil is a proportion of cultivated soil mixed with a certain proportion of sand, soil, organic fertilizer, earthworm manure, and biogas residue fertilizer. A certain number of earthworms are raised in the sand at the same time to achieve Good aeration and good fertility, sand soil should be cultivated for a certain period of time before and after cultivation. 1209 is a planting plate, and 1210 is a planting cup. The planting plate and the planting cup are made of a transparent hard plastic film as a whole. The planting plate is covered on a sand bed and the surroundings are sealed with plastic tape. 121 1 is a dual-purpose water supply and exhaust pipe for oxygen supply pipe, that is, during the non-water supply period, the oxygen supply pipe 1206 slightly pressures the oxygen into the sand, and the 121 1 back pressure draws the exhaust gas out of the bed. It is used; when the water supply pipe sprays water, the oxygen supply pipe 1206 Stop the oxygen supply. If necessary, back pressure to evacuate the water evenly and quickly throughout the cultivation bed. When water is discharged from the bottom of the bed, the accumulated water is also discharged out of the bed through the oxygen supply pipe for other purposes. 1212 is the sealing soil placed in the planting cup. After the pre-cultivated seedlings are planted in the planting cup, the cup is filled with ordinary soil with poor air permeability and moderately compacted, so that the exhaust gas from the bed surface is not easy to be discharged from the cup mouth and is concentrated. Exhaust from the exhaust pipe 1 1. When planting on a sandy soil bed, when there is a lot of organic fertilizer and earthworms in the bed, when the soil is well ventilated, it can be cultivated with pure soil without adding sand, and the planting board on the top of the bed may or may not be provided. There are three purposes to be achieved by sand-bed planting; one is the regulation of root temperature. The suitable temperature range of the rhizosphere of most crops is 15-25 ° C. If a polyethylene glycol 600 phase change material with a melting point of 20-25 Ό is selected as the temperature regulating medium material for the sand bed, the rhizosphere needs to be cooled to protect the temperature. At the root temperature, the underground temperature is used to regulate the water temperature below the melting point of the phase change material. It is sent from one end of the bed into the bed, and is discharged from the other end after the material in the bed is absorbed and heat-exchanged. Continuous heat exchange makes the medium in the bed The material absorbs and condenses from liquid to solid. The latent heat (cold) of the phase change material can be used to maintain a relatively constant temperature environment at the rhizosphere for a long time thereafter; when the rhizosphere needs to be warmed to maintain the root temperature, underground heat storage is used to regulate the water temperature during the phase change Above the melting point of the material, it is also fed in from one end of the bed, and then discharged from the other after the phase change material absorbs heat and cools, so that the phase change material is melted from the solid endothermic heat to a liquid state, and the latent heat of the phase change is used to maintain the rhizosphere constant temperature state. The phase change latent heat of the dielectric material can be used for constant temperature insulation for a long period of time, but in order to reduce the one-time investment, you can also directly use water or non-phase change materials as the temperature control medium material in the bed to store the cold and heat. Can achieve the purpose of regulating rhizosphere temperature. The second is the regulation of rhizosphere oxygen. Forced oxygen supply to the sand in the sand bed can not only promote the respiration, growth and nutrient absorption of the root system, but also promote the growth of microorganisms in the sand and promote the mineralization of substances by the microorganisms. Transformation, promote the production of growth stimulating hormones and antibiotics, can also promote the metabolism of earthworms in sandy soil, accelerate the decomposition and conversion of earthworms to organic matter in the soil, one of the methods of air supply is to first humidify the air or oxygen-rich gas Store in the air storage device, and then either apply a certain pressure on the air storage device, or use a moderate pressure fan to send the gas to the bottom of the sandy soil bed, so that the gas passes through the sand and evenly exits the bed. As shown in FIG. 12, the exhaust pipe 121 1 is taken out by the exhaust fan. Since the exhaust gas is rich in carbon dioxide, the exhaust gas can still be used for the carbon dioxide application of other protected cultivation. However, when the exhaust gas is taken out for other purposes, the gas content in the cultivation room must be high carbon dioxide. It is also possible not to set a planting board on the sand bed, and the exhaust gas is directly discharged to the indoor for the crops to directly use carbon dioxide. The second method of gas supply is to control a long trench outdoors. The trench is filled with media materials such as pebbles or plastic water bags, and the soil is backfilled into an underground oxygen supply ventilation channel. After passing the air supply through the ventilation channel, it can be adjusted. When the temperature is high during the day, it can cool down through the ventilation channel, and when the temperature is low at night, it can warm up through the ventilation channel. During the day and night when the temperature is low, it can pass a lot of hot air to the ventilation channel during the high temperature of noon. For heat storage, during the day and night when the temperature is high, a large amount of cold air can be passed to the ventilation channel during the low temperature period in the early morning. When storing cold or heat in the ventilation channel, the air supply to the sandy bed is directly passed through the ventilation channel. To ventilate the bottom of the bed, the third effect of sand bed planting is to improve product quality. Apply less or no chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Using organic fertilizers and microorganisms to return to nature and restore the original color, aroma and taste of agricultural products is the ultimate purpose of sand bed planting. In addition to regulating the temperature and oxygen in the rhizosphere, the measures to achieve this goal include sand composition, sand culture, and fertilization during sand bed planting. The composition principle of sandy soil is to ensure both fertility and good aeration. The method of cultivating sandy soil is to build a large soil-cultivating pond under a semi-underground plastic greenhouse. The bottom of the pond is made of a pebble or a block of stone to form a breathable and strong aeration layer and a ventilating tube is placed on the aeration layer. The forced supply of oxygen from the trachea to the sand can promote the decomposition and transformation of the organic matter in the sand by microorganisms and earthworms, and play a role in raising soil. Crops can also be cultivated on the sand. Do both.
图 13 是塑棚养土示意图， 其中 1301 为半地下式塑料大棚， 1302为棚下 的养土池。 1303为砖墙， 1304为以卵石为介质的贮热调温床， 1305为调温床 加固层， 1306为砂土池通气层， 下部用大小均匀的卵石或块石铺出一通气层， 上部用小卵石或小块石铺出一过渡层， 其上即可置砂土。 1307 为通气层内的 通风管， 由于池内砂土较厚。 所以通气管外需连接压力风机， 高压力向砂土 内供氧。 1308 为排气管， 由于从砂土内排出的气体富含二氧化碳， 所以将排 气集中抽出可用于其它保护地作物栽培所用。 1309为在砂土表面种作的作物。 塑棚养土可根据生产所需或以养土为主， 或以制肥为主， 当以养土为主时， 砂土的成份比例按砂土床栽的的要求配制， 并饲养适量的蚯蚓， 浇水时以池 底有少量水渗出为度， 为了使砂土内不积水， 浇水时池底通气管可反压抽水， 使水均匀渗透不留积水。 当培养一段时间后， 去除上部作物栽培部分砂土， 将养好的砂土再加入适量腐熟的有机肥后即可用于砂土床栽， 每栽培完一荏 后再集中养土。 当以制肥为主时， 加大砂土中有机物质的比例和蚯蚓的数量， 在养土一定时间后， 浇水时加大浇水量， 并配合池底反压抽水， 将流穿整个 砂土池富含营养成份的水抽出用于砂土床栽的液肥施用， 如此每隔一段时间 可用浇透水的方法获得液肥， 待砂土中有机质被微生物和蚯蚓用尽时重新换 新的砂土。 换出的砂土中仍含有蚯蚓粪等丰富的营养成份， 仍可增加适量有 机肥后进行砂土床栽或其它场合进行作物栽培。 此法若进一步加大桔杆、 人 畜粪便和生活垃圾等有机质比例， 减少或去除砂和土则是塑棚下蚯蚓饲养。 当塑棚下专门饲养蚯蚓时， 可按附图中虚线所示建池， 即 13 10 为池中间增加 的一道砖墙。 13 1 1 为池顶部覆盖的混凝土预制板， 1312 为料面， 将料面与混 凝土板之间形成一空间以用于加水和排气。 1313 为喷水和排气兼用管。 混凝 土预制板上可进行砂土床栽或无土栽培， 或盆栽花卉等。 塑棚下词养蚯蚓同 样可以加大浇水量， 池底反压抽出营养水用于砂土床栽施用。 用于砂土床栽 的肥料也可以是沼气生产中的液肥， 也可以适量施用化学肥料。 在作物栽培 的中途还可以向砂土中施以有机肥， 砂土床栽中对限际调湿和供氧的方法，
也可用于纯土壤栽培和无土栽培。 Figure 13 is a schematic diagram of soil cultivation in a plastic shed, where 1301 is a semi-underground plastic greenhouse and 1302 is a soil cultivation pond under the shed. 1303 is a brick wall, 1304 is a thermal storage temperature bed with a pebble as the medium, 1305 is a reinforcement layer of the temperature bed, 1306 is a ventilated layer of a sand pool, and a lower layer is formed with a uniformly-sized pebble or block stone, and an upper layer is a pebble. Or a small layer of stone paved a transition layer, on which sand and soil can be placed. 1307 is the ventilation pipe in the aeration layer, because the sand in the pond is thick. Therefore, a pressure fan needs to be connected outside the ventilation pipe to supply oxygen to the sand at high pressure. 1308 is an exhaust pipe. Because the gas exhausted from the sand is rich in carbon dioxide, the exhaust gas is extracted in a concentrated way and can be used for the cultivation of other protected crops. 1309 is a crop grown on the surface of sand. The plastic shed soil can be produced according to production needs or mainly based on soil cultivation or fertilizer production. When mainly based on soil cultivation, the proportion of the composition of the sandy soil is prepared according to the requirements of the sandy soil bed, and an appropriate amount of For earthworms, a small amount of water seeps out at the bottom of the pond when watering. In order to prevent water from accumulating in the sand, the vent pipe at the bottom of the pond can pump back pressure when watering, so that the water penetrates evenly without retaining water. After cultivating for a period of time, remove some of the sandy soil cultivated by the upper crops, add the appropriate amount of mature organic fertilizer to the cultivated sandy soil, and then use it for sandy bed planting. After each cultivation, the soil is concentrated. When mainly fertilizer production, increase the proportion of organic matter in the sand and the number of earthworms. After cultivating the soil for a certain period of time, increase the amount of watering when watering, and cooperate with the bottom pressure of the pool to pump water, which will flow through the entire The nutrient-rich water in the sand pool is pumped out for liquid fertilizer application on the sand bed. In this way, the liquid fertilizer can be obtained by watering the water at regular intervals. When the organic matter in the sand is depleted by microorganisms and earthworms, the new sand will be replaced. . The exchanged sand soil still contains rich nutrient components such as earthworm dung. It is still possible to add appropriate amount of organic fertilizer for sand soil bed planting or other occasions for crop cultivation. If this method further increases the proportion of organic matter such as orange rods, human and animal manure, and domestic waste, and reduces or removes sand and soil, it is reared by earthworms in plastic sheds. When earthworms are specially raised under the plastic shed, a pool can be built as shown by the dotted line in the drawing, that is 13 10 is a brick wall added in the middle of the pool. 13 1 1 is a concrete prefabricated slab covered at the top of the pool, and 1312 is a material surface. A space is formed between the material surface and the concrete plate for water addition and exhaust. 1313 is a water spray and exhaust pipe. Concrete prefabricated boards can be planted in sand or soilless, or potted flowers. Under the plastic shed, raising earthworms can also increase the amount of watering, and the bottom of the pond can extract the nutrient water for application on the sand bed. Fertilizers for sand bed planting can also be liquid fertilizers in biogas production, and chemical fertilizers can also be applied in appropriate amounts. In the middle of crop cultivation, organic fertilizer can also be applied to the sand, and the method of limiting humidity and oxygen supply in the sand bed, Can also be used for pure soil cultivation and soilless cultivation.
床栽主要解决的是根部的温度、 氧气和营养问题， 而茎叶部的诸多生产 因素则是充分利用本技术对冷、 热能源的贮存， 二氧化碳和氮气资源的开发， 将茎叶部调控成适温、 高二氧化碳和高氮含量的植物最适生长环境。 加之本 技述对温周期、 除温调温和光缆传光的综合应用， 能促成植物栽培诸多生产 因素的前所未有的最佳状态。 Bed planting mainly solves the problems of temperature, oxygen and nutrition of the root, and many production factors of the stem and leaf are to make full use of this technology for the storage of cold and heat energy, the development of carbon dioxide and nitrogen resources, and regulate the stem and leaf to Plants suitable for temperature, high carbon dioxide and high nitrogen content are most suitable for growing environment. In addition, the comprehensive application of this technical description to the temperature cycle, temperature removal and temperature adjustment, and optical fiber cable transmission can promote the unprecedented optimal state of many production factors in plant cultivation.
6、 地下田病虫害防治技术 6. Pest control technology for underground fields
地下田病虫害防治方法是 （1 ) 充分利用地下室高度封闭的优势， 严格管 理可有效防止地上病虫害的传播。 将进入地下室的空气进行过滤， 必要时进 行灭菌； 从高山或远外空气洁净地抽取空气对地下室进行换气、 调温、 工厂 化生产， 保持进入地下室的人和物的清洁， 拒绝外界病虫害传入是地下室主 要的以防为主的病虫害防治方法。 （2 ) 利用前述氮气和二氧化碳资源幵发， 将地下室空气调控成高二氧化碳、 高氮、 低氧含量的组合， 在促进光合作用 和抑制呼吸消耗的同时能有效地抑制虫害和需氧性病菌的发生， 当低氧环境 下有厌氧菌和兼性厌氧性病菌发生时， 将地下室的空气再换成高二氧化碳和 自然含氧状态， 这样不但能杀死厌氧菌， 而且低氧与高氧环境的交替。 能使 兼性微生物失去繁殖能力， 起到抑制作用。 （3 ) 利用药物防治。 （4 ) 利用 前述除湿技术及利用冷热贮存和日较差资源加强通风降湿， 降低地下室温度。 综合利用上述四种方法能有效地防治地下田的病虫害。 The methods for controlling pests and diseases in underground fields are: (1) Make full use of the advantages of highly enclosed basements, and strict management can effectively prevent the spread of pests and diseases on the ground. Filter the air entering the basement and sterilize if necessary; Cleanly extract air from the mountains or the distant air to ventilate, temper, and produce in the basement, keep people and things entering the basement clean, and refuse outside diseases and insect pests Incoming is the main prevention and control method of pests and diseases in the basement. (2) Utilizing the aforementioned nitrogen and carbon dioxide resources, the basement air is adjusted to a combination of high carbon dioxide, high nitrogen, and low oxygen content, which can effectively inhibit insect pests and aerobic bacteria while promoting photosynthesis and suppressing respiratory consumption. Occurs, when anaerobic bacteria and facultative anaerobic bacteria occur in a low-oxygen environment, the air in the basement is replaced with a high carbon dioxide and natural oxygen state, so that not only can kill anaerobic bacteria, but also low oxygen and high Alternating oxygen environment. Can make facultative microorganisms lose their ability to reproduce and play a suppressive role. (3) Prevention and treatment with drugs. (4) Use the aforementioned dehumidification technology and use of hot and cold storage and poor daily resources to strengthen ventilation and dehumidification, and reduce the basement temperature. The comprehensive use of the above four methods can effectively control the pests and diseases in underground fields.
7、 地下田光照的应用 7. Application of underground light
由于地下田除光因素外， 无论是茎叶部还是根际部， 其它诸多生产因素 都能人为制造出最佳水平， 所以植株部除人工光源外在枝叶间再设置光缆， 或利用聚集的自然光源， 或利用人工光源， 将光源通过光缆传输到作物任一 需光处可起到画龙点睛的作用。 用光缆增光虽然投入加大， 但既能提高产量， 更能提高质量， 自然也经济合算； 充分利用地下室无光和不同作物或同一作 物不同生长期的不同需光特点， 可人为控制光的强度和照射时间， 最大程度 上利用光周期的促成作用。 In addition to the light factor of the underground field, whether it is the stem or leaf or the rhizosphere, many other production factors can artificially create the optimal level. Therefore, in addition to the artificial light source, the plant department sets up optical cables between the branches and leaves, or uses the gathered natural The light source, or an artificial light source, can be used to complete the finishing touch by transmitting the light source to any desired place of the crop through an optical cable. Although the use of fiber optic cables to increase lightness increases investment, it can not only increase yield, but also improve quality, and it is also natural and economical; make full use of the basement's lack of light and the different light demand characteristics of different crops or different growth periods of the same crop, which can artificially control the intensity of light And irradiation time, making the most of the photoperiod's enabling effect.
8、 植物栽培 8. Plant cultivation
地下田植物栽培即是前述生产因素调控技术的综合应用。 前述诸项生产 因素调控技术也可用于地上保护地生产综合应用或任意选择一项或多项应 用， 在地上保护地利用时， 床栽既可将床体置地面上栽培， 也可埋入土中栽 培， 当埋入土中栽培时可在地下控出与床外型尺寸相同的土坑， 在坑壁加一 层泡膜塑料保温层后即可在坑内如法设置贮热调温介质层和供氧装置后即可 在床内置土栽培或无土栽培。 由于地下温度变化小， 所以在地下设床栽培时
也可只设供氧装置， 在供氧的同时利用供气温度适当调节植物根际温度。 上 述地下栽培方法也可在室外露天地下应用。 由于地下室的各种生产因素宜于 人为调控， 充分利用地下反季节温度环境可促成地上地下结合栽培， 如地上 热季栽培牡丹花， 在花芽形成时可移地下低温促成休眠， 休眠期满可解除休 眠促成反季节开花。 . Underground field plant cultivation is a comprehensive application of the aforementioned production factor regulation techniques. The aforementioned control factors of production factors can also be used for the comprehensive application of ground protection ground production or any one or more applications. When the ground protection ground is used, the bed can be cultivated on the ground or buried in the soil. For cultivation, when buried in the soil, a pit with the same dimensions as the bed can be controlled underground. After adding a layer of foam plastic insulation layer on the wall of the pit, you can set a heat storage and temperature regulating medium layer and supply the same way in the pit. After the oxygen device, soil cultivation or soilless cultivation can be built in the bed. Underground temperature changes are small. It is also possible to set only an oxygen supply device, and use the air supply temperature to adjust the plant rhizosphere temperature appropriately while supplying oxygen. The above-mentioned underground cultivation method can also be applied outdoors and in the open air underground. Because various production factors in the basement are suitable for artificial regulation, making full use of the underground anti-seasonal temperature environment can promote the combination of ground and underground cultivation, such as the cultivation of peony flowers in the hot season, the underground temperature can be moved to promote dormancy during flower bud formation, and the dormancy period can be lifted Hibernation contributes to off-season flowering. .
地下田果树栽培是利用地下室能任意调整室温等生产因素的大型砂土床 栽或大型固体基质无土栽培技术。 图 14 是地下室大型砂土床栽果树示意图， 其中 1401 为用于果树栽培的大型砂土床， 该大型砂土床与图 12 所示的小型 砂土床不同的在于， 在床中间纵横设置支柱， 支柱上设横梁， 横梁上盖混凝 土预制板， 预制板上设小型砂土床进行作物栽培； 床底部不设单独的通气层 和调温层， 而是将二者集于一体， 即床的最底层用较大的卵石先铺一层， 以 上逐层降低卵石粒径直至最上层为砾石层， 1402 为卵石中间和砾石上各铺的 一层无紡布， 1403 为设在床底卵石中的供氧兼抽水排水两用管， 1404 为砂土 与盖板之间空间内的喷水兼排气两用管， 1405 为定植于砂土床中的枝杆较细 长类的果树， 如枣树， 定植前先在地上或常规栽培， 或设置与地下同样规模 的砂土床先培育幼树， 在幼树长到一定高度时在枝杆的上部设置定型架， 将 枝杆强制捆绑于定型架上并通过修剪使之形成如图所示的枝杆平行排列的适 于地下室栽培的树型。 果树的定型培育既可在地上完成后再移植于地下室， 也可在定型前将幼树移植到地下室在地下室定型。 1406 是枝杆较粗短类果树 的定型模式， 如桃树和苹果树等， 1405和 1406所示的只是两类果树在地下室 栽培时与地下室的空间、 光照及树下作物共同栽培的一种模式， 而非同一室 内栽培两种果树， 同一室内只能栽培一种果树。 1407为果树下的小型砂土床， 可进行蔬菜、 花卉等作物栽培。 1408为人工光源， 1409为设在枝叶间的光缆， 1410 为设在床底的卵石层， 既为床底供氧提供均匀通气的空间， 也可通水对 床底调温。 大型栽培床栽培果树的供氧、 浇水和施肥的方法与小型砂土床完 全相同， 但由于果树的生长周期长， 所以在一个开花结果期内还需打开混凝 土盖板向砂土内挖沟增施有机肥； 在若干个开花结果期后， 可将床上部树体 用支架稳定后将床内陈旧砂土取出换以新鲜砂土， 同时对床底卵石进行清理 和更换新的无紡布， 或者更换新的果树。 地下果树栽培的温周期管理和应用 方法有两种， 其一为固定模式， 即将某一种果树固定栽培于其一地下室， 通 过调整室温满足果树的温周期需求。 现以桃树栽培为例举例说明： 假设桃树 的果熟期为冬季， 需冷期则为夏季， 将地下贮存的冬天的冷源或利用低谷电 制取的冷源转贮进地下室墙壁的卵石床内， 使桃树栽培室的温度降至 7.2 Ό以 下， 待桃树栽培达到需冷量 （20— 40 天） 后自然气候仍属高温季节， 桃树栽
培室升温换出的冷源仍可用于其它生产所用， 冷源虽有少量消耗损失， 但因 地下室保温性能强利用率也很高。 为了充分利用桃树需冷期的冷源和地下室 空间， 可将地下室的温度调控成 0— 7 °C的恒温状态， 并将空气成份调控成高 二氧化碳和氮气的环境进行水果、 蔬菜和花卉的保鲜。 但由于桃树的需冷量 并非恒温最好 "夜间" 6 °C， "白.昼" 15 °C的冷热交替环境更有利于打破休眠， 所以将地下室的 "昼夜"温度调控在 6— 15 Ό之间既能满足桃树的需冷要求， 又是菊花、 郁金香、 金针菇、 滑菇等最适成花和出菇环境， 7— 8 月份促成低 温型花卉和食用菌生产可大大降低反季节产果的成本， 从而使得地下反季节 果树栽培成为可能。 同样在桃树需冷期前后的低温栽培期也可充分利用其低 温环境进行地上尚不能生产的芫荽、 香菇等生产。 桃树每日的温差需求可通 过如前所述的换气、 除湿时的调温及高浓度及高浓度二氧化碳和氮气环境的 抑制呼吸消耗等多方面措施得以满足。 其二为循环生产模式， 即如前所述的， 如图 8、 9、 10、 1 1 所示的模式， 在轨道车上设置较大型的砂土床对树形较矮 的果树进行循环栽培， 树下用无土栽培时同样在栽培床壁设调温层， 在床底 设供氧装置， 并将砂土换成砾石等固体基质， 在床顶部增设营养液喷施管， 在床底增设排液管等无土栽培设施。 地下果树栽培也可和地上一样直接栽培 于地下室的土壤中， 利用此法进行果树栽培时， 植株部分不能调控成低氧环 境， 而需利用日温差和冷热贮存加强通风以确保向根际供氧。 The cultivation of fruit trees in underground fields is a large-scale sand-bed planting or large-scale solid-substrate soilless cultivation technology that uses production factors such as room temperature to be arbitrarily adjusted in the basement. Figure 14 is a schematic diagram of fruit trees planted on a large sand bed in the basement. 1401 is a large sand bed used for fruit tree cultivation. This large sand bed is different from the small sand bed shown in Figure 12 in that pillars are arranged vertically and horizontally in the middle of the bed. There are beams on the pillars, and the beams are covered with concrete prefabricated panels. The prefabricated panels are equipped with small sandy soil beds for crop cultivation. There is no separate ventilation layer and temperature regulation layer at the bottom of the bed, but the two are integrated into one, that is, the bed. Use a layer of larger pebble at the bottom layer to reduce the size of the pebble layer by layer until the top layer is a gravel layer, 1402 is a layer of non-woven fabric laid in the middle of the pebble and on the gravel, and 1403 is set in the pebble at the bottom of the bed. The dual-purpose pipe for oxygen supply and pumping and drainage, 1404 is the dual-purpose pipe for water spray and exhaust in the space between the sand and the cover plate, and 1405 is a slender fruit tree set in the sand bed, such as Jujube trees are cultivated on the ground or conventionally before planting, or young sand trees are cultivated on the same scale as the ground. When the young trees reach a certain height, a setting frame is set on the upper part of the branch to force the branch to On the frame and pass Shear is adapted so as to form a tree cultivation basement Zhigan parallel arrangement as shown in FIG. The final cultivation of fruit trees can either be transplanted to the basement after finishing on the ground, or the young trees can be transplanted to the basement before the finalization. 1406 is a stereotype of fruit trees with thicker and shorter branches, such as peach trees and apple trees. 1405 and 1406 show only two types of fruit trees cultivated in the basement with the basement space, light, and under-tree crops. Instead of cultivating two fruit trees in the same room, only one fruit tree can be cultivated in the same room. 1407 is a small sandy bed under a fruit tree, which can be used to cultivate crops such as vegetables and flowers. 1408 is an artificial light source, 1409 is an optical cable provided between the branches and leaves, and 1410 is a pebble layer provided at the bottom of the bed, which can provide a space for uniform ventilation for the oxygen supply at the bottom of the bed, and can also adjust the temperature of the bottom by passing water. The methods of oxygen supply, watering and fertilization for the cultivation of fruit trees in large-scale cultivation beds are exactly the same as those for small sandy soil beds. However, due to the long growth period of fruit trees, it is necessary to open the concrete cover to dig trenches in the sand during a flowering period. Add organic fertilizer; after several flowering and fruiting periods, the tree on the bed can be stabilized with a bracket and the old sand in the bed can be taken out and replaced with fresh sand. At the same time, the pebble at the bottom of the bed can be cleaned and replaced with a new non-woven fabric. Or replace with a new fruit tree. There are two methods of thermoperiod management and application for underground fruit tree cultivation. One is a fixed mode, that is, a certain fruit tree is fixedly cultivated in a basement, and the temperature cycle requirements of the fruit tree are met by adjusting the room temperature. Take peach cultivation as an example to illustrate: Assume that the ripening period of the peach tree is winter, and the cold period is summer, and the winter cold source stored underground or the cold source made by the valley electricity is transferred to the basement wall. In the pebble bed, reduce the temperature of the peach tree cultivation room to below 7.2 degrees Fahrenheit. After the peach tree cultivation reaches the cold demand (20-40 days), the natural climate is still a high temperature season. The cold source exchanged by heating up the culture room can still be used for other production. Although the cold source has a small consumption loss, it is also highly utilized due to the strong thermal insulation performance of the basement. In order to make full use of the cold source and basement space of the peach tree during the cold period, the temperature of the basement can be adjusted to a constant temperature of 0-7 ° C, and the air composition is adjusted to an environment of high carbon dioxide and nitrogen. Keep it fresh. However, because the cooling demand of peach trees is not the best constant temperature at 6 ° C at night, and the alternate heating and cooling environment of "white. Day" at 15 ° C is more conducive to breaking the dormancy, so the "day and night" temperature of the basement is regulated at 6— Between 15 centuries, it can meet the cold demand of peach trees, and it is the most suitable environment for flower formation and mushroom production, such as chrysanthemums, tulips, enoki mushrooms, and mushrooms. Promoting the production of low-temperature flowers and edible fungi from July to August can greatly reduce The cost of seasonal fruit production makes it possible for underground anti-season fruit tree cultivation. Similarly, during the low-temperature cultivation period before and after the cold period of the peach tree is required, the low-temperature environment can be fully used for the production of maggots and shiitake mushrooms that cannot be produced on the ground. The daily temperature difference requirements of the peach tree can be met through various measures such as ventilation, temperature adjustment during dehumidification, and high-concentration and high-concentration carbon dioxide and nitrogen environments to suppress respiratory consumption. The second is the cycle production mode, that is, the mode shown in Figures 8, 9, 10, and 1 1 as described above. Larger sand beds are set on the railcars to circulate and cultivate short tree-shaped fruit trees. In the case of soilless cultivation under the tree, a temperature regulating layer is also set on the wall of the cultivation bed, an oxygen supply device is set at the bottom of the bed, and sand is replaced by a solid substrate such as gravel. A nutrient solution spraying pipe is added at the top of the bed, and the bottom of the bed is added. Add soilless cultivation facilities such as drain pipes. Underground fruit tree cultivation can also be directly cultivated in the basement soil as above. When fruit tree cultivation is carried out by this method, the plant part cannot be regulated to a low-oxygen environment, and the daily temperature difference and cold and hot storage must be used to enhance ventilation to ensure supply to the rhizosphere. oxygen.
床栽盆花的方法是在花盆底部的排水孔上设供氧与排水兼用管， 床壁设 保温层后即可将花盆放入床内， 花盆之间留出空隙， 花盆外直接放入调温介 质材料， 通过对床内通入冷水或热水对介质材料调温能达到调节根温目的， 通过向盆内供氧可满足根部需氧要求。 The method of planting potted flowers on the bed is to set up a pipe for supplying oxygen and drainage on the drainage hole at the bottom of the pot. After setting a thermal insulation layer on the bed wall, you can put the pot into the bed, leaving a gap between the pots, and directly The temperature-adjusting medium material is put in, and the temperature of the medium material can be adjusted by passing cold or hot water into the bed, and the oxygen demand of the root can be met by supplying oxygen to the basin.
9. 食用菌栽培 9. Edible mushroom cultivation
( 1 ) 箱栽技术 . (1) Box planting technology.
图 15是食用菌箱式栽培示意图， 其中 1501 为塑料栽培箱， 1502为栽培 料， 1503 为栽培料装时用特别压板压出的延栽培箱四周突出的挡水圈， 其作 用在于当出菇阶段向培养基打孔补水时不使水顺着料与箱的结合处流入箱 底， 起挡水作用。 1504 为用透明硬塑料厚膜特制成的盖板， 盖板面上均匀设 有接种孔， 根据接种孔的结构和布置的不同盖板分为三种。 其一为盖板上设 有突出盖板面的杯状接种孔， 1505 为杯孔中用棉塞封口。 其二为盖板面上仅 打出圆孔， 圆孔上贴胶布封口。 上述两种接种孔在盖板上的布置是按接种密 度要求而设的， 出菇时盖板将撤去。 其三为出菇时不拆盖板， 接种孔即为出 菇孔的盖板。 接种孔也是用胶布封口的圆孔， 所不同的是盖板上设孔的密度 是按出菇密度而设的， 如银耳栽培即用此板。 1506 为箱檐与盖板檐搭接处，
盖板檐长小于箱檐， 搭缝处用胶布或胶纸沿四周密封。 盖板的形状与箱内料 面相同， 并与包括挡水圈在内的整个料面密贴。 1507 为用塑料制成的施氧透 气板， 整板与栽培箱内净空同大， 板面密设小孔或制成筛网状， 板上面覆一 层无纺布； 板下面纵横均匀设有小支柱， 使板与箱底形成一空隙层， 小支柱 既可与板制为一体， 也可单独设置。 1508 为供氧空间层， 1509 为供氧管。 栽 培箱底部设置供氧设施的作用在于强制向培养基供氧， 以满足菌丝对氧的需 求， 促进菌丝的生长。 供氧的方法是用带有适当压力的贮气装置或适当压力 的风机向若干个栽培箱微压送入洁净空气或富氧气体， 空气或富氧气体经供 氧管进入箱底部后在压力下能均匀地穿过培养基后排出箱外， 从而起到向培 养基充分供氧的作用。 为了减少供氧气体从箱与料的结合处排出， 箱底部的 施氧透气板也可如图 16所示的形状， 其中 1601 为隔气槽， 1602 为隔气板， 槽与板在板四周全部为封闭状。 1603 为板下支柱， 板面也设小孔或成筛网状 也覆无纺布。 应用方法是： 首先将一块大于箱底面积的塑料膜先铺箱底， 将 供氧管穿过塑料布置箱底， 并将塑料膜与供氧管之间密封。 然后将如图 16所 示的透气板连同小支柱放入箱底塑料膜上， 并将塑料膜两边压入隔气槽内， 使塑料膜边正好压至槽底。 最后在板上铺无纺布后即可装料并压实定形。 由 于供氧气体进入塑膜与透气板之间后只能从隔气板圈内的空间通入培养基， 由于微压供气与料、 箱结合处的之间有一圈隔气板， 所以能起到防漏气的作 用。 代料箱栽既可在箱底设置供氧装置， 也可不设直接向箱内装料栽培。 以 上是按盖板的不同和箱底有无供氧设施的六种栽培方法。 按照箱内栽培料的 不同也有六种栽培方法。 Figure 15 is a schematic diagram of edible mushroom box cultivation, where 1501 is a plastic cultivation box, 1502 is a cultivation material, and 1503 is a water retaining ring protruding around the cultivation box, which is pressed out by a special pressing plate when the cultivation material is loaded. Its function is to serve as mushrooms In the stage of punching water into the culture medium, the water will not flow into the bottom of the tank along the junction of the material and the tank, and will play a role of retaining water. 1504 is a special cover made of transparent hard plastic thick film. The cover surface is evenly provided with inoculation holes. There are three types of cover plates according to the structure and arrangement of the inoculation holes. One is a cup-shaped inoculation hole provided on the cover plate with a protruding cover surface, and 1505 is sealed with a cotton plug in the cup hole. The second is that only round holes are punched on the cover surface, and the round holes are sealed with adhesive tape. The arrangement of the above two kinds of inoculation holes on the cover is set according to the requirements of inoculation density, and the cover will be removed when the mushrooms are released. The third is that the cover is not removed when the mushrooms are released, and the inoculation hole is the cover of the mushrooms. The inoculation hole is also a round hole sealed with adhesive tape. The difference is that the density of the holes on the cover is set according to the density of mushrooms. This plate is used for tremella cultivation. 1506 is the overlap between the box eaves and the cover eaves. The length of the eaves of the cover is shorter than the eaves of the box, and the joints are sealed around with adhesive tape or tape. The shape of the cover plate is the same as the material surface inside the box, and it is closely adhered to the entire material surface including the water ring. 1507 is an oxygen-permeable ventilation board made of plastic. The whole board is the same as the clearance in the cultivation box. The surface of the board is closed with small holes or made into a mesh. The board is covered with a layer of non-woven fabric. The small pillars form a gap layer between the board and the bottom of the box. The small pillars can be integrated with the board or can be set separately. 1508 is the oxygen supply space layer, and 1509 is the oxygen supply tube. The purpose of setting an oxygen supply facility at the bottom of the cultivation box is to forcibly supply oxygen to the culture medium to meet the oxygen demand of the hypha and promote the growth of the hypha. The oxygen supply method is to use a gas storage device with a proper pressure or a suitable pressure fan to send clean air or oxygen-enriched gas to several cultivation boxes at a slight pressure. After the air or oxygen-enriched gas enters the bottom of the box through the oxygen supply pipe, the pressure is maintained. It can evenly pass through the culture medium and be discharged out of the tank, so as to provide sufficient oxygen to the culture medium. In order to reduce the discharge of oxygen supply gas from the combination of the box and the material, the oxygen-permeable vent plate at the bottom of the box can also be shaped as shown in Fig. 16, where 1601 is an air barrier, 1602 is an air barrier, and the tank and the board are around the board. All are closed. 1603 is a pillar under the board, and the board surface is also provided with small holes or a sieve mesh and covered with non-woven fabric. The application method is: firstly lay a plastic film larger than the bottom area of the box, lay the oxygen supply pipe through the plastic to arrange the bottom of the box, and seal the plastic film and the oxygen supply pipe. Then place the ventilation board and small pillars as shown in Figure 16 on the plastic film at the bottom of the box, and press both sides of the plastic film into the air-tight groove, so that the edge of the plastic film is pressed to the bottom of the groove. Finally, after laying the non-woven fabric on the board, it can be charged and compacted. Since the oxygen-supplying gas enters between the plastic film and the ventilating plate, the culture medium can only be passed in from the space inside the air-shielding plate circle. Because there is a circle of air-shielding plate between the micro-pressure air supply and the material and box junction, it can Play a role in preventing air leakage. Substituting the box plant can either set an oxygen supply device at the bottom of the box, or directly fill the box without cultivation. The above are six cultivation methods according to the different cover plates and the bottom of the box with or without oxygen supply facilities. There are also six cultivation methods depending on the cultivation material in the box.
其一为塑料袋内培养菌料， 待菌料培养好后去掉塑料袋和老菌皮， 将菌 料粉碎成适于压块栽培的小块状后装箱压实， 并在料面撒一层细碎菌料， 在 箱料接触处撒一圈细碎菌料， 然后用特制压板压实并压出挡水圈后加盖板养 菌数日即可撤掉盖板或直接出菇， 或转色后再催蕾出菇。 其二为将上述粉碎 料内再加入 30 %左右的生料后再装箱， 加入生料的目的在于充分填实块料之 间空隙， 以利出菇期的均匀补水和供氧。 其三为生料直接装箱、 压实成型、 加盖盖板后再灭菌、 接种、 培菌、 出菇栽培。 其四为生料栽培， 即生料装箱 时就将菌种接入栽培料中， 压实、 加盖后直接.培菌出菇。 其五为粪草料栽培， 方法与现有方法相同， 不同之处在于箱底可设供氧设施。 其六为银耳栽培， 即箱内装料后料面盖专门用于接种口出耳的盖板， 同样灭菌后接种、 培菌、 不撤盖板直接出耳。 箱底设有供氧管时， 管口在灭菌前需扎结。 箱料的接种 除现有方法外还可用以下方法接种， 即首先用液态或气态灭菌药将箱外的供 氧管进行灭菌， 其次将适温空气除湿灭菌后通入装有液体菌种的装置中， 使
干燥空气穿过液体菌种时带上菌种， 之后将带菌种的湿空气通入已向接种孔 接入菌种的箱底供氧管内， 湿空气微压穿过培养料时能向培养料均匀接种， 接种一段时间后， 拔开接种管移入一般培菌室培菌， 如此能大大缩短培菌时 间。 One is the cultivation of bacteria in a plastic bag. After the bacteria is cultivated, remove the plastic bag and the old bacteria skin, crush the bacteria into small pieces suitable for briquette cultivation, pack them in a box, and sprinkle them on the surface. Layer of finely divided fungus material, sprinkle a circle of finely divided fungus material at the contact point of the box material, and then use a special pressure plate to compact and squeeze out the water retaining ring and add a cover plate to grow bacteria for several days before removing the cover plate or directly mushrooming, or turning After the color, you will be urged to bud. The second is to add about 30% of the raw material into the crushed material before packing it. The purpose of adding the raw material is to fully fill the gaps between the blocks, so as to facilitate uniform water supply and oxygen supply during the mushrooming period. The third is direct packing of raw materials, compaction molding, sterilization, inoculation, cultivation, and mushroom cultivation after covering the cover. The fourth is raw material cultivation, that is, when the raw material is boxed, the bacteria are inserted into the cultivation material, compacted and directly covered. The fifth is manure and forage cultivation. The method is the same as the existing method, except that an oxygen supply facility can be provided at the bottom of the box. The sixth is tremella cultivation, that is, the cover after the material is filled in the box is specially used to cover the ears of the inoculation mouth. Similarly, after sterilization, the inoculation, sterilization, and direct removal of the cover are performed. When an oxygen supply tube is provided at the bottom of the box, the nozzle must be tied before sterilization. In addition to the existing methods, the box material can be inoculated by the following methods. First, the liquid supply or gaseous sterilization medicine is used to sterilize the oxygen supply tube outside the box. Secondly, the air is dehumidified and sterilized. Device Bring the bacteria when the dry air passes through the liquid bacteria, and then pass the wet air with the bacteria into the oxygen supply tube at the bottom of the box that has been connected to the bacteria through the inoculation hole. Evenly inoculate. After inoculating for a period of time, unplug the inoculation tube and transfer to the general cultivation room to incubate bacteria. This can greatly reduce the incubation time.
( 2 ) 出菇栽培技术 - 本技术出菇栽培的方法有三种， 其一为三步循环栽培法， 所谓三步循环 是将出菇过程分为养菌、 催菌和出菇在三种不同环境下分步完成。 以香菇栽 培为例举例说明： 首先按照香菇养菌、 催蕾、 出菇各段所需时间的比例将多 个地下室也按此比例组成一条循环生产线， 将养菌室、 催蕾室和出菇室的室 温分别调控到 25 °C、 10 °C、 15 °C左右， 将转色待出菇的栽培箱分层放置在带 轮子的多层立体栽培架上并首先推入催蕾室低温加光刺激进行催蕾， 子实体 形成后再推到出菇室适温适光出菇， 待子体采收后对栽培料进行打孔补水， 并在补水的同时进行营养补充和 PH值调节， 采菇补水后的栽培架再推入养菌 室适温无光养菌， 待养菌完成后再进入下一轮的催蕾、 出菇、 养菌的循环。 此为温度因素的应用。 氧对食用菌的作用很大， 氧因素的应是箱底有增氧功 能的栽培时， 其栽培架、 养菌室和出菇室都设置相应的供氧管道， 并在养菌 和出菇阶段向箱底微压供氧， 而进入催蕾室时不但不向箱底供氧， 而且还将 催蕾室空气调控成低氧含量， 以促成菇蕾的快速形成。 箱底无供氧设使的氧 因素应用是： 充分利用冷热贮存， 日较差和低谷电等资源加大通风换气以满 足食用菌对氧的需求。 光照因素除上述应用外还设有催蕾板进一步利用光和 温度的作用促进催蕾， 催蕾板是塑料或木质厚板， 板上纵横等距离设有通透 的圆孔或正方形孔， 两孔中心之间的距离为孔径的整数倍， 最短为孔径的两 倍。 催蕾板的长宽各小于栽培箱内径长宽的长度为两孔径中心之间距离的二 分之一， 催蕾板正反面孔径尺寸可以是相等的直孔， 也可以是一边大一边小 的喇叭状斜孔， 用斜孔板催蕾时小孔径面向下紧贴料面， 催蕾板的应用方法 是： 在养菌后期， 将催蕾板送入养菌室使板温也达 25 °C左右， 当栽培箱将要 推入催蕾室时将催蕾板盖在栽培箱的料面上， 并将板与箱的一角紧靠， 因催 蕾板长宽小于料面而裸露的部分则用与催蕾板相同的条板盖其上面， 之后将 栽培箱推至催蕾室， 由于催蕾室较养菌室温度低， 温差大， 光照强， 所以被 催蕾板不透明体部分盖着的面料仍处在黑暗状态， 因有厚板覆盖保温， 所以 料温变化也较为缓慢， 在这样情况下不可能形成菇蕾， 相反， 料面裸露部分 马上受到冷和光的强烈刺激， 加之低氧环境的进一步刺激， 很快就促成子实 体的分化和形成。 下一次催蕾时催蕾板两边需紧靠栽培箱的另一角， 料面裸 露处也加盖催蕾条状板。 四次催蕾将栽培箱四个角依次靠完后则需对催蕾板
的长宽进行调整， 即将板与箱之间的长宽差在原差的基础上再增加或减少原 差距的二分之一， 这样在下次催蕾时出菇点就不会与上次出菇点重复。 催蕾 板的孔径大小， 两孔之间的 离可根据被栽培的出菇密度、 菇体大小， 采收 早晚等多方因素而定。 催蕾板的突出优点在于促成菇蕾快速形成的同时还能 使出菇均匀有序排列。 水份也是食用菌生产的重要因素之一， 本技术除栽培 料表面设有用于补水的挡水圈外还设有相应的打孔板， 打孔板为塑料或木质 板， 板面纵横等距设有长短不等， 直径为 2 毫米左右的打孔针， 其中长针的 长度不超过箱内培养基的厚度。 打孔板的长宽及循环打孔的方法与催蕾板的 设计与运作完全相同。 目的也是使多次打 时孔位不重复， 用以确定板与箱 之间差距的依据是打孔板面相邻两组长短不等针中长针或短针之间的距离。 打孔补水的方法是： 栽培箱采菇后将打孔板的一角与栽培箱一角紧靠后向培 养菌打孔， 然后将补水倒入料面， 由于有挡水圈， 所以补水只能从所打出孔 中均匀渗入料中。 下次打孔时就象催蕾板运作一样， 依次紧靠其余三个角， 四次一周后再调整打孔板长宽。 为了打孔时不将培养基带出箱外， 可将栽培 箱内侧中下部做成波纹状或平直面上增设突出短小塑料柱。 基二为两步循环 栽培法， 与三步法不同之处在于养菌完成后， 加盖催蕾板直推低温适光的出 菇室催蕾、 出菇。 两步循环栽培的另一方法是地下与地上的循环。 在地下室 的地上部位建造相应的栽培场所和上下提升设备， 当地上气候适于出菇时， 地下养菌地上催蕾出菇， 当地上气温适于养菌时则地上养菌地下催蕾出菇。 其三为工厂化培菌居家出菇栽培， 即在地下室适温四季用无增氧塑料箱培养 菌料， 待出菇时移居民家室内、 阳台、 楼道等空闲处设床架出菇栽培， 床架 四周加设塑料膜保湿。 除上述代料箱栽外， 地下室也可塑料袋栽培， 段木栽 培， 无循环栽培， 床栽等。 (2) Mushroom cultivation technology-There are three methods of mushroom cultivation in this technology. One is a three-step cycle cultivation method. The so-called three-step cycle divides the mushroom production process into three types: cultivating bacteria, promoting bacteria, and producing mushrooms. Step by step in the environment. Take the cultivation of shiitake mushrooms as an example: Firstly, according to the proportion of the time required for cultivating mushrooms, cultivating buds, and mushrooming, multiple basements are also formed into a circular production line according to this ratio. The room temperature of the chamber is adjusted to about 25 ° C, 10 ° C, and 15 ° C, respectively. The cultivation box where the color is to be transferred is layered on a multi-layered three-dimensional cultivation rack with wheels, and it is first pushed into the low-temperature chamber. Light stimulation stimulates budding. After the fruiting body is formed, it is pushed to the mushrooming room for proper temperature and light. After the fruit body is harvested, the cultivation material is perforated and replenished, and the nutrition is supplemented and the PH value is adjusted while the water is replenished. After the hydration, the cultivation rack is pushed into the germ culture room to grow at a suitable temperature and no light, and after the culturing is completed, it enters the next cycle of budding, mushrooming and culturing. This is an application of the temperature factor. Oxygen has a great effect on edible fungi. When the oxygen factor is the cultivation with an oxygen-enhancing function at the bottom of the box, the corresponding oxygen supply pipelines are set in its cultivation rack, fungus growing room, and mushrooming room, and the bacteria growing and mushrooming stage Oxygen is supplied to the bottom of the box at a slight pressure, and not only does it not provide oxygen to the bottom of the box when entering the stimulating room, but also the air in the stimulating room is adjusted to a low oxygen content to promote the rapid formation of mushroom buds. The application of the oxygen factor at the bottom of the box without oxygen supply is to make full use of cold and hot storage, and increase the ventilation and ventilation to meet the needs of edible fungi for oxygen. In addition to the above-mentioned applications, the lighting factor is also provided with a lightening plate to further utilize light and temperature to promote lightening. The lightening plate is a plastic or wooden thick plate. The plate is provided with transparent round holes or square holes at equal distances vertically and horizontally. The distance between the centers of the holes is an integer multiple of the hole diameter, and the shortest is twice the hole diameter. The length and width of the catalyst plate are each less than the length of the inner diameter of the cultivation box. The length of the diameter of the two holes is one-half of the distance between the centers of the two holes. The horn-shaped oblique hole, the small aperture face close to the material surface when the oblique perforation plate is used for budding, the application method of the budding plate is: at the later stage of bacterial cultivation, send the budding plate to the bacterial cultivation room to make the plate temperature reach 25 ° Around C, when the cultivation box is about to be pushed into the budding chamber, cover the seedling board on the material surface of the cultivation box, and close the board to one corner of the box. Cover the top with the same slatted board as before, and then push the cultivation box to the budding room. Since the budding room has a lower temperature than the culture room, the temperature difference is large, and the light is strong, so it is covered by the opaque body of the budding plate. The fabric is still in the dark state. Because of the thick board covering for insulation, the material temperature changes slowly. In this case, it is impossible to form mushroom buds. On the contrary, the exposed part of the material surface is immediately stimulated by cold and light, plus low oxygen Further environmental stimuli quickly contributed Differentiation and formation entities. The next time you push the buds, the two sides of the budding board need to be close to the other corner of the cultivation box. After pushing the four corners of the cultivation box in turn for four times, you need to adjust the Adjust the length and width of the board, that is, the difference between the length and width of the board and the box will be increased or decreased by one-half of the original gap based on the original difference, so that the next mushrooming point will not be the same as the last mushroom Dot repeat. The size of the pore size of the catalyst plate and the distance between the two holes can be determined according to various factors such as the density of mushrooms being cultivated, the size of the mushroom body, and the harvest time. The outstanding advantage of the cues is that it promotes the rapid formation of mushroom buds and also allows the mushrooms to be arranged in an even and orderly manner. Moisture is also one of the important factors in the production of edible fungi. In addition to the water retaining ring on the surface of the cultivation material, this technology also has corresponding perforated plates. The perforated plates are plastic or wooden boards. There are perforating needles with different lengths and a diameter of about 2 mm. The length of the long needles does not exceed the thickness of the culture medium in the box. The length and width of the perforated plate and the method of circular perforation are exactly the same as the design and operation of the reminder plate. The purpose is also to make the hole positions not to be repeated during multiple punches, and the basis for determining the gap between the plate and the box is to punch the distance between the long or short needles in two adjacent groups of different lengths of needles on the board surface. The method of punching and replenishing water is: after picking mushrooms in the cultivation box, punch a corner of the punching plate close to the corner of the cultivation box and pierce the culture bacteria, and then pour water into the material surface. Because of the water retaining ring, the water can only be replenished from The punched holes penetrate into the material evenly. The next time you punch a hole, it will work like a reminder plate, next to the other three corners in turn, and then adjust the length and width of the punch plate four times a week. In order not to bring the culture medium out of the box when punching holes, the middle and lower part of the inside of the cultivation box can be made into a corrugated shape or a short plastic column can be added on the flat surface. Base two is a two-step cycle cultivation method, which is different from the three-step method in that after the culturing of bacteria is completed, it is covered with a catalyst plate to push the low-temperature and light-friendly mushrooming room to promote budding and mushroom production. Another method of two-step cycle cultivation is the underground and aboveground cycle. Corresponding cultivation sites and up-and-down lifting equipment are constructed in the aboveground part of the basement. When the local climate is suitable for mushroom production, the underground mushroom cultivation and budding mushrooms are produced on the ground. . The third is factory cultivation of mushrooms at home, that is, cultivating bacteria in an aerobic plastic box in the basement at a suitable temperature for the four seasons. When the mushrooms are released, move the vacant places such as indoors, balconies, and corridors of the residents to grow mushrooms. Add plastic film to moisturize around the shelf. In addition to the above-mentioned replacement box planting, the basement can also be cultivated in plastic bags, segmented wood, non-recycling, bed planting, etc.
10、 地下室动物流水饲养 10. Basement animal running water feeding
在地下建造动物饲养室， 墙壁外也设贮热调温床， 室内也设换热和通风 装置。 对于一年一次繁殖、 产绒或产皮动物的饲养方法是： 将多个地下室的 室温调控成动物一个生产周期所需不同温度的恒温室， 将不同温度的恒温室 按照动物不同生长期所需时间的比例组合成一条流水生产线， 不同温度的饲 养室再对光照强度和时间进行相应的控制， 将动物进行流水饲养， 通过温度 和光照的诱导可促成产仔、 产绒、 产皮动物缩短生产周期的生产。 在光和温 的诱导下还可利用声音、 图像进行诱导。 流水饲养动物的方法也可进行极地 动物的饲养， 如将流水线的词养室调控成南极企鹅适宜生长的不同温度的低 温室进行企鹅饲养， 既可促成企鹅在温带、 热带地区饲养， 也能促成缩短繁 殖周期的产卵繁殖。 动物流水饲养时， 如前述方法在地下建造贮冷贮热库，
并进行冷热贮存， 利用所贮冷热对饲养室进行温度调控。 An animal breeding room is built underground, a heat storage and temperature bed is set outside the wall, and a heat exchange and ventilation device is also set up inside the room. The breeding method for breeding, velvet or skin-producing animals once a year is as follows: the room temperature of multiple basements is adjusted to the thermostatic chambers of different temperatures required by the animal during a production cycle, and the thermostatic chambers of different temperatures are required according to the different growth periods of the animals. The proportion of time is combined into a running water production line. The breeding rooms at different temperatures then control the light intensity and time accordingly. The animals are raised in running water. The induction of temperature and light can promote the production of litters, velvets, and skin-producing animals. Cycle production. Under light and temperature induction, sound and image can also be used for induction. The method of raising animals by flowing water can also be used to raise polar animals. For example, the word culture room of the assembly line can be adjusted to low temperature greenhouses where Antarctic penguins are suitable for growing penguins. This can promote penguin breeding in temperate and tropical regions, and can also help Spawning breeding to shorten the breeding cycle. When animals are kept under running water, cold storage and heat storage are built underground as described above. And the hot and cold storage is performed, and the temperature of the rearing room is adjusted by using the stored cold and heat.
1 1、 植物延长眠栽培法 1 1. Plant extended dormancy cultivation method
延长休眠贮存库的建造方法是： 首先在地下深处挖出一条大断面长洞， 并用混凝土衬砌， 洞口设多道隔热保温门， 洞内设通风管道和如前所述的临 时二传介质材料， 如前法利用冬季自然冷源或低谷电所制冷源向库内大量贮 冷， 将多年生营养贮存型宿根植物露天或保护地栽培， 待作物进入休眠时， 在地冻以前将作物根茎从地中挖出， 将根部或枝杆部稍加整理后在根部裹一 层泥浆， 然后装入内衬塑料膜的箱内， 并将箱内空隙用湿土填实使根不裸露， 装箱完毕后即可进行贮存。 其一为就地或运至异地休眠贮存库延长休眠贮存。 其二为就地或运至异地非休眠贮存库贮存， 非休眠贮存库贮存时需根据作物 的耐寒温度和当地温度采取保凉或保暖措施， 使作物既不受冻害也不受热解 除休眠， 同时还要进行必要的保湿。 配套建造如前所述的地下贮冷库， 并进 行如前所述的方法贮冷， 可对休眠贮存库所贮作物利用地下冷贮存通过对库 温的控制， 可任意延长休眠， 可随时解除休眠进行反季节栽培。 非休眠贮存 库贮存作物则需在自然休眠期内进行解除休眠栽培， 栽培的方法可在保护地 栽培， 可将寒冷地区的作物运至温暖地区露天栽培。 由于名贵花卉和蔬菜多 为喜凉作物。 将喜凉作物在夏天炎热的凉爽地区栽培能使进入休眠时根茎部 贮存更多的营养物， 利用上述延长休眠贮存的方法将凉爽地区所栽作物运至 炎热地区进行延长休眠的反季节栽培， 能生产出品质更好的产品， 此栽培方 法也是对凉爽地区的气候资源开发利用的一种方法。 The construction method of the extended dormant storage is as follows: First, a large cross-section long hole is dug deep in the ground and lined with concrete. The entrance of the cave is provided with multiple thermal insulation doors. The tunnel is provided with a ventilation duct and a temporary secondary transmission medium as described above. Materials, as in the previous method, use the natural cold source in winter or the cold source of the trough power station to store a large amount of cold in the storehouse, and cultivate the perennial nutrient perennial plants in the open air or in a protected field. When the crop enters dormancy, Dig it out of the ground, wrap the roots or branches a little bit, and wrap a layer of mud around the roots, then put them into a box lined with plastic film, and fill the gaps in the box with wet soil so that the roots are not exposed. When finished, it can be stored. One is to extend the dormant storage on-site or to an off-site dormant storage. The second is to store it in-situ or transport it to a non-dormant warehouse. The non-dormant warehouse needs to take cool or warm measures according to the cold resistance temperature and local temperature of the crop, so that the crop will not be doomed by freezing and heat. Also carry out the necessary hydration. Underground storage and cold storage as described above are completed and stored in the same manner as described above. Underground cold storage can be used for the crops stored in the dormant storage. By controlling the temperature of the storage, the dormancy can be extended arbitrarily and dormancy can be released at any time. For off-season cultivation. Crops stored in non-dormant warehouses need to be released from dormant cultivation during the natural dormant period. The cultivation methods can be cultivated in protected areas, and the crops in cold regions can be transported to open-air cultivation in warm regions. Because the precious flowers and vegetables are mostly cool crops. Cultivating cool crops in hot and cool areas in summer can make the rhizomes store more nutrients when they enter dormancy. Using the method of prolonging dormant storage, the crops in cool areas are transported to hot areas for off-season cultivation that prolongs dormancy Can produce better quality products, this cultivation method is also a method for the development and utilization of climatic resources in cool areas.
12、 农产品保鲜、 冷藏、 冷冻技术 12, agricultural products preservation, refrigeration, freezing technology
农产品保鲜、 冷藏、 冷冻库的结构和贮冷方法与前述休眠贮存库完全相 同， 所不同的是向保鲜库贮冷时， 库温要与所贮果蔬的保鲜温度相同， 而冷 藏库的库温则需在 0 °C以下， 冷冻库的库温则需更低。 维持库温的方法是建造 配套的地下贮冷库， 将天然冷源或低谷电所制冷源贮存于地下贮冷库内， 随 时利用所贮冷源对库温进行调节， 在进行果蔬保鲜贮存时， 既可将果蔬直接 送入低温保鲜库自然空气环境下保鲜贮存， 也可利用前述二氧化碳和氮气资 源开发， 将库内环境调节成低温、 高二氧化碳、 高氮、 低氧环境下保鲜贮存。 The structure and cold storage method of fresh produce, cold storage, and freezer for agricultural products are exactly the same as the aforementioned dormant storage, except that when storing in a fresh storage, the storage temperature must be the same as that of the stored fruits and vegetables. It should be below 0 ° C, and the temperature of the freezer should be lower. The method of maintaining the storage temperature is to construct a matching underground cold storage, and store the natural cold source or the low-temperature power station refrigeration source in the underground cold storage. At any time, use the stored cold source to adjust the storage temperature. During the fresh storage of fruits and vegetables, Fruits and vegetables can be directly sent to the low-temperature fresh-keeping store under natural air environment for storage and storage, or the aforementioned carbon dioxide and nitrogen resources can be used to adjust the environment in the store to low-temperature, high carbon dioxide, high nitrogen, and low-oxygen environment for storage and storage.
13、 居住地半成品栽培 . 13.Cultivation of semi-finished products in the place of residence.
在地下室用前述无供氧箱栽食用菌的方法培养菌料， 待菌料养好将要出 菇时移居民住宅的室内、 阳台或楼道内进行出菇栽培； 将前述延长休眠贮存 的作物解除休眠并假植于塑料箱内送居民家内进行出品栽培； 将叶菜或芽苗 菜在地下室适温育苗或催芽， 然后栽培于箱内再送居民家中出苗栽培。 由于 食用菌品种多， 菌料培养适温相差不大， 而出菇温度却相差很大， 所以不同
季节选择不同出菇温度品种地下培菌居家可四季出菇栽培， 既能得到价廉的 鲜活食用菌， 又有观赏价值。 由于宿根类作物在延长休眠贮存时已在根茎部 积累了很多营养物， 解除休暍栽培时主要营养物来自上一年根部的贮存， 所 以在居民家栽培象韭菜等作物可反季节生产出质量上乘的头茬韭菜。 一些喜 凉蔬菜如芫葱、 育苗期需较高温度， 而育苗后则可在低温下正常生长， 所以 在地下适温育苗， 居家寒凉季节自然环境栽培可在蔬菜淡季自家生产新鲜蔬 菜。 In the basement, use the aforementioned oxygen-free box to grow edible fungi to cultivate fungus material. After the fungus material is cultivated, the mushrooms will be transferred to the indoor, balcony or corridor of the residential house for mushroom cultivation. It is fake planted in a plastic box and sent to residents 'homes for production and cultivation; leafy vegetables or sprouts are incubated or germinated in the basement, and then cultivated in boxes and then sent to residents' homes for seedlings and cultivation. Because there are many varieties of edible fungi, the suitable temperature of the culture of the fungus is not much different, but the temperature of the mushrooms is very different, so they are different. Different seasons with different temperature of mushrooms can be used to grow mushrooms in the home. The mushrooms can be cultivated in four seasons, which can not only obtain cheap and fresh edible fungi, but also have ornamental value. Since perennial crops have accumulated a lot of nutrients in the rhizomes during prolonged dormant storage, the main nutrients came from the storage of the roots of the previous year when the rest cultivation was lifted, so crops such as leeks can be produced off-season to produce quality Excellent stubble leeks. Some cool vegetables, such as scallion, need higher temperature during the seedling period, and can grow normally at low temperature after seedling. Therefore, the seedlings should be warmed underground and cultivated in the natural environment in the home cold and cold season. Fresh vegetables can be produced in the off-season.
14、 地下观光游乐园技术 14. Underground sightseeing amusement park technology
( 1 ) 地下冰雪园技术 (1) Underground ice and snow park technology
所谓地下冰雪园是在地下创造一个温度低于 o °c的场所， 在其场所内建 造冰雕 （冰灯） 、 滑冰场、 冰球场和滑雪场等观光游乐园供人们四季游乐， 而要实现这一目标的两个必须条件是四季廉价的冷源提供和游乐园良好的贮 冷隔热功能。 本发明地下贮存天然冷源和低谷电制冷贮冷极为有效地解决了 四季廉价冷源提供； 地下土壤既能贮冷又能隔热能有效地保证地下游乐园的 贮冷隔热作用。 图 17是地下观光游乐园维持 0 °C以下环境的设施布置示意图， 其中 1701为地下游乐园， 1702为游乐园内的立柱， 为了扩大空间， 园内建立 柱， 柱上设横梁， 横梁上盖混凝土板。 1703 为设在园壁外四周土壤中的贮冷 床， 其构造和功能与地下贮冷库相同， 即将地下贮冷库的冷源转贮入冰雪园 贮冷床内， 使贮冷床本身及四周土壤大量贮冷起降低和保持冰雪园温度的作 用。 贮冷床既可转存贮冷库冷源， 也可将冬天的冷源或利用低谷电所制冷源 直接贮存于床内。 1704为如图 1所示的贮冷洞， 1705为如图 2中 203所示的 连通两贮冷洞的网洞。 1 704和 1 705所示的贮冷洞的作用与 1703 所示的贮冷 床相同， 两者可任选一种或两者共用。 1706 为土壤， 顶部土壤起隔热保冷作 用。 贮冷床周围土壤则主要起贮冷作用。 1707 为泡膜塑料保温层， 为了减少 顶部厚土保温的自重压力， 可适当减少土壤覆盖厚度而增加泡膜塑料保温层， 泡塑料保温层需较大范围和较大厚度覆盖， 以减少外界热源进入冰雪园和冰 雪园冷源流向外界。 1708 为半地下式连栋泡粒塑料温室， 即双层塑料薄膜内 填以聚苯乙烯泡粒， 可根据需要将泡粒或排出膜外或充入其内， 在较热的季 节可 24 小时充入泡料， 必要时再在顶部设遮阳设施， 利用冰雪园散出冷源和 贮冷库冷源， 在温室内生产低温、 耐阴类蔬菜、 花卉和食用菌生产， 可进一 步提高冷源利用率和保温隔热效率。 当园顶承重能力强， 可厚土覆盖时， 可 不设塑膜保温层和连栋温室。 The so-called underground ice and snow park is to create a place below the temperature of o ° c, and construct ice sculptures (ice lanterns), skating rinks, ice rinks and ski resorts in the place for people to enjoy the four seasons. To achieve this, The two must-have conditions of the goal are the provision of cheap cold sources in four seasons and the good cold storage and heat insulation function of the amusement park. The underground cold storage natural cold source and the trough electric refrigeration cold storage of the present invention are extremely effective in solving the cold season cold season supply; the underground soil can both store cold and heat insulation, and can effectively guarantee the cold storage and heat insulation effect of the underground park. Figure 17 is a schematic diagram of the facility layout of the underground sightseeing amusement park to maintain the environment below 0 ° C, where 1701 is the underground park and 1702 is the pillars in the amusement park. In order to expand the space, columns are established in the park. Concrete slabs. 1703 is a cold storage bed located in the soil around the outside of the garden wall. Its structure and function are the same as those of the underground cold storage. The cold source of the underground cold storage is transferred to the cold storage bed of the ice and snow park, so that the cold storage bed itself and the surrounding soil A large amount of cold storage plays a role in reducing and maintaining the temperature of the ice and snow park. The cold storage bed can not only store the cold source of the cold storage, but also directly store the cold source in the winter or the refrigeration source of the valley power station in the bed. 1704 is a cold storage hole as shown in FIG. 1, and 1705 is a mesh hole connecting two cold storage holes as shown in 203 in FIG. 2. The cold storage holes shown in 1 704 and 1 705 have the same function as the cold storage bed shown in 1703, and either or both of them can be shared. 1706 is soil, and the top soil acts as a thermal insulation. The soil around the cold storage bed mainly plays the role of cold storage. 1707 is a foamed film thermal insulation layer. In order to reduce the dead weight pressure of the thick soil insulation on the top, the thickness of the soil cover can be appropriately reduced and the foamed film thermal insulation layer can be added. The foamed thermal insulation layer needs to be covered with a large area and a large thickness to reduce external heat sources. Enter the ice and snow park and the cold source of the ice and snow park and flow to the outside world. 1708 is a semi-underground multi-span foam plastic greenhouse, that is, double-layer plastic film filled with polystyrene foam pellets. The foam pellets can be discharged out of or filled into the membrane as required. In hotter seasons, it can be used for 24 hours. Fill with foam, and if necessary, set up shading facilities on the top, use the ice and snow garden to dissipate cold sources and cold storage cold sources, and produce low-temperature, shade-resistant vegetables, flowers and edible fungi in the greenhouse, which can further improve the use of cold sources Rate and thermal insulation efficiency. When the roof has a strong bearing capacity and can be covered with thick soil, plastic film insulation layer and multi-span greenhouses can be omitted.
冰雪园最适合于建在山内， 如图 18所示的建于山内的连栋式冰雪园， 其 建造方法为： 首先开挖出跨度和高度都小于主洞的洞并做临时防护 1801， 然
后在洞内用钢筋混凝土浇筑承重墩和横梁及横梁上的部分拱圈 1802和 1803， 横梁上两拱圈之间的空间内既可以浇注素混凝土， 也可以在其空间内预埋装 有介质材料的混凝土预制管，. 以用于建成后的贮冷调温， 当相邻两洞内的承 重墩和横梁建好并将混凝土养护到足够强度后可开挖出拱洞 1804 及浇筑拱圈 1805 , 如此能在山内深处建成如同地上连栋温室般的 "连洞" 式大空间的游 乐园。 在山内建造大空间的冰雪园， 当然可以利用现代建筑技术的方法。 在 山内建造冰雪园也可以建成大跨度的单孔隧洞， 洞两端分别设入口和出口， 游人单向流动。 不论是单洞还是连洞， 洞底部及洞四周壁外均设有贮冷调温 床 1806。 用于做冰雪园时， 为了确保园内稳定的 0 °C以下的环境， 还可在园 壁外的山体内建造如图 1 所示的单孔贮冷洞或图 2 所的非菱形的， 而是环绕 冰雪园的联通式贮冷库。 山内冰雪园的其它设施与平地下冰雪园完全相同。 由于拱形结构的承重能力强， 所以在平地开挖， 地下建造的冰雪园时也可采 用图 18所示的拱形结构， 这样能加大园顶的覆土厚度， 提高隔热保温效率。 The ice and snow park is most suitable for being built in the mountain. As shown in Figure 18, the multi-story ice and snow park built in the mountain is constructed as follows: First, excavate a hole with a span and height smaller than the main cave and make temporary protection 1801. Later, the load-bearing pier and the beams and the partial arches 1802 and 1803 on the beams are poured with reinforced concrete in the cave. The space between the two arches on the beam can be cast with plain concrete or the medium can be embedded in the space. Prefabricated concrete pipes made of materials, used for cold storage and temperature control after construction. When the load-bearing pier and beams in the adjacent two holes are built and the concrete is cured to sufficient strength, the arch tunnel 1804 and the cast arch ring can be excavated. 1805, An amusement park that can be built in the mountains like a "green cave" -like large space on the ground. Of course, the construction of a large-scale ice and snow park in the mountain can of course take advantage of modern construction techniques. The construction of an ice and snow park in the mountain can also build a large-span single-hole tunnel, with entrances and exits at both ends of the cave, and visitors flow in one direction. Regardless of whether it is a single hole or a continuous hole, a cold storage temperature regulating bed 1806 is provided at the bottom of the cave and outside the surrounding walls of the cave. When used in an ice and snow park, in order to ensure a stable environment below 0 ° C, a single-hole cold storage hole as shown in Fig. 1 or a non-diamond shaped as shown in Fig. 2 can also be built in the mountain outside the park wall. It is a joint cold storage room surrounding the ice and snow park. The other facilities in the mountain snow and ice park are exactly the same as the flat ice and snow park. Due to the strong load-bearing capacity of the arched structure, the arched structure shown in Figure 18 can also be used when excavating flat ground and constructing an ice and snow park underground, which can increase the thickness of the soil covering on the top of the park and improve the efficiency of heat insulation.
冰雪园内冰雕和滑雪场等建造的方法是： 首先向冰雪园内的土壤或岩石 内通过贮冷设施大量贮冷， 使冰雪园内温度稳定在 0°C以 下， 然后或利用冬 季的自然冰， 或利用地下贮冷库冷源在冰雪内制冰进行冰雕物的筑造。 冰雕 (冰灯） 内的光源分为两种， 其一为目前冰雕技术所应用的人工光源， 其二 为以光缆传输的光源， 用光缆做冰灯内的光源可有效地塑造色彩分明的禽类 羽毛和较细较薄的冰雕造形。 在冰雪园内模拟建造湖泊和江河。 并以盐水做 水源， 调节盐水中的含盐量， 使其冰点温度低于冰雪园内的最低温度， 从而 能形成冰水 （盐水） 共存的局面， 用淡水做小型的冰船， 可在盐水中行驰， 模拟建造大型的轮船时， 可将甲板以下用金属制造， 甲板以上用淡水冰雕制 造， "夜间 " 行驰于江河 （盐水） 中能形成极好的倒影和灯光效应， 盐水的 另一作用还在于： 在相对高温 （0 °C—一 -10 °C ) 和盐水浓度较大的情况下， 盐 水的比热很大， 可利用盐水大量蓄冷能起到稳定园内温度的作用。 在 "江河" 上模拟建造大跨度的缆桥， 用有机玻璃或透明塑料代做桥梁， 透明细塑管内 穿入光缆和细钢丝， 还可在塑管内注水冻结后可做缆桥的钢丝束。 水中行驰 淡水冰船， 船上用光缆织成鱼网， 用光缆和塑料布做风帆， 如此能达到高度 逼真极为壮观的观光游乐效果。 利用低谷电制取低于一 50 °C的冷源， 对正在 开花或结果的植物进行快速冷冻， 因快速冻能高度保持原有形象， 所以既可 直接置冰雪园供人观赏， 也可注造冰内做成冰灯供人观赏。 为了使冰雪园内 有真正植物点缀， 在冰雪园内的地面下建槽沟并设轨道， 将冰雪园轨道与如 图 8、 9、 10、 1 1所示的环型栽培室相通， 在环型栽培室砂土床栽耐低温植物， 用轨道车将植物运至冰雪园供游人观赏， 待观赏半天或数小时后将冰雪内的
植物再与环型栽培室的另一组植物互换以保证植物在 o°c以下时间不超过忍受 期， 运回环型室的植物则可在相对高于冰雪园温度的适温环境下培养。 图 19 是冰园内鲜活植物轨道车循环展出的示意图， 其中 1901为滑雪园， 1902为轨 道车， 1903 为设在轨道车平板上的砂土栽培床， 1904 为栽培于砂土床上的较 高大植物， 可以是耐寒的竹子， -矮型的梅树等。 1905 为种作于砂土面的矮小 作物， 如羽衣甘蓝等。 将砂土床面与园内地面设计的融为一体， 如道路的连 通。 处理好床与地面的结合处， 游人可穿梭于植物之间游玩观赏。 由于冰雪 园为全年 0°C以下， 在冰雪园内饲养企鵝可为冰雪园增添一项极为难得的观赏 项目。 在冰雪园建造冰球场和滑冰场时， 在场地的底部先密铺换热管道， 然 后将水倒场地上， 园内通冷空气， 换热道内也通冷空气使之冻结成冰， 在冰 场运作过程中可通过冰下管道随时输入冷源进行比园内温度更低的调温。 滑 雪场的雪源可通过大容积地下冷库贮存天然雪获得， 也可利用人造雪获得。 在冰雪园的局部还可以先较大幅度降温， 然后或直接喷施 0Ό稍上的 "湿热" 空气， 或从一处送出从另一处抽回， 使 "湿热" 空气经过预冷树或物而形成 人造雾松供游人观赏。 地下冰雪园运行过程中的冷源补充来源之一是地下长 周期贮冷库贮存的冬季冷源， 来源之二是地下短周期快速贮冷库贮存的利用 低谷电所制的冷源。 The method of constructing ice sculptures and ski slopes in the ice and snow park is: First, store a large amount of cold into the soil or rocks in the ice and snow park through cold storage facilities to stabilize the temperature in the ice and snow park below 0 ° C, and then use the natural ice in winter. Or use the cold source of underground cold storage to make ice sculptures in ice and snow. There are two types of light sources in ice sculptures. One is the artificial light source currently used in ice sculpture technology, and the other is the light source transmitted by optical cable. Using optical cable as the light source in the ice lamp can effectively shape the colorful bird feathers and Thinner and thiner ice sculptures. Simulate the construction of lakes and rivers in the snow park. The salt water is used as the water source to adjust the salt content in the salt water so that its freezing point temperature is lower than the lowest temperature in the ice and snow park, so that a situation where ice water (brine water) coexists can be formed. Fresh water is used as a small ice boat. Bank of China, when simulating the construction of large ships, it can be made of metal below the deck and made of fresh water ice sculpture above the deck. "Nighttime" traveling in rivers (brine) can form excellent reflections and light effects. The effect is also that: in the case of relatively high temperature (0 ° C--10 ° C) and the concentration of brine, the specific heat of the brine is very large, and a large amount of cold storage of the brine can be used to stabilize the temperature in the park. A large-span cable bridge is simulated and constructed on the "River". Plexiglas or transparent plastic is used as the bridge. The transparent thin plastic pipe is penetrated with optical cables and thin steel wires. The plastic pipe can also be used as a wire bundle for the cable bridge after freezing. A freshwater ice boat rides in the water. The cable is woven into a fishnet on the boat and the cable and plastic cloth are used as sails. This can achieve highly realistic and spectacular sightseeing and amusement effects. The low-temperature electricity is used to obtain a cold source below -50 ° C, and the plants that are blooming or fruiting are quickly frozen. Because the fast freezing can maintain the original image, it can be directly placed in the ice and snow garden for viewing or injection. The ice lamp is made into an ice lamp for viewing. In order to make the ice and snow park have real plant embellishment, a trench and a track are set under the ground in the ice and snow park, and the ice and snow park track is connected with the ring-shaped cultivation room as shown in Figures 8, 9, 10, and 11. The low-temperature-resistant plants are planted on the sand bed of the cultivation room, and the plants are transported to the ice and snow park for viewing by rail cars. After half a day or hours of viewing, the The plants are then exchanged with another group of plants in the ring-shaped cultivation room to ensure that the plant does not exceed the endurance period below o ° c. The plants returned to the ring-shaped room can be cultivated in a moderate temperature environment that is relatively higher than the temperature of the ice and snow garden . Figure 19 is a schematic diagram of the fresh plant railcars in the ice garden. 1901 is a ski park, 1902 is a rail car, 1903 is a sandy soil cultivation bed set on a railcar plate, and 1904 is a sandy soil cultivation bed. The taller plants can be cold-resistant bamboo, dwarf plum trees, etc. 1905 is a short crop grown on sandy surfaces, such as kale. The sand bed surface is integrated with the ground design in the park, such as the road connection. Deal with the combination of the bed and the ground, and visitors can play and watch among the plants. Since the ice and snow park is below 0 ° C throughout the year, raising penguins in the ice and snow park can add an extremely rare viewing item to the ice and snow park. When constructing ice rinks and skating rinks in the ice and snow park, firstly heat-exchange pipes are densely laid on the bottom of the site, and then the water is poured onto the site. Cold air is passed in the park, and cold air is also passed in the heat exchange channels to freeze them into ice. During the operation of the field, the cold source can be input at any time through the pipeline under the ice to adjust the temperature lower than the temperature in the park. The snow source of the ski resort can be obtained by storing natural snow in large-capacity underground cold storage, or by using artificial snow. In the part of the ice and snow park, you can first cool down a lot, and then directly spray the "hot and humid" air above 0Ό, or send it from one place and draw it back from the other, so that the "hot and humid" air passes through the pre-cooled tree or object. And the formation of artificial mist pine for visitors to watch. One of the supplementary sources of cold sources during the operation of the underground ice and snow park is the winter cold source stored in the underground long-period cold storage, and the other source is the cold source produced by the low valley electricity stored in the underground short-period rapid cold storage.
( 2 ) 地下观光农业 (2) Underground tourism agriculture
地下观光农业园的构造与如图 17、 18 和 19所示的冰雪园相同， 所不同 的是顶部的隔热保温标准可相对地降低， 包括园壁的贮热调温床等同如图 4 所示的标准即可。 其观光园景可通过以下两种方法得以培造， 其一是高大的 和主要植物固定栽培于园内， 园内的温度按春、 夏、 秋、 冬进行人为调节循 环， 并与地上季节错开形成反季节观光园， 同时也设置如图 10 所示的轨道车 并与环型栽培室连通， 随时提供观赏植物， 如在园内固定栽培橄榄， 椰树和 竹林等高大树和香蕉、 海桐等中低型南方植物而建成热带型观光园； 固定栽 培桃、 李、 苹果等北方果树和北方特有的植物而建成温带型观光园。 其二是 将观光园的温度长年调控成春、 夏、 秋、 冬园， 通过与环型栽培室相通的轨 道车常年向各观光园提供相应的观光植物， 如常年向春季园提供盛开的牡丹、 桃花等春季幵花植物， 向秋季园提供果实累累的果树和枫叶等秋季景观植物。 与地上和地下室栽培相结合， 将郁金香菊花等盆栽花卉在开花期直接运至园 内栽培。 在不同的园内直接栽培适宜该园温度环境的蔬菜和观叶作物等。 将 出菇期的食用菌置立体床架上， 或埋入园内土中进行出菇栽培供人观赏。 地 下田及冷热源的开发能使动物如同前述植物一样反季节流水生产， 所以能促 成一年一次繁殖的动物四季产仔， 将动物幼仔在园内饲养供人观赏， 在夏季
园内建造游泳池可供游人四季适温游泳。 总之， 地下室的高效保温功能和地 下廉价冷热贮存能低成本高效益地促成地下反季节农业观光园的实现。 The structure of the underground sightseeing agricultural park is the same as the ice and snow park shown in Figs. 17, 18, and 19, except that the thermal insulation standard at the top can be relatively reduced, and the heat storage and temperature regulation bed including the park wall is equivalent to that shown in Fig. 4 Standard. The sightseeing landscape can be cultivated by the following two methods. One is that the tall and main plants are fixedly cultivated in the garden. The temperature in the garden is artificially adjusted according to spring, summer, autumn, and winter, and it is staggered with the above-ground season. An off-season tourist garden is formed. At the same time, a railcar as shown in Figure 10 is set up and connected to the ring-shaped cultivation room to provide ornamental plants at any time, such as the cultivation of tall trees such as olives, coconut trees and bamboo forests, bananas, and tung trees. The tropical-type tourist garden is constructed by the middle and low-type southern plants; the northern fruit trees such as peach, plum, and apple are fixedly cultivated and the northern endemic plants are established to form the temperate tourist garden. The second is to regulate the temperature of the tourist park into spring, summer, autumn, and winter parks for many years, and provide corresponding sightseeing plants to the tourist parks through the railcars connected to the ring cultivation room. Peony, peach, and other spring flowering plants provide autumn landscape plants such as fruit trees and maple leaves to the autumn garden. Combined with above-ground and basement cultivation, potted flowers such as tulip and chrysanthemum are directly transported to the garden for cultivation during the flowering period. Vegetables and leaf crops suitable for the temperature environment of the garden are directly cultivated in different gardens. Mushroom edible mushrooms are placed on a three-dimensional bed frame, or buried in the soil of the garden for mushroom cultivation for people to watch. The development of underground fields and cold and heat sources can make animals produce water out of season just like the aforementioned plants, so it can promote the breeding of animals that breed once a year in four seasons. Animal cubs are raised in the park for viewing and in summer A swimming pool is built in the park for tourists to swim at the right temperature in all seasons. In short, the high-efficiency thermal insulation function of the basement and cheap underground hot and cold storage can contribute to the realization of the underground anti-season agricultural sightseeing garden at a low cost.
不论是冰雪园还是观光农业， 都需建造配套的如前所述的地下贮冷和贮 热库， 以提供生产所用。 工业 # Regardless of whether it is an ice or snow park or tourism agriculture, it is necessary to build a matching underground cold storage and heat storage as described above to provide production. Industry #
本发明对天然冷热、 地温、 日较差、 低谷电、 工业炉排气中的余热、 二 氧化碳、 氮气、 生活垃圾和作物秸杆等可再生资源进行了综合的开发， 并将 上述各种资源综合应用到农业生产的各个方面， 极具实用性。
The invention comprehensively develops renewable resources such as natural cold and heat, ground temperature, poor day, low valley electricity, waste heat in industrial furnace exhaust, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, domestic waste, and crop straw, and uses the above-mentioned various resources Comprehensively applied to all aspects of agricultural production, it is extremely practical.