US7251013B2 - Lithographic apparatus and device manufacturing method - Google Patents

Lithographic apparatus and device manufacturing method Download PDF

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US7251013B2
US7251013B2 US10/986,187 US98618704A US7251013B2 US 7251013 B2 US7251013 B2 US 7251013B2 US 98618704 A US98618704 A US 98618704A US 7251013 B2 US7251013 B2 US 7251013B2
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liquid
substrate
space
plate
part
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US20060103817A1 (en
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Nicolaas Ten Kate
Johannes Henricus Wilhelmus Jacobs
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ASML Netherlands BV
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F7/00Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. printing surfaces; Materials therefor, e.g. comprising photoresists; Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • G03F7/70Exposure apparatus for microlithography
    • G03F7/708Construction of apparatus, e.g. environment, hygiene aspects or materials
    • G03F7/70808Construction details, e.g. housing, load-lock, seals, windows for passing light in- and out of apparatus
    • GPHYSICS
    • G03PHOTOGRAPHY; CINEMATOGRAPHY; ANALOGOUS TECHNIQUES USING WAVES OTHER THAN OPTICAL WAVES; ELECTROGRAPHY; HOLOGRAPHY
    • G03FPHOTOMECHANICAL PRODUCTION OF TEXTURED OR PATTERNED SURFACES, e.g. FOR PRINTING, FOR PROCESSING OF SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES; MATERIALS THEREFOR; ORIGINALS THEREFOR; APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED THEREFOR
    • G03F7/00Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g. printing surfaces; Materials therefor, e.g. comprising photoresists; Apparatus specially adapted therefor
    • G03F7/70Exposure apparatus for microlithography
    • G03F7/70216Systems for imaging mask onto workpiece
    • G03F7/70341Immersion

Abstract

In an immersion lithography apparatus in which, for example, immersion liquid is supplied to a localized space, a plate is provided to divide the space into two parts. Such a division of the space may facilitate reduction of stray radiation, a temperature gradient, and the transportation of contaminants.

Description

FIELD

The present invention relate's to a lithographic apparatus and a method for manufacturing a device.

BACKGROUND

A lithographic apparatus is a machine that applies a desired pattern onto a substrate, usually onto a target portion of the substrate. A lithographic apparatus can be used, for example, in the manufacture of integrated circuits (ICs). In that instance, a patterning device, which is alternatively referred to as a mask or a reticle, may be used to generate a circuit pattern to be formed on an individual layer of the IC. This pattern can be transferred onto a target portion (e.g. comprising part of, one, or several dies) on a substrate (e.g. a silicon wafer). Transfer of the pattern is typically via imaging onto a layer of radiation-sensitive material (resist) provided on the substrate. In general, a single substrate will contain a network of adjacent target portions that are successively patterned. Known lithographic apparatus include so-called steppers, in which each target portion is irradiated by exposing an entire pattern onto the target portion at one time, and so-called scanners, in which each target portion is irradiated by scanning the pattern through a radiation beam in a given direction (the “scanning”-direction) while synchronously scanning the substrate parallel or anti-parallel to this direction. It is also possible to transfer the pattern from the patterning device to the substrate by imprinting the pattern onto the substrate.

It has been proposed to immerse the substrate in the lithographic projection apparatus in a liquid having a relatively high refractive index, e.g. water, so as to fill a space between the final element of the projection system and the substrate. The point of this is to enable imaging of smaller features since the exposure radiation will have a shorter wavelength in the liquid. (The effect of the liquid may also be regarded as increasing the effective NA of the system and also increasing the depth of focus.) Other immersion liquids have been proposed, including water with solid particles (e.g. quartz) suspended therein.

However, submersing the substrate or substrate and substrate table in a bath of liquid (see, for example, U.S. Pat. No. 4,509,852, hereby incorporated in its entirety by reference) means that there is a large body of liquid that must be accelerated during a scanning exposure. This requires additional or more powerful motors and turbulence in the liquid may lead to undesirable and unpredictable effects.

One of the solutions proposed is for a liquid supply system to provide liquid on only a localized area of the substrate and in between the final element of the projection system and the substrate (the substrate generally has a larger surface area than the final element of the projection system). One way which has been proposed to arrange for this is disclosed in PCT patent application WO 99/49504, hereby incorporated in its entirety by reference. As illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3, liquid is supplied by at least one inlet IN onto the substrate, preferably along the direction of movement of the substrate relative to the final element, and is removed by at least one outlet OUT after having passed under the projection system. That is, as the substrate is scanned beneath the element in a −X direction, liquid is supplied at the +X side of the element and taken up at the −X side. FIG. 2 shows the arrangement schematically in which liquid is supplied via inlet IN and is taken up on the other side of the element by outlet OUT which is connected to a low pressure source. In the illustration of FIG. 2 the liquid is supplied along the direction of movement of the substrate relative to the final element, though this does not need to be the case. Various orientations and numbers of in-and out-lets positioned around the final element are possible, one example is illustrated in FIG. 3 in which four sets of an inlet with an outlet on either side are provided in a regular pattern around the final element.

In an immersion lithographic apparatus, a temperature gradient in the immersion liquid may cause an imaging defect because of the temperature dependency of the refractive index of the immersion liquid. A temperature gradient may arise because of absorption of the projection beam by the immersion liquid and because of heat transfer from other parts of the apparatus, for example the substrate or the liquid supply system. In addition or alternatively, transportation of contaminants from the resist and/or topcoat on the substrate to the final element of the projection system by the immersion liquid may occur.

SUMMARY

Accordingly, it would be advantageous, for example, to provide an immersion lithography apparatus in which a temperature gradient in the immersion liquid and/or the transportation of contaminants by the immersion liquid may be reduced or avoided.

According to an aspect of the invention, there is provided a lithographic projection apparatus arranged to project a pattern from a patterning device onto a substrate through a liquid confined to a space adjacent the substrate, the space being smaller in plan than the substrate, the apparatus comprising a plate substantially parallel to the substrate to divide the space into two parts, the plate having an aperture to allow transmission of the pattern onto the substrate.

According to an aspect of the invention, there is provided a a lithographic apparatus, comprising:

an illuminator configured to condition a radiation beam;

a support constructed to hold a patterning device, the patterning device configured to impart the radiation beam with a pattern in its cross-section to form a patterned radiation beam;

a substrate table constructed to hold a substrate;

a projection system configured to project the patterned radiation beam onto a target portion of the substrate;

a liquid supply system configured to at least partly fill a space between the projection system and the substrate with a liquid, the liquid supply system comprising a liquid confinement structure configured to at least partly confine the liquid within the space; and

a plate substantially parallel to the substrate to divide the space into two parts, the plate having at least a portion thereof radiation transmissive to allow transmission of the pattern onto the substrate.

According to an aspect of the invention, there is provided a device manufacturing method, comprising:

supplying a liquid to a space adjacent a substrate, the space being smaller in plan than the substrate and divided into two parts by a plate substantially parallel to the substrate, the plate having at least a portion transmissive to radiation; and

projecting a patterned beam of radiation through the liquid and through the aperture onto the substrate.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

Embodiments of the invention will now be described, by way of example only, with reference to the accompanying schematic drawings in which corresponding reference symbols indicate corresponding parts, and in which:

FIG. 1 depicts a lithographic apparatus according to an embodiment of the invention;

FIGS. 2 and 3 depict a liquid supply system for use in a lithographic projection apparatus;

FIG. 4 depicts another liquid supply system for use in a lithographic projection apparatus;

FIG. 5 depicts a further liquid supply system for use in a lithographic projection apparatus;

FIG. 6 depicts, in section, a liquid supply system according to an embodiment of the invention;

FIG. 7 depicts, in plan, the liquid supply system of FIG. 6; and

FIGS. 8 to 10 depict possible liquid flows in embodiments of the invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

FIG. 1 schematically depicts a lithographic apparatus according to an embodiment of the invention. The apparatus comprises:

    • an illumination system (illuminator) IL configured to condition a radiation beam PB (e.g. UV radiation or DUV radiation).
    • a support structure (e.g. a mask table) MT constructed to support a patterning device (e.g. a mask) MA and connected to a first positioner PM configured to accurately position the patterning device in accordance with certain parameters;
    • a substrate table (e.g. a wafer table) WT constructed to hold a substrate (e.g. a resist-coated wafer) W and connected to a second positioner PW configured to accurately position the substrate in accordance with certain parameters; and
    • a projection system (e.g. a refractive projection lens system) PL configured to project a pattern imparted to the radiation beam PB by patterning device MA onto a target portion C (e.g. comprising one or more dies) of the substrate W.

The illumination system may include various types of optical components, such as refractive, reflective, magnetic, electromagnetic, electrostatic or other types of optical components, or any combination thereof, for directing, shaping, or controlling radiation.

The support structure holds the patterning device in a manner that depends on the orientation of the patterning device, the design of the lithographic apparatus, and other conditions, such as for example whether or not the patterning device is held in a vacuum environment. The support structure can use mechanical, vacuum, electrostatic or other clamping techniques to hold the patterning device. The support structure may be a frame or a table, for example, which may be fixed or movable as required. The support structure may ensure that the patterning device is at a desired position, for example with respect to the projection system. Any use of the terms “reticle” or “mask” herein may be considered synonymous with the more general term “patterning device.”

The term “patterning device” used herein should be broadly interpreted as referring to any device that can be used to impart a radiation beam with a pattern in its cross-section such as to create a pattern in a target portion of the substrate. It should be noted that the pattern imparted to the radiation beam may not exactly correspond to the desired pattern in the target portion of the substrate, for example if the pattern includes phase-shifting features or so called assist features. Generally, the pattern imparted to the radiation beam will correspond to a particular functional layer in a device being created in the target portion, such as an integrated circuit.

The patterning device may be transmissive or reflective. Examples of patterning devices include masks, programmable mirror arrays, and programmable LCD panels. Masks are well known in lithography, and include mask types such as binary, alternating phase-shift, and attenuated phase-shift, as well as various hybrid mask types. An example of a programmable mirror array employs a matrix arrangement of small mirrors, each of which can be individually tilted so as to reflect an incoming radiation beam in different directions. The tilted mirrors impart a pattern in a radiation beam which is reflected by the mirror matrix.

The term “projection system” used herein should be broadly interpreted as encompassing any type of projection system, including refractive, reflective, catadioptric, magnetic, electromagnetic and electrostatic optical systems, or any combination thereof, as appropriate for the exposure radiation being used, or for other factors such as the use of an immersion liquid or the use of a vacuum. Any use of the term “projection lens” herein may be considered as synonymous with the more general term “projection system”.

As here depicted, the apparatus is of a transmissive type (e.g. employing a transmissive mask). Alternatively, the apparatus may be of a reflective type (e.g. employing a programmable mirror array of a type as referred to above, or employing a reflective mask).

The lithographic apparatus may be of a type having two (dual stage) or more substrate tables (and/or two or more mask tables). In such “multiple stage” machines the additional tables may be used in parallel, or preparatory steps may be carried out on one or more tables while one or more other tables are being used for exposure.

Referring to FIG. 1, the illuminator IL receives a radiation beam from a radiation source SO. The source and the lithographic apparatus may be separate entities, for example when the source is an excimer laser. In such cases, the source is not considered to form part of the lithographic apparatus and the radiation beam is passed from the source SO to the illuminator IL with the aid of a beam delivery system BD comprising, for example, suitable directing mirrors and/or a beam expander. In other cases the source may be an integral part of the lithographic apparatus, for example when the source is a mercury lamp. The source SO and the illuminator IL, together with the beam delivery system BD if required, may be referred to as a radiation system.

The illuminator IL may comprise an adjuster AD for adjusting the angular intensity distribution of the radiation beam. Generally, at least the outer and/or inner radial extent (commonly referred to as σ-outer and σ-inner, respectively) of the intensity distribution in a pupil plane of the illuminator can be adjusted. In addition, the illuminator IL may comprise various other components, such as an integrator IN and a condenser CO. The illuminator may be used to condition the radiation beam, to have a desired uniformity and intensity distribution in its cross-section.

The radiation beam PB is incident on the patterning device (e.g., mask MA), which is held on the support structure (e.g., mask table MT), and is patterned by the patterning device. Having traversed the mask MA, the radiation beam PB passes through the projection system PL, which focuses the beam onto a target portion C of the substrate W. With the aid of the second positioner PW and position sensor IF (e.g. an interferometric device, linear encoder or capacitive sensor), the substrate table WT can be moved accurately, e.g. so as to position different target portions C in the path of the radiation beam PB. Similarly, the first positioner PM and another position sensor (which is not explicitly depicted in FIG. 1) can be used to accurately position the mask MA with respect to the path of the radiation beam PB, e.g. after mechanical retrieval from a mask library, or during a scan. In general, movement of the mask table MT may be realized with the aid of a long-stroke module (coarse positioning) and a short-stroke module (fine positioning), which form part of the first positioner PM. Similarly, movement of the substrate table WT may be realized using a long-stroke module and a short-stroke module, which form part of the second positioner PW. In the case of a stepper (as opposed to a scanner) the mask table MT may be connected to a short-stroke actuator only, or may be fixed. Mask MA and substrate W may be aligned using mask alignment marks M1, M2 and substrate alignment marks P1, P2. Although the substrate alignment marks as illustrated occupy dedicated target portions, they may be located in spaces between target portions (these are known as scribe-lane alignment marks). Similarly, in situations in which more than one die is provided on the mask MA, the mask alignment marks may be located between the dies.

The depicted apparatus could be used in at least one of the following modes:

    • 1. In step mode, the mask table MT and the substrate table WT are kept essentially stationary, while an entire pattern imparted to the radiation beam is projected onto a target portion C at one time (i.e. a single static exposure). The substrate table WT is then shifted in the X and/or Y direction so that a different target portion C can be exposed. In step mode, the maximum size of the exposure field limits the size of the target portion C imaged in a single static exposure.
    • 2. In scan mode, the mask table MT and the substrate table WT are scanned synchronously while a pattern imparted to the radiation beam is projected onto a target portion C (i.e. a single dynamic exposure). The velocity and direction of the substrate table WT relative to the mask table MT may be determined by the (de-)magnification and image reversal characteristics of the projection system PL. In scan mode, the maximum size of the exposure field limits the width (in the non-scanning direction) of the target portion in a single dynamic exposure, whereas the length of the scanning motion determines the height (in the scanning direction) of the target portion.
    • 3. In another mode, the mask table MT is kept essentially stationary holding a programmable patterning device, and the substrate table WT is moved or scanned while a pattern imparted to the radiation beam is projected onto a target portion C. In this mode, generally a pulsed radiation source is employed and the programmable patterning device is updated as required after each movement of the substrate table WT or in between successive radiation pulses during a scan. This mode of operation can be readily applied to maskless lithography that utilizes programmable patterning device, such as a programmable mirror array of a type as referred to above.

Combinations and/or variations on the above described modes of use or entirely different modes of use may also be employed.

A further immersion lithography solution with a localized liquid supply system is shown in FIG. 4. Liquid is supplied by two groove inlets IN on either side of the projection system PL and is removed by a plurality of discrete outlets OUT arranged radially outwardly of the inlets IN. The inlets IN and OUT can be arranged in a plate with a hole in its center and through which the projection beam is projected. Liquid is supplied by one groove inlet IN on one side of the projection system PL and removed by a plurality of discrete outlets OUT on the other side of the projection system PL, causing a flow of a thin film of liquid between the projection system PL and the substrate W. The choice of which combination of inlet IN and outlets OUT to use can depend on the direction of movement of the substrate W (the other combination of inlet IN and outlets OUT being inactive).

Another immersion lithography solution with a localized liquid supply system solution which has been proposed is to provide the liquid supply system with a liquid confinement structure which extends along at least a part of a boundary of the space between the final element of the projection system and the substrate table. Such a system is shown in FIG. 5. The liquid confinement structure is substantially stationary relative to the projection system in the XY plane though there may be some relative movement in the Z direction (in the direction of the optical axis). A seal is formed between the liquid confinement structure and the surface of the substrate. In an embodiment, the seal is a contactless seal such as a gas seal. Such a system with a gas seal is disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/705,783, hereby incorporated in its entirety by reference.

FIG. 5 depicts an arrangement of a reservoir 10, which forms a contactless seal to the substrate around the image field of the projection system so that liquid is confined to fill a space between the substrate surface and the final element of the projection system. A liquid confinement structure 12 positioned below and surrounding the final element of the projection system PL forms the reservoir. Liquid is brought into the space below the projection system and within the liquid confinement structure 12. The liquid confinement structure 12 extends a little above the final element of the projection system and the liquid level rises above the final element so that a buffer of liquid is provided. The liquid confinement structure 12 has an inner periphery that at the upper end preferably closely conforms to the shape of the projection system or the final element thereof and may, e.g., be round. At the bottom, the inner periphery closely conforms to the shape of the image field, e.g., rectangular though this need not be the case.

The liquid is confined in the reservoir by a gas seal 16 between the bottom of the liquid confinement structure 12 and the surface of the substrate W. The gas seal is formed by gas, e.g. air, synthetic air, N2 or an inert gas, provided under pressure via inlet 15 to the gap between liquid confinement structure 12 and substrate and extracted via a first outlet 14. The overpressure on the gas inlet 15, vacuum level on the outlet of the first outlet 14 and geometry of the gap are arranged so that there is a high-velocity gas flow inwards that confines the liquid. It will be understood by the person skilled in the art that other types of seal could be used to contain the liquid.

In European Patent Application No. 03257072.3, the idea of a twin or dual stage immersion lithography apparatus is disclosed. Such an apparatus is provided with two tables for supporting a substrate. Leveling measurements are carried out with a table at a first position, without immersion liquid, and exposure is carried out with a table at a second position, where immersion liquid is present. Alternatively, the apparatus has only one table.

FIGS. 6 and 7 show an immersion hood 20 (which may also be referred to as a liquid supply or confinement system IH) according to an embodiment of the invention. The immersion hood 20 comprises a seal member 21 which confines immersion liquid 11 to a space between the final element FLE of the projection system PL and the substrate W. The seal member 21 is borne a small distance, e.g. 30 to 300 μm, above the substrate and has a seal device 22 to restrict outflow of the liquid 11. This may be a gas or liquid seal, using a flow of gas or liquid to confine the liquid 11, and may also act as a bearing for the seal member which alternatively may be separately supported and/or actuated. The seal device may simply be a low pressure extraction port to suck away liquid flowing under the seal member 21. A gas knife 23 may be provided to drive any residual film of liquid back towards the seal and extraction device 22.

To prevent or reduce transportation of contaminants from the resist and/or topcoat on the substrate and/or to prevent or reduce a temperature gradient in the liquid, e.g. ultra pure water, a plate 24 is provided to divide the space between the projection system PL and substrate W into two parts. The plate 24 has an aperture or window 24 a to allow transmission of the projection beam PB. The aperture or window 24 a is slightly larger than the exposure field EF to accommodate the convergence of the projection beam from the projection system to the substrate.

In an embodiment, the plate 24 has an aperture 24 a that is open and a liquid supply 25 is arranged above the plate 24. This combined with the extraction of liquid by seal device 22 facilitates a constant flow of liquid from the part of the space adjacent the projection system to the part adjacent the substrate so that contaminants and liquid which has been heated by the substrate are quickly removed from the system. The space above the plate in the FIG. 6 may be kept at a higher pressure than that below to ensure a suitable flow rate. Additional liquid extraction may be performed above the plate 24 to promote adequate refreshment of the liquid 11. Similarly, one or more additional liquid supplies below the plate may be provided as desired.

In an embodiment, the aperture 24 a may be closed by a transparent plate to form a window. The window should have a high transmissivity at the wavelength of the projection system and, in an embodiment, a refractive index as close as possible to that of the liquid. The window should be sufficiently flat and plane parallel to enable desired imaging requirements to be met. In such an embodiment, one or more liquid supply and extraction ports are provided on both sides of the plate 24. In an embodiment, the plate 24 may be entirely transmissive to radiation.

In an embodiment, the plate 24 should be made of a material having sufficient mechanical strength and desirably a low thermal conductivity. Suitable materials include: steel, stainless steel, ceramic, glass and quartz, as well as low CTE materials such as Zerodur™, ULE™, and Invar™. The plate need not be attached to the seal member 21 but may be separately supported.

In an embodiment, for example where the plate 24 is not transmissive to the projection beam radiation, the plate 24 may block stray radiation which may reduce the contrast in the projected image and to enhance this effect, an absorptive coating may be provided on the plate 24. A hydrophobic and/or hydrophilic coating may also be provided to control the liquid flow and different coatings may be used on the two opposite sides of the plate. If the plate 24 is thick, the edge of the aperture 24 a may be beveled or rounded to allow the aperture to more closely conform to the shape of the projection beam. If desired, multiple plates may be used to divide the space into more than two parts.

In an embodiment, the plate 24 is positioned as close as possible to the substrate but for safety should be sufficiently far away to avoid contact with the substrate, even in exceptional circumstances.

Various different arrangements for the liquid flows in the apparatus may be used; some examples are shown in FIGS. 8 to 10. In FIG. 8, liquid is shown supplied above the seal member 21 and extracted from between the seal member and the plate 24 and from between the plate 24 and the substrate W. FIG. 9 shows supply of liquid above the seal member 21 and between the seal member 21 and the plate 24, with extraction between the plate 24 and the substrate W. Finally, FIG. 10 shows supply above the seal member 21 and between the plate 24 and the substrate W, with extraction between the plate 24 and the seal member 21. FIGS. 8 to 10 show flows parallel to the scanning direction VSbut similar arrangements can also be made with flow perpendicular to this direction.

Although specific reference may be made in this text to the use of lithographic apparatus in the manufacture of ICs, it should be understood that the lithographic apparatus described herein may have other applications, such as the manufacture of integrated optical systems, guidance and detection patterns for magnetic domain memories, flat-panel displays, liquid-crystal displays (LCDs), thin-film magnetic heads, etc. The skilled artisan will appreciate that, in the context of such alternative applications, any use of the terms “wafer” or “die” herein may be considered as synonymous with the more general terms “substrate” or “target portion”, respectively. The substrate referred to herein may be processed, before or after exposure, in for example a track (a tool that typically applies a layer of resist to a substrate and develops the exposed resist), a metrology tool and/or an inspection tool. Where applicable, the disclosure herein may be applied to such and other substrate processing tools. Further, the substrate may be processed more than once, for example in order to create a multi-layer IC, so that the term substrate used herein may also refer to a substrate that already contains multiple processed layers.

The terms “radiation” and “beam” used herein encompass all types of electromagnetic radiation, including ultraviolet (UV) radiation (e.g. having a wavelength of or about 365, 248, 193, 157 or 126 nm).

The term “lens”, where the context allows, may refer to any one or combination of various types of optical components, including refractive and reflective optical components.

While specific embodiments of the invention have been described above, it will be appreciated that the invention may be practiced otherwise than as described. For example, the invention may take the form of a computer program containing one or more sequences of machine-readable instructions describing a method as disclosed above, or a data storage medium (e.g. semiconductor memory, magnetic or optical disk) having such a computer program stored therein.

One or more embodiments of the present invention may be applied to any immersion lithography apparatus, in particular, but not exclusively, to those types mentioned above. A liquid supply system is any mechanism that provides a liquid to a space between the projection system and the substrate and/or substrate table. It may comprise any combination of one or more structures, one or more liquid inlets, one or more gas inlets, one or more gas outlets, and/or one or more liquid outlets, the combination providing and confining the liquid to the space. In an embodiment, a surface of the space may be limited to a portion of the substrate and/or substrate table, a surface of the space may completely cover a surface of the substrate and/or substrate table, or the space may envelop the substrate and/or substrate table.

The descriptions above are intended to be illustrative, not limiting. Thus, it will be apparent to one skilled in the art that modifications may be made to the invention as described without departing from the scope of the claims set out below.

Claims (29)

1. A lithographic projection apparatus arranged to project a pattern from a patterning device onto a substrate through a liquid confined to a space adjacent the substrate, the space being smaller in plan than the substrate, the apparatus comprising a plate substantially parallel to the substrate to divide the space into two parts, the plate having a portion formed from a material that has a low transmissivity at a wavelength of radiation used to project the pattern from the patterning device and an aperture within the portion to allow transmission of the pattern through the aperture onto the substrate.
2. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the aperture is open.
3. The apparatus according to claim 2, further comprising a projection system, a liquid supply port configured to supply liquid to a part of the space adjacent the projection system, and a liquid extraction port configured to extract liquid from a part of the space adjacent the substrate.
4. The apparatus according to claim 3, wherein a pressure of the liquid in the part of the space adjacent the projection system is higher than the pressure of the liquid in the part of the space adjacent the substrate.
5. The apparatus according to claim 3, wherein there are at least two plates.
6. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein an edge of the aperture in the plate is beveled.
7. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein there are at least two plates.
8. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the aperture is closed by a window of substantially transparent material.
9. The apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the material that forms the portion of the plate comprises a radiation absorptive material.
10. A lithographic apparatus, comprising:
an illuminator configured to condition a radiation beam;
a support constructed to hold a patterning device, the patterning device configured to impart the radiation beam with a pattern in its cross-section to form a patterned radiation beam;
a substrate table constructed to hold a substrate;
a projection system configured to project the patterned radiation beam onto a target portion of the substrate;
a liquid supply system configured to at least partly fill a space between the projection system and the substrate with a liquid, the liquid supply system comprising a liquid confinement structure configured to at least partly confine the liquid within the space; and
a plate substantially parallel to the substrate to divide the space into two parts, the plate having at least a portion thereof radiation transmissive to allow transmission of the pattern onto the substrate, wherein the portion comprises an open aperture.
11. The apparatus according to claim 10, wherein an edge of the aperture is beveled.
12. The apparatus according to claim 10, further comprising a liquid supply port configured to supply liquid to a part of the space adjacent the projection system, and a liquid extraction port configured to extract liquid from a part of the space adjacent the substrate.
13. The apparatus according to claim 12, wherein a pressure of the liquid in the part of the space adjacent the projection system is higher than the pressure of the liquid in the part of the space adjacent the substrate.
14. The apparatus according to claim 10, wherein there are at least two plates.
15. The apparatus according to claim 10, wherein the at least a portion of the plate is formed of substantially transparent material.
16. The apparatus according to claim 10, wherein the space is smaller in plan than the substrate.
17. The apparatus according to claim 10, wherein a portion of the liquid confinement structure is between the projection system and the substrate and the plate is between the liquid confinement structure and the substrate.
18. The apparatus according to claim 17, further comprising:
a liquid supply port configured to supply liquid to a part of the space between the projection system and the liquid confinement structure; and
a liquid extraction port configured to extract liquid from a part of the space between the liquid confinement structure and the plate and between the plate and the substrate.
19. The apparatus according to claim 17, further comprising:
a liquid supply port configured to supply liquid to a part of the space between the projection system and the liquid confinement structure and between the liquid confinement structure and the plate; and
a liquid extraction port configured to extract liquid from a part of the space between the plate and the substrate.
20. The apparatus according to claim 17, further comprising:
a liquid supply port configured to supply liquid to a part of the space between the projection system and the liquid confinement structure and between the plate and the substrate; and
a liquid extraction port configured to extract liquid from a part of the space between the liquid confinement structure and the plate.
21. A device manufacturing method, comprising:
supplying a liquid to a space adjacent a substrate, the space being smaller in plan than the substrate and divided into two parts by a plate substantially parallel to the substrate, the plate having at least a portion transmissive to radiation, wherein the portion comprises an open aperture formed in the plate to allow transmission of a patterned beam of radiation through the aperture onto the substrate or the portion comprises an aperture within a part of the plate, the part formed from a material that has a low transmissivity at a wavelength of radiation used to project the patterned beam of radiation, to allow transmission of the patterned beam of radiation through the aperture onto the substrate; and
projecting a patterned beam of radiation through the liquid and through the portion onto the substrate.
22. The method according to claim 21, further comprising supplying liquid to a part of the space adjacent a projection system used to project the patterned beam, and extracting liquid from a part of the space adjacent the substrate.
23. The method according to claim 22, wherein a pressure of the liquid in the part of the space adjacent the projection system is higher than the pressure of the liquid in the part of the space adjacent the substrate.
24. The method according to claim 21, wherein the space is divided by at least two plates.
25. The method according to claim 21, wherein the aperture within the part of the plate comprises a window of substantially transparent material.
26. The method according to claim 21, wherein a portion of a liquid confinement structure, configured to at least partly confine the liquid within the space, is between a projection system used to project the patterned beam and the substrate and the plate is between the liquid confinement structure and the substrate.
27. The method according to claim 26, further comprising:
supplying liquid to a part of the space between the projection system and the liquid confinement structure; and
extracting liquid from a part of the space between the liquid confinement structure and the plate and between the plate and the substrate.
28. The method according to claim 26, further comprising:
supplying liquid to a part of the space between the projection system and the liquid confinement structure and between the liquid confinement structure and the plate; and
extracting liquid from a part of the space between the plate and the substrate.
29. The method according to claim 26, further comprising:
supplying liquid to a part of the space between the projection system and the liquid confinement structure and between the plate and the substrate; and
extracting liquid from a part of the space between the liquid confinement structure and the plate.
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