TW201313511A - 搬運車系統及朝搬運車的充電方法 - Google Patents

搬運車系統及朝搬運車的充電方法 Download PDF

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TW201313511A
TW201313511A TW101132021A TW101132021A TW201313511A TW 201313511 A TW201313511 A TW 201313511A TW 101132021 A TW101132021 A TW 101132021A TW 101132021 A TW101132021 A TW 101132021A TW 201313511 A TW201313511 A TW 201313511A
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charging
vehicle
ground
transport
charge
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林孝雄
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村田機械股份有限公司
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Abstract

提供可以將搬運車的蓄電器短時間充電的系統。在搬運車系統中,將蓄電器作為電源行走的複數台的搬運車,是在地上側控制器的控制下沿著預定的行走路徑行走。具備將交流朝直流整流的整流器、及藉由整流器被充電的充電裝置側蓄電器、及將搬運車的搬運車側蓄電器充電用的充電接頭之充電裝置,是沿著行走路徑被設在複數處。搬運車是具備將位置及蓄電器的殘容量朝地上側控制器報告的手段,地上側控制器,是具備充電管理部,可對應搬運車的蓄電器的殘容量及位置選擇搬運車,選擇並指定朝所選擇的搬運車的充電接頭,使停止於與所指定的充電接頭接觸的位置並接受充電的方式進行控制。

Description

搬運車系統及朝搬運車的充電方法
本發明是有關搬運車系統及朝搬運車的充電,尤其是有關於由蓄電器朝行走的搬運車的系統中的搬運車的充電。
已知將可充電的2次電池搭載於高架行走車、有軌道台車、無人搬運車等,作為車載的電源。關於此點,專利文獻1(JPH05-207611A),是提案設置電池交換機,將高架行走車的電池交換。但是為了使用2次電池的搬運車系統,是需要管理蓄電器的殘容量,並且使充電短時間進行使搬運車的運轉率的下降成為最小限度。
[先行技術文獻] [專利文獻]
[專利文獻1]JPH05-207611A
本發明的課題,是提供不需過大的設備,就可以將搬運車的蓄電器短時間充電的系統。
本發明的搬運車系統,是在地上側控制器的控制下使 將蓄電器作為電源行走的複數台的搬運車沿著預定的行走路徑行走的系統,具備將交流朝直流整流的整流器、及藉由前述整流器被充電的充電裝置側蓄電器、及將搬運車的搬運車側蓄電器充電用的充電接頭之充電裝置,是沿著前述行走路徑設在複數處,前述搬運車是具備將自己的位置及前述搬運車側蓄電器的殘容量朝地上側控制器報告的通訊部,地上側控制器,是具備充電管理部,該充電管理部,可對應前述搬運車的搬運車側蓄電器的殘容量及搬運車的位置,選擇需要充電的搬運車,並且選擇並指定朝所選擇的搬運車的充電接頭,將前述搬運車停止在與所指定的前述充電接頭接觸的位置並使前述搬運車接受充電的方式進行控制。
且本發明搬運車的充電方法,是對於將蓄電器作為電源行走的複數台的搬運車,在地上側控制器的控制下沿著預定的行走路徑行走的系統,具備將交流朝直流整流的整流器、及藉由前述整流器被充電的充電裝置側蓄電器、及將搬運車的搬運車側蓄電器充電用的充電接頭之充電裝置,是沿著前述行走路徑設在複數處,朝該系統中的搬運車進行充電的方法,是實行以下步驟:前述搬運車,是透過搬運車的通訊部,將自己的位置及前述搬運車側蓄電器的殘容量朝地上側控制器報告的步驟;及地上側控制器,是透過充電管理部,對應前述搬運車的搬運車側蓄電器的殘容量及搬運車的位置,選擇需要充電的搬運車,並且選擇並指定透過通訊部朝所選擇的搬運車的充電接頭的步 驟;及使被選擇的搬運車停止於與被指定的前述充電接頭接觸的位置,接受從充電裝置側蓄電器透過充電接頭朝蓄電器充電的步驟。
在本說明書中,有關於搬運車系統的記載也直接適用於搬運車的充電方法。
在本發明中,不是從整流器直接充電,而是透過充電裝置側蓄電器將搬運車側蓄電器充電。因此可以由大電流從充電裝置側蓄電器透過充電接頭將搬運車側蓄電器急速充電。因為充電用的停止時間是與充電電流幾乎反比例,所以藉由充電裝置側蓄電器,可以縮短為了充電而使搬運車停止的時間,可以提高搬運車的運轉率。進一步整流器為止的配線及朝整流器的電源是小的容量也可以,就不需要在地上側設置大電流的電源及配線。且沿著行走路徑在複數處設置充電裝置,依據搬運車的位置及搬運車側蓄電器的殘容量,選擇並指定充電接頭使接收充電。因此不會發生因搬運車側蓄電器的殘容量不足而無法行走搬運車。又搬運車側蓄電器及充電裝置側蓄電器是例如鋰離子電池等的2次電池或雙電層電容器等。
較佳是,前述充電接頭是被設在由裝載埠或暫存區所構成的移載點。如此的話,因為搬運車可以在裝載埠等的停止點利用停止的時間進行充電,所以可以進一步縮短充電用的損失時間。在移載點以外設置充電接頭的較佳位置,是位於:移載點的前後、及搬運車停止待機的待機位置。
且較佳是,充電管理部,是在與對於充電裝置側蓄電器被並列連接的複數充電接頭接觸的位置,使複數台的高架行走車同時停止,並同時充電。搬運車停止並接受充電的話,其間的行走路徑會被塞住。在此使複數台的搬運車停止在接近的位置,並同時充電的話,可以縮短為了充電而將行走路徑塞住的時間。且因為透過充電裝置側蓄電器充電,所以即使複數搬運車同時充電,充電電流也不會不足,1個充電裝置側蓄電器可以由複數充電接頭共用。
尤其是較佳是,搬運車是沿著設在頂棚空間的行走軌道行走的高架行走車,整流器及充電裝置側蓄電器是被設在地上側。沿著頂棚空間,配設交流配線,並配置重量物也就是充電裝置側蓄電器是沒有效率。對於此在地上側配置整流器及充電裝置側蓄電器的話,朝物品的搬運終點也就是處理裝置的配線等可以利用在朝整流器的交流電源,從地上側朝行走軌道側配設直流配線的話,就可以沿著行走軌道配線複數個的充電接頭。
地上側控制器,是對應搬運要求的發生狀況,決定充電接頭中的充電量較佳。如此的話,‧搬運要求是多數發生的情況時,可使每1次的充電量減少並可使搬運車的運轉率增加,‧搬運要求的發生數少的情況時,藉由增加每1次的充電量,就可防止由充電所產生的搬運效率的下降。較佳是,地上側控制器,是對應經由進行充電的充電接頭的行走指令的發生狀況,決定充電接頭中的充電量。如此的 話,經由進行充電的充電接頭的行走指令多的情況時,藉由減少每1次的充電量,就可以不妨害其他的搬運車的行走。又對應進行搬運要求的發生狀況及經由進行充電的充電接頭的行走指令的發生狀況的雙方,決定充電量也可以。
以下顯示實施本發明用的最適實施例。本發明的範圍,應依據申請專利範圍的記載,參酌說明書的記載及此領域中的周知技術,並依據本行業者的理解被決定。
[實施例]
在第1圖~第6圖中,雖顯示實施例的高架行走車系統2,但可取代高架行走車系統,採用地上行走的有軌道台車系統或是無人搬運車系統等也可以。在各圖中,4是圏際路線,將複數圏內路線6、6間連接,第2圖所示的處理裝置24是沿著圏內路線6被複數設置。8是高架行走車,沿著第2圖的行走軌道20行走於頂棚空間,10是沿著行走路徑設置的充電接頭,例如裝載埠及其前後的至少一方,被設在:面向物品的暫置用的暫存區的位置、及其前後的至少一方、及高架行走車8的待機位置等。12是設在圏際路線4的捷徑路徑,即使不設置也可以。
在第2圖中,顯示在裝載埠26的正上方從充電接頭10接收充電的高架行走車8。20是行走軌道,藉由支柱 22從清淨室等的頂棚被吊下,24是半導體處理裝置等的處理裝置,也可以是平面顯示器的處理裝置等,設在地上側,且具備1個~複數個的裝載埠26。28是充電裝置本體,由第3圖的整流器36及蓄電器38所構成,蓄電器38是由鋰離子電池等的2次電池、雙電層電容器等也可以。直流配線30是從充電裝置本體28朝向行走軌道20地設置,沿著行走軌道20設有直流配線31,朝複數個的充電接頭10供給直流電力。複數個的充電接頭10是對於直流配線30被並列連接,接地線是例如兼具行走軌道20。且複數個的充電接頭10之中至少1個是設在裝載埠26的正上方部,在高架行走車8停止,且在與裝載埠26之間移載物品39的同時,接受充電。充電接頭10因為是隔有高架行走車8的車體長程度的間隔地被配置複數個,所以可以由複數台的高架行走車8接近的充電接頭同時接收充電。對於例如1台的高架行走車8充電時,使在其前後至少一方行走的其他的高架行走車8也同時充電的方式控制的話,可以減少高架行走車8為了充電而停止將行走路徑塞住的次數。
充電接頭10雖是設在如前述裝載埠26的正上方部等,但是設在其以外的無圖示的暫存區的上部及其前後及待機位置等也可以。與1個充電裝置本體28連接的複數個的充電接頭10被稱為充電接頭群的話,在例如每條圏內路線6設置2~數個程度的充電接頭群,每條圏際路線4設置數個的充電接頭群。如此例如數10m~100m程度行 走的話,高架行走車8就可以到達最靠近的充電接頭10。
在第3圖顯示充電裝置及其周邊。32是交流電源,將處理裝置的電源共用,34是交流配線,藉由整流器36將交流轉換成直流,在蓄電器38蓄電,朝充電接頭10供給直流電力。如此的話,因為可以利用處理裝置的交流電源,將整流器36及蓄電器38設在地上側,所以不需要由行走軌道等被支撐於頂棚空間。
在第4圖顯示高架行走車8的構成,41是行走部,由行走馬達及行走車輪等所構成,42是移載部,由使昇降台的昇降機構及昇降機構對於走列方向朝側方移動的横送部等所構成。位置感測器43是測量高架行走車8的位置,通訊部44是與處理裝置24側的通訊部51通訊,交換移載物品用的訊號及接受充電用的訊號。機上控制器40是與地上側控制器52通訊,報告高架行走車8的現在位置及速度、狀態以及2次電池46及電容器47的殘容量等,從地上側控制器52接受有關於行走等的指令。
變頻器45是將2次電池46及電容器47的輸出轉換成交流,朝行走部41的行走馬達及移載部42的馬達供給,2次電池46及電容器47是透過搬運車側接頭48,從充電裝置側的接頭10收取直流電力。又在高架行走車8的加速時及昇降台的上昇時,從電容器47及2次電池46的雙方供給電力,在定速行走時等的消耗電力的小的時期只有從2次電池46供給電力。且藉由高架行走車8的減速及昇降台的下降等被回收的能量,是朝電容器47、2次 電池46充電。且從高架行走車8的行走開始至移載的完成為止的每1週期使電容器47的殘容量返回至預定的值的方式,從2次電池46給供1週期的淨消耗電力。設置電容器47的話,因為可以減小從2次電池46放電的尖峰電流,並將來自2次電池46的放電電流平準化,所以可以使用小容量的2次電池46,或是加長2次電池46的壽命。又即使不設置電容器47也可以,且不設置2次電池46而只有設置電容器47也可以。
在第5圖顯示地上側控制器52的構成。53是通訊部,與高架行走車通訊,通訊部54是與生產管理系統55通訊,接收有關於搬運的要求,報告搬運結果。搬運指令管理部56,是對應生產管理系統55的要求作成搬運指令,管理其實行狀況。配置車管理部57,是使預定的台數的空出的台車是存在於各圏內路線的方式,將空出台車配車。充電管理部58,是管理各高架行走車的2次電池及電容器的殘容量,若殘容量是下降至預定值以下的話,就發出指令,指定充電接頭的位置,使接受充電。電容器的殘容量是除了加速開始時以外因為少,所以只管理2次電池的殘容量也可以。接受充電位置,是高架行走車未被分派搬運指令或配車指令的情況時,可以由任意的位置的充電接頭接收充電。有被分派搬運指令或是配置車指令的情況時,在被指定的行走路徑內決定充電接頭的位置。又為了指定充電接頭的位置,是指定沿著行走路徑的座標或充電接頭的ID等較佳。進一步對於接受充電用的2次電池等 的殘容量的閾值,若是在例如搬運指令實行中較低,其以外的情況時較高,使在實行搬運指令之前接收充電。
行走指令作成部59,是使高架行走車可以實行:搬運指令、配置車指令、充電指令等的方式,作成有關於行走的指令。此指令,是例如由從現在至預定時間後的目標位置及目標速度,例如在每隔預定時間作成。搬運指令檔案60是將搬運指令及其實行結果記憶,台車狀態檔案61是將台車的位置及速度以及狀態及2次電池及電容器的殘容量等記憶。
在第6圖顯示充電的方法。充電管理部是檢出需要充電的搬運車,配合搬運車的行走路徑及現在位置以及2次電池的殘容量等,選擇並指定各充電接頭作為充電位置。將需要充電的搬運車稱為搬運車A。高架行走車若接受充電的話,其間的行走路徑會被塞住。在此對於充電的高架行走車的前後的高架行走車,尋找可充電者。可充電,是指2次電池等未充滿電,且優先度較高的搬運指令未實行的意思。且使需要充電的高架行走車A及前後可充電的高架行走車,停止於接近的充電接頭,同時充電。
地上側控制器的充電管理部,是決定:朝搬運車A的充電量,即充滿電為100%時幾%為止充電的從生產管理系統朝地上側控制器的搬運要求的發生狀況;及對應經由進行充電的充電接頭的行走指令的發生狀況的雙方。沒有必要使用搬運要求的發生狀況及行走指令的發生狀況的雙方,只依據這些之中的一方決定充電量也可以。搬運要求 多數發生,經由該當的充電接頭的行走指令愈多充電量愈增加,這些愈少充電量愈小。搬運要求的發生頻率低且經由該當的充電接頭的行走指令少的情況時,決定使充滿電也可以。
搬運要求的發生狀況,是可以由:每隔預定時間的搬運要求的發生次數的移動平均值、或依據移動平均值的今後的發生次數的預測值等決定。搬運要求的發生次數是具有周期性變化的傾向等的具有規則性的情況時,使用依據這些的規則性決定的預測值也可以。且搬運要求的發生次數,是使用:地上側控制器每隔預定時間分派搬運指令的次數的移動平均值、或其預測值等也可以。搬運要求的發生狀況是表示搬運系統整體的搬運負荷的高低,成為搬運要求的發生狀況的基礎的搬運要求的發生次數,是例如使用忽視了裝貨位置及卸載位置等的搬運系統整體中的搬運要求的發生次數。
通過進行充電的充電接頭的行走指令的發生狀況,是顯示為了充電而將行走路徑塞住使其他的搬運車等待的程度。行走指令是指朝搬運車的指令且包含行走者,在搬運指令以外,雖包含:配車的指令、充電指令、空出行走路徑用的逐出的指令等,但是在這些之中,只有考慮搬運指令也可以。
搬運系統整體中的搬運指令的發生次數為α,通過進行充電的充電接頭的行走指令的發生次數為β的話,充電管理部是由x=a α+b β(a、b是正的常數)求得,x的值 大的話每1次的充電量會減小,小的話每1次的充電量會加大。在搬運系統整體中的搬運要求的發生次數α中,為了可以迅速地實行今後發生的搬運要求,預測值是重要的。通過進行充電的充電接頭的搬運要求的發生次數β,為了使不會妨害其他的搬運車的行走,現在的值是比預測值更重要。
殘容量最低搬運車A是預定的容量為止被充電的話,地上側控制器的充電管理部是由接近的充電接頭對於充電中的各搬運台車,發出中止充電的指令。複數台的高架行走車是一次全部地停止充電的話,可以縮短將行走路徑塞住的時間。且因為充電是藉由蓄電器38的電力進行,所以可以對於複數台的高架行走車同時充電。因為充電接頭是被設在裝載埠的正上方部等,所以高架行走車是對於設有充電接頭的裝載埠移載物品的情況時,只要不是充滿電就進行充電。此時也將其他的高架行走車停止在接近的充電接頭使被充電。
在實施例中可獲得以下的效果。
(1)因為從蓄電器38朝高架行走車8側充電,所以可以由大電流短時間充電。因為充電用的停止時間是與充電電流幾乎反比例,所以由大電流充電的話高架行走車8的運轉率可提高。
(2)在朝蓄電器38的電源中因為可以利用處理裝置用的交流電源32,所以配線容易。從蓄電器38朝高架行走車8可短時間充電,藉由時常從交流電源32朝蓄電器 38充電,就可以減小需要充電的地上側配線的容量。
(3)因為將複數個的充電接頭10並列連接在1台的蓄電器38,所以可以對於複數台的高架行走車一次全部地充電。因此為了充電而將行走路徑塞住時間可變短。
(4)因為將蓄電器38及整流器36配置於地上側,所以不需要將這些的構件支撐於頂棚空間。
(5)在各圏內路線6各設置2~數個的充電接頭群,在圏際路線4也設置數個的充電接頭群的話,高架行走車可以例如在100m以下的行走接收充電。且因為由充電管理部58監視高架行走車的位置及2次電池等的殘容量,所以引起電池沒電的高架行走車不會產生。
(6)因為在裝載埠26的正上方部設置充電接頭10,所以將物品的移載用的停止時間可以被利用於充電。
(7)因此,整體上,高架行走車只為了充電而停止的時間可縮短,可以提高高架行走車的運轉率。
(8)對應搬運要求的發生狀況及經由該當的充電接頭的行走指令的發生狀況,決定在那一殘容量為止充電。因此,搬運要求的發生頻率高時是減少1次的充電量並提高搬運車的運轉率,即使經由充電接頭的行走指令的數量多時,也可減少1次的充電量就不會妨害其他的搬運車的行走。且搬運要求的發生頻率低時及經由充電接頭的行走指令的數量少時,藉由增加1次的充電量,就可一邊不會妨害其他的搬運車的行走,且一邊可以為下次的繁忙期預先充電。
2‧‧‧高架行走車系統
4‧‧‧圏際路線
6‧‧‧圏內路線
8‧‧‧高架行走車
10‧‧‧充電接頭
12‧‧‧捷徑路徑
20‧‧‧行走軌道
22‧‧‧支柱
24‧‧‧處理裝置
26‧‧‧裝載埠
28‧‧‧充電裝置本體
30、31‧‧‧直流配線
32‧‧‧交流電源
34‧‧‧交流配線
36‧‧‧整流器
38‧‧‧蓄電器
39‧‧‧物品
40‧‧‧機上控制器
41‧‧‧行走部
42‧‧‧移載部
43‧‧‧位置感測器
44‧‧‧通訊部
45‧‧‧變頻器
46‧‧‧2次電池
47‧‧‧電容器
48‧‧‧搬運車側接頭
51‧‧‧通訊部
52‧‧‧地上側控制器
53、54‧‧‧通訊部
55‧‧‧生產管理系統
56‧‧‧搬運指令管理部
57‧‧‧配置車管理部
58‧‧‧充電管理部
59‧‧‧行走指令作成部
60‧‧‧搬運指令檔案
61‧‧‧台車狀態檔案
[第1圖]顯示實施例的高架行走車系統的佈局配置的俯視圖。
[第2圖]顯示實施例中的高架行走車及處理裝置的側面圖。
[第3圖]實施例中的充電裝置及其周邊的方塊圖。
[第4圖]實施例中的搬運車及其周邊的方塊圖。
[第5圖]實施例中的地上側控制器的方塊圖。
[第6圖]顯示實施例中的充電控制方法的流程圖。
2‧‧‧高架行走車系統
4‧‧‧圏際路線
6‧‧‧圏內路線
8‧‧‧高架行走車
10‧‧‧充電接頭
12‧‧‧捷徑路徑

Claims (7)

  1. 一種搬運車系統,是將蓄電器作為電源行走的複數台的搬運車,在地上側控制器的控制下沿著預定的行走路徑行走的系統,其特徵為:具備將交流朝直流整流的整流器、及藉由前述整流器被充電的充電裝置側蓄電器、及將搬運車的搬運車側蓄電器充電用的充電接頭之充電裝置,是沿著前述行走路徑設在複數處,前述搬運車是具備將自己的位置及前述搬運車側蓄電器的殘容量朝地上側控制器報告的通訊部,地上側控制器,是具備充電管理部,該充電管理部,可對應前述搬運車的搬運車側蓄電器的殘容量及搬運車的位置,選擇需要充電的搬運車,並且選擇並指定朝所選擇的搬運車充電的接頭,將前述搬運車停止於與所指定的前述充電接頭接觸的位置並使前述搬運車接受充電的方式進行控制。
  2. 如申請專利範圍第1項的搬運車系統,其中,前述充電接頭是被設在由裝載埠或暫存區所構成的移載點。
  3. 如申請專利範圍第1或2項的搬運車系統,其中,前述充電接頭是沿著行走路徑複數個並列地連接於1個充電裝置側蓄電器,前述充電管理部,是在與被並列連接的複數充電接頭 接觸的位置,使複數台的高架行走車同時停止,並同時充電。
  4. 如申請專利範圍第3項的搬運車系統,其中,搬運車是沿著設在頂棚空間的行走軌道行走的高架行走車,前述整流器及前述充電裝置側蓄電器是被設在地上側。
  5. 如申請專利範圍第1或2項的搬運車系統,其中,前述地上側控制器,是對應搬運要求的發生狀況,決定前述充電接頭中的充電量。
  6. 如申請專利範圍第1或2項的搬運車系統,其中,前述地上側控制器,是對應經由前述充電接頭的行走指令的發生狀況,決定前述充電接頭中的充電量。
  7. 一種搬運車的充電方法,是對於將蓄電器作為電源行走的複數台的搬運車,在地上側控制器的控制下沿著預定的行走路徑行走的系統,具備將交流朝直流整流的整流器、及藉由前述整流器被充電的充電裝置側蓄電器、及將搬運車的搬運車側蓄電器充電用的充電接頭之充電裝置,是沿著前述行走路徑設在複數處,朝該系統中的搬運車進行充電的方法,是實行以下步驟:前述搬運車,是透過搬運車的通訊部,將自己的位置及前述搬運車側蓄電器的殘容量朝地上側控制器報告的步驟;及 地上側控制器,是透過充電管理部,對應前述搬運車的搬運車側蓄電器的殘容量及搬運車的位置,選擇需要充電的搬運車,並且選擇並指定透過通訊部朝所選擇的搬運車的充電接頭的步驟;及使被選擇的搬運車停止於與被指定的前述充電接頭接觸的位置,接受從充電裝置側蓄電器透過充電接頭朝蓄電器充電的步驟。
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