KR101017333B1 - Power semiconductor module - Google Patents

Power semiconductor module Download PDF

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Publication number
KR101017333B1
KR101017333B1 KR1020087028932A KR20087028932A KR101017333B1 KR 101017333 B1 KR101017333 B1 KR 101017333B1 KR 1020087028932 A KR1020087028932 A KR 1020087028932A KR 20087028932 A KR20087028932 A KR 20087028932A KR 101017333 B1 KR101017333 B1 KR 101017333B1
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South Korea
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temperature
circuit board
semiconductor module
difference
metal
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KR1020087028932A
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Korean (ko)
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KR20090005221A (en
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다케시 가토
겐이치 노나카
요시미츠 사이토
겐지 오오구시
겐지 오카모토
요시히코 히가시다니
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혼다 기켄 고교 가부시키가이샤
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    • HELECTRICITY
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    • H01L23/02Containers; Seals
    • H01L23/04Containers; Seals characterised by the shape of the container or parts, e.g. caps, walls
    • H01L23/053Containers; Seals characterised by the shape of the container or parts, e.g. caps, walls the container being a hollow construction and having an insulating or insulated base as a mounting for the semiconductor body
    • H01L23/057Containers; Seals characterised by the shape of the container or parts, e.g. caps, walls the container being a hollow construction and having an insulating or insulated base as a mounting for the semiconductor body the leads being parallel to the base
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    • H01L25/04Assemblies consisting of a plurality of individual semiconductor or other solid state devices ; Multistep manufacturing processes thereof all the devices being of a type provided for in the same subgroup of groups H01L27/00 - H01L51/00, e.g. assemblies of rectifier diodes the devices not having separate containers
    • H01L25/07Assemblies consisting of a plurality of individual semiconductor or other solid state devices ; Multistep manufacturing processes thereof all the devices being of a type provided for in the same subgroup of groups H01L27/00 - H01L51/00, e.g. assemblies of rectifier diodes the devices not having separate containers the devices being of a type provided for in group H01L29/00
    • H01L25/072Assemblies consisting of a plurality of individual semiconductor or other solid state devices ; Multistep manufacturing processes thereof all the devices being of a type provided for in the same subgroup of groups H01L27/00 - H01L51/00, e.g. assemblies of rectifier diodes the devices not having separate containers the devices being of a type provided for in group H01L29/00 the devices being arranged next to each other
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    • H01L2224/45117Material with a principal constituent of the material being a metal or a metalloid, e.g. boron (B), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), tellurium (Te) and polonium (Po), and alloys thereof the principal constituent melting at a temperature of greater than or equal to 400°C and less than 950°C
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    • H01L23/373Cooling facilitated by selection of materials for the device or materials for thermal expansion adaptation, e.g. carbon
    • H01L23/3735Laminates or multilayers, e.g. direct bond copper ceramic substrates
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Abstract

A power semiconductor module 10 having an integrated circuit board 11 coupled with a metal substrate electrode 14, an insulating substrate 15, and a heat sink 12 is disclosed. The SiC semiconductor power device 13 is coupled to the top of the metal substrate electrode of the circuit board. The difference in average thermal expansion coefficients between the component materials of the circuit board in the temperature range from room temperature to the temperature at the time of bonding is 2.0 ppm / ° C. or less, which is generated due to the difference between the lowest operating temperature and the bonding temperature of the circuit board component materials. The expansion difference is 2,000 ppm or less.

Description

Power Semiconductor Modules {POWER SEMICONDUCTOR MODULE}

The present invention relates to a power semiconductor module, and more particularly, to a power semiconductor module that may be suitably used as a power conversion device in automobiles and the like.

Semiconductor power devices are used as inverters, DC / DC converters, and other power conversion devices. The semiconductor power device is mainly used in a form called a "power semiconductor module" in which a plurality of semiconductor power devices are mounted.

The structure of a conventional power semiconductor module is described below with reference to FIGS. 4 and 5. 4 illustrates a cross-sectional structure of a power semiconductor module, and FIG. 5 illustrates an electric circuit embedded in the power semiconductor module.

Examples of such semiconductor power devices include transistors whose on / off operation is controlled by external signals, diodes having rectifying characteristics, and other devices. Typical transistors include MOSFETs, IGBTs, and the like.

5 is an example of an inverter circuit for converting a direct current into a three-phase alternating current. This inverter circuit 100 includes at least six IGBTs 101 and six diodes 102. These six IGBTs 101 are connected to form a bridge circuit. Each diode 102 is connected between the collector and the emitter of the corresponding IGBT 101, and the forward direction is the direction from the emitter to the collector. The upper terminal 103a and the lower terminal 103b on the left side of Fig. 5 are direct current input terminals, and the three terminals 104a, 104b and 104c on the right side of this figure are output terminals for three-phase alternating current. When the power to be controlled is increased in the inverter circuit 100, the amount of heat generated in the semiconductor power device is increased. Therefore, this heat must be properly discharged to the outside in order to prevent excessive increase in temperature in the semiconductor power device.

In the power semiconductor module 201 shown in FIG. 4, the IGBTs 101 and diodes 102 are collectively shown as semiconductor power devices 202. These semiconductor power devices 202 are formed by using solder on a circuit board 210 having a metal substrate electrode 211, an insulating substrate 212, and a metal substrate 213 stacked together. Combined. The plurality of metal substrate electrodes 211 are disposed corresponding to the semiconductor power devices 202. Aluminum wires 222 are connected to the surface electrodes of the semiconductor power devices 202 and to the external electrodes 223. In the circuit board 210, the metal substrate electrode 211 and the metal substrate 213 are made of aluminum, the insulating substrate 212 is made of aluminum nitride, and these elements are connected to each other.

The role of the metal substrate electrode 211 is to deliver significant current flowing to the semiconductor power devices 202 to the outside at low loss. An electrically conductive material is suitable for the metal substrate electrodes 211. Copper and aluminum are mainly used for the metal substrate electrodes 211. The role of the insulating substrate 212 is to ensure electrical insulation between each of the metal substrate electrodes 211 and the metal substrate 213. The insulating substrate 212 also functions to transfer heat generated in the semiconductor power devices 202 to the outside. For this reason, a material having high insulation resistance and high thermal conductivity is required as the insulating substrate 212. Aluminum nitride, silicon nitride, alumina, and the like are commonly used for the insulating substrate 212 material.

The metal substrate electrode 211 and the insulating substrate 212 are typically joined by brazing at a high temperature of about 600 ° C. or more. When cooled to room temperature after brazing, warping occurs due to stress caused by the difference in thermal expansion coefficients between the metal substrate electrode 211 and the insulating substrate 212. The metal substrate 213 disposed at the position on the opposite side of the metal substrate electrode 211 by the insulating substrate 212 is used to prevent such warping, and three elements in the circuit board 210, namely, the metal substrate electrode 211, insulating substrate 212, and metal substrate 213 are combined in the same brazing step.

The entire circuit board 210 is coupled to the copper base plate 225 by solder 224. The components of the circuit board 210 have a thickness of only 1 mm or less, but the base plate 225 has a thickness of several millimeters or more. In addition, the solder 224 is flexible, easily spread, and serves to reduce the thermal stress generated between the base plate 225 and the circuit board 210. The base plate 225 is connected to the aluminum heat sink 227 by silicon grease 226.

The resin case 228 is fixed on the top of the base plate 225. External electrodes 223 are fixed to the resin case 228 and extend from the inside of the case to the outside of the case.

When the power semiconductor module 210 is operating, a large amount of current flows to the semiconductor power devices 202 to generate heat. In the power semiconductor module 201 as a whole, the locally generated heat is transferred from the circuit board 210 to the base plate 225, diffuses widely laterally in the base plate 225, and the base plate 225. ), And is finally discharged to the atmosphere by the heat sink 227. The upper temperature of the bonding region of the silicon semiconductor power device is typically about 150 ° C. Therefore, the heat dissipation structure is designed for the power semiconductor module so that the mounted semiconductor power devices 202 are not heated above the upper limit temperature.

The performance of silicon-based semiconductor power devices 202 has reached practical theoretical limits. Semiconductor power devices using silicon carbide (SiC) (hereinafter referred to as " SiC semiconductor power devices ") have recently attracted attention as an alternative. SiC semiconductor power devices can reduce losses and operate at higher temperatures than silicon semiconductor power devices. For this reason, heat generation is reduced, high temperature operation is enabled, and the volume of the heat sink is increased by making the temperature difference between the heat sink and the external atmosphere or coolant larger in power semiconductor modules and power converters using SiC semiconductor power devices. Can be reduced. There is a high potential for the application of SiC semiconductor power devices as a fairly useful means for reducing the size of power semiconductor modules and power converters.

However, the conventional mounting structure cannot be applied to high temperature operation exceeding 200 ° C., which is a temperature range in which the best use is made of the characteristics of the SiC semiconductor power device. Assuming that power semiconductor modules obtained using conventional mounting techniques are employed or stored in high temperature environments above 200 ° C. or in environments with significant fluctuations in minimum and maximum temperatures, between component materials Since the thermal stress caused by the difference in coefficient of thermal expansion becomes excessively high, the power semiconductor module will experience a critical failure, and the solder and other materials themselves have insufficient thermal resistance.

Thus, conventional techniques for mounting semiconductor power devices are practical in the operating temperature range of silicon semiconductor power devices, but do not provide sufficient ambient thermal resistance for devices that operate effectively at higher temperatures, such as SiC semiconductor power devices. can not do it. In the case where silicon semiconductor power devices are to be used, there is a need for a mounting technique that produces less thermal induction resistance and provides greater ambient thermal resistance, making full use of the properties of these devices.

See JP 09-148491 A1 and JP 2000-216278 A1 (currently issued as patent 3,479,738), JP 2000-332170 A1 and JP 10-289968 A1, which disclose prior arts relating to the present invention.

The power semiconductor substrate disclosed in JP 09-148491 A1 is an insulating board made of AlN (aluminum nitride) and a high temperature made of CuMo (copper molybdenum) and located on the front and back of the insulating board. Radiating composite boards. This document discloses only this substrate and there is no mention of a structure comprising a heat sink. This disclosed structure provides improved electrical conductivity and insulation in power semiconductors. However, this document does not consider heat radiation.

JP 2000-216278 A1 is an insulating board made of AlN (aluminum nitride) similar to the structure of JP 09-148491, and high-temperature radiating CuMo (copper molybdenum, A semiconductor package consisting of copper molybdenum) composite boards is disclosed.

JP 2000-332170 A1 discloses a semiconductor device comprising a base plate made of copper (Cu) in which a ceramic substrate is bonded to one surface. A molybdenum plate having a coefficient of thermal expansion similar to that of the ceramic substrate is bonded to the other surface of the base plate in a position corresponding to that of the ceramic substrate.

JP 10-289968 A1 relates to a power semiconductor having an AlN board with unwired electrically conductive patterns formed around the board. This configuration makes it possible to suppress the generation of stress on the surface of the AlN board by the balanced control of the generation of stress on the front and rear surfaces of the present board.

Thus, prior art for mounting semiconductor power devices is practical in the operating temperature range of silicon semiconductor power devices, but does not provide sufficient ambient thermal resistance for devices that operate effectively at higher temperatures, such as SiC semiconductor power devices. . In the case where silicon semiconductor power devices are to be used, there is a need for a mounting technique that produces less thermal induction resistance and provides greater ambient thermal resistance, making full use of the characteristics of these devices.

In the structure of the power semiconductor module shown in FIG. 4, the path from the semiconductor power devices 202 to the external atmosphere, starting with the soldering 221, includes the metal substrate electrode 211, the insulating substrate 212, and the metal. It is a complicated structure which passes through the board | substrate 213, the solder 224, the base board 225, and the silicon grease 226, and complete | finishes in the heat sink 227. FIG. This was due to the purpose of mitigating the thermal stresses created by the difference in thermal expansion coefficients between the component materials and from the constraints presented in the manufacturing process.

Therefore, when power semiconductor modules are constructed using SiC semiconductor power devices, the modules need to have a structure with a simpler path from semiconductor power devices to the external atmosphere, and also SiC that operates effectively at higher temperatures. It is necessary to have sufficient ambient thermal resistance with respect to semiconductor power devices.

According to a first aspect of the present invention, an integrated circuit board is integrally coupled to a metal substrate electrode, an insulating substrate and a heat sink; And a semiconductor power device coupled to the top of the metal substrate electrode of the circuit board, wherein the difference in average thermal expansion coefficients between the component materials of the circuit board in the temperature range from room temperature to joining temperature is 2.0 ppm / There is provided a power semiconductor module that is set to be < RTI ID = 0.0 >

Throughout this specification, the term "difference of the average thermal expansion coefficients of the constituent materials of the circuit board in the temperature range from room temperature to temperature upon bonding" should be interpreted to have the meaning described below.

The average thermal expansion coefficients in the temperature range from room temperature to the temperature at bonding (also referred to herein as "bonding temperature"; e.g., 800 ° C) are determined by a plurality of circuit board component materials (metal substrate electrode, insulating substrate and heat sink). After being obtained in each of the three layer structures), the difference in average thermal expansion coefficients between these materials is obtained. In the present invention, the difference in thermal expansion coefficients is set to be 2.0 ppm / ° C or less.

"Average coefficient of thermal expansion in the temperature range from room temperature to temperature upon bonding" is obtained by the following equation.

Figure 112008081579877-pct00001

CTE (T): coefficient of thermal expansion at temperature T

In the actual coupling process for the power semiconductor module, the component materials are first set according to a predetermined positional relationship at room temperature. Next, after the set materials are mounted in the apparatus, the temperature in the apparatus is gradually increased to be close to the temperature at the time of bonding, and the temperature is kept constant. Then, the temperature in the apparatus is gradually lowered to the room temperature, and the power semiconductor having the bonded component materials is separated from the apparatus.

During the temperature drop from the temperature at the time of bonding to the room temperature after the component materials are joined, stress is generated between the materials having different coefficients of thermal expansion. The magnitude of the stress generated depends on the coefficient of thermal expansion in the temperature range between room temperature and bonding temperature.

In view of the above, as the difference of the coefficients of thermal expansion between the component materials, the difference of the average coefficients of thermal expansion in the temperature range from the room temperature to the temperature at the time of bonding is used.

According to a second aspect of the present invention, there is provided an integrated circuit board comprising: a metal substrate electrode, an insulating substrate, and a heat sink; And a semiconductor power device coupled to the top of the metal substrate electrode of the circuit board, wherein the expansion difference generated by the temperature difference between the lowest operating temperature and the temperature upon coupling of the component materials of the circuit board is 2,000 ppm or less. This is provided.

In the above-described power semiconductor module, the semiconductor power device is preferably a SiC semiconductor power device.

In the above-described power semiconductor module, the material of the metal substrate electrode is preferably molybdenum, tungsten, copper molybdenum or copper tungsten.

In the power semiconductor module described above, the material of the insulating substrate is preferably aluminum nitride or silicon nitride.

In the power semiconductor module described above, the material of the heat sink is preferably a metal / carbon composite, a metal / silicon carbide composite, tungsten, molybdenum, copper molybdenum, or copper tungsten.

In the above-described power semiconductor module, the semiconductor power device and the circuit board are preferably joined by using a lead free solder having a melting point of 250 ° C. or higher, and the circuit and semiconductor power in the temperature range from room temperature to the temperature at the time of joining. The difference in average thermal expansion coefficients between the component materials of the device is 5 ppm / ° C. or less. Lead-free solder is preferably a gold-tin alloy.

In the above-described power semiconductor module, the metal wiring is coupled to the surface of the semiconductor power device and the surface of the circuit board, and has an average coefficient of thermal expansion between the semiconductor power device and the component materials of the metal wiring in the temperature range from room temperature to the bonding temperature. Are maintained at or below 5 ppm / ° C. in the average thermal expansion coefficients between the component materials of the circuit board and the metal wiring in the temperature range and from the room temperature to the bonding temperature.

The power semiconductor module of the present invention provides the advantages as described below.

First, the power semiconductor module of the present invention can operate at a higher temperature than the conventional power semiconductor module.

When a SiC semiconductor power device is mounted, the system can operate at temperatures in excess of 200 ° C. where the best use is made of the high temperature operating characteristics of SiC. When the structure according to the present invention is applied to a silicon device, a power semiconductor module having higher reliability and capable of operating at a higher temperature than conventional devices can be achieved.

Second, the temperature difference between the heat sink and the external atmosphere or coolant can be increased by operating at higher temperatures, so that the volume of the heat sink can be significantly reduced. Additional dimensions can be reduced by incorporating a low loss SiC semiconductor power device.

Third, the structure of the integrated circuit board is quite simple and can be manufactured in one joining process, which contributes to the reduction of manufacturing steps and the reduction of cost.

Specific preferred embodiments of the present invention are described in detail below by way of example only with reference to the accompanying drawings.

1 is a longitudinal cross-sectional view showing the structure of a power semiconductor module according to a first embodiment of the present invention.

2 is a longitudinal sectional view showing the structure of a power semiconductor module according to a second embodiment of the present invention.

3 is a longitudinal sectional view showing the structure of the power semiconductor module according to the third embodiment of the present invention.

4 is a longitudinal sectional view showing the structure of a conventional conventional power semiconductor module.

5 is an electric circuit diagram showing a bridge circuit incorporated in a conventional power semiconductor module.

The power semiconductor module according to the first embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIG. 1, which shows a main part of the power semiconductor module according to the first embodiment in a longitudinal cross section.

In the power semiconductor module 10 shown in FIG. 1, the circuit board 11 includes an integrated body of metal substrate electrodes 14, an insulating substrate 15, and a heat sink 12. The SiC semiconductor power device is connected to each metal substrate electrode 14 through lead solder 16. Each metal substrate electrode 14 forming the upper electrode of the SiC semiconductor power device 13 is connected to the external electrode 18 via the metal wiring 19 corresponding to the circuit configuration in the module. The heat resistant resin case 17 is further disposed on the heat sink 12.

The metal substrate electrodes 14 are patterned corresponding to the circuit configuration in the power semiconductor module 10. A plurality of insulating substrates 15 may be provided on the heat sink 12.

The material of the metal substrate electrode 14 may be, for example, molybdenum (Mo), and the material of the insulating substrate 15 may be aluminum nitride (AlN). Heat sink 12 may be made of, for example, a copper / carbon composite (CuC). The metal wiring 19 is aluminum wiring, for example.

The power semiconductor module 10 configured as described above is provided with a heat sink integrated circuit board 11 whose structure has only three layers. The circuit board 11 has a simplified structure, but the main functions of the semiconductor power device 13, that is, the electrical function to allow the flow of current, between each metal substrate electrodes 14 and the metal substrate electrodes 14. ) And an insulation function for providing insulation between the heat sink and a heat radiation function for radiating heat generated in the SiC semiconductor power device 13 to the outside. Therefore, the heat induction resistance can be reduced, and the manufacturing process can be simplified as compared with the structure of the conventional power semiconductor module.

The metal substrate electrodes 14, the insulating substrate 15, and the heat sink 12 are brazed at a temperature of, for example, 800 ° C. or higher.

The materials used in the metal substrate electrodes 14, the insulating substrate 15, and the heat sink 12 in this embodiment are the following average thermal expansion coefficients in the temperature range from room temperature to 800 ° C .: molybdenum ( 6.0 ppm / ° C for Mo), 5.5 ppm / ° C for aluminum nitride (AlN), and 5.7 ppm / ° C for copper / carbon composites (CuC). The maximum difference in thermal expansion coefficients between the materials of the components is only 0.5 ppm / ° C.

In conventional structures using aluminum and copper in metal substrates, heat sinks and other components, the difference between the coefficients of thermal expansion of the materials of the components is as much as 10 ppm / ° C to 20 ppm / ° C.

Compared with the conventional module, due to the above-described difference between the coefficients of thermal expansion of the materials of the components, considerably high ambient temperature characteristics can be achieved in the power semiconductor module 10 according to the present embodiment.

The power semiconductor module 10 provided with the SiC semiconductor power devices 13 may operate normally even when repeatedly used at a temperature of 200 ° C. or higher. The electrical resistivity of molybdenum (Mo) is about twice the electrical resistivity of aluminum, but the ability to flow large currents at low losses can be sufficiently satisfied by considering thickness and other factors.

In the power semiconductor module 10 according to the first embodiment, the loss in the mounted SiC semiconductor power devices 13 can be reduced by more than half, compared to the conventional silicon semiconductor power device, and enables higher temperature operation. As a result, the temperature difference between the external atmosphere and the heat sink 12 can be doubled or increased even more. Thus, the size (volume) of the heat sink 12 can be significantly reduced to about one fifth the size (volume) of the conventional module.

Based on the above, the power semiconductor module 10 according to the first embodiment has a module structure having the following three characteristics.

First, the circuit board 11 has a simple and multifunctional structure in which the metal substrate electrodes 14, the insulating substrate 15, and the heat sink 12 are integrated.

Second, since the thermal stress generated in the circuit board 11 is considerably low, the mounted SiC semiconductor power device 13 can operate at a temperature exceeding 200 ° C., and the service temperature or storage temperature of the power semiconductor module is −. High reliability is provided in environments with significantly low hot differences such as 40 ° C.

Third, the volume of the heat sink 12 can be significantly reduced compared to the conventional module because the SiC semiconductor power devices 13 have a low loss, and the temperature difference between the heat sink 12 and the external atmosphere can be increased. .

Table 1 below shows some of the results of the temperature cycle test performed in the temperature range of -40 ° C to 200 ° C for various circuit board structures including the circuit board 11 according to the first embodiment described above.

Table 1: Temperature Cycle Test Results for Circuit Boards

rescue Difference in average coefficient of thermal expansion between room temperature and bonding temperature (ppm / ℃) Difference in average thermal expansion coefficients between 200 ° C and room temperature (ppm / ° C) Test results Mo / AlN / CuC 0.5 2.3 10,000 cycles without abnormalities W / AlN / W 0.6 0.6 10,000 cycles without abnormalities CuMo / Al 2 O 3 / CuC 2.4 1.6 Ceramic Cracks at 100 to 2,000 Cycles Al / AlN / CuC 23 20.5 Ceramic Cracks at 100 to 2,000 Cycles Mo / AlN / Al 23 20.5 Ceramic Cracks at 100 to 2,000 Cycles Al / AlN / Al 23 20.5 Ceramic Cracks at 100 to 2,000 Cycles

Starting with the structure of the circuit board 11 adopted in the first embodiment, the difference in average thermal expansion coefficients between the component materials is changed from room temperature to a temperature range from 600 ° C to 800 ° C, which is a typical circuit board bonding temperature. When small, no abnormalities were observed in long term temperature cycle tests.

On the other hand, damage occurred early in the thermal cycle test in structures where the difference in average thermal expansion coefficients between the component materials for which Al, Cu, etc. were used was quite large. Damage also occurred initially in structures where Al and Cu were not used, such as CuMo / Al 2 O 3 / CuC. When Mo / AlN / CuC and CuMo / Al 2 O 3 / CuC are compared, Mo / AlN / CuC yields a smaller difference in the mean thermal expansion coefficients of the component materials in the temperature range from room temperature to the temperature at bonding. However, CuMo / Al 2 O 3 / CuC has a smaller difference in average thermal expansion coefficients in the temperature range from room temperature to 200 ° C., which was the maximum temperature of the temperature cycle test. The results of this temperature cycle test show that Mo / AlN / CuC has no abnormalities, but CuMo / Al 2 O 3 / CuC was damaged at the beginning of the test.

From the above results, in the effect of the ambient thermal resistance of the circuit board structure, the difference of the average thermal expansion coefficients of the component materials in the temperature range from room temperature to the temperature at the time of coupling is determined by the material temperature in the temperature range from room temperature to operating temperature. It is evident that the difference in average thermal expansion coefficients should be greater than that, and that the thermal expansion coefficient between the bonding temperature and the room temperature should be about 2 ppm / ° C. or less.

In addition to the examples of materials shown in Table 1 above, a copper / molybdenum composite may be used for the metal substrate electrodes 14, and AlSiC or the like may be used for the heat sink 12. Any material can be used as long as the component materials are selected such that the difference in average thermal expansion coefficients between materials in the temperature range from room temperature to temperature upon bonding is 2 ppm / ° C. or less.

If the bonding can be performed at lower temperatures, a larger difference in thermal expansion coefficients will be allowed. The criterion for this case is the difference in the expansion ratios of the component materials produced by the difference between the bonding temperature and the storage environment temperature or the operating minimum temperature. In the examples of Table 1, the bonding temperature is 800 ° C and the operating minimum temperature is -40 ° C. W / SiN / CuC had a maximum difference in the expansion ratio of the component materials of the circuit boards with good temperature cycle test results, which was 1,300 ppm. Conversely, CuMo / Al 2 O 3 / CuC had the minimum difference in the expansion ratios of the component materials of the circuit boards that were damaged at the beginning of the temperature cycle test, the value being 2,000 ppm. Based on these facts, the expansion ratio of the component materials produced by the difference between the bonding temperature and the storage environment temperature or the operating minimum temperature when the operating maximum temperature exceeds 200 ° C. and the storage environment temperature or the operating minimum temperature is 0 ° C. or less. It is apparent that the difference is preferably 2,000 ppm or less.

A second embodiment of the power semiconductor module according to the present invention will be described next with reference to Fig. 2 showing the main part of the power semiconductor module 20 according to the second embodiment in a longitudinal cross section. In FIG. 2, the same reference numerals as those used for the elements described in FIG. 1 are used.

In the power semiconductor module 20 shown in FIG. 2, the circuit board 11 whose structure is integrated with the heat sink 12 includes an insulating substrate 15 prepared according to each of the SiC semiconductor power devices 13. It is provided as a board portion having metal substrate electrodes 14. The SiC semiconductor power devices 13 are fixed to the tops of the metal substrate electrodes 14 by using AuSn solder (high temperature lead free solder) 21. The structure other than the above is the same as the structure described in the first embodiment.

In the power semiconductor module 10 according to the first embodiment, the SiC semiconductor power devices 13 are coupled onto the tops of the metal substrate electrodes 14 by using conventionally known solder 16. However, this module must be compatible with the globally pursued tendency of using lead-free structures. In the present situation, lead-free solder is not available that can be used to ensure sufficient long-term reliability in temperature environments above 200 ° C. AuSn, AuSi and the like are possible candidates in terms of melting point, but these solders are harder than conventional lead solders. Therefore, the boundary between the solder and the semiconductor power device, or the boundary between the solder and the metal substrate electrodes 14 is peeled off due to temperature cycles, the semiconductor power devices are damaged, and the semiconductor power devices are mainly used in aluminum, If these solders are used to bond copper and other metal substrate electrodes 14, another undesirable phenomenon occurs.

In the second embodiment, high ambient temperature resistance can be achieved even if AuSn solder 21 is used. This is due to the small difference in average thermal expansion coefficients between the SiC semiconductor power devices 13 and the metal substrate electrodes 14 of the integrated circuit board 11. This difference is 3 ppm / degrees C or less at about 300 degreeC which is the bonding temperature of AuSn (21) solder.

Table 2 below shows the results of coupling SiC semiconductor power devices to two different types of circuit board structures by using AuSn solder and performing a temperature cycle test in a temperature range of -40 ° C to 200 ° C. Anomalies were observed at the beginning of the test in the conventional structure, ie Al / AlN / Al, but no abnormalities were observed in 10,000 cycles in the structure of this embodiment, ie Mo / AlN / CuC.

Table 2: Temperature Cycle Test Results for AuSn

rescue Results Mo / AlN / CuC 10,000 cycles without abnormalities Al / AlN / Al Chip Crack from 100 to 1,000 Cycles

From these results, it is clear that in the structure of this embodiment, AuSn solder, which is difficult to use in the conventional structures, can be used even in a severe temperature environment, provided sufficient reliability is ensured. This is because the difference in thermal expansion coefficients between the SiC semiconductor power devices and the integrated circuit board is small.

The appropriate upper limit temperature of the solder joint of the SiC semiconductor power devices 13 is set at about 400 ° C. in order to be able to use existing devices and because of other considerations. The SiC semiconductor power devices 13 and the integrated circuit board 11 in the temperature range from the room temperature to the temperature at the time of joining, taking into account the above test results and considering that the bonding temperature is about half of the bonding temperature of the integrated circuit board. The difference in average thermal expansion coefficients between the constituent materials of is preferably considered to be about 5 ppm / ° C. or less.

In the power semiconductor module 20 according to the second embodiment, the mounted SiC semiconductor power devices 13 operate at temperatures exceeding 200 ° C. even in lead-free structures, and high reliability is provided in an environment having a high temperature difference. . These environments include environments where the service temperature or storage temperature of the power semiconductor module is significantly lower, such as -40 ° C.

A third embodiment of the power semiconductor module according to the present invention will be described next with reference to FIG. 3 is a longitudinal cross-sectional view showing the main part of the power semiconductor module 30 according to the third embodiment. In FIG. 3, the same reference numerals as those used for the elements described in FIG. 2 are used.

In the power semiconductor module 30 shown in FIG. 3, the circuit board 11 whose structure is integrated with the heat sink 12 is the same as in the first and second embodiments described above. It is provided as a board portion having an insulating substrate 15 and metal substrate electrodes 14 prepared according to the devices 13. The SiC semiconductor power devices 13 are bonded and fixed to the tops of the metal substrate electrodes 14 by using AuSn solder (hot lead-free solder) 21, and are made of SiC semiconductors by the plate-shaped CuMo metal wiring 32. Electrical connections are provided from the surfaces of the power devices 13 to the outside. The surfaces of the metallization 32 and the SiC semiconductor power devices 13 are joined using AuSn solder 33. The structure other than the above is the same as the structure described in the second embodiment.

In the power semiconductor module 30 according to the third embodiment, the atmosphere thermal resistance is strong, and the metal wiring having a coefficient of thermal expansion close to the coefficient of thermal expansion of the SiC semiconductor power devices 13 and the integrated circuit board 11 ( 32) can be increased beyond the ambient thermal resistance of the first and second embodiments described above.

In the first and second embodiments described above, examples have been shown in which the Al wirings 19 were used to provide a connection from the surfaces of the SiC semiconductor power devices 13 to the outside. However, reliability cannot be guaranteed with the Al wirings 19 under difficult conditions in which the temperature of the SiC semiconductor power devices 13 is 250 ° C. or higher.

In view of this fact, a strong plate-shaped metal wiring 32 composed of CuMo is used in place of the Al wirings 19 in this embodiment. Typical CuMo wiring structures have, for example, a width of 1 mm and a thickness of 0.2 mm. AuSn solder 33 is used to join the SiC semiconductor power devices 13.

Compared with Al wirings, the strength and thermal resistance are high, so that the CuMo metal wiring 32 ensures high reliability at high temperature operation, and the coefficient of thermal expansion of the SiC semiconductor power devices 13 and the integrated circuit board 11 is high. Is close to the coefficient of thermal expansion of

In the power semiconductor module 30 of this embodiment, even if the module is repeatedly operated in an environment in which the temperatures of the SiC semiconductor power devices 13 reach 250 ° C, normal operation has been confirmed.

The difference in the mean thermal expansion coefficients between the metal wiring 32 and the constituent materials of the SiC semiconductor power devices 13 in the temperature range from room temperature to the temperature at the time of coupling is preferably the SiC semiconductor power devices 13. 5 ppm / ° C. or less for the same reason as described for the coupling of the integrated circuit board 11. The difference of the coefficients of thermal expansion between the metal wiring 32 and the integrated circuit board 11 is also important, and for the same reason AuSn solder 34 is used, the difference of the coefficients of thermal expansion is preferably similarly 5 ppm / ° C. It is maintained below. Any solder 35 may be used in the joint between the metal wire 32 and the external electrodes 18. As will be readily appreciated by those skilled in the art, molybdenum may be employed in place of CuMo for the metal wiring 32.

The present invention is particularly useful in the manufacture of power semiconductor modules having SiC semiconductor power devices that have sufficient ambient thermal resistance and are therefore capable of operating effectively at relatively high temperatures.

Claims (9)

  1. As a power semiconductor module,
    An integrated circuit board in which a metal substrate electrode, an insulating substrate, and a heat sink are integrally joined by brazing, wherein the metal substrate electrode is selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, tungsten, copper molybdenum, and copper tungsten. Made of a material, wherein the insulating substrate is made of a material selected from the group consisting of aluminum nitride and silicon nitride, and the heat sink is a group consisting of a metal / carbon composite, a metal / silicon carbide composite, tungsten, molybdenum, copper molybdenum, and copper tungsten Said integrated circuit board being made of a material selected from; And
    A semiconductor power device coupled to a top of the metal substrate electrode of the circuit board
    Including,
    The components of the circuit board are combined in a coupling relationship such that a difference in average thermal expansion coefficients between the component materials of the circuit board is 2.0 ppm / ° C. or less in a temperature range from room temperature to temperature upon bonding. Power semiconductor module.
  2. As a power semiconductor module,
    An integrated circuit board in which a metal substrate electrode, an insulating substrate, and a heat sink are integrally coupled; And
    A semiconductor power device coupled to a top of the metal substrate electrode of the circuit board
    Including,
    Wherein the components of the circuit board are combined in a coupling relationship such that the expansion difference produced by the temperature difference between the lowest operating temperature and the bonding temperature of the component materials of the circuit board is 2,000 ppm or less.
  3. The power semiconductor module of claim 1, wherein the semiconductor power device comprises a SiC semiconductor power device.
  4. 3. The power semiconductor module of claim 2, wherein the metal substrate electrode is made of a material selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, tungsten, copper molybdenum, and copper tungsten.
  5. 3. The power semiconductor module of claim 2, wherein the insulating substrate is made of a material selected from the group consisting of aluminum nitride and silicon nitride.
  6. 3. The power semiconductor module of claim 2, wherein the heat sink is made of a material selected from the group consisting of metal / carbon composites, metal / silicon carbide composites, tungsten, molybdenum, copper molybdenum, and copper tungsten.
  7. The semiconductor device according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the semiconductor power device and the circuit board are joined by using a lead-free solder having a melting point of 250 ° C or higher,
    The semiconductor power device and the circuit board have a coupling relationship in which a difference in average thermal expansion coefficients between the semiconductor power device and the component materials of the circuit board is 5 ppm / ° C. or less in a temperature range from room temperature to the temperature at the time of joining. To be coupled to the power semiconductor module.
  8. 8. The power semiconductor module of claim 7, wherein the lead-free solder comprises a gold-tin alloy.
  9. 3. The semiconductor device of claim 2, further comprising metal wiring disposed on surfaces of the semiconductor power device and the circuit board,
    The metal wiring is characterized in that in the average thermal expansion coefficients between the metal wiring and the component materials of the semiconductor power device in a temperature range from room temperature to the bonding temperature, and the metal in the temperature range from room temperature to the temperature at the time of bonding Power thermal module, wherein the average thermal expansion coefficients between the wiring and the component materials of the circuit board are arranged in a bonding relationship in which a difference of 5 ppm / ° C. or less is maintained.
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