JP4432215B2 - Semiconductor switching element gate drive circuit - Google Patents

Semiconductor switching element gate drive circuit Download PDF

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Publication number
JP4432215B2
JP4432215B2 JP2000167415A JP2000167415A JP4432215B2 JP 4432215 B2 JP4432215 B2 JP 4432215B2 JP 2000167415 A JP2000167415 A JP 2000167415A JP 2000167415 A JP2000167415 A JP 2000167415A JP 4432215 B2 JP4432215 B2 JP 4432215B2
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Prior art keywords
voltage
gate
switching
semiconductor switching
turn
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JP2000167415A
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JP2001352748A (en
Inventor
英夫 松木
正人 水越
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株式会社デンソー
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Description

[0001]
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a gate driving circuit for an insulated gate semiconductor switching element such as an IGBT or a MOSFET.
[0002]
[Problems to be solved by the invention]
FIG. 5 shows a basic circuit configuration example of an inverter device for variable speed driving of an AC motor. In FIG. 5, the inverter main circuit 1 is configured by connecting a total of six semiconductor switching elements 2 a to 2 f made of IGBT, for example, in a three-phase bridge, and the output of the DC power supply 4 provided through the smoothing capacitor 3. Is switched to generate an AC output of variable voltage and variable frequency and supply it to the AC motor 5. These semiconductor switching elements 2a to 2f are controlled to be turned on and off in a predetermined mode by a gate control signal from the gate control circuit 6, and each semiconductor switching element 2a to 2f includes a free-wheeling diode in parallel with each other. 7a-7f are connected.
[0003]
In such a circuit configuration, for example, from a state in which a current flows in the direction indicated by an arrow A in FIG. 5 (a state in which the semiconductor switching elements 2a and 2d are turned on), a current flows in a direction indicated by an arrow B. When switching the semiconductor switching elements 2a and 2d to the off state and switching the semiconductor switching elements 2b and 2e to the on state in order to switch, there is a phenomenon that a current suddenly flows through the semiconductor switching elements 2b and 2e and the freewheeling diodes 7a and 7d. appear. However, such a rapidly flowing current causes current surges and noises and increases switching loss, and in some cases causes destruction and deterioration of the semiconductor switching element or the freewheeling diode.
[0004]
On the other hand, for example, Japanese Patent Laid-Open No. 10-23743 discloses a plurality of driving voltage sources for applying a gate voltage to an IGBT element for the purpose of suppressing a voltage surge at the time of switching of the IGBT element and reducing a switching loss. There is disclosed a drive circuit for a semiconductor element, which is provided with a switching means for switching the driving voltage source when the IGBT element is turned off. However, since the drive circuit of the semiconductor element has a configuration that functions only when the semiconductor element is turned off, the above-described problems occurring in the circuit configuration as shown in FIG. 5 cannot be dealt with.
[0005]
The present invention has been made in view of the above circumstances, and an object of the present invention is to reduce the switching loss and suppress the device life while suppressing the occurrence of current surge and noise at the turn-on of the insulated gate semiconductor switching device. It is an object to provide a gate drive circuit for a semiconductor switching element that can be extended.
[0006]
[Means for Solving the Problems]
In order to achieve the above object, the means described in claim 1 can be employed. According to this means, the gate control means (23) selectively turns on the turn-on switching element (18) and the turn-off switching element (20) based on the gate control timing signal. When (18) is turned on, the first output terminal (12a) of the DC voltage source (12) and the gate electrode of the insulated gate semiconductor switching element (11) are connected via the turn-on gate resistor (19). The semiconductor switching element (11) is turned on when the gate electrode receives an on-voltage. Further, when the turn-off switching element (20) is turned on, the turn-off gate is between the second output terminal (12b) of the DC voltage source (12) and the gate electrode of the insulated gate semiconductor switching element (11). The semiconductor switching element (11) is turned off by receiving the off voltage at the gate electrode.
[0007]
In this case, the gate control means (23) particularly depends on the level of the gate voltage of the insulated gate semiconductor switching element (11) detected by the voltage detection means (22) when turning on the turn-on switching element (18). Thus, control for changing the level of the on-voltage output from the first output terminal (12a) of the DC voltage source (12) is performed. Therefore, for example, in the process of turning on the insulated gate semiconductor switching element (11), it is possible to control to switch the gate voltage level to a low state for a predetermined period. When such control is performed, the above semiconductor The charging current flowing through the gate capacitance of the switching element (11) is limited. As a result, during the period, since the increase in the gate voltage of the semiconductor switching element (11) is suppressed, the di / dt (that is, the rising speed) of the load current flowing through the semiconductor switching element (11) becomes gentle. Thus, since the load current does not flow suddenly when the insulated gate semiconductor switching element (11) is turned on, the switching loss can be reduced while suppressing the generation of current surge and noise, and the semiconductor switching element. This is useful in extending the life of (11).
[0008]
The gate control means (23) is configured such that when the turn-on switching element (18) is turned on, the level of the gate voltage of the insulated gate semiconductor switching element (11) detected by the voltage detection means (22) is the first level. Control is performed to temporarily lower the level of the on-voltage supplied to the gate electrode of the semiconductor switching element (11) only during a period between the set value of 1 and the second set value. For this reason, in the said period, the raise of the gate voltage of the insulated gate semiconductor switching element (11) can be suppressed. Further, the control for switching the gate voltage level to a low state when the semiconductor switching element (11) is turned on can be reliably performed only for a preset period.
[0009]
Further , the detection of whether or not the gate voltage of the insulated gate semiconductor switching element (11) has reached the second set value is based on the mirror of the gate voltage or the gate voltage change rate during the turn-on process of the semiconductor switching element (11). This can be easily performed by detecting the gate voltage at the time when the voltage temporarily decreases due to the effect.
[0012]
According to the means of claim 2, the control for temporarily lowering the level of the ON voltage supplied to the gate electrode of the insulated gate semiconductor switching element (11) is such that the gate voltage of the semiconductor switching element (11) is Since it is performed only when the threshold voltage is raised, that is, when the load current starts to flow through the semiconductor switching element (11), it is possible to accurately grasp the time when the load current starts to flow. For this reason, it is possible to reliably prevent a situation in which the load current suddenly flows when the insulated gate semiconductor switching element (11) is turned on.
[0016]
According to each means of Claim 3 and 4 , the level of the on-voltage output from the first output terminal (12a) can be easily changed by controlling the voltage switching switching elements (16, 17). It becomes like this.
[0017]
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
(Implementation example)
An embodiment of the present invention will be described below with reference to FIGS. In FIG. 1 showing the overall electrical configuration, the IGBT 11 is an insulated gate semiconductor switching element in which the conduction state between the collector and the emitter is controlled by the gate voltage applied to the gate electrode. In the figure, the gate-collector capacitance Cgc is shown. The gate-emitter capacitance Cge is shown in an equivalent circuit.
[0018]
The DC voltage source 12 is for generating a positive on-voltage for turning on the IGBT 11 and a negative off-voltage for turning off the IGBT 11, and includes a first output terminal 12a for on-voltage output and an off-voltage. And a second output terminal 12b for output. In this case, the DC voltage source 12 is configured to be able to change the level of the ON voltage output from the first output terminal 12a in two stages, and has a circuit configuration as shown in FIG. 2, for example.
[0019]
That is, in FIG. 2, the DC voltage source 12 includes three voltage sources 13, 14, and 15, and only one of the voltage switching switching elements 16 and 17 that are selectively turned on. The output voltage levels of 13 and 14 are different from each other. The voltage sources 13 and 14 have their positive terminals connected to the first output terminal 12a via the voltage switching switching elements 16 and 17, respectively, and their negative terminals connected to the ground terminal. The voltage source 15 has a negative terminal connected to the second output terminal 12b and a positive terminal connected to the ground terminal. Each of the switching elements 13 and 15 is composed of a semiconductor switching element (FET, bipolar transistor, etc.).
[0020]
In the DC voltage source 12 configured in this way, for example, when the inter-terminal voltages of the voltage sources 13, 14, and 15 are V13, V14, and V15 (V13> V14), respectively, the first output terminal 12a outputs one of positive on-voltages + V13 and + V14 in accordance with the on-state of the voltage switching switching elements 16 and 17, and the negative output voltage -V15 from the second output terminal 12b. Will be output.
[0021]
Referring to FIG. 1, a turn-on switching element 18 and a turn-on gate resistor 19 are connected in series between the first output terminal 12 a of the DC voltage source 12 and the gate electrode of the IGBT 11. Between the second output terminal 12b and the gate electrode of the IGBT 11, a turn-off switching element 20 and a turn-off gate resistor 21 are connected in series. Each of the switching elements 18 and 20 is also composed of a semiconductor switching element (FET, bipolar transistor, etc.). Further, the turn-on gate resistor 19 and the turn-off gate resistor 21 can be combined with one resistor.
[0022]
The gate voltage detection circuit 22 (corresponding to voltage detection means in the present invention) is provided for detecting the gate voltage of the IGBT 11, and the detected voltage is supplied to the control circuit 23 (corresponding to gate control means in the present invention). It is the composition given to. The gate signal generation circuit 24 generates a gate control timing signal for controlling the on / off state of the IGBT 11 in a predetermined mode, and is configured to give the gate control timing signal to the control circuit 23.
[0023]
The control circuit 23 selectively turns on the turn-on switching element 18 and the turn-off switching element 20 based on the gate timing signal from the gate signal generation circuit 24, and particularly when the turn-on switching element 18 is turned on. By selectively turning on one of the voltage switching switching elements 16 and 17 in the DC voltage source 12 based on the detection voltage level of the gate voltage detection circuit 22, the first output terminal of the DC voltage source 12 The control is performed to change the level of the on-voltage output from 12a.
[0024]
Hereinafter, specific examples of the contents of control by the control circuit 23 and actions related to the control will be described with reference to the characteristic curve of FIG. FIG. 3 schematically shows the change characteristics of the gate voltage Vge, collector-emitter voltage Vce, and collector current Ic (load current) of the IGBT 11.
[0025]
The control circuit 23 turns on the turn-on switching element 18 when the gate control timing signal from the gate signal generation circuit 24 instructs to turn on the IGBT 11. At this time, the voltage switching switching element 16 in the DC voltage source 12 is turned on in advance. Therefore, an on-voltage (= + V13) corresponding to the terminal voltage of the voltage source 13 is output from the first output terminal 12a of the DC voltage source 12, and the on-voltage is applied to the gate electrode of the IGBT 11. Application is started via the turn-on gate resistor 19 (timing t1 in FIG. 3). When the gate voltage Vge becomes equal to or higher than the gate threshold voltage Vth of the IGBT 11 in response to the application of the ON voltage (timing t2), the collector current Ic starts to flow and the collector-emitter voltage Vce starts to decrease.
[0026]
Thereafter, the control circuit 23 determines the time (timing t3) when the gate voltage Vge reaches the first set value Vs1 set in advance based on the detection voltage by the gate voltage detection circuit 22, The voltage switching switching element 16 is turned off and the voltage switching switching element 17 is turned on. As a result, the ON voltage (= + V14 <+ V13) corresponding to the terminal voltage of the voltage source 14 is output from the first output terminal 12a of the DC voltage source 12, and the ON voltage applied to the gate electrode of the IGBT 11 is output. The voltage level is switched to a reduced state.
[0027]
After such switching of the on-voltage, the control circuit 23 determines when the gate voltage Vge reaches the preset second set value Vs2 (timing t4) based on the detection voltage by the gate voltage detection circuit 22. To do. In this case, the second set value Vs2 can be set as an absolute value, but when the IGBT 11 is turned on, a state in which the rate of change of the gate voltage Vge is temporarily reduced due to the Miller effect is the gate voltage. A configuration in which detection is performed based on the differential value of the detection voltage (gate voltage of the IGBT 11) by the detection circuit 22, and it is determined that the gate voltage Vge has reached the second set value Vs2 when such a detection state occurs. You can also
[0028]
When the control circuit 23 determines that the gate voltage Vge has reached the second set value Vs2, the control circuit 23 returns the voltage switching switching element 16 in the DC voltage source 12 to the on state, and outputs the first output. The terminal 12a is switched so that an ON voltage (= V13) corresponding to the terminal voltage of the voltage source 13 is output. As a result, the level of the ON voltage applied to the gate electrode of the IGBT 11 is restored from the lowered state, and finally the IGBT 11 is completely turned on (the collector-emitter voltage Vce). Is substantially zero).
[0029]
Thereafter, the control circuit 23 turns on the turn-off switching element 20 instead of the turn-on switching element 18 when a gate control timing signal for commanding the IGBT 11 to turn off is input from the gate signal generation circuit 24. . Therefore, a negative off voltage (= −V 15) is output from the second output terminal 12 a of the DC voltage source 12, and the off voltage is applied to the gate electrode 21 of the IGBT 11 for turning off. Application is started through (timing t5 in FIG. 3). The IGBT 11 is finally turned off in response to the application of such an off voltage.
[0030]
In short, according to the configuration of the above-described embodiment, the following effects can be obtained. That is, when the IGBT 11 is turned on, control is performed to switch the gate voltage level to a low state for a predetermined period, so that the charging current flowing through the gate-emitter capacitor Cge of the IGBT 11 is limited. As a result, during the period in which the gate voltage level is switched as described above, the rise in the gate voltage Vge of the IGBT 11 is suppressed, and therefore the di / dt (that is, the rising speed) of the collector current Ic (load current) flowing through the IGBT 11 is suppressed. ) Becomes moderate. Thereby, since the collector current Ic does not flow suddenly when the IGBT 11 is turned on, the switching loss can be reduced while suppressing the occurrence of current surge and noise, and the destruction and deterioration of the IGBT 11 can be prevented. This is useful for extending the service life. If a freewheeling diode is provided along with the IGBT 11, the freewheeling diode can be prevented from being destroyed or deteriorated.
[0031]
Further, when the IGBT 11 is turned on as described above, the control for switching the level of the gate voltage Vge to a low state is performed by using the detection voltage of the gate voltage detection circuit 22 and the first set value Vs1 and the second preset value. Since the configuration is based on the set value Vs2, the control can be reliably performed for a predetermined period. In this case, the second set value VS2 is set to the gate voltage Vge at the time when the rate of change of the gate voltage Vge temporarily decreases due to the Miller effect in the turn-on process of the IGBT 11, for example. It is possible to easily detect whether or not the set value Vs2 of 2 has been reached.
[0032]
A DC voltage source 12 for generating an on-voltage to be applied to the gate of the IGBT 11 includes a plurality of voltage sources 13 and 14 for generating an on-voltage and selectively enabling these voltage sources 13 and 14. Since the voltage switching switching elements 16 and 17 for switching the level of the on-voltage output from one output terminal 12a are provided, by controlling the voltage switching switching elements 16 and 17, The on-voltage level can be easily changed.
[0033]
( Reference example )
The Figure 4 there is shown a exemplary embodiment of the present invention. Only the differences from the previous you施例about this below.
That is, in this reference example, the gate voltage detection circuit 22 (see FIG. 1) in the above embodiment is omitted, and the control circuit 25 (corresponding to the gate control means in the present invention) is used instead of the control circuit 23 in the same embodiment. It is set as the structure which provides. The control circuit 25 selectively turns on the turn-on switching element 18 and the turn-off switching element 20 based on the gate timing signal from the gate signal generation circuit 24, and particularly when the turn-on switching element 18 is turned on. The control is performed to reduce the level of the ON voltage output from the first output terminal 12a of the DC voltage source 12 for a predetermined period after a predetermined time has elapsed since the ON time.
[0034]
Control for reducing the level of the on-voltage for a predetermined period in this way is performed by switching the on-state of the voltage switching switching elements 16 and 17 (see FIG. 2) in the DC voltage source 12 in time series. is there. Specifically, the on-voltage + V13 is output by the voltage switching switching element 16 that is already turned on when the turn-on switching element 18 is turned on, and is replaced with the voltage switching switching element 16 when a predetermined time has passed thereafter. In this state, the voltage switching switching element 17 is turned on to output the on voltage + V14, and then the voltage switching switching element 16 is returned to the on state when a predetermined time has elapsed and the on voltage + V13 is output. It is what.
[0035]
By the reference example thus constructed lever, since it is configured to perform a level change control of the on-voltage-time control only, a gate voltage detecting circuit 22 is not necessary, can be achieved simplification of the entire circuit arrangement It becomes like this.
[0036]
(Other embodiments)
In addition, the present invention is not limited to the actual施例described above, but can be modified as follows or extended.
[0038]
In the above embodiment, the first set value Vs1 may be set to a value equal to the gate threshold voltage Vth of the IGBT 11, and according to this configuration, the level of the on-voltage supplied to the gate electrode of the IGBT 11 is set. Since the control for temporarily decreasing is performed only when the gate threshold voltage Vth of the IGBT 11 rises, that is, when the load current (collector current Ic) starts to flow through the IGBT 11, the load current begins to flow. Can be accurately captured. As a result, it is possible to reliably prevent a situation in which the load current suddenly flows when the IGBT 11 is turned on.
[0040]
The configuration of the DC voltage source 12 is not limited to the above-described embodiment. For example, the DC voltage source 12 is output from the first output terminal 12a by selecting a series-parallel state of a plurality of voltage sources by a voltage switching switching element. The on-voltage level may be switched. Further, the off-voltage output from the second output terminal 12b of the DC voltage source 12 may be a ground potential level. In this case, the voltage source 15 in the DC voltage source 12 can be dispensed with.
Of course, the present invention can be applied to a drive circuit of an insulated gate semiconductor switching element (for example, MOSFET) other than the IGBT.
[Brief description of the drawings]
Corresponding Figure 1 shows a reference example of FIG. 1 is a circuit diagram Figure 3 characteristic diagram for explaining working of the electrical diagram [2] a main part showing an embodiment of the present invention [4] The present invention FIG. 5 is a circuit configuration diagram of an inverter device for explaining a conventional configuration.
11 is an IGBT (insulated gate type semiconductor switching element), 12 is a DC voltage source, 12a is a first output terminal, 12b is a second output terminal, 13 to 15 are voltage sources, and 16 and 17 are switching elements for voltage switching. , 18 is a turn-on switching element, 19 is a turn-on gate resistance, 20 is a turn-off switching element, 21 is a turn-off gate resistance, 22 is a gate voltage detection circuit (voltage detection means), and 23 and 25 are control circuits (gate control) Means).

Claims (4)

  1. In a gate drive circuit for an insulated gate semiconductor switching element (11),
    A turn-on switching element (18) that is turned on when the insulated gate semiconductor switching element (11) is turned on;
    A turn-off switching element (20) that is turned on when the insulated gate semiconductor switching element (11) is turned off;
    A first output terminal (12a) for supplying an on voltage to the gate electrode of the insulated gate semiconductor switching element (11) and a second output terminal (12b) for supplying an off voltage to the gate electrode A DC voltage source (12) configured to change at least the level of the on-voltage output from the first output terminal (12a);
    With the turn-on switching element (18) turned on, it is connected between the first output terminal (12a) of the DC voltage source (12) and the gate electrode of the insulated gate semiconductor switching element (11). A turn-on gate resistor (19),
    With the turn-off switching element (20) turned on, it is connected between the second output terminal (12b) of the DC voltage source (12) and the gate electrode of the insulated gate semiconductor switching element (11). A turn-off gate resistor (21) that becomes
    Voltage detection means (22) for detecting a gate voltage of the insulated gate semiconductor switching element (11);
    The turn-on switching element (18) and the turn-off switching element (20) are selectively turned on based on a gate control timing signal. When the turn-on switching element (18) is turned on, the voltage detecting means ( 22) gate control means (23) for performing control to change the level of the ON voltage output from the first output terminal (12a) of the DC voltage source (12) according to the detected voltage level of 22) ,
    In the state where the turn-on switching element (18) is turned on, the gate control means (23) has a gate voltage detected by the voltage detection means (22) having a first set value and a second value higher than the first set value. In a period between the set value and the DC voltage source (12), the on-voltage level output from the first output terminal (12a) is temporarily reduced.
    The voltage detection means (22) is configured to be able to detect a state in which the rate of change in the gate voltage of the insulated gate semiconductor switching element (11) temporarily decreases due to the mirror effect based on the differential value of the gate voltage. ,
    The gate setting circuit of the semiconductor switching element, wherein the second set value is set to a gate voltage at the time when the voltage detecting means (22) detects a temporary decrease in the gate voltage change rate. .
  2. In the gate drive circuit of the semiconductor switching element according to claim 1,
    The gate drive circuit for a semiconductor switching element, wherein the first set value is set equal to a gate threshold voltage of the insulated gate semiconductor switching element (11) .
  3. The DC voltage source (12)
    A plurality of voltage sources (13, 14) for generating the on-voltage;
    And a voltage switching switching element (16, 17) for switching the level of the ON voltage output from the first output terminal (12a) by selectively enabling these voltage sources (13, 14). the gate drive circuit of the semiconductor switching element according to claim 1, wherein a is as hereinbefore.
  4. In the gate drive circuit of the semiconductor switching element according to claim 3,
    The plurality of voltage sources (13, 14) for generating the on-voltage are in a state where output voltage levels are different from each other.
    The voltage switching switching element (16, 17) is configured to adjust the level of the on-voltage by connecting one of the plurality of voltage sources (13, 14) to the first output terminal (12a). the gate drive circuit of the semiconductor switching device characterized by switching.
JP2000167415A 2000-06-05 2000-06-05 Semiconductor switching element gate drive circuit Expired - Fee Related JP4432215B2 (en)

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