CN113951118B - Simple cultivation method for rapid seedling emergence of bletilla ochracea - Google Patents

Simple cultivation method for rapid seedling emergence of bletilla ochracea Download PDF

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CN113951118B
CN113951118B CN202111209447.6A CN202111209447A CN113951118B CN 113951118 B CN113951118 B CN 113951118B CN 202111209447 A CN202111209447 A CN 202111209447A CN 113951118 B CN113951118 B CN 113951118B
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bletilla
bletilla striata
seedlings
ochracea
mass ratio
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CN113951118A (en
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赵坤坤
孙崇波
王筠竹
陈跃
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Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G31/00Soilless cultivation, e.g. hydroponics
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • A01G24/22Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material containing plant material

Abstract

The invention relates to the field of traditional Chinese medicinal material planting, and discloses a simple cultivation method for rapid seedling emergence of bletilla ochracea, which comprises the following steps: (1) screening bletilla striata seedlings: selecting healthy disease-free plants, and removing withered leaves; (2) bletilla striata seedling field planting: the substrate is made of barks and turf with the mass ratio of 5 to 4 to 5, pseudo bulbs of bletilla striata seedling plants are buried in the substrate, and the substrate is watered thoroughly; (3) bletilla striata seedling cultivation: controlling the growth environment of the bletilla striata seedlings to cultivate, including temperature, humidity and illumination. The simple method for rapidly propagating bletilla ochracea provided by the invention has the advantages of large number of seedlings, simplicity and convenience in operation, low production cost and strong popularization; the modified turf is further used for replacing turf for seedling culture, the water retention and buffering performance of the matrix can be improved, the nutrient effectiveness of rhizosphere soil is improved, so that the absorption of the root system to the fertilizer is promoted, and the bletilla ochracea is promoted to germinate more seedlings quickly.

Description

Simple cultivation method for rapid seedling emergence of bletilla ochracea
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of traditional Chinese medicinal material planting, in particular to a simple cultivation method for rapid sprouting of bletilla ochracea.
Background
Bletilla striata (Bletilla striata), also known as Zingiber felis, orchidaceae, bletilla striata, perennial herb, is mainly distributed in Zhejiang, guizhou, yunnan, sichuan and other places in China. The bletilla striata is gorgeous in flower color and attractive in flower shape, is also commonly used as ornamental flowers, and has higher economic value and ornamental value. Bletilla striata is an important medicinal plant, and tubers of the bletilla striata are traditional Chinese medicinal herbs and can effectively treat hemoptysis, hematemesis, traumatic hemorrhage, ulcer, swelling, chapped skin and the like. And the Chinese patent medicine prepared from bletilla striata is applied to clinic, such as bletilla striata capsules, bletilla striata syrup and the like, and only comprises the bletilla striata as a medicinal component. In addition, bletilla striata is also used for making cosmetics, daily necessities, foods and the like.
However, as people's understanding of bletilla striata deepen, the bletilla striata has become more and more extensive in application, the demand of people on bletilla striata is continuously increased, the price of bletilla striata is continuously increased, wild bletilla striata resources are seriously damaged due to the damage and excessive digging of natural habitat, and the market demand is difficult to meet.
The Chinese patent with publication number CN103348913B discloses a rapid propagation method of bletilla striata, which comprises selecting complete plant seedlings with good growth state, cleaning culture medium, and transplanting the plant seedlings into a matrix, wherein the matrix is peat soil, sandy soil and perlite. The traditional bletilla striata cultivation medium is adopted, the medium contains perlite which is harmful to human bodies, the number of seedlings is small, and the management process is complicated.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a simple cultivation method for quickly sprouting bletilla ochracea, which is simple and convenient in operation process, ensures that plants are in a good growth environment through substrate proportioning and smooth water drainage of a nutrition pot, and can promote bletilla ochracea to sprout more seedlings.
The purpose of the invention is realized by the following technical scheme.
The invention provides a simple cultivation method for rapid sprouting of bletilla ochracea, which comprises the following steps:
(1) Screening bletilla striata seedlings: selecting healthy disease-free plants, and removing withered leaves;
(2) Planting bletilla striata seedlings: the substrate is bark and turf with the mass ratio of 5:4-5:8, and the pseudo-bulbs of the bletilla striata seedling plants are buried in the substrate and watered thoroughly;
(3) Cultivation of bletilla striata seedlings: controlling the growth environment of the bletilla striata seedlings to cultivate, including temperature, humidity and illumination.
The invention can obtain a large number of bletilla striata seedling plants by a very simple method, avoids the complex flow of tissue culture propagation, and provides a simple, convenient and efficient technology and a matrix formula for producing bletilla striata seedlings for traditional Chinese medicine and flower growers. In order to achieve the purpose, the technical scheme of the invention adopts the following components in a mass ratio of 1:1, the bark can improve the water retention of the matrix to a certain extent, increase the decomposed humus in the matrix so as to facilitate the plants to absorb the nutrition in the matrix and eliminate some pathogenic bacteria. Peat is a product of the swamp development process and contains a large amount of water and plant residues, humus and a portion of minerals that are not completely decomposed. The bletilla striata is cultivated by adopting the grass peat as a matrix material, so that the germination rate of the pseudobulb can be greatly improved, and the development quality and the survival rate of the seedling can be improved.
The bletilla striata seedling pseudo bulbs are buried into the matrix, and technical means such as a nutrition pot with good drainage and suitable temperature and humidity are adopted, so that good ventilation and water permeability can be guaranteed, and the bletilla striata is promoted to germinate more seedlings. Through screening comparison, this scheme can impel tuber of hyacinth bletilla pseudobulb to germinate more numerous seedling.
Preferably, in the step (2), the bletilla striata seedlings are planted in a nutrition pot, the height of the nutrition pot is 10-14 cm, and a drain hole with the diameter of 2-3 cm is formed in the bottom of the nutrition pot. The air permeability and water permeability are better under the proportion of the height to the diameter of the drain hole, and the water retention of the matrix is not lost.
Preferably, in the step (2), the nutrition pot is a recyclable nutrition pot, and the carbendazim diluent is sprayed on the nutrition pot before use. Spraying carbendazim to inhibit the breeding of bacteria and prevent diseases.
Preferably, in the step (2), the pseudobulb of the bletilla striata seedling plant is embedded into the matrix to a depth of 1-4 cm. More preferably, the pseudobulb is embedded in the matrix for 2cm. Burying Pseudobulbus Bletillae in the matrix for 2cm, slightly beating the nutrition pot to fill the matrix, and not pressing the matrix. After transplanting, the rooting water can be poured in one step.
Preferably, in the step (3), the bletilla striata seedling growing environment is a ventilated environment with the temperature maintained at 25-28 ℃, the humidity at 75-90%, and the illumination not exceeding 12000 lux.
Preferably, in the step (2), the turf is modified turf.
Preferably, the preparation method of the modified turf comprises the following steps:
(a) Heating urea and alpha-olefin containing monocarboxyl for reaction, wherein the number of long-chain carbon of the alpha-olefin containing monocarboxyl is 4-11; then, adding an acrylamide aqueous solution, azodiisobutyl amidine hydrochloride and sodium hypophosphite for polymerization, cooling and separating out a product, drying and ball-milling to obtain solid powder;
(b) Adding the solid powder and coral sand in the step (a) into a ferrous sulfate aqueous solution, heating, stirring and mixing, standing for flocculation, performing centrifugal separation and drying; and mixing the obtained product with an active microbial inoculum and grass peat to obtain the modified grass peat.
The turf is one of seedling raising matrix materials widely applied at present, but compared with conventional soil seedling raising, the turf has poor moisture retention and material water conductivity, and poor moisture supply buffering performance. In the actual seedling production, in order to make up for the problem, a mode of increasing irrigation water quantity and irrigation frequency is often adopted to solve the problem, but the increase of the irrigation water quantity also means the increase of the leaching quantity of the moisture of the matrix, and the nutrients added in the matrix are more easily lost along with the large leaching of the moisture. Under the condition, the phenomenon of seedling (seedling) fertilizer release occurs frequently in the later period of matrix seedling culture. According to the method, the modified turf is used for replacing turf for seedling culture, so that the water retention and the buffering performance of the matrix can be improved, the nutrient effectiveness of rhizosphere soil is improved, the absorption of a root system to a fertilizer is promoted, and the bletilla ochracea is promoted to germinate more seedlings quickly.
The alpha-olefin containing single carboxyl simultaneously contains carboxyl and unsaturated double bonds, which firstly has amidation reaction with urea and then participates in polymerization reaction of acrylamide, so that the urea is better grafted on a polyacrylamide molecular chain, and the compatibility between the urea and the polyacrylamide is improved. The number of carboxyl contained in alpha-olefin is controlled, so that the cyclic reaction can be prevented when the alpha-olefin and urea are subjected to, the unsaturated double bond contained in only one end and the number of long-chain carbon can be controlled to better participate in the polymerization reaction of acrylamide, and the phenomenon that the formed polyacrylamide has overlarge solid content to cause overlarge viscosity and is not beneficial to the water retention of the turf matrix is avoided. Then, ferrous sulfate and polyimide grafted with urea are adsorbed on the surface of coral sand by utilizing the adsorbability of coral sand and the flocculation property of polyacrylamide, and the coral sand is subjected to standing, sedimentation and centrifugal separation.
The coral sand also has the excellent characteristics of high porosity and water absorption, and can improve the water retention of the grass carbon matrix. The active microbial inoculum is added to improve the root system configuration and enhance the root system activity, and improve the nutrient availability of rhizosphere soil to promote the absorption of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and iron by the root system, thereby realizing the improvement of the fertilizer utilization rate. The urea can provide nutrient nutrients for flora, and the urea can increase the number of amino groups after being grafted on polyacrylamide, thereby improving the affinity and adsorbability with the flora. The ferrous sulfate maintains the pH value of the turf substrate, and is beneficial to maintaining the growth environment of plants.
Preferably, in the step (a), the acrylamide monomer concentration of the aqueous acrylamide solution is 45 to 55%; the alpha-olefin containing single carboxyl is 4-pentenoic acid, 5-hexenoic acid, 6-heptenoic acid, 9-decenoic acid or undecylenic acid, and preferably 6-heptenoic acid. The acrylamide monomer concentration of the acrylamide aqueous solution is controlled in order to control the solid content of polyacrylamide, synthesize polyacrylamide with a proper molecular weight range, prevent overlarge viscosity, and have certain adhesiveness to ensure that the coral sand is bonded, molded and formed with strength.
Preferably, in the step (a), the mass ratio of the urea to the monocarboxylic group-containing α -olefin to the aqueous acrylamide solution is 1:1.5 to 4:100 to 150; the heating reaction is carried out for 1 to 2 hours at the temperature of between 85 and 100 ℃; the mass ratio of the acrylamide aqueous solution to the azodiisobutyramidine hydrochloride to the sodium hypophosphite is 100:0.01 to 0.03:4 to 6; the polymerization is carried out for 3 to 6 hours at the temperature of between 48 and 55 ℃.
Preferably, in the step (b), the particle size of the coral sand is 0.5 to 2mm; the mass ratio of the solid powder to the coral sand in the step (a) is 8-15: 30 to 40 percent; the heating and stirring are carried out for 18 to 20 hours at the temperature of between 30 and 45 ℃; the active microbial inoculum comprises bacillus megaterium, bacillus subtilis, bacillus mucilaginosus and trichoderma spp flora; the mass ratio of the coral sand to the active microbial inoculum to the grass peat is 1.2-1.5: 3 to 5:100. the particle size of the coral sand is controlled in order to play a supporting role, improve the air permeability of the grass carbon matrix, ensure micropores after the coral sand is adsorbed on the surface, and ensure the air permeability and seepage prevention.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following beneficial effects:
(1) The mass ratio is 1:1, the bark and the turf are used as substrates, the proportion is simple, and the operation process is convenient;
(2) The pseudobulb of the bletilla striata seedling is buried in a matrix to a depth of 1-4 cm, and the bletilla striata seedling is promoted to germinate more seedlings by adopting technical means of a nutrition pot with good drainage, provision of proper temperature and humidity and the like;
(3) The modified turf is used for replacing turf for seedling culture, the water retention and buffering performance of the matrix can be improved, the nutrient effectiveness of rhizosphere soil is improved, so that the fertilizer is absorbed by the root system, and the bletilla ochracea is promoted to germinate more seedlings quickly.
Detailed Description
The technical solution of the present invention is illustrated by the following specific examples, but the scope of the present invention is not limited thereto:
general examples
A simple cultivation method for rapid sprouting of bletilla ochracea comprises the following steps:
(1) Screening bletilla striata seedlings: screening healthy and disease-free 2-year-old bletilla striata seedlings, wherein pseudobulbs are full, hard and solid, and have no diseases and insect pests, removing unhealthy leaves such as withered yellow leaves, and ensuring no germ pollution by using tools used in the operation process;
(2) Planting bletilla striata seedlings: planting bletilla striata seedlings into a nutrition pot, wherein the height of the nutrition pot is 10-14 cm, a drain hole with the diameter of 2-3 cm is formed in the bottom of the nutrition pot, and if the nutrition pot is a recyclable nutrition pot, spraying carbendazim diluent before use; the substrate is bark and turf with the mass ratio of 5:4-5:8, the depth of the pseudo-bulb of the bletilla striata seedling plant embedded in the substrate is 1-4 cm, and the water is thoroughly poured;
(3) And (3) cultivation of bletilla striata seedlings: controlling the growth environment of bletilla striata seedlings to cultivate, maintaining the temperature at 25-28 ℃, the humidity at 75-90%, the illumination not more than 12000 lux, and ventilating.
The modified turf can also be used for replacing turf, and the preparation method of the modified turf comprises the following steps:
(a) Heating urea and alpha-olefin containing monocarboxyl to react for 1-2 h at 85-100 ℃, wherein the number of long-chain carbons of the alpha-olefin containing monocarboxyl is 4-11, and the long-chain carbons can be 4-pentenoic acid, 5-hexenoic acid, 6-heptenoic acid, 9-decenoic acid or undecylenic acid; then, adding the mixture in a mass ratio of 100:0.01 to 0.03: 4-6 of acrylamide aqueous solution, azodiisobutyramidine hydrochloride and sodium hypophosphite, and carrying out polymerization reaction at 48-55 ℃ for 3-6 h, wherein the acrylamide monomer concentration of the acrylamide aqueous solution is 45-55%, and the mass ratio of urea, alpha-olefin containing monocarboxyl and the acrylamide aqueous solution is 1:1.5 to 4:100 to 150; cooling and separating a product, drying and ball-milling to obtain solid powder;
(b) The mass ratio is 8-15: 30-40, adding the solid powder in the step (a) and coral sand with the particle size of 0.5-2 mm into a ferrous sulfate aqueous solution, heating and stirring at 30-45 ℃, mixing for 18-20 h, standing for flocculation, performing centrifugal separation, and drying; mixing the obtained product with an active microbial agent and grass peat, wherein the active microbial agent comprises bacillus megatherium, bacillus subtilis, bacillus mucilaginosus and trichoderma, and the mass ratio of the coral sand to the active microbial agent to the grass peat is 1.2-1.5: 3 to 5:100, obtaining the modified turf.
Example 1
A simple cultivation method for rapid sprouting of bletilla ochracea comprises the following steps:
(1) Screening bletilla striata seedlings: screening healthy and disease-free 2-year-old bletilla striata seedlings, wherein pseudobulbs are full, hard and solid, and have no diseases and insect pests, removing unhealthy leaves such as withered yellow leaves, and ensuring no germ pollution by using tools used in the operation process;
(2) Planting bletilla striata seedlings: planting bletilla striata seedlings in a newly used nutrition pot, wherein the height of the nutrition pot is 12cm, and a drain hole with the diameter of 2.5cm is formed in the bottom of the nutrition pot; the mass ratio of the matrix is 5:5, burying the bletilla pseudobulb into a substrate for 2cm, slightly beating the nutrition pot to fill the substrate into the nutrition pot, and pouring root fixing water after half an hour after transplanting without pressing the substrate by force, wherein the root fixing water is poured thoroughly at one time; planting bletilla striata seedlings in the cool evening;
(3) And (3) cultivation of bletilla striata seedlings: controlling the growth environment of bletilla striata seedlings for cultivation, maintaining the temperature at 25 ℃, the humidity at 80%, the illumination at 10000 lux, and ventilating the environment.
Example 2
A simple cultivation method for rapid sprouting of bletilla ochracea comprises the following steps:
(1) Screening bletilla striata seedlings: screening healthy and disease-free 2-year-old bletilla striata seedlings, wherein pseudobulbs are full, hard and solid, and have no diseases and insect pests, removing unhealthy leaves such as withered yellow leaves, and ensuring no germ pollution by using tools used in the operation process;
(2) Planting bletilla striata seedlings: planting bletilla striata seedlings into a reusable nutrition pot, wherein the height of the nutrition pot is 12cm, a drain hole with the diameter of 2.5cm is formed in the bottom of the nutrition pot, and 1000 times of carbendazim liquid is sprayed in the nutrition pot before use; the mass ratio of the matrix is 5:5, burying the bletilla pseudobulb into a substrate for 2cm, slightly beating the nutrition pot to fill the substrate into the nutrition pot, and pouring root fixing water after half an hour after transplanting without pressing the substrate by force, wherein the root fixing water is poured thoroughly at one time; planting bletilla striata seedlings in the cool evening;
(3) And (3) cultivation of bletilla striata seedlings: controlling the growth environment of bletilla striata seedlings for cultivation, maintaining the temperature at 25 ℃, the humidity at 80%, the illumination at 10000 lux, and ventilating the environment.
Example 3
A simple cultivation method for rapid sprouting of bletilla ochracea comprises the following steps:
(1) Screening bletilla striata seedlings: screening healthy and disease-free 2-year-old bletilla striata seedlings, wherein pseudobulbs are full, hard and solid, and have no diseases and insect pests, removing unhealthy leaves such as withered yellow leaves, and ensuring that no pathogenic bacteria are polluted by using a tool used in the operation process;
(2) Planting bletilla striata seedlings: planting bletilla striata seedlings in a newly used nutrition pot, wherein the height of the nutrition pot is 12cm, and a drain hole with the diameter of 2.5cm is formed in the bottom of the nutrition pot; the mass ratio of the matrix is 5:8, burying the pseudobulb of bletilla striata into a substrate by 2.5cm, slightly beating the nutrition pot to promote the substrate to fill the nutrition pot, and pouring root fixing water after half an hour after transplanting without pressing the substrate with force, wherein the root fixing water is poured thoroughly at one time; planting bletilla striata seedlings in the cool evening;
(3) And (3) cultivation of bletilla striata seedlings: controlling the growth environment of bletilla striata seedlings for cultivation, maintaining the temperature at 28 ℃, the humidity at 75%, the illumination at 10000 lux, and ventilating the environment.
Example 4
The difference from example 1 is that: modified turf is used instead of turf.
(1) Screening bletilla striata seedlings: screening healthy and disease-free 2-year-old bletilla striata seedlings, wherein pseudobulbs are full, hard and solid, and have no diseases and insect pests, removing unhealthy leaves such as withered yellow leaves, and ensuring that no pathogenic bacteria are polluted by using a tool used in the operation process;
(2) Planting bletilla striata seedlings: planting bletilla striata seedlings in a newly used nutrition pot, wherein the height of the nutrition pot is 12cm, and a drain hole with the diameter of 2.5cm is formed in the bottom of the nutrition pot; the method comprises the following steps of selecting barks and modified grass peat with the mass ratio of 5:5 as a matrix, burying pseudo bulbs of bletilla striata into the matrix for 2cm, slightly beating a nutrition pot to enable the matrix to fill the nutrition pot, pressing the matrix without force, and pouring root fixing water after half an hour of transplanting, wherein the root fixing water is poured thoroughly at one time; planting bletilla striata seedlings in the cool evening;
(3) And (3) cultivation of bletilla striata seedlings: controlling the growth environment of bletilla striata seedlings for cultivation, maintaining the temperature at 25 ℃, the humidity at 80%, the illumination at 10000 lux, and ventilating the environment.
The preparation method of the modified turf comprises the following steps:
(a) Heating urea and 6-heptenoic acid at 90 deg.C for 2 hr; then, adding the mixture in a mass ratio of 100:0.01:5, carrying out polymerization reaction on the acrylamide aqueous solution, the azodiisobutyl amidine hydrochloride and the sodium hypophosphite at 50 ℃ for 5 hours, wherein the acrylamide monomer concentration of the acrylamide aqueous solution is 45%, and the mass ratio of the urea to the 6-heptenoic acid to the acrylamide aqueous solution is 1:2:130, 130; cooling and separating a product, drying and ball-milling to obtain solid powder;
(b) And (3) mixing the components in a mass ratio of 9:35 (a), adding the solid powder and coral sand with the particle size of 1mm into a ferrous sulfate aqueous solution, heating, stirring and mixing for 18 hours at 40 ℃, standing, flocculating, centrifuging, separating and drying; mixing the obtained product with an active microbial agent and grass peat, wherein the active microbial agent comprises bacillus megatherium, bacillus subtilis, bacillus mucilaginosus and trichoderma, and the mass ratio of the coral sand to the active microbial agent to the grass peat is 1.2:4:100, obtaining the modified turf.
Example 5
The difference from example 1 is that: modified turf is used instead of turf.
(1) Screening bletilla striata seedlings: screening healthy and disease-free 2-year-old bletilla striata seedlings, wherein pseudobulbs are full, hard and solid, and have no diseases and insect pests, removing unhealthy leaves such as withered yellow leaves, and ensuring no germ pollution by using tools used in the operation process;
(2) Planting bletilla striata seedlings: planting bletilla striata seedlings in a newly used nutrition pot, wherein the height of the nutrition pot is 12cm, and a drain hole with the diameter of 2.5cm is formed in the bottom of the nutrition pot; the substrate is selected from barks and modified grass peat with the mass ratio of 5:5, the pseudobulb of bletilla is buried in the substrate for 2cm, the nutrition pot is slightly flapped to promote the substrate to fill the nutrition pot, the substrate is not pressed hard, and the rooting water can be poured after half an hour after transplantation, and the rooting water is poured thoroughly at one time; planting bletilla striata seedlings in a cool evening;
(3) And (3) cultivation of bletilla striata seedlings: controlling the growth environment of bletilla striata seedlings for cultivation, maintaining the temperature at 25 ℃, the humidity at 80%, the illumination at 10000 lux, and ventilating the environment.
The preparation method of the modified turf comprises the following steps:
(a) Heating urea and 6-heptenoic acid at 85 deg.C for 2 hr; then, adding the mixture in a mass ratio of 100:0.01:6, carrying out polymerization reaction on the acrylamide aqueous solution, the azodiisobutyl amidine hydrochloride and the sodium hypophosphite at 55 ℃ for 3 hours, wherein the acrylamide monomer concentration of the acrylamide aqueous solution is 45%, and the mass ratio of the urea to the 6-heptenoic acid to the acrylamide aqueous solution is 1:1.5:100, respectively; cooling and separating a product, drying and ball-milling to obtain solid powder;
(b) Mixing the components in a mass ratio of 10:40, adding the solid powder in the step (a) and coral sand with the particle size of 1mm into a ferrous sulfate aqueous solution, heating, stirring and mixing for 18 hours at 45 ℃, standing, flocculating, centrifuging, separating and drying; mixing the obtained product with an active microbial agent and grass peat, wherein the active microbial agent comprises bacillus megatherium, bacillus subtilis, bacillus mucilaginosus and trichoderma, and the mass ratio of the coral sand to the active microbial agent to the grass peat is 1.2:3:100, obtaining the modified turf.
Comparative example 1
The difference from example 1 is that: perlite is used instead of turf.
The preparation method comprises the following steps:
(1) Screening bletilla striata seedlings: screening healthy and disease-free 2-year-old bletilla striata seedlings, wherein pseudobulbs are full, hard and solid, and have no diseases and insect pests, removing unhealthy leaves such as withered yellow leaves, and ensuring no germ pollution by using tools used in the operation process;
(2) Planting bletilla striata seedlings: planting bletilla striata seedlings in a newly used nutrition pot, wherein the height of the nutrition pot is 12cm, and a drain hole with the diameter of 2.5cm is formed in the bottom of the nutrition pot; the substrate is selected from the bark and perlite with the mass ratio of 1:1, the bletilla pseudobulb is buried in the substrate for 2cm, the nutrition pot is slightly flapped to promote the substrate to fill the nutrition pot, the substrate is not pressed hard, the rooting water can be poured after half an hour after transplantation, and the rooting water is poured thoroughly at one time; planting bletilla striata seedlings in the cool evening;
(3) And (3) cultivation of bletilla striata seedlings: controlling the growth environment of bletilla striata seedlings for cultivation, maintaining the temperature at 25 ℃, the humidity at 80%, the illumination at 10000 lux, and ventilating the environment.
Comparative example 2
The difference from example 4 is that: in the preparation method of the modified turf, dodecenylsuccinic acid is used for replacing 6-heptenoic acid.
The preparation method comprises the following steps:
(a) Heating urea and dodecenylsuccinic acid for 2 hours at 90 ℃; then, adding the mixture in a mass ratio of 100:0.01:5, carrying out polymerization reaction on the acrylamide aqueous solution, the azodiisobutyramidine hydrochloride and the sodium hypophosphite at 50 ℃ for 5 hours, wherein the acrylamide monomer concentration of the acrylamide aqueous solution is 45%, and the mass ratio of urea to the dodecenylsuccinic acid to the acrylamide aqueous solution is 1:2:130, 130; cooling and separating out a product, drying and ball-milling to obtain solid powder;
(b) And (3) mixing the components in a mass ratio of 9:35 (a), adding the solid powder and coral sand with the particle size of 1mm into a ferrous sulfate aqueous solution, heating, stirring and mixing for 18 hours at 40 ℃, standing, flocculating, centrifuging, separating and drying; mixing the obtained product with an active microbial agent and grass carbon, wherein the active microbial agent comprises bacillus megatherium, bacillus subtilis, bacillus mucilaginosus and trichoderma flora, and the mass ratio of coral sand to the active microbial agent to the grass carbon is 1.2:4:100, obtaining the modified turf.
Comparative example 3
The difference from example 4 is that: the acrylamide monomer concentration of the acrylamide aqueous solution used in the preparation method of the modified turf is 65%.
The preparation method comprises the following steps:
(a) Heating urea and 6-heptenoic acid at 90 deg.C for 2 hr; then, adding the mixture in a mass ratio of 100:0.01:5, carrying out polymerization reaction on the acrylamide aqueous solution, the azodiisobutyl amidine hydrochloride and the sodium hypophosphite at 50 ℃ for 5 hours, wherein the acrylamide monomer concentration of the acrylamide aqueous solution is 65%, and the mass ratio of the urea to the 6-heptenoic acid to the acrylamide aqueous solution is 1:2:130, 130; cooling and separating a product, drying and ball-milling to obtain solid powder;
(b) And (3) mixing the components in a mass ratio of 9:35 (a), adding the solid powder and coral sand with the particle size of 1mm into a ferrous sulfate aqueous solution, heating, stirring and mixing for 18 hours at 40 ℃, standing, flocculating, centrifuging, separating and drying; mixing the obtained product with an active microbial agent and grass peat, wherein the active microbial agent comprises bacillus megatherium, bacillus subtilis, bacillus mucilaginosus and trichoderma, and the mass ratio of the coral sand to the active microbial agent to the grass peat is 1.2:4:100, obtaining the modified turf.
Comparative example 4
The difference from example 4 is that: the preparation method of the modified turf uses coral sand with the particle size of 0.05 mm.
The preparation method comprises the following steps:
(a) Heating urea and 6-heptenoic acid at 90 deg.C for 2 hr; then, adding the mixture in a mass ratio of 100:0.01:5, carrying out polymerization reaction on the acrylamide aqueous solution, the azodiisobutyl amidine hydrochloride and the sodium hypophosphite at 50 ℃ for 5 hours, wherein the acrylamide monomer concentration of the acrylamide aqueous solution is 45%, and the mass ratio of the urea to the 6-heptenoic acid to the acrylamide aqueous solution is 1:2:130, 130; cooling and separating a product, drying and ball-milling to obtain solid powder;
(b) Mixing the components in a mass ratio of 9:35 (a), adding the solid powder and coral sand with the particle size of 0.05mm into a ferrous sulfate aqueous solution, heating, stirring and mixing for 18 hours at 40 ℃, standing, flocculating, centrifuging, separating and drying; mixing the obtained product with an active microbial agent and grass peat, wherein the active microbial agent comprises bacillus megatherium, bacillus subtilis, bacillus mucilaginosus and trichoderma, and the mass ratio of the coral sand to the active microbial agent to the grass peat is 1.2:4:100, obtaining the modified turf.
Performance testing
Respectively carrying out water retention tests on the substrates of the examples and the comparative examples, spraying the nutrient solution on the substrate, spraying the nutrient solution once after 5 days, and counting the weight increase of the substrate after one day of each spraying; sprayed three times in total and the weight gain was averaged.
TABLE 1 test of the number of germinated seedlings and water retention of matrix after 2 months of cultivation and growth of bletilla striata seedlings in each group
Figure BDA0003308326380000081
Specific results are shown in table 1, in combination with examples 1-3 and comparative example 1, the bletilla striata in the present invention using bark and peat as the matrix was vigorous in growth, the leaves were dark green, more seedlings were germinated in each pot, and the bletilla striata using bark and perlite as the matrix was weaker in growth, 1 seedling was normally germinated in each pot, and it was seen that the mixture of bark and peat as the matrix promoted the germination of a larger number of plants. By combining the example 1 and the examples 4 to 5, it is known that the germination of bletilla striata seedlings can be further promoted by using the modified turf instead of turf as the matrix, mainly because the water retention and the buffering performance of the matrix can be improved, and the nutrient effectiveness of rhizosphere soil is improved to promote the absorption of the root system to the fertilizer, so that bletilla striata seedlings can be promoted to rapidly germinate more. In combination with example 4 and comparative example 2, dodecenylsuccinic acid contains two carboxyl groups, and a cyclization side reaction occurs when reacting with urea, so that the dodecenylsuccinic acid cannot be grafted on a polyacrylamide long molecular chain, the compatibility is reduced, and the urea runs off along with water, so that the water and fertilizer retention of the matrix is not facilitated. Combining example 4 and comparative example 3, the increase of acrylamide monomer concentration and the increase of polyacrylamide solid content and viscosity completely coat coral sand, which is not favorable for water retention and substrate permeability of coral sand. Combining example 4 and comparative example 4, too small a particle size of coral sand resulted in complete adsorption of polyacrylamide with poor water retention, and the strength of coral sand with a smaller particle size was poor.
The above description is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, and not intended to limit the scope of the present invention, and all modifications of equivalent structures and equivalent processes, which are made by the present specification, or directly or indirectly applied to other related technical fields, are included in the scope of the present invention.

Claims (7)

1. A simple cultivation method for rapid sprouting of bletilla ochracea is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) Screening bletilla striata seedlings: selecting healthy disease-free plants, and removing withered leaves;
(2) Planting bletilla striata seedlings: the method comprises the following steps of (1) burying a substrate with pseudo bulbs of bletilla striata seedlings, wherein the substrate is prepared from barks and grass carbon in a mass ratio of (5) - (4) - (5);
(3) And (3) cultivation of bletilla striata seedlings: controlling the growth environment of the bletilla striata seedlings to cultivate, including temperature, humidity and illumination;
in the step (2), the turf is modified turf;
the preparation method of the modified turf comprises the following steps:
(a) Heating urea and alpha-olefin containing monocarboxyl for reaction, wherein the number of long-chain carbon of the alpha-olefin containing monocarboxyl is 4 to 11; then, adding an acrylamide aqueous solution, azodiisobutyl amidine hydrochloride and sodium hypophosphite for polymerization, cooling and separating out a product, drying and ball-milling to obtain solid powder;
(b) Adding the solid powder and coral sand in the step (a) into a ferrous sulfate aqueous solution, heating, stirring and mixing, standing for flocculation, performing centrifugal separation and drying; mixing the obtained product with an active microbial inoculum and grass peat to obtain modified grass peat;
in the step (a), the mass ratio of the urea to the alpha-olefin containing monocarboxylic group to the acrylamide aqueous solution is 1:1.5 to 4:100 to 150; the heating reaction is carried out for 1 to 2h at the temperature of 85 to 100 ℃; the mass ratio of the acrylamide aqueous solution to the azodiisobutyramidine hydrochloride to the sodium hypophosphite is 100:0.01 to 0.03:4~6; the polymerization is carried out for 3 to 6h at the temperature of 48 to 55 ℃;
in the step (b), the particle size of the coral sand is 0.5 to 2mm; the mass ratio of the solid powder to the coral sand in the step (a) is 8 to 15:30 to 40; the heating and stirring are carried out for 18 to 20h at the temperature of 30 to 45 ℃.
2. The simple cultivation method for rapid sprouting of bletilla ochracea as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the step (2), the bletilla ochracea seedlings are planted in a nutrition pot, the height of the nutrition pot is 10-14cm, and a drain hole with the diameter of 2-3cm is arranged at the bottom of the nutrition pot.
3. The simple cultivation method for rapid sprouting of bletilla ochracea as claimed in claim 2, wherein in the step (2), the nutrition pot is a recyclable nutrition pot, and a carbendazim diluent is sprayed before use.
4. The simple cultivation method for rapid sprouting of bletilla ochracea as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the step (2), the pseudobulb of bletilla ochracea seedling plant is buried in the substrate to a depth of 1-4 cm.
5. The simple cultivation method for bletilla ochracea rapid sprouting according to claim 1, wherein in the step (3), the bletilla ochracea sprout growing environment is a ventilated environment with the temperature maintained at 25 to 28 ℃, the humidity maintained at 75 to 90%, the illumination not more than 12000 lux.
6. The simple cultivation method for rapid sprouting of bletilla ochracea as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the step (a), the concentration of the acrylamide monomer in the aqueous solution of the acrylamide is 45 to 55%; the alpha-olefin containing monocarboxyl is 4-pentenoic acid, 5-hexenoic acid, 6-heptenoic acid, 9-decenoic acid or undecylenic acid.
7. The simple cultivation method for rapid sprouting of bletilla ochracea as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the step (b), the active microbial inoculum comprises bacillus megaterium, bacillus subtilis, bacillus mucilaginosus and trichoderma spp; the mass ratio of the coral sand to the active microbial inoculum to the grass peat is 1.2 to 1.5:3~5:100.
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