CN113668573A - Water and soil co-storage and ecological slope protection method for karst sloping field and stony desertification side slope - Google Patents

Water and soil co-storage and ecological slope protection method for karst sloping field and stony desertification side slope Download PDF

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Publication number
CN113668573A
CN113668573A CN202110936155.6A CN202110936155A CN113668573A CN 113668573 A CN113668573 A CN 113668573A CN 202110936155 A CN202110936155 A CN 202110936155A CN 113668573 A CN113668573 A CN 113668573A
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soil
slope
water
layer
karst
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CN113668573B (en
Inventor
林煜宏
周成
易超
陈群
易杨
聂杰雄
叶琼瑶
周泽昶
奉文明
罗祺
陈晓红
范丽娟
张劢捷
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Guangxi Xinfazhan Communications Group Co ltd
Sichuan University
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Guangxi Xinfazhan Communications Group Co ltd
Sichuan University
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D17/00Excavations; Bordering of excavations; Making embankments
    • E02D17/20Securing of slopes or inclines
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • A01G13/02Protective coverings for plants; Coverings for the ground; Devices for laying-out or removing coverings
    • A01G13/0256Ground coverings
    • A01G13/0262Mulches, i.e. covering material not-pre-formed in mats or sheets
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/40Fabaceae, e.g. beans or peas
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • A01G24/28Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material containing peat, moss or sphagnum
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/02Receptacles, e.g. flower-pots or boxes; Glasses for cultivating flowers
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D5/00Bulkheads, piles, or other structural elements specially adapted to foundation engineering
    • E02D5/74Means for anchoring structural elements or bulkheads
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E03WATER SUPPLY; SEWERAGE
    • E03BINSTALLATIONS OR METHODS FOR OBTAINING, COLLECTING, OR DISTRIBUTING WATER
    • E03B3/00Methods or installations for obtaining or collecting drinking water or tap water
    • E03B3/02Methods or installations for obtaining or collecting drinking water or tap water from rain-water
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A20/00Water conservation; Efficient water supply; Efficient water use
    • Y02A20/108Rainwater harvesting

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for water and soil co-storage and ecological slope protection of karst sloping fields and stony desertification side slopes, wherein small anchor rods are arranged on the sloping surfaces of the karst sloping fields and the stony desertification side slopes line by line, soil retaining plates are placed in front of the small anchor rods to form plate grooves, and cofferdams or baffles are arranged at two ends of the plate grooves; arranging a rain collecting surface material on the slope surface between the plate grooves to collect rain; laying an anti-leakage cushion layer in each stage of plate groove, arranging a plurality of grid plates fixed with a plurality of water absorbing belts in advance at a certain height in the plate groove, leaning against the soil retaining plate and the slope surface so as to keep stability, filling planting soil on the grid plates to form a planting layer, and taking the water storage cavity space below the grid plates as a water storage layer; plants with long roots and developed main root systems are planted in the planting soil layer, and plants with short root systems are used as auxiliary materials. The invention integrates the slope rain collection and rain accumulation of the karst sloping field and the stony desertification side slope, realizes the water and soil co-storage and water and soil conservation of the karst sloping field and the stony desertification side slope, and ecological slope protection treatment and ecological environment reconstruction, saves the treatment cost and simplifies the treatment method.

Description

Water and soil co-storage and ecological slope protection method for karst sloping field and stony desertification side slope
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the field of ecological slope protection treatment and ecological environment reconstruction of karst sloping fields and stony desertification side slopes, and particularly relates to a water and soil co-storage and ecological slope protection method and device for karst sloping fields and stony desertification side slopes.
Background
At present, in a wet area in the south of China, long-term karst of carbonate rock and bedrock or rockfill are exposed on the earth surface in a large area, and earth surface loss and underground leakage of water and soil of a side slope are serious, so that rocky desertification and ecological environment degradation are caused. The soil loss of the karst sloping field has two modes of ground loss and underground leakage. Underground leakage is the main mode of soil loss in pure carbonate rock slopes with serious development of ditches, dissolving troughs and depressions and lithification. Karst sloping fields and stony desertification side slopes lack soil or have extremely loose soil structures and shallow soil layers, water can be quickly lost, and even if the sloping surfaces are changed into terraces, serious surface soil water loss and underground soil water leakage can also occur. The plant damage and the land cultivation destroy the root pocket function of the plant root system, increase the infiltration loss of runoff, promote the erosion of underground pipelines and the subsidence of overlying soil, and accelerate the underground leakage of the soil and the soil mineralization. In rainy seasons, a drying period with evaporation amount larger than precipitation amount often occurs, so that seasonal drought of soil is caused. These have all restricted vegetation restoration to a large extent in karst slopes and stony desertification slopes.
Therefore, there is a need to develop a method and a device for water and soil co-storage and ecological slope protection suitable for karst sloping fields and stony desertification side slopes, which can reduce water loss and soil erosion, especially increase water holding capacity and water retention function and improve plant growth adaptability. With soil and moisture suitable for rapid and stable growth of vegetation, vegetation can be recovered in a short period, and virtuous cycle of vegetation recovery is ensured. In order to achieve the aim, two key technical problems of rain collection and rain accumulation of karst slopes and stony desertification slopes must be solved. In rain collection and rain accumulation of karst sloping fields and stony desertification side slopes, the most important problem is the construction of rain collection areas and rain accumulation sections. In the selection of the slope rain collecting surface, at present, some common rain collecting surface materials at home and abroad comprise concrete, cement soil, pseudo-ginseng grey soil, plastic films, linoleum and the like, some chemical materials with higher cost such as paraffin, asphalt, rubber and the like, lichen and moss which are used as rain collecting surface materials, and high molecular polymers such as soil curing agents, organic silicon, resin and the like which are used as rain collecting surface materials. In the construction of the rain accumulation section, karst fracture channels can develop continuously along with the action time of water, and grouting and leaking stoppage are difficult to achieve due to the fact that the distribution rule of the karst channels cannot be found.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a method for water and soil co-storage and ecological slope protection of karst sloping fields and stony desertification side slopes, aiming at overcoming the defects of the prior art, so as to achieve integration of rain collection and rain accumulation of the sloping surfaces of the karst sloping fields and the stony desertification side slopes, realize water and soil co-storage and water and soil conservation of the karst sloping fields and the stony desertification side slopes, realize ecological slope protection and ecological environment reconstruction, save the treatment cost and simplify the treatment method.
The invention provides a method for water and soil co-storage and ecological slope protection of karst sloping fields and stony desertification side slopes, which comprises the following steps:
(1) small anchor rods are arranged on the slope surfaces of karst sloping fields and stony desertification side slopes which need vegetation restoration line by line, a soil retaining plate is vertically arranged in front of each row of small anchor rods, plate grooves distributed along the slope surface in a stepped mode are formed by the soil retaining plates and the slope surfaces in front of the soil retaining plates, and cofferdams or baffles with certain heights are arranged at two ends of the plate grooves so as to store and retain rainwater with certain depth and overflow and discharge redundant rainstorm water; arranging a rain collecting surface material as an artificial rain collecting surface on the karst sloping field and the stony desertification slope surface between the plate grooves;
(2) laying an anti-leakage cushion layer in each stage of plate groove, arranging a plurality of grid plates fixed with a plurality of water absorbing belts in advance at a certain height in the plate groove, enabling the grid plates to lean against the soil retaining plates and the slope surface so as to be stable, filling planting soil on the grid plates to form a planting layer, and taking the water storage cavity space below the grid plates as a water storage layer;
(3) the method is characterized in that plants with developed long roots and main roots are planted in a planting soil layer, short root system plants are used for assisting, drilling and plugging are carried out on karst passages or rock body cracks through the long and main roots (namely root bolts) of the plants, and the short root systems are used for bonding soil bodies to form root soil cushions or root pockets, so that water and soil co-storage of karst slopes and stony desertification slopes is further realized, and water and soil leakage is inhibited. Climbing plants such as partridge swickers planted in the plate grooves climb on the slope to cover vegetation, and ecological slope protection is realized by combining plate groove vegetation.
Further, the soil retaining plate in the step (1) is a concrete precast slab or an anti-corrosion grating plate, the length is preferably 2-3 m, the width is generally not less than 50 cm, and the thickness is not less than 5 cm.
Further, the rain collecting surface material in the step (1) is one of two cloth films, a sprayed concrete layer, a sprayed cement soil layer, a sprayed organic silica, a mixed sprayed soil of a microbial liquid and a cementing liquid, or a vegetation mat (vegetation blanket); the vegetation cushion (vegetation blanket) is formed by climbing plants in the plate groove on a piece of slope, namely non-woven fabric or two pieces of fabric and a film. The artificial rain collecting surface on the karst sloping field and the stony desertification slope has the functions of increasing rain collecting effect, reducing rain leakage on the slope, and can be used as a climbing support for climbing plants such as parthenocissus tricuspidata planted in the plate groove.
Further, in the step (1), the horizontal distance between the small anchor rods is preferably 1 m to 1.5 m, and anti-corrosion treatment is performed in advance, for example, the part of the exposed bedrock is brushed with anti-corrosion coating paint, asphalt and the like.
Further, in step (2), planting soil is filled to the top of the concrete plate on the grid plate which is leaned on the soil retaining plate and the slope surface so as to keep stable, and the concrete plate is slightly compacted.
Further, the height of the cofferdam or the baffle in the step (1) meets the requirement that rainwater with a certain depth can be stored and blocked in the plate groove and the excessive heavy rain water can be drained in an overflowing manner.
Further, the planting soil layer in the step (2) is composed of planting soil, a small amount of peat soil and a small amount of materials with a water retention function.
Furthermore, after the planting soil is filled in the step (2), straw, hay, leaves or gravels and other materials are paved on the surface of the planting layer to serve as a covering layer to reduce evaporation and water and soil loss.
Further, the anti-leakage cushion layer in the step (2) can be two cloth layers and one film layer (the non-woven cloth layer and the waterproof film layer are sandwiched), concrete, cement soil, two lime soil, three lime soil or microorganism mineralized soil and the like.
Further, the grid plate in the step (2) is an engineering plastic grid plate or a metal or other material grid plate subjected to an anti-corrosion treatment, such as a bamboo raft brushed with an anti-corrosion coating.
Furthermore, the plurality of water absorbing belts fixed on the grating plate in the step (2) are dense strips which are 1-2 cm wide and have strong capillary force and are woven by nylon, terylene or polypropylene woven belts and the like, and the horizontal distance is preferably about 20 cm.
Further, the plants with developed long roots and main root systems in the step (3) are shrubs such as bougainvillea spectabilis and the like or vetiver with developed root systems, and the plants with short root systems are plants with drought resistance and suitable for calcareous soil such as parthenocissus tricuspidata, crabapple flowers or cactus, pennisetum hydridum, alfalfa, red phoenix-leaved sweetgum and the like.
Furthermore, a storage drainage ditch is dug on the slope toe or the platform of the karst sloping field and the stony desertification side slope, or a plate groove is erected to be used as the storage drainage ditch, and redundant rainwater is collected and discharged.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following beneficial effects:
1. according to the method, the planting layer and the water storage layer are arranged in the plate groove, the rain collecting material is laid on the slope surface, the integration of rain collection and rain accumulation is realized, the collection and utilization rate of rainwater is improved, the main root systems of shrubs such as bougainvillea spectabilis and the like or vetiver with developed root systems are used for drilling and leaking stoppage (embolism) on the karst channel, and then the plants with drought resistance and suitable for calcareous soil such as partridge, crabapple flowers or cactus, pennisetum hydridum, alfalfa, red phoenix-leaved rocky vegetables and the like are used for forming root soil cushions (root pockets) by wrapping soil bodies with short root systems, so that the embolism and root pocket effects of the root systems are used for helping to inhibit water and soil loss, the water and soil co-storage and water and soil conservation of karst slopes are realized, the current situation of stony desertification is improved, and the ecological slope protection and ecological environment reconstruction are realized.
2. The method has low treatment cost, simple treatment method and low engineering difficulty, and has high efficiency and durability when being used for ecological treatment and vegetation restoration of karst sloping fields and stony desertification side slopes.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a sectional view of a rain-collecting and rain-accumulating integrated water-soil co-storage and ecological slope protection system constructed by the method of the present invention.
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of a plate well according to the present invention.
FIG. 3 is a top view of a plate well according to the present invention.
FIG. 4 is a schematic view showing that the developed long root system of the present invention is drilled into a karst passage or a rock body fissure to form a plug and the developed short root system forms a root pocket to suppress soil and water loss.
In the figure, 1-karst sloping field and stony desertification side slope, 2-small anchor rods, 3-concrete precast slabs, 4-water storage and drainage ditches, 5-slab ditches, 6-artificial rain collecting surface, 7-planting layer, 8-covering layer, 9-anti-seepage cushion layer, 10-grid plate, 11-water storage layer, 12-water absorption belt, 13-1-plant with long root and developed main root system, 13-2-plant with short root system, 13-3-climbing plant, 14-main root embolism and 15-root soil cushion layer (or root pocket).
Detailed Description
The method for water and soil co-storage and ecological slope protection of karst sloping fields and stony desertification side slopes is further explained by the following specific embodiment in combination with the attached drawings.
Example 1
The invention provides a method for water and soil co-storage and ecological slope protection of karst sloping fields and stony desertification side slopes, which comprises the following steps:
(1) small anchor rods 2 coated with anti-rust paint are arranged on the sloping surface of a karst sloping field and a stony desertification side slope 1 which need vegetation restoration line by line (the sloping surface is transverse), a concrete precast slab 3 is vertically placed in front of each row of small anchor rods, a slab trough 5 distributed along the sloping surface in a stepped way is formed by utilizing the concrete precast slab and the sloping surface in front of the slab, baffles with certain height are arranged at the two ends of the slab trough, and the height of the baffles can ensure that rainwater with certain depth can be stored in the slab trough and the redundant stormwater can be discharged in an overflowing way; lay a cloth promptly non-woven fabrics or a cloth membrane as artifical collection rain face 6 on domatic between the board groove, increase collection rain, can also regard as climbing of climbing plants such as the climbing tiger of planting in the board groove to rely on simultaneously, form climbing tiger plant bed course (or called climbing tiger vegetation blanket).
(2) The method comprises the steps of laying a water-soil co-storage anti-seepage cushion layer 9 on a slope surface in front of a concrete precast slab wall surface and a retaining plate in each stage of plate groove, laying an engineering plastic grid plate 10 with a water absorption belt 12 fixed in advance at a height of about 20 cm in the plate groove, filling planting soil on the grid plate to the top of the concrete slab, and slightly compacting to form a planting layer 7. The impoundment cavity space below the grid plate is used as an aquifer 11, and the impoundment depth is generally more than 20 cm. The water absorption belt is a compact belt which is 1-2 cm wide and has strong capillary force and is woven by nylon, terylene or polypropylene woven belts, and the horizontal distance is preferably about 20 cm. The planting soil layer consists of ploughing soil, a small amount of peat soil and a small amount of materials with water retention function. After the planting soil is filled, materials such as straws, hay, leaves or gravels and the like are paved on the surface of the planting layer to serve as a covering layer 8, so that evaporation and water and soil loss are reduced.
(3) Planting bougainvillea spectabilis 13 with long roots and developed main roots in a planting soil layer, and simultaneously planting short root plants such as partridge lizard and crabapple flowers, or plants such as cactus, pennisetum hydridum, alfalfa and red phoenix-leaved sweetgum which have drought resistance and are suitable for calcareous soil in an auxiliary mode. The long and main root systems of the plants are utilized to drill and stop the leakage of the karst channel or the rock body crack, a main root plug 14 is formed, and the short root systems are utilized to bond and wrap the soil body to form a root soil cushion layer 15 (root pocket) so as to help inhibit the water and soil leakage and realize the water and soil co-storage of the karst sloping field and the stony desertification side slope. Climbing plants planted in the plate grooves climb on the slope to cover vegetation, and ecological slope protection is realized by combining plate groove vegetation.
(4) And excavating a water storage and drainage ditch 4 serving as a water storage and drainage ditch on the slope toe or the platform of the karst sloping field and the stony desertification side slope, and collecting and draining redundant rainwater.

Claims (10)

1. The method for water and soil co-storage and ecological slope protection of karst sloping fields and stony desertification side slopes is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) small anchor rods are arranged on the slope surfaces of karst sloping fields and stony desertification side slopes which need vegetation restoration line by line, a soil retaining plate is vertically arranged in front of each row of small anchor rods, plate grooves distributed along the slope surface in a stepped mode are formed by the soil retaining plates and the slope surfaces in front of the soil retaining plates, cofferdams or baffles with certain heights are arranged at two ends of the plate grooves and used for retaining rainwater with certain depth and overflowing and draining redundant rainstorm water; arranging a rain collecting surface material as an artificial rain collecting surface on the karst sloping field and the stony desertification slope surface between the plate grooves;
(2) laying an anti-leakage cushion layer in each stage of plate groove, arranging a plurality of grid plates fixed with a plurality of water absorbing belts in advance at a certain height in the plate groove, leaning against the soil retaining plates and the slope surface to keep stability, filling planting soil on the grid plates to form a planting layer, and taking the water storage cavity space below the grid plates as a water storage layer;
(3) plants with long roots and developed main roots are planted in the planting soil layer, short root system plants are used for assisting, the long and main roots of the plants are used for drilling and plugging karst passages or rock body cracks, and the short root system is used for binding and wrapping soil to form a root soil cushion layer to inhibit water and soil loss.
2. The method according to claim 1, wherein the soil guard plates in step (1) are precast concrete plates or corrosion-resistant grating plates.
3. The method according to claim 1, wherein the rain collecting surface material in step (1) is one of two cloth-one film, sprayed concrete layer, sprayed cement layer, sprayed organic silica, mixed sprayed soil of microorganism liquid and cementing liquid on karst slope and stony desertification slope, or vegetation mat; the vegetation cushion is formed by climbing plants in the plate groove on a piece of non-woven fabric or a piece of membrane of two pieces of cloth on the slope.
4. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the planting soil layer in the step (2) is formed by mixing planting soil, peat soil and other materials with water retention function.
5. The method of claim 1, wherein after the planting soil is filled in the step (2), straw, hay, leaves or crushed stones are laid on the surface of the planting layer as a covering layer to reduce evaporation and soil erosion.
6. The method according to claim 1, wherein the anti-leakage cushion layer in step (2) is two cloth-one film, concrete, cement soil, two lime soil, three lime soil or microorganism mineralized soil.
7. The method of claim 1, wherein the grid plate in step (2) is an engineering plastic grid plate or a metal or other material grid plate that has been subjected to an anti-corrosion treatment.
8. The method of claim 1, wherein the plurality of water-absorbing strips fixed on the grid plate in step (2) are 1-2 cm wide dense strips woven from nylon, terylene or polypropylene fabric.
9. The method according to claim 1, wherein the plants with developed long roots and main root systems in step (3) are shrubs such as bougainvillea or vetiver with developed root systems, and the plants with short root systems are plants with drought resistance and suitable for calcareous soil such as parthenocissus tricuspidata, crabapple flowers, or cactus, pennisetum hydridum, alfalfa, red phoenix-leaved sweetgum and the like.
10. The method of claim 1, wherein a drainage ditch is dug on a toe or a platform of the karst slope and the stony desertification side slope, or a plate groove is erected as the drainage ditch, and the surplus rainwater is collected and drained.
CN202110936155.6A 2021-08-16 2021-08-16 Water and soil co-storage and ecological slope protection method for karst sloping field and stony desertification side slope Active CN113668573B (en)

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CN114158305A (en) * 2021-11-26 2022-03-11 云南师范大学 Composite stony desertification ecological restoration method
CN114375632A (en) * 2021-12-28 2022-04-22 北京市勘察设计研究院有限公司 Novel mine slope and ecological restoration method thereof

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN114158305A (en) * 2021-11-26 2022-03-11 云南师范大学 Composite stony desertification ecological restoration method
CN114375632A (en) * 2021-12-28 2022-04-22 北京市勘察设计研究院有限公司 Novel mine slope and ecological restoration method thereof

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