CN111713438A - Method for cultivating high-quality and high-yield penaeus vannamei larvae - Google Patents

Method for cultivating high-quality and high-yield penaeus vannamei larvae Download PDF

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CN111713438A
CN111713438A CN202010386628.5A CN202010386628A CN111713438A CN 111713438 A CN111713438 A CN 111713438A CN 202010386628 A CN202010386628 A CN 202010386628A CN 111713438 A CN111713438 A CN 111713438A
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water
quality
pond
shrimps
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朱珠
吕林兰
谭海军
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Jiangsu Ruifeng Aquatic And Seedling Co ltd
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Jiangsu Ruifeng Aquatic And Seedling Co ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; AVICULTURE; APICULTURE; PISCICULTURE; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/50Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish
    • A01K61/59Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish of crustaceans, e.g. lobsters or shrimps
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

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  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Environmental Sciences (AREA)
  • Marine Sciences & Fisheries (AREA)
  • Zoology (AREA)
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  • Farming Of Fish And Shellfish (AREA)

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for breeding high-quality and high-yield penaeus vannamei larvae, which comprises the steps of temporary breeding, ripening cultivation and propagation of parent shrimps, collection and cultivation of healthy nauplii, healthy cultivation of flea larvae, mysid shrimps and young shrimps, control of environmental factors, management of a seedling breeding process and the like. The gonads of the parent shrimps are well developed by screening the high-quality parent shrimps and regulating and controlling the nutrition in the ripening process, so that the mating rate and the hatchability of fertilized eggs are improved. By strictly sterilizing the water for seedling raising, ecologically regulating and controlling the nutrition and water quality of each stage of the larva, the seedling raising condition is optimized, no antibiotic medicine is used in the seedling raising process, the cultivated larva has good stress resistance and grows quickly.

Description

Method for cultivating high-quality and high-yield penaeus vannamei larvae
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the field of aquaculture, and particularly relates to a method for cultivating high-quality and high-yield penaeus vannamei larvae.
Background
The south American white prawn is originally produced on the coast of the American Pacific ocean, has the advantages of high growth speed, high meat yield, rich nutritive value and strong environment adaptability, can grow in both seawater and fresh water environments, and is the shrimp species with the highest yield in the three excellent areas in the world at present. At present, the problems of low yield and small shrimp body type easily occur in the process of prawn culture, and the main reasons of the problems are the good and uneven seedling quality and the deterioration of environmental factors. In the breeding process, parents with poor quality, such as poor gonad development or virus carrying, are used, so that the mating rate is low or the shrimp seedlings carry the virus, weak seedlings are not eliminated in the breeding process, and the immunity of the shrimps is damaged due to excessive use of antibiotics, so that the problems of insufficient birth, weak stress capability, low disease resistance or slow growth speed are caused.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the problems, the invention provides a method for cultivating high-quality and high-yield penaeus vannamei larvae. By introducing SPF south America white shrimp parent isolation culture, nutrition regulation and control during ripening, selecting parent mating with large individual, health and fully developed gonad, breeding performance is improved, and meanwhile, good genetic performance and offspring without specific virus are obtained.
The invention is realized by the following technical scheme:
a method for cultivating high-quality and high-yield young penaeus vannamei boone comprises the following steps:
a. domestication and breeding of stock of Penaeus vannamei Boone
a-1) parent shrimp rearing pond and water treatment for rearing
Selecting the area of 20-30 m2The parent shrimp pond has water depth of 1-1.2m, light shading net over the parent shrimp pond and illumination intensity of 50-100Lx, and the parent shrimp pond is used with illumination intensity of 80-100 × 10 before use-5Bleaching powder or 50-200 × 10-6Sterilizing the parent shrimp pond by potassium permanganate;
a-2) domesticating and breeding stock seeds, namely putting parent shrimps into a parent shrimp pond, wherein the water temperature of the parent shrimp pond is close to the water temperature during transportation; after 4h, a small amount of live clamworms are added; after 3 days, starting temperature rise and ripening cultivation, raising the temperature to 1 ℃ every day, keeping the temperature for 3-5 days when the water temperature reaches 23 ℃, raising the temperature to 25 ℃, keeping the temperature for 3-5 days, raising the temperature to 0.5 ℃ every day, raising the temperature to 27 ℃, keeping the water temperature unchanged, carrying out ripening cultivation, feeding fresh baits mainly comprising clamworms and auxiliary oysters and squids for 3 times every day, feeding the fresh baits by 10-15% of the weight of the shrimp, and feeding artificial compound feed added with microecologics and astaxanthin once;
a-3) mating and spawning parent shrimps, selecting mature male shrimps to enter a mating pool, wherein the ratio of male to female is 1:2, the air inflation amount is reduced during mating, and the illumination is increased in the mating pool at night; checking at 20:00 and 22:00 at night respectively, and fishing out mated female shrimps to a spawning pond;
a-4) hatching the fertilized eggs, collecting the fertilized eggs, cleaning and disinfecting the collected fertilized eggs, and then putting the fertilized eggs into a hatching barrel for hatching, wherein the water temperature is 29 ℃, the aeration quantity is reduced during hatching, and the fertilized eggs are gently stirred for 1 time every 30 min to prevent the eggs from accumulating;
b. penaeus vannamei larva cultivation
b-1) treating the seedling culture water and disinfecting a seedling culture pond, wherein seawater in the sea area enters the seedling culture pond after passing through a disinfection pond, a filter pond, a protein separator, a filter barrel, a protein separator, a primary reservoir, UV (ultraviolet) and active carbon filtration and a secondary reservoir. Before the larva enters the pond, disinfecting a seedling raising pond, a culture tool and a cultivation workshop;
b-2) putting the nauplii and controlling environmental factors, namely putting the qualified nauplii into 10ppm povidone iodine for disinfection for 5-10 seconds, and putting the nauplii into a seedling pool with the density of 15-25 ten thousand/m3The method is characterized by comprising the following steps of (1) slightly inflating, and inoculating 5-10 ten thousand per mL of diatom silicea when the prawn larva in a seedling pond is in the juvenile larva II stage, wherein the water temperature is 28-29 ℃, and the illumination is 200-;
b-3) cultivating flea larvae and controlling environmental factors, putting the siliquoia pellucida and the chlorella in water in the Z1 stage, 5-10 ten thousand per mL, and adding artificial bait 6-8 times a day, 1-2g/m each time3The stage Z2 is to feed rotifers, 5-10/mL; in the Z3 stage, artemia nauplii are mainly used, 3-5 artemia nauplii are used as auxiliary artemia, in the stage, water is not changed, new water is gradually added, beneficial bacteria are added into the water to improve the water quality, and the adding amount is 20-30g/m3The water quality detection agent is used once every 4-6 days, the photosynthetic bacteria 150-ppm is used for 1 time every 10-15 days, the specific use time is determined according to the water quality detection condition, the aeration quantity is gradually increased to weak boiling, the illumination intensity is 200-1000 Lx, and the water temperature is 29-30 ℃;
b-4) culturing mysidacea and controlling environmental factors, wherein the stage mainly comprises animal feed artemia nauplius and artificial compound feed; the artificial compound feed comprises prawn slices and melanoidin, and the dosage is 1.5-2.5 g/m3Feeding 6-8 times per day, 10-20 artemia nauplii/d, light intensity of 200-;
b-5) shrimp culture and environmental factorsControlling, feeding fresh and live baits and artificial mixed feed at the stage of P1-P15, wherein the mixed feed is fed 6-8 times per day, and each time is 2.5-4g/m35-10 artemia nauplii per ml P1-P4, feeding for 4-5 times a day, timely adjusting according to the gastrointestinal fullness of the shrimps, feeding minced fish as bait at the beginning of the period P5, adjusting water by using a microecological preparation at the larval stage, changing the water amount by more than 50% every day, gradually cooling to the natural temperature at the later period with the illumination intensity of 2000-;
b-6) the larva fades out of the pond, salinity adjustment is carried out at the P5 stage, and 1-2 gradients are reduced every day until the salinity of the larva is close to that of the culture pond;
b-7) managing the seedling raising process, performing microscopic examination and counting on the development of the young prawns at each stage every day, mastering the survival rate of the young prawns at each stage, measuring water quality indexes such as water temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, pH, ammonia nitrogen and the like every day, removing impurities on the wall of the pond and water, ensuring good water quality conditions, and periodically performing virus detection.
As an improvement of the invention, in the step a-1, the culture density is 5-10 tails/m2(ii) a In the step a-2, the promoting mature cultivation process takes clamworm as the main material and oyster and squid are matched, and the ratio of the clamworm to the oyster to the squid is 3: 1:1, adding traditional Chinese medicine microecologics and astaxanthin into the artificial compound feed, wherein in the step a-2, the selected parent shrimps are SPF parent shrimps in America; in step a-3, the area of the mating pool is 6-8m2(ii) a In the step a-4, fertilized eggs are put into an incubation barrel for 12 hours, then the incubation rate is checked and calculated, and the fertilized eggs of the batch are eliminated if the incubation rate is lower than 50%; collecting nauplii to a 200-mesh net cage by adopting a light and siphon method; and (3) carrying out specific virus detection on the nauplii, breeding the nauplii if the detection result is negative, and eliminating the nauplii of the batch if the detection result is positive.
As a modification of the present invention, in step a-4, the specific viruses detected include white spot virus, infectious subcutaneous and hematopoietic necrosis virus and taura syndrome virus.
As an improvement of the invention, the disinfection tank comprises a primary treatment tank and a secondary treatment tank, wherein the primary treatment tank is disinfected by 0.5ppm potassium permanganate, and the secondary treatment tank is disinfected by 10-20 total chlorine; the filter tank comprises a primary sand filter tank and a secondary sand filter tank, wherein the primary sand filter tank is filtered by sea sand of 20-70 meshes, the secondary sand filter tank is filtered by quartz sand of 75-150 meshes, and a filter barrel is filtered by the quartz sand of 75-150 meshes; and the secondary reservoir adopts EDTA disodium 5-20ppm to neutralize heavy metals and adjust the pH value of the water body.
In the step b-3, the artificial bait is made of prawn slices or black granules and is fed with yeast in a matched manner.
As an improvement of the invention, the beneficial bacteria added in the step b-3 are one or combination of bacillus and photosynthetic bacteria.
In the step b-5, the fish meat paste is fed as bait from the stage P5, the fish meat, the small white shrimps, the shellfish meat and the like are stirred into the fish meat paste, the fish meat paste is filtered by a 40-50 mesh bolting silk, and the fish meat paste is fed after viscera and sewage are washed away.
As an improvement of the invention, in the step b-7, the detected viruses comprise prawn infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis viruses, prawn taura virus, prawn white spot syndrome virus and the like; periodically performing vibrio detection including Vibrio viridis and Vibrio flavus.
As an improvement of the invention, the strains detected by vibrio detection comprise vibrio parahaemolyticus, vibrio fluvialis, vibrio malodorous monad, vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio cholerae, vibrio harveyi, vibrio anguillarum and the like.
As an improvement of the invention, in the shrimp larva cultivation process, various baits are adopted to meet the comprehensive nutritional requirements of the shrimp larva, live baits are used in the whole process, chaetoceros are inoculated in the period of the nauplii, chaetoceros are mainly inoculated in the period of Z1 of the flea larva, chlorella is inoculated, animal baits rotifer is added in the period of Z2, artemia nauplii are mainly inoculated in the period of Z2, the artemia continues to the period of P5, meanwhile, artificial feed is fed, a small amount of artificial feed is fed for multiple times, in the feeding process, bacillus and photosynthetic bacteria are added into the water body to purify the water quality, and antibiotics are not used in the whole seedling cultivation process.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following advantages:
(1) the parent shrimp of the invention is introduced from abroad into parent shrimp breeders without specific viruses, thereby avoiding the retrogression phenomenon of multi-generation propagation and having high propagation performance.
(2) By selecting the nauplii and regulating and controlling the nutrition and the ecology in each development stage, the shrimp fries cultured by the method are free of viruses and have the characteristics of strong stress resistance, fast growth and good vitality.
Detailed Description
The present invention is further illustrated in detail by the following examples, which are provided only for illustrating the present invention and are not intended to limit the scope of the present invention.
The invention is realized according to the following steps:
a. domestication and breeding of SPF (specific pathogen free) Penaeus vannamei Boone protospecies
a-1) parent shrimp rearing pond and water treatment for rearing
Parent shrimp pond area 25 m2The water depth is 1.1m, and the cultivation density is 7 tails/m2The upper part of the parent shrimp pond is shielded by a net, and the illumination intensity is controlled to be 80-100 × 10 before the parent shrimp pond is used at 50-100 Lx.-5Bleaching powder or 50-200 × 10-6The potassium permanganate disinfects the parent shrimp pond.
a-2) temperature-rising ripening-promoting cultivation of parent shrimps
SPF parent shrimp were introduced from the United states with a male to female ratio of 1: 1. And (4) putting the parent shrimps into a parent shrimp pond, wherein the water temperature of the parent shrimp pond is close to the water temperature during transportation. After 4h, a small amount of live clamworm is added. After 3 days, heating up for ripening cultivation, heating up to 1 ℃ every day until the water temperature reaches 23 ℃, keeping for 3-5 days, heating up to 25 ℃, keeping for 3-5 days, then heating up to 0.5 ℃ every day, heating up to 27 ℃, keeping the water temperature unchanged, and carrying out ripening cultivation.
And (5) timely absorbing and discharging dirt every day, and changing water according to the water quality condition. The water changing temperature difference is not more than 1 ℃. Water quality conditions in the cultivation period: the water temperature is 25-26 ℃, the salinity is 27-32, the pH is 7.8-8.5, the DO is more than 5 mg/L, and the ammonia nitrogen does not exceed 0.5 mg/L.
Feeding fresh baits mainly comprising clamworms and supplemented by oysters and squids for 3 times every day, wherein the feeding amount is 10-15% of the shrimp weight, and feeding artificial compound feed added with astaxanthin once to promote the gonadal development and the organism immunity of the parent shrimps and improve the reproductive performance. The feeding time is 8:00, 12:00, 16:00 and 20:00 respectively. Cleaning fresh bait before feeding, sterilizing with potassium permanganate, cutting large bait organisms such as Loligo chinensis Gray, cleaning, controlling water, and feeding. And (3) removing the unilateral eyestalk of the female shrimp by adopting a forceps ironing method after the gonad of the female shrimp grows to the stage II, and promoting the gonad development of the female shrimp.
The standard of the selected parent shrimps is that the female shrimps are more than 13cm in length and more than 40g in weight, the male shrimps are more than 12cm in length and more than 35g in weight, the appendages are complete, the stomach and intestine are full, and the body color is transparent and uniform.
a-3) mating and spawning of parent shrimps
After 5 days of parent shrimp ripening operation, checking the gonad development condition of parent shrimps every noon and afternoon every day, fishing out the mature female shrimps to a mating pool, enabling the gonads of the mature female shrimps to develop to the IV stage, changing the color of the gonads from light yellow to orange red, and selecting the mature male shrimps to enter the mating pool, wherein the reproductive process of the mature male shrimps is obviously expanded, the sperm pod is white and full, and the male-female ratio is 1: 2. The air inflation amount is adjusted to be small during mating, the interference to mating is reduced, the mating pool needs to be illuminated at night to improve the mating rate, and the area of the mating pool is 6-8m2. The peak of the mating time of the parent shrimps is 15:00-18:00, the female shrimps which have mated are respectively checked at 20:00 and 22:00 at night, the female shrimps which have mated are fished out to a spawning pond, and milky white spermatophore is adhered to the 4 th-5 th step feet of the female shrimps which have successfully mated.
The temperature of the spawning pond is 27-28 ℃, the dark and quiet environment is kept, the parent shrimps after spawning are fished out at 8:00 the next day, and whether the parent shrimps spawn is judged specifically, wherein the characteristic that the parent shrimps are regarded as spawned when white spermatophore adhered to the parent shrimps disappears.
a-4) incubation of fertilized eggs
Washing and sterilizing the collected fertilized egg white, placing the fertilized egg white into a hatching barrel with the volume of 200L for hatching, wherein the water temperature is 29 ℃, the water for hatching and seedling culture needs to be treated by EDTA disodium salt, and the concentration is 3 × 10-6-5×10-6Complexing the metal ions in the water. Hatching density is 25-35 ten thousand per meter3. The aeration quantity is small during incubation to prevent egg dissolution, and the egg is gently stirred for 1 time every 30 min to prevent egg accumulation and improve the incubation rate. And (4) calculating the hatchability, and eliminating the hatchability when the hatchability is lower than 50%. Collecting nauplii to 200 mesh net cage by using light and siphon method. And (4) carrying out common virus detection on the shrimp larvae, if the detection result is negative, carrying out larva cultivation, and if the detection result is positive, eliminating the shrimp larvae.
b. Penaeus vannamei larva cultivation
b-1) treatment of water for raising seedlings and disinfection of seedling raising pond
Sea water in the sea area is filtered by a primary treatment tank, a secondary treatment tank, a primary sand filter, a secondary sand filter, a protein separator, a filter barrel, a protein separator, a primary reservoir, UV and active carbon and a secondary reservoir and then is sent into a seedling raising tank. Wherein the first-stage treatment tank is sterilized by potassium permanganate with the concentration of 0.5ppm, and the second-stage treatment tank is sterilized by 10-20 total chlorine; the first-level sand filter adopts sea sand of 20-70 meshes for filtration, the second-level sand filter adopts quartz sand of 75-150 meshes for filtration, and the filter vat adopts quartz sand of 75-150 meshes for filtration; and 5-20ppm of EDTA disodium is adopted in the secondary reservoir to neutralize heavy metals and regulate the pH value of the water body. Before the larva enters the pond, the nursery pond is cleaned, scrubbed and washed clean, then disinfected by 500-200 PPM potassium permanganate and washed clean by fresh water, after the air pipe, the air stone and the plummet are cleaned, the larva is generally soaked by 200-1000 PPM formaldehyde or 50-100 PPM strong chlorine essence for 24-48 hours and then cleaned for standby, and the air stone is generally arranged at the position of 6-8 per square meter. Finally, the workshop is disinfected, specifically, 500-1000 PPM solution of formaldehyde or strong chlorine is uniformly sprayed by a water pump, and the door and the window are closed for 24-48 hours. Detection work of the seedling raising pond: before the larvae are put in, a culture dish is used for detecting vibrios, the colony number of yellow bacteria is less than 10, and the colony number of green bacteria is 0. If the colony count is found to be out of standard, the inlet water needs to be disinfected again.
b-2) nauplii (N) delivery and environmental factor control
Placing the qualified nauplii (N) into 10ppm povidone iodine to be disinfected for 5-10 seconds, and then placing the nauplii into a nursery pond with the density of 15-25 ten thousand/m3And is slightly inflated. In the nauplius period, food is not taken, and the yolk provides nutrition to maintain metamorphosis. After 40-50 h, the nauplii can be transformed into flea-shaped larvae (Z) after 6 molts. When the prawn larva in the nursery pond is in the stage II of the nauplius larva, the diatom horn hair is inoculated for 5-10 ten thousand per mL. The water temperature is 28-29 ℃. Illumination 200-.
b-3) flea larvae (Z) cultivation and environmental factor control
The flea larva stage starts to feed, the water body of the Z1 stage consists of the chaetoceros peltatus and the chlorella, 5 to 10 ten thousand per mL, and artificial bait is supplemented,such as prawn slices, black granules, BP, etc. 6-8 times per day, 1-2g/m each time3. Proper auxiliary yeast feeding is carried out, the Z2 stage is mainly rotifer, and 5-10 rotifers/mL. Z3 mainly comprises artemia nauplii with 3-5 per mL, and is supplemented with rotifer for balanced nutrition, and the bait is diversified. At this stage, fresh water is gradually added without changing water, beneficial bacteria such as Bacillus and photosynthetic bacteria are added into water to improve water quality, and the addition amount is 20-30g/m3The water quality detection reagent is used once every 4-6 days, the photosynthetic bacteria 150-. The water temperature is 29-30 ℃. The incubation time is 3.5-5 d.
b-4) Mysidacea (M) cultivation and environmental factor control
In the stage, animal baits are mainly used, and the animal baits are mainly artemia nauplii. The feeding amount is determined by the number of the larva, the growth and the feeding condition. 1.5-2.5 g/m of artificial compound feed shrimp flakes, melanoidin and the like3Feeding for 6-8 times every day. 10-20 artemia nauplii per day. Illumination intensity 200-. The water temperature is 30-31 ℃. The aeration quantity is gradually increased to boiling, and besides a micro-ecological mechanism, water needs to be properly changed for water quality regulation. The incubation time for this period is about 4-5 days.
b-5) shrimp (P) cultivation and environmental factor control
Feeding live bait and artificial mixed feed in P1-P15, wherein the mixed feed is fed 6-8 times per day, and each time is 2.5-4g/m35-10 artemia nauplii per ml P1-P4 are fed for 4-5 times per day, the feeding is adjusted in time according to the stomach and intestine fullness of shrimps, fish meat paste can be fed as bait in the period P5, fish meat, small white shrimps, shellfish meat and the like are stirred into meat paste, the meat paste is filtered by a 40-50-mesh bolting silk, and the fish meat paste is fed after viscera and sewage are washed off. In the young shrimp period, water needs to be changed more than 50% every day in addition to water regulation by using microecologics such as bacillus. The illumination intensity is 2000-20000 Lx young shrimps, the early-stage water temperature is 28-30 ℃, and the later-stage temperature is gradually reduced to the natural temperature. The culture of P1 to P8-P10 (body length 0.8-1.0 cm) requires about 10-15 days. Aeration was maintained at strong boiling during the incubation period.
b-6) the larva is faded out of the pond P5, the salinity can be adjusted, and the larva is reduced by 1-2 gradients each day until the salinity is close to that of the culture pond.
The larva quality is identified, the body surface is clean, the gastrointestinal tract is full of food, the intestinal peristalsis is powerful, the length of the flea larva to drag the excrement is 1-3 times of the body length, most of the mysid larva to drag the excrement, the length of the mysid larva is 0.2-0.5 times of the body length, the healthy shrimp larvae are good in vitality, basically have no empty stomach, bounce is powerful, appendages are complete, malformation is avoided, and muscles are transparent and plump.
b-7) in the whole seedling raising process, the specific management steps are as follows:
1) microscopic examination and counting are carried out on the development of the young prawns at each stage every day, and the survival rate of the young prawns at each stage is mastered in time. 2) And performing microscopic examination on the types and the quantities of the phytoplankton in the morning and afternoon every day. 3) The water quality indexes such as water temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, pH, ammonia nitrogen and the like are measured every day, the pool wall and water impurities are removed in time, and good water quality conditions are ensured.
4) Tools used for larva cultivation, a seedling raising pool to be used and the like are disinfected every day.
5) And (5) checking whether the water treatment equipment is normal or not, and checking the water inlet facilities frequently.
6) Periodically detecting viruses such as prawn infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus, prawn taura virus, prawn white spot syndrome virus, etc. 7) Regular vibrio detection, wherein the detection strains comprise vibrio virens and vibrio flavus, wherein the vibrio virens comprises vibrio parahaemolyticus, vibrio fluvialis, vibrio cloaca vibrio and the like; the Vibrio flavus includes Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio anguillarum, etc.
The above description is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, and is not intended to limit the present invention in any way, but any modifications or equivalent variations made according to the technical spirit of the present invention are within the scope of the present invention as claimed.

Claims (10)

1. A method for breeding high-quality and high-yield young penaeus vannamei boone is characterized by comprising the following steps:
a. domestication and breeding of stock of Penaeus vannamei Boone
a-1) parent shrimp rearing pond and water treatment for rearing
Selecting the area of 20-30 m2The parent shrimp pond has water depth of 1-1.2m, light shading net over the parent shrimp pond and illumination intensity of 50-100Lx, and the parent shrimp pond is used with illumination intensity of 80-100 × 10 before use-5Bleaching powder or 50-200 × 10-6Sterilizing the parent shrimp pond by potassium permanganate;
a-2) domesticating and breeding stock seeds, namely putting parent shrimps into a parent shrimp pond, wherein the water temperature of the parent shrimp pond is close to the water temperature during transportation; after 4h, a small amount of live clamworms are added; after 3 days, starting temperature rise and ripening cultivation, raising the temperature to 1 ℃ every day, keeping the temperature for 3-5 days when the water temperature reaches 23 ℃, raising the temperature to 25 ℃, keeping the temperature for 3-5 days, raising the temperature to 0.5 ℃ every day, raising the temperature to 27 ℃, keeping the water temperature unchanged, carrying out ripening cultivation, feeding fresh baits mainly comprising clamworms and auxiliary oysters and squids for 3 times every day, feeding the fresh baits by 10-15% of the weight of the shrimp, and feeding artificial compound feed added with microecologics and astaxanthin once;
a-3) mating and spawning parent shrimps, selecting mature male shrimps to enter a mating pool, wherein the ratio of male to female is 1:2, the air inflation amount is reduced during mating, and the illumination is increased in the mating pool at night; checking at 20:00 and 22:00 at night respectively, and fishing out mated female shrimps to a spawning pond;
a-4) hatching the fertilized eggs, collecting the fertilized eggs, cleaning and disinfecting the collected fertilized eggs, and then putting the fertilized eggs into a hatching barrel for hatching, wherein the water temperature is 29 ℃, the aeration quantity is reduced during hatching, and the fertilized eggs are gently stirred for 1 time every 30 min to prevent the eggs from accumulating;
b. penaeus vannamei larva cultivation
b-1) treating the seedling raising water and disinfecting a seedling raising pool, wherein seawater in the sea area enters the seedling raising pool after passing through a disinfection pool, a filter pool, a protein separator, a filter barrel, a protein separator, a primary reservoir, UV (ultraviolet) and active carbon filtration and a secondary reservoir; before the larva enters the pond, disinfecting a seedling raising pond, a culture tool and a cultivation workshop;
b-2) putting the nauplii and controlling environmental factors, namely putting the qualified nauplii into 10ppm povidone iodine for disinfection for 5-10 seconds, and putting the nauplii into a seedling pool with the density of 15-25 ten thousand/m3The method is characterized by comprising the following steps of (1) slightly inflating, and inoculating 5-10 ten thousand per mL of diatom silicea when the prawn larva in a seedling pond is in the juvenile larva II stage, wherein the water temperature is 28-29 ℃, and the illumination is 200-;
b-3) flea larvaeCultivating and controlling environmental factors, namely putting 5-10 ten thousand per mL of the Chaetoceros plus chlorella in the water body in the Z1 stage, and adding artificial bait 6-8 times a day, wherein each time is 1-2g/m3The stage Z2 is to feed rotifers, 5-10/mL; in the Z3 stage, artemia nauplii are mainly used, 3-5 artemia nauplii are used as auxiliary artemia, in the stage, water is not changed, new water is gradually added, beneficial bacteria are added into the water to improve the water quality, and the adding amount is 20-30g/m3The water quality detection agent is used once every 4-6 days, the photosynthetic bacteria 150-ppm is used for 1 time every 10-15 days, the specific use time is determined according to the water quality detection condition, the aeration quantity is gradually increased to weak boiling, the illumination intensity is 200-1000 Lx, and the water temperature is 29-30 ℃;
b-4) culturing mysidacea and controlling environmental factors, wherein the stage mainly comprises animal feed artemia nauplius and artificial compound feed; the artificial compound feed comprises prawn slices and melanoidin, and the dosage is 1.5-2.5 g/m3Feeding 6-8 times per day, 10-20 artemia nauplii/d, light intensity of 200-;
b-5) cultivating the young shrimps and controlling the environmental factors, feeding the fresh and live baits and the artificial compound feed at the stage of P1-P15, wherein the compound feed is used for 6-8 times every day and 2.5-4g/m each time35-10 artemia nauplii per ml P1-P4, feeding for 4-5 times a day, timely adjusting according to the gastrointestinal fullness of the shrimps, feeding minced fish as bait at the beginning of the period P5, adjusting water by using a microecological preparation at the larval stage, changing the water amount by more than 50% every day, gradually cooling to the natural temperature at the later period with the illumination intensity of 2000-;
b-6) the larva fades out of the pond, salinity adjustment is carried out at the P5 stage, and 1-2 gradients are reduced every day until the salinity of the larva is close to that of the culture pond;
b-7) managing the seedling raising process, performing microscopic examination and counting on the development of the young prawns at each stage every day, mastering the survival rate of the young prawns at each stage, measuring water quality indexes such as water temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, pH, ammonia nitrogen and the like every day, removing impurities on the wall of the pond and water, ensuring good water quality conditions, and periodically performing virus detection.
2. A process as defined in claim 1The method for breeding high-quality and high-yield young penaeus vannamei boone is characterized in that in the step a-1, the breeding density is 5-10 tails/m2(ii) a In the step a-2, the promoting mature cultivation process takes clamworm as the main material and oyster and squid are matched, and the ratio of the clamworm to the oyster to the squid is 3: 1:1, adding traditional Chinese medicine microecologics and astaxanthin into the artificial compound feed, wherein in the step a-2, the selected parent shrimps are SPF parent shrimps in America; in step a-3, the area of the mating pool is 6-8m2(ii) a In the step a-4, fertilized eggs are put into an incubation barrel for 12 hours, then the incubation rate is checked and calculated, and the fertilized eggs of the batch are eliminated if the incubation rate is lower than 50%; collecting nauplii to a 200-mesh net cage by adopting a light and siphon method; and (3) carrying out specific virus detection on the nauplii, breeding the nauplii if the detection result is negative, and eliminating the nauplii of the batch if the detection result is positive.
3. The method for cultivating high-quality and high-yield young penaeus vannamei boone as claimed in claim 2, wherein the specific viruses detected in the step a-4 comprise white spot virus, infectious subcutaneous and hematopoietic necrosis virus and taura syndrome virus.
4. The method for cultivating the high-quality and high-yield young penaeus vannamei boone as claimed in claim 1, wherein the disinfection tank comprises a primary treatment tank and a secondary treatment tank, wherein the primary treatment tank is disinfected by 0.5ppm potassium permanganate, and the secondary treatment tank is disinfected by 10-20 total chlorine; the filter tank comprises a primary sand filter tank and a secondary sand filter tank, wherein the primary sand filter tank is filtered by sea sand of 20-70 meshes, the secondary sand filter tank is filtered by quartz sand of 75-150 meshes, and a filter barrel is filtered by the quartz sand of 75-150 meshes; and the secondary reservoir adopts EDTA disodium 5-20ppm to neutralize heavy metals and adjust the pH value of the water body.
5. The method for cultivating the high-quality and high-yield penaeus vannamei boone larvae based on the claim 1 is characterized in that in the step b-3, the artificial bait is prawn slices or black granules and is fed with yeast in a matched mode when being thrown.
6. The method for cultivating the shrimp seeds of the penaeus vannamei boone with high quality and yield is characterized in that the beneficial bacteria put in the step b-3 are one or combination of bacillus and photosynthetic bacteria.
7. The method for cultivating the young penaeus vannamei boone with high quality and high yield as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the step b-5, the fish meat paste is fed as bait from the stage P5, the fish meat, the small white shrimps, the shellfish meat and the like are stirred into the meat paste, the meat paste is filtered by a 40-50 mesh bolting silk, and the viscera and the sewage are washed off and then the fish is fed.
8. The method for cultivating high-quality and high-yield young penaeus vannamei boone as claimed in claim 1, wherein in the step b-7, the detected viruses comprise infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis viruses, taura syndrome viruses, white spot syndrome viruses and the like of the penaeus vannamei boone; periodically performing vibrio detection including Vibrio viridis and Vibrio flavus.
9. The method for cultivating high-quality and high-yield shrimp larvae of Penaeus vannamei according to claim 8, wherein the strains detected by vibrio detection include vibrio parahaemolyticus, vibrio fluvialis, vibrio malodorous monads, vibrio alginolyticus, vibrio cholerae, vibrio harveyi, vibrio anguillarum, and the like.
10. The method for cultivating the high-quality and high-yield Penaeus vannamei Boone fry is characterized in that in the process of cultivating the shrimp fry, various baits are adopted to meet the comprehensive nutritional requirements of the shrimp fry, live baits are used in the whole process, chaetoceros are inoculated in the nauplius period, Chaetoceros are mainly inoculated in the Z1 period of the flea-shaped larva, chlorella is inoculated, animal bait rotifer is added in the Z2 period, artemia nauplii are mainly inoculated in the Z2 period, the artemia continue to the P5 period, meanwhile, artificial feed is fed for a small number of times, during the feeding process, bacillus and photosynthetic bacteria are added into a water body to purify the water quality, and antibiotics are not used in the whole process of cultivating the shrimp fry.
CN202010386628.5A 2020-05-09 2020-05-09 Method for cultivating high-quality and high-yield penaeus vannamei larvae Pending CN111713438A (en)

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CN112586417A (en) * 2020-12-26 2021-04-02 海南禄泰海洋生物科技有限公司 Breeding method of high ammonia nitrogen tolerance improved variety of penaeus vannamei boone
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CN113261517A (en) * 2021-05-31 2021-08-17 中国水产科学研究院黑龙江水产研究所 Bacteriostatic debonding agent, preparation method thereof and method for improving artificial breeding hatchability of Atalantic malabaricus via bacteriostatic debonding agent
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CN114835342A (en) * 2022-05-18 2022-08-02 中国水产科学研究院下营增殖实验站 Seawater crab fry breeding device and self-circulation self-purification method for breeding water
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CN115530100A (en) * 2022-08-24 2022-12-30 海南上泰生物科技发展有限公司 Method for hastening parturition of female parent shrimps of penaeus vannamei boone
CN115486394A (en) * 2022-09-16 2022-12-20 海南信邦种业有限公司 Method for cultivating penaeus vannamei boone
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Application publication date: 20200929