CN110122238A - A kind of cultural method made between konjaku and coix lacryma-jobi - Google Patents

A kind of cultural method made between konjaku and coix lacryma-jobi Download PDF

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Publication number
CN110122238A
CN110122238A CN201910470770.5A CN201910470770A CN110122238A CN 110122238 A CN110122238 A CN 110122238A CN 201910470770 A CN201910470770 A CN 201910470770A CN 110122238 A CN110122238 A CN 110122238A
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China
Prior art keywords
konjaku
jobi
coix lacryma
sowing
seed
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CN201910470770.5A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
敖文
董稳书
崔芳
卢俊
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Gold Ground Fuyuan County Konjaku Zhong Ye Co Ltd
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Gold Ground Fuyuan County Konjaku Zhong Ye Co Ltd
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Priority to CN201910470770.5A priority Critical patent/CN110122238A/en
Publication of CN110122238A publication Critical patent/CN110122238A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/20Cereals
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/25Root crops, e.g. potatoes, yams, beet or wasabi

Abstract

The invention discloses the cultural methods made between a kind of konjaku and coix lacryma-jobi, comprising the following steps: S1, selection of land;S2, site preparation;S3, seed selection;S4, sowing;S5, fertilising;S6, field management;S7, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control;S8, harvest.Konjaku and coix lacryma-jobi collocation are planted, and the coverage of coix lacryma-jobi can avoid strong periods of direct sunlight earth's surface and soil temperature is caused acutely to increase, and suitable growing environment is provided for konjaku, meet the shading demand of konjaku, the generation of konjaku disease is greatly reduced, ganoid konjaku taro high survival rate realizes konjaku increasing both production and income;The limitation of konjaku cannot be planted by also having broken low altitude area region simultaneously, expand the planting area of konjaku.

Description

A kind of cultural method made between konjaku and coix lacryma-jobi
Technical field
The present invention relates to agricultural plantation technology field, in particular to the cultural method made between a kind of konjaku and coix lacryma-jobi.
Background technique
Konjaku belongs to Araeceae black mole taro category (Amorphophallus blume) herbaceos perennial on plant classification, Konjak cultivation has the characteristics that hygrophilous profit, is afraid of that ponding, happiness are nice and cool, is afraid of high temperature, happiness dim light, resistance to shading;Konjaku konjaku is full of nutrition, Edible value is high, and stem tuber is rich in Glucomannan, pectin, alkaloid, starch and 17 kinds of amino acid and various trace elements, has Hypoglycemic, reducing blood lipid, decompression, dissipate poison, beauty treatment, promote blood circulation, lose weight, defaecation, appetizing the effect of, konjaku be it is presently found it is unique greatly Measure the plant containing Glucomannan, konjaku also has very high medical value, can the gentle slow weight-reducing of pre- preventing obesity, be widely used in The multiple fields such as food, medicine, weaving, cosmetics, petroleum.
Coix lacryma-jobi (Coix lachryrma-jobi L.) is exactly a kind of food of integration of drinking and medicinal herbs since ancient times, and coix lacryma-jobi happiness is warm And slightly humid climate, generally suitable 1800 meters of following region plantations of height above sea level are not tight to soil requirement, can generally plant the ground of konjaku Block can plant coix lacryma-jobi.It is used as medicine with kernel, there is invigorating spleen to remove dampness, remove numbness antidiarrheal, the function of clearing away heat and eliminating pus;In addition to unique medicine Outer with value, nutritive value also with higher ranks first place in gramineae plant, there is " king of world gramineae plant " Good reputation.
Konjaku plantation is with a long history, at present the scale kind from the original fragmentary plantation development of Around the house till now It plants;With the continuous promotion of konjaku planting scale and plantation level, a series of problem also is brought to konjaku production:
1) optimum temperature of konjaku growing environment will suitably shade in 25 degrees centigrades, be generally only suitable for height above sea level compared with High mountain area, upper level ecological region planting limit the development of konjaku planting industry, how to send out konjaku planting industry to low altitude area region The technical issues of transforming into for those skilled in the art's urgent need to resolve;
It 2) is the rational density for guaranteeing konjaku next year, current year plantation must keep more sparse density, result in soil The waste of resource and illumination resource;
3) excessively dilute density and preferable soil fertility and illumination condition, cause weed growth vigorous, and weeding generates a large amount of Labour cost;
4) there is no antagonism to disease with crops interplantings such as corn and soybeans, disease incidence is high, and the economy of corn and soybean Benefit is lower.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide the cultural methods made between a kind of konjaku and coix lacryma-jobi, have broken low altitude area tropical area not The limitation that konjaku can be planted, makees between konjaku and coix lacryma-jobi, rationally applies land resource, good in economic efficiency.
Above-mentioned technical purpose of the invention has the technical scheme that
A kind of cultural method made between konjaku and coix lacryma-jobi, comprising the following steps:
Selection of land: S1 selects gentle gradient, height above sea level in 1000~1800m, draining is good, soil layer is deep and loose, has Machine matter content is high, the soil texture is good and pH value is neutral or subacidity plot;
S2, site preparation: with the wide ridging of the moisture surface of 120cm, the high 40- in ridge after the application of plot selected by step S1 well-rotted farmyard manure 50cm, furrow width 30cm;
S3, seed selection:
Konjaku seed selection: selection during the growth process without the ganoid konjaku taro stayed in incidence or the extremely slight plot of morbidity, outside See form be round or high round, bulb is sufficiently mature, have sense of heaviness, epidermis are smooth, terminal bud it is scarlet it is sturdy, bud nest is shallow, disease-free Spot, the ganoid konjaku taro without wound;
Coix lacryma-jobi seed selection: big, the full current year seed of selection grain;
S4, sowing:
Konjaku sowing: in mid-March to by the end of April, when surface temperature is stablized at 10 DEG C or more, by 25~35cm × 25~ The seeding row spacing of 35cm carries out water furrow planting, and depth of planting is 15~20cm, and when sowing, ganoid konjaku taro bud nest is put down gently in ditch upward, Then the fine earth of 5~10cm thickness, watering are covered;
Coix lacryma-jobi sowing: it is sowed simultaneously with konjaku, plants a line coix lacryma-jobi in the one or both sides of ditch, seeding method is with dig reservoir point Based on broadcasting, 3~5, every pool, the pool is away from 15~20cm;
S5, fertilising: the ratio for applying effective component when sowing in the sowing pool and seed furrow per acre is the calcium and magnesium of 35:9:15 50~60kg of phosphate fertilizer, N P and K ternary compound fertilizer (NPK15:15:15) 40kg make seed manure;
S6, field management:
Konjaku field management: it after konjaku emergence, selects fair weather tillage and weeding 2~5 times;
Coix lacryma-jobi field management: when growing 4 leaves after coix lacryma-jobi emergence, removing close stand and weak seedling, and timely even Miao Dingmiao, every cave is stayed 3~4 plants of seedling;Tillage and weeding carries out in two times, shallowly uproots in 4 leaf of coix lacryma-jobi for the first time, carries out in conjunction with final singling;It is pulled out for the second time in coix lacryma-jobi The section phase carries out, and carries out in conjunction with ridging;After jointing, the first branch old leaf below and ineffective tillering are extractd;
S7, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control;
S8, harvest:
Konjaku harvest: after konjaku plant nature sprout tumble 10 days, fair weather is selected to harvest using conventional method;
Coix lacryma-jobi harvest: coix lacryma-jobi lower blade blade tip turns yellow, and 80% seed becomes to use routine side when black or original seed shell color Method harvest.
The further setting of the present invention are as follows: the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control described in step S7:
The konjaku prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control: konjaku is emerged after lamina, finds diseased plant, should pull out primary infection focus immediately, and concentrate and take to Place far from plot is destroyed by fire, is removed the sick soil in sick cave in time, is spread fertilizer over the fields polynary disinfectant powder in sick cave and surrounding;Before konjaku lamina and Selecting fair weather to spray the broad spectrum antimicrobial agents such as Bordeaux mixture, Bravo or carbendazim after lamina, (drug spraying concentration is according to production Product specification) prevention and treatment soft rot, it sprayed once, sprays 3~5 times every 7~10 days;
The coix lacryma-jobi prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:
Smut:
Method one: it current year seed solarization two days in step S3 before sowing, is then immersed in water 24 hours, pulls out and drain Moisture carries out chemicals treatment by the 0.4% of current year seed weight with 20% triadimefon;
Method two: the current year seed in step S3 is fitted into plastics establishment mesh bag before sowing, immerses 85~90 DEG C of heat It in water, scalds kind 1~1.5 minute, pulls out at once, then divide on floor that cooling is dried rapidly;
Leaf blight: early stage sprays 500 times of liquid of Bordeaux mixture (1:10:100) or 65% wettable zineb, blade face spray It applies.
The further setting of the present invention are as follows: the PH of plot soil is 6~7 in step S1.
The further setting of the present invention are as follows: the well-rotted farmyard manure applied in step S2 includes cow dung, chicken manure and sheep dung, and mu is applied 3000~5000 kilograms.
The further setting of the present invention are as follows: need the place that carries out disinfection using polynary disinfectant powder before the ganoid konjaku taro sowing in step S3 Reason.
The further setting of the present invention are as follows: when applying fertilizer in step S5, fertilizer is not contacted directly with ganoid konjaku taro, at least distance 5cm, After the completion of fertilising, conditional place can use detritus earth mulch kind.
The further setting of the present invention are as follows: after the completion of step S5, before rainy season set, ditch cleaning mentions soil, guarantees plot draining It is unimpeded.
In conclusion the invention has the following advantages:
1. konjaku and coix lacryma-jobi collocation are planted, the coverage of coix lacryma-jobi can avoid strong periods of direct sunlight earth's surface and soil temperature caused acutely to rise Height provides suitable growing environment for konjaku, meets the shading demand of konjaku, greatly reduces the generation of konjaku disease, Ganoid konjaku taro high survival rate realizes konjaku increasing both production and income;The limitation of konjaku cannot be planted by also having broken low altitude area region simultaneously, be expanded The planting area of konjaku.
2. the huge root system of coix lacryma-jobi can obstruct the movement of konjaku pathogen, germina infection is reduced or reduces, meanwhile, coix lacryma-jobi Growth and development of the root system in underground, thus it is possible to vary the microbiologic population of soil, construct in the soil konjaku is grown it is beneficial micro- Biological bacterium colony inhibits the growth of konjaku pathogen, to reduce the generation of konjaku disease.
3. coix lacryma-jobi is a kind of food and medicament dual-purpose crop, with the enhancing of people's health care consciousness, the promotion of demand, konjaku and the heart of a lotus seed Job's tears intercropping culture, than making high financial profit between other crops (such as corn, woods fruit).
4. improving its economic flow rate to reduce the generation of konjaku disease, konjaku plantation generally uses two-year system no-tillage cultivation; Coix lacryma-jobi belongs to perennial plant, can also use two-year system no-tillage cultivation, can thus plant again to avoid next year to evil spirit It is injured caused by taro, reduces the generation of konjaku disease.
5. konjaku belongs to shallow root system crop, root system is shorter, and coix lacryma-jobi belongs to deep root system crop, and root system is relatively long, deep root system Crop and the collocation of shallow root system crop are planted, and each takes what he needs in the soil, can make full use of the nutrient and moisture in soil, are promoted Crop growth achievees the purpose that consumption reduction volume increase.
Specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with the embodiment of the present invention, technical scheme in the embodiment of the invention is clearly and completely described, Obviously, described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, instead of all the embodiments.Based in the present invention Embodiment, every other embodiment obtained by those of ordinary skill in the art without making creative efforts, all Belong to the scope of protection of the invention.
Embodiment 1:
A kind of cultural method made between konjaku and coix lacryma-jobi, comprising the following steps:
Selection of land: S1 selects gentle gradient, height above sea level in 1000~1800m, draining is good, soil layer is deep and loose, has Machine matter content is high, the soil texture is good and pH value is neutral or subacidity plot;
S2, site preparation: with the wide ridging of the moisture surface of 120cm, the high 40cm in ridge, ditch after the application of plot selected by step S1 well-rotted farmyard manure Wide 30cm;
S3, seed selection:
Konjaku seed selection: selection during the growth process without the ganoid konjaku taro stayed in incidence or the extremely slight plot of morbidity, outside See form be round or high round, bulb is sufficiently mature, have sense of heaviness, epidermis are smooth, terminal bud it is scarlet it is sturdy, bud nest is shallow, disease-free Spot, the ganoid konjaku taro without wound;
Coix lacryma-jobi seed selection: big, the full current year seed of selection grain;
S4, sowing:
Konjaku sowing: in mid-March to by the end of April, when surface temperature is stablized at 10 DEG C or more, by the strain of 30cm × 25cm Line-spacing carries out water furrow planting, and when sowing, ganoid konjaku taro bud nest is put down gently in ditch upward by depth of planting 15cm, and it is thick then to cover 7cm Fine earth, watering;
Coix lacryma-jobi sowing: it is sowed simultaneously with konjaku, plants a line coix lacryma-jobi in the side of ditch, seeding method is with dig reservoir program request Main, 4, every pool, the pool is away from 15cm;
S5, fertilising: the ratio for applying effective component when sowing in the sowing pool and seed furrow per acre is the calcium and magnesium of 35:9:15 Phosphate fertilizer 55kg, N P and K ternary compound fertilizer (NPK15:15:15) 40kg make seed manure;
S6, field management:
Konjaku field management: it after konjaku emergence, selects fair weather tillage and weeding 3 times;
Coix lacryma-jobi field management: when growing 4 leaves after coix lacryma-jobi emergence, removing close stand and weak seedling, and timely even Miao Dingmiao, every cave is stayed 3 plants of seedling;Tillage and weeding carries out in two times, shallowly uproots in 4 leaf of coix lacryma-jobi for the first time, carries out in conjunction with final singling;Second in coix lacryma-jobi jointing Phase carries out, and carries out in conjunction with ridging;After jointing, the first branch old leaf below and ineffective tillering are extractd;
S7, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control;
S8, harvest:
Konjaku harvest: after konjaku plant nature sprout tumble 10 days, fair weather is selected to harvest using conventional method;
Coix lacryma-jobi harvest: coix lacryma-jobi lower blade blade tip turns yellow, and 80% seed becomes to use routine side when black or original seed shell color Method harvest.
The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control described in step S7:
The konjaku prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control: konjaku is emerged after lamina, finds diseased plant, should pull out primary infection focus immediately, and concentrate and take to Place far from plot is destroyed by fire, is removed the sick soil in sick cave in time, is spread fertilizer over the fields polynary disinfectant powder in sick cave and surrounding;Before konjaku lamina and Selecting fair weather to spray the broad spectrum antimicrobial agents such as Bordeaux mixture, Bravo or carbendazim after lamina, (drug spraying concentration is according to production Product specification) prevention and treatment soft rot, it sprayed once, sprays 3 times every 7 days;
The coix lacryma-jobi prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:
Current year seed in step S3: being fitted into plastics establishment mesh bag before sowing, immerse in 85 DEG C of hot water by smut, It scalds kind 1 minute, pulls out at once, then divide on floor that cooling is dried rapidly;
Leaf blight: early stage sprays 500 times of liquid of Bordeaux mixture (1:10:100) or 65% wettable zineb, blade face spray It applies.
The PH of plot soil is 6~7 in step S1.
The well-rotted farmyard manure applied in step S2 includes cow dung, chicken manure and sheep dung, and the ratio of effective component is 45:15:10, Mu applies 3000 kilograms.
Embodiment 2:
A kind of cultural method made between konjaku and coix lacryma-jobi, comprising the following steps:
Selection of land: S1 selects gentle gradient, height above sea level in 1000~1800m, draining is good, soil layer is deep and loose, has Machine matter content is high, the soil texture is good and pH value is neutral or subacidity plot;
S2, site preparation: with the wide ridging of the moisture surface of 120cm, the high 50cm in ridge, ditch after the application of plot selected by step S1 well-rotted farmyard manure Wide 30cm;
S3, seed selection:
Konjaku seed selection: selection during the growth process without the ganoid konjaku taro stayed in incidence or the extremely slight plot of morbidity, outside See form be round or high round, bulb is sufficiently mature, have sense of heaviness, epidermis are smooth, terminal bud it is scarlet it is sturdy, bud nest is shallow, disease-free Spot, the ganoid konjaku taro without wound;
Coix lacryma-jobi seed selection: big, the full current year seed of selection grain;
S4, sowing:
Konjaku sowing: in mid-March to by the end of April, when surface temperature is stablized at 10 DEG C or more, by the strain of 30cm × 30cm Line-spacing carries out water furrow planting, and when sowing, ganoid konjaku taro bud nest is put down gently in ditch upward by depth of planting 19cm, and it is thick then to cover 5cm Fine earth, watering;
Coix lacryma-jobi sowing: it is sowed simultaneously with konjaku, respectively plants a line coix lacryma-jobi in the two sides of ditch, seeding method is with dig reservoir program request Main, 3, every pool, the pool is away from 20cm;
S5, fertilising: the ratio for applying effective component when sowing in the sowing pool and seed furrow per acre is the calcium and magnesium of 35:9:15 Phosphate fertilizer 50kg, N P and K ternary compound fertilizer (NPK15:15:15) 40kg make seed manure;
S6, field management:
Konjaku field management: it after konjaku emergence, selects fair weather tillage and weeding 2 times;
Coix lacryma-jobi field management: when growing 4 leaves after coix lacryma-jobi emergence, removing close stand and weak seedling, and timely even Miao Dingmiao, every cave is stayed 4 plants of seedling;Tillage and weeding carries out in two times, shallowly uproots in 4 leaf of coix lacryma-jobi for the first time, carries out in conjunction with final singling;Second in coix lacryma-jobi jointing Phase carries out, and carries out in conjunction with ridging;After jointing, the first branch old leaf below and ineffective tillering are extractd;
S7, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control;
S8, harvest:
Konjaku harvest: after konjaku plant nature sprout tumble 10 days, fair weather is selected to harvest using conventional method;
Coix lacryma-jobi harvest: coix lacryma-jobi lower blade blade tip turns yellow, and 80% seed becomes to use routine side when black or original seed shell color Method harvest.
The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control described in step S7:
The konjaku prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control: konjaku is emerged after lamina, finds diseased plant, should pull out primary infection focus immediately, and concentrate and take to Place far from plot is destroyed by fire, is removed the sick soil in sick cave in time, is spread fertilizer over the fields polynary disinfectant powder in sick cave and surrounding;Before konjaku lamina and Selecting fair weather to spray the broad spectrum antimicrobial agents such as Bordeaux mixture, Bravo or carbendazim after lamina, (drug spraying concentration is according to production Product specification) prevention and treatment soft rot, it sprayed once, sprays 5 times every 8 days;
The coix lacryma-jobi prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:
Current year seed in step S3: being fitted into plastics establishment mesh bag before sowing, immerse in 90 DEG C of hot water by smut, It scalds kinds 1.5 minutes, pulls out at once, then divide on floor that cooling is dried rapidly;
Leaf blight: early stage sprays 500 times of liquid of Bordeaux mixture (1:10:100) or 65% wettable zineb, blade face spray It applies.
The PH of plot soil is 6~7 in step S1.
The well-rotted farmyard manure applied in step S2 includes cow dung, chicken manure and sheep dung, and the ratio of effective component is 50:20:15, Mu applies 3500 kilograms.
The processing that carries out disinfection using polynary disinfectant powder is needed before ganoid konjaku taro sowing in step S3.Wherein, polynary disinfectant powder uses Standing grain must be found pleasure in polynary disinfectant powder, and usage amount is according to product description.
When applying fertilizer in step S5, fertilizer is not contacted directly with ganoid konjaku taro, at least distance 5cm.
Embodiment 3:
A kind of cultural method made between konjaku and coix lacryma-jobi, comprising the following steps:
Selection of land: S1 selects gentle gradient, height above sea level in 1000~1800m, draining is good, soil layer is deep and loose, has Machine matter content is high, the soil texture is good and pH value is neutral or subacidity plot;
S2, site preparation: with the wide ridging of the moisture surface of 120cm, the high 40cm in ridge, ditch after the application of plot selected by step S1 well-rotted farmyard manure Wide 30cm;
S3, seed selection:
Konjaku seed selection: selection during the growth process without the ganoid konjaku taro stayed in incidence or the extremely slight plot of morbidity, outside See form be round or high round, bulb is sufficiently mature, have sense of heaviness, epidermis are smooth, terminal bud it is scarlet it is sturdy, bud nest is shallow, disease-free Spot, the ganoid konjaku taro without wound;
Coix lacryma-jobi seed selection: big, the full current year seed of selection grain;
S4, sowing:
Konjaku sowing: in mid-March to by the end of April, when surface temperature is stablized at 10 DEG C or more, by the strain of 30cm × 30cm Line-spacing carries out water furrow planting, and depth of planting 18cm when sowing, ganoid konjaku taro bud nest is put down gently in ditch upward, then covers 10cm Thick fine earth, watering;
Coix lacryma-jobi sowing: it is sowed simultaneously with konjaku, respectively plants a line coix lacryma-jobi in the two sides of ditch, seeding method is with dig reservoir program request Main, 4, every pool, the pool is away from 20cm;
S5, fertilising: the ratio for applying effective component when sowing in the sowing pool and seed furrow per acre is the calcium and magnesium of 35:9:15 Phosphate fertilizer 50kg, N P and K ternary compound fertilizer (NPK15:15:15) 40kg make seed manure;
S6, field management:
Konjaku field management: it after konjaku emergence, selects fair weather tillage and weeding 4 times;
Coix lacryma-jobi field management: when growing 4 leaves after coix lacryma-jobi emergence, removing close stand and weak seedling, and timely even Miao Dingmiao, every cave is stayed 4 plants of seedling;Tillage and weeding carries out in two times, shallowly uproots in 4 leaf of coix lacryma-jobi for the first time, carries out in conjunction with final singling;Second in coix lacryma-jobi jointing Phase carries out, and carries out in conjunction with ridging;After jointing, the first branch old leaf below and ineffective tillering are extractd;
S7, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control;
S8, harvest:
Konjaku harvest: after konjaku plant nature sprout tumble 10 days, fair weather is selected to harvest using conventional method;
Coix lacryma-jobi harvest: coix lacryma-jobi lower blade blade tip turns yellow, and 80% seed becomes to use routine side when black or original seed shell color Method harvest.
The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control described in step S7:
The konjaku prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control: konjaku is emerged after lamina, finds diseased plant, should pull out primary infection focus immediately, and concentrate and take to Place far from plot is destroyed by fire, is removed the sick soil in sick cave in time, is spread fertilizer over the fields polynary disinfectant powder in sick cave and surrounding;Before konjaku lamina and Selecting fair weather to spray the broad spectrum antimicrobial agents such as Bordeaux mixture, Bravo or carbendazim after lamina, (drug spraying concentration is according to production Product specification) prevention and treatment soft rot, it sprayed once, sprays 5 times every 8 days;
The coix lacryma-jobi prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:
Current year seed in step S3: being fitted into plastics establishment mesh bag before sowing, immerse in 90 DEG C of hot water by smut, It scalds kinds 1.5 minutes, pulls out at once, then divide on floor that cooling is dried rapidly;
Leaf blight: early stage sprays 500 times of liquid of Bordeaux mixture (1:10:100) or 65% wettable zineb, blade face spray It applies.
The PH of plot soil is 6~7 in step S1.
The well-rotted farmyard manure applied in step S2 includes cow dung, chicken manure and sheep dung, the ratio of effective component is 45:20: 15, mu applies 3500 kilograms.
The processing that carries out disinfection using polynary disinfectant powder is needed before ganoid konjaku taro sowing in step S3.Wherein, polynary disinfectant powder uses Standing grain must be found pleasure in polynary disinfectant powder, and usage amount is according to product description.
When applying fertilizer in step S5, fertilizer is not contacted directly with ganoid konjaku taro, at least distance 5cm, after the completion of fertilising, using detritus soil Lid kind.
After the completion of step S5, before rainy season set, ditch cleaning mentions soil, guarantees that plot draining is unimpeded.
Embodiment 4:
A kind of cultural method made between konjaku and coix lacryma-jobi, comprising the following steps:
Selection of land: S1 selects gentle gradient, height above sea level in 1000~1800m, draining is good, soil layer is deep and loose, has Machine matter content is high, the soil texture is good and pH value is neutral or subacidity plot;
S2, site preparation: with the wide ridging of the moisture surface of 120cm, the high 50cm in ridge, ditch after the application of plot selected by step S1 well-rotted farmyard manure Wide 30cm;
S3, seed selection:
Konjaku seed selection: selection during the growth process without the ganoid konjaku taro stayed in incidence or the extremely slight plot of morbidity, outside See form be round or high round, bulb is sufficiently mature, have sense of heaviness, epidermis are smooth, terminal bud it is scarlet it is sturdy, bud nest is shallow, disease-free Spot, the ganoid konjaku taro without wound;
Coix lacryma-jobi seed selection: big, the full current year seed of selection grain;
S4, sowing:
Konjaku sowing: in mid-March to by the end of April, when surface temperature is stablized at 10 DEG C or more, by the strain of 30cm × 35cm Line-spacing carries out water furrow planting, and depth of planting 19cm when sowing, ganoid konjaku taro bud nest is put down gently in ditch upward, then covers 10cm Thick fine earth, watering;
Coix lacryma-jobi sowing: it is sowed simultaneously with konjaku, respectively plants a line coix lacryma-jobi in the two sides of ditch, seeding method is with dig reservoir program request Main, 5, every pool, the pool is away from 15cm;
S5, fertilising: the ratio for applying effective component when sowing in the sowing pool and seed furrow per acre is the calcium of 35:8.5:15 Magnesium-phosphorus fertilizer 55kg, N P and K ternary compound fertilizer (NPK15:15:15) 40kg make seed manure;
S6, field management:
Konjaku field management: it after konjaku emergence, selects fair weather tillage and weeding 5 times;
Coix lacryma-jobi field management: when growing 4 leaves after coix lacryma-jobi emergence, removing close stand and weak seedling, and timely even Miao Dingmiao, every cave is stayed 4 plants of seedling;Tillage and weeding carries out in two times, shallowly uproots in 4 leaf of coix lacryma-jobi for the first time, carries out in conjunction with final singling;Second in coix lacryma-jobi jointing Phase carries out, and carries out in conjunction with ridging;After jointing, the first branch old leaf below and ineffective tillering are extractd;
S7, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control;
S8, harvest:
Konjaku harvest: after konjaku plant nature sprout tumble 10 days, fair weather is selected to harvest using conventional method;
Coix lacryma-jobi harvest: coix lacryma-jobi lower blade blade tip turns yellow, and 80% seed becomes to use routine side when black or original seed shell color Method harvest.
The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control described in step S7:
The konjaku prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control: konjaku is emerged after lamina, finds diseased plant, should pull out primary infection focus immediately, and concentrate and take to Place far from plot is destroyed by fire, is removed the sick soil in sick cave in time, is spread fertilizer over the fields polynary disinfectant powder in sick cave and surrounding;Before konjaku lamina and Selecting fair weather to spray the broad spectrum antimicrobial agents such as Bordeaux mixture, Bravo or carbendazim after lamina, (drug spraying concentration is according to production Product specification) prevention and treatment soft rot, it sprayed once, sprays 4 times every 7 days;
The coix lacryma-jobi prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:
Smut: it current year seed solarization two days in step S3 before sowing, is then immersed in water 24 hours, pulls out and drain Moisture carries out chemicals treatment by the 0.4% of current year seed weight with 20% triadimefon;
Leaf blight: early stage sprays 500 times of liquid of Bordeaux mixture (1:10:100) or 65% wettable zineb, blade face spray It applies.
The PH of plot soil is 6~7 in step S1.
The well-rotted farmyard manure applied in step S2 includes cow dung, chicken manure and sheep dung, the ratio of effective component is 45:15: 10, mu applies 3000 kilograms.
The processing that carries out disinfection using polynary disinfectant powder is needed before ganoid konjaku taro sowing in step S3.Wherein, polynary disinfectant powder uses Standing grain must be found pleasure in polynary disinfectant powder, and usage amount is according to product description.
After the completion of step S5, before rainy season set, ditch cleaning mentions soil, guarantees that plot draining is unimpeded.
Embodiment 5:
A kind of cultural method made between konjaku and coix lacryma-jobi, comprising the following steps:
Selection of land: S1 selects gentle gradient, height above sea level in 1000~1800m, draining is good, soil layer is deep and loose, has Machine matter content is high, the soil texture is good and pH value is neutral or subacidity plot;
S2, site preparation: with the wide ridging of the moisture surface of 120cm, the high 40cm in ridge, ditch after the application of plot selected by step S1 well-rotted farmyard manure Wide 30cm;
S3, seed selection:
Konjaku seed selection: selection during the growth process without the ganoid konjaku taro stayed in incidence or the extremely slight plot of morbidity, outside See form be round or high round, bulb is sufficiently mature, have sense of heaviness, epidermis are smooth, terminal bud it is scarlet it is sturdy, bud nest is shallow, disease-free Spot, the ganoid konjaku taro without wound;
Coix lacryma-jobi seed selection: big, the full current year seed of selection grain;
S4, sowing:
Konjaku sowing: in mid-March to by the end of April, when surface temperature is stablized at 10 DEG C or more, by the strain of 30cm × 25cm Line-spacing carries out water furrow planting, and depth of planting 20cm when sowing, ganoid konjaku taro bud nest is put down gently in ditch upward, then covers 10cm Thick fine earth, watering;
Coix lacryma-jobi sowing: it is sowed simultaneously with konjaku, plants a line coix lacryma-jobi in the side of ditch, seeding method is with dig reservoir program request Main, 3, every pool, the pool is away from 20cm;
S5, fertilising: the ratio for applying effective component when sowing in the sowing pool and seed furrow per acre is the calcium and magnesium of 35:9:16 Phosphate fertilizer 50kg, N P and K ternary compound fertilizer (NPK15:15:15) 40kg make seed manure;
S6, field management:
Konjaku field management: it after konjaku emergence, selects fair weather tillage and weeding 3 times;
Coix lacryma-jobi field management: when growing 4 leaves after coix lacryma-jobi emergence, removing close stand and weak seedling, and timely even Miao Dingmiao, every cave is stayed 3 plants of seedling;Tillage and weeding carries out in two times, shallowly uproots in 4 leaf of coix lacryma-jobi for the first time, carries out in conjunction with final singling;Second in coix lacryma-jobi jointing Phase carries out, and carries out in conjunction with ridging;After jointing, the first branch old leaf below and ineffective tillering are extractd;
S7, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control;
S8, harvest:
Konjaku harvest: after konjaku plant nature sprout tumble 10 days, fair weather is selected to harvest using conventional method;
Coix lacryma-jobi harvest: coix lacryma-jobi lower blade blade tip turns yellow, and 80% seed becomes to use routine side when black or original seed shell color Method harvest.
The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control described in step S7:
The konjaku prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control: konjaku is emerged after lamina, finds diseased plant, should pull out primary infection focus immediately, and concentrate and take to Place far from plot is destroyed by fire, is removed the sick soil in sick cave in time, is spread fertilizer over the fields polynary disinfectant powder in sick cave and surrounding;Before konjaku lamina and Selecting fair weather to spray the broad spectrum antimicrobial agents such as Bordeaux mixture, Bravo or carbendazim after lamina, (drug spraying concentration is according to production Product specification) prevention and treatment soft rot, it sprayed once, sprays 4 times every 10 days;
The coix lacryma-jobi prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:
Smut: it current year seed solarization two days in step S3 before sowing, is then immersed in water 24 hours, pulls out and drain Moisture carries out chemicals treatment by the 0.4% of current year seed weight with 20% triadimefon;
Leaf blight: early stage sprays 500 times of liquid of Bordeaux mixture (1:10:100) or 65% wettable zineb, blade face spray It applies.
The PH of plot soil is 6~7 in step S1.
The well-rotted farmyard manure applied in step S2 includes cow dung, chicken manure and sheep dung, the ratio of effective component are as follows: 45:10: 15, mu applies 4000 kilograms.
The processing that carries out disinfection using polynary disinfectant powder is needed before ganoid konjaku taro sowing in step S3.Wherein, polynary disinfectant powder uses Standing grain must be found pleasure in polynary disinfectant powder, and usage amount is according to product description.
When applying fertilizer in step S5, fertilizer is not contacted directly with ganoid konjaku taro, at least distance 5cm, after the completion of fertilising, using detritus soil Lid kind.
Embodiment 6:
A kind of cultural method made between konjaku and coix lacryma-jobi, it is characterised in that: the following steps are included:
Selection of land: S1 selects gentle gradient, height above sea level in 1000~1800m, draining is good, soil layer is deep and loose, has Machine matter content is high, the soil texture is good and pH value is neutral or subacidity plot;
S2, site preparation: with the wide ridging of the moisture surface of 120cm, the high 50cm in ridge, ditch after the application of plot selected by step S1 well-rotted farmyard manure Wide 30cm;
S3, seed selection:
Konjaku seed selection: selection during the growth process without the ganoid konjaku taro stayed in incidence or the extremely slight plot of morbidity, outside See form be round or high round, bulb is sufficiently mature, have sense of heaviness, epidermis are smooth, terminal bud it is scarlet it is sturdy, bud nest is shallow, disease-free Spot, the ganoid konjaku taro without wound;
Coix lacryma-jobi seed selection: big, the full current year seed of selection grain;
S4, sowing:
Konjaku sowing: in mid-March to by the end of April, when surface temperature is stablized at 10 DEG C or more, by the strain of 30cm × 30cm Line-spacing carries out water furrow planting, and when sowing, ganoid konjaku taro bud nest is put down gently in ditch upward by depth of planting 18cm, and it is thick then to cover 7cm Fine earth, watering;
Coix lacryma-jobi sowing: it is sowed simultaneously with konjaku, respectively plants a line coix lacryma-jobi in the two sides of ditch, seeding method is with dig reservoir program request Main, 4, every pool, the pool is away from 15cm;
S5, fertilising: the ratio for applying effective component when sowing in the sowing pool and seed furrow per acre is the calcium of 36:8.5:14 Magnesium-phosphorus fertilizer 60kg, N P and K ternary compound fertilizer (NPK15:15:15) 40kg make seed manure;
S6, field management:
Konjaku field management: it after konjaku emergence, selects fair weather tillage and weeding 3 times;
Coix lacryma-jobi field management: when growing 4 leaves after coix lacryma-jobi emergence, removing close stand and weak seedling, and timely even Miao Dingmiao, every cave is stayed 4 plants of seedling;Tillage and weeding carries out in two times, shallowly uproots in 4 leaf of coix lacryma-jobi for the first time, carries out in conjunction with final singling;Second in coix lacryma-jobi jointing Phase carries out, and carries out in conjunction with ridging;After jointing, the first branch old leaf below and ineffective tillering are extractd;
S7, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control;
S8, harvest:
Konjaku harvest: after konjaku plant nature sprout tumble 10 days, fair weather is selected to harvest using conventional method;
Coix lacryma-jobi harvest: coix lacryma-jobi lower blade blade tip turns yellow, and 80% seed becomes to use routine side when black or original seed shell color Method harvest.
The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control described in step S7:
Selection fair weather sprays the broad spectrum antimicrobial agents such as Bordeaux mixture, Bravo or carbendazim before konjaku lamina and after lamina (drug spraying concentration is according to product description) prevents and treats soft rot, sprayed once, sprays 3 times every 9 days;
The coix lacryma-jobi prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:
Current year seed in step S3: being fitted into plastics establishment mesh bag before sowing, immerse in 90 DEG C of hot water by smut, It scalds kinds 1.5 minutes, pulls out at once, then divide on floor that cooling is dried rapidly;
Leaf blight: early stage sprays 500 times of liquid of Bordeaux mixture (1:10:100) or 65% wettable zineb, blade face spray It applies.
The PH of plot soil is 6~7 in step S1.
The well-rotted farmyard manure applied in step S2 includes cow dung, chicken manure and sheep dung, and the ratio of effective component is 50:15:10, Mu applies 5000 kilograms.
The processing that carries out disinfection using polynary disinfectant powder is needed before ganoid konjaku taro sowing in step S3.Wherein, polynary disinfectant powder uses Standing grain must be found pleasure in polynary disinfectant powder, and usage amount is according to product description.
When applying fertilizer in step S5, fertilizer is not contacted directly with ganoid konjaku taro, at least distance 5cm.
After the completion of step S5, before rainy season set, ditch cleaning mentions soil, guarantees that plot draining is unimpeded.
Comparative example 1:
A kind of cultural method of konjaku, comprising the following steps:
Selection of land: S1 selects gentle gradient, height above sea level in 1800m or more, draining is good, soil layer is deep and loose, organic Matter content is high, the soil texture is good and pH value is neutral or subacidity plot;
S2, site preparation: plot selected by step S1 is ploughed the first furrow as a guideline ridging in conventional manner;
S3, seed selection: selection is during the growth process without the ganoid konjaku taro stayed in the extremely slight plot of incidence or morbidity, appearance Form be round or high round, bulb is sufficiently mature, have sense of heaviness, epidermis are smooth, terminal bud it is scarlet it is sturdy, bud nest is shallow, disease-free spot, Ganoid konjaku taro without wound;
Sowing: S4 uses conventional method water furrow planting;
S5, fertilising: peasant applies fertilizer by rule of thumb;
Field management: S6 carries out field management using conventional method;
S7, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control;The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control is carried out using conventional method;
Harvest: S8 is harvested using conventional method.
The PH of plot soil is 6~7 in step S1.
It needs to adopt conventional method before ganoid konjaku taro sowing in step S3 to carry out disinfection processing.
Comparative example 2:
A kind of cultural method of konjaku and interplanting corn, comprising the following steps:
Selection of land: S1 selects gentle gradient, height above sea level in 1000~1800m, draining is good, soil layer is deep and loose, has Machine matter content is high, the soil texture is good and pH value is neutral or subacidity plot;
S2, site preparation: plot selected by step S1 is ploughed the first furrow as a guideline ridging in conventional manner;
S3, seed selection:
Konjaku seed selection: it is chosen seeds using conventional method;
Corn seed selection: it is chosen seeds using conventional method;
S4, sowing:
Konjaku sowing: using conventional method water furrow planting in moisture surface, and seeding row spacing is 30 × 30cm;
Corn seeding: in side kind a line corn of ditch, seeding method is based on dig reservoir program request, 4, every pool, the pool away from for 20cm;
S5, fertilising:
Konjaku fertilising: peasant applies fertilizer by rule of thumb;
Corn fertilizing: peasant applies fertilizer by rule of thumb;
S6, field management:
Konjaku field management: it is managed using routine techniques;
Corn field management: it is managed using routine techniques;
S7, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:
The konjaku prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control: the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control is carried out using conventional method;
Corn diseases and insect pests prevention and treatment: the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control is carried out using conventional method;
S8, harvest:
Konjaku harvest: it is harvested using conventional method;
Harvest corn: it is harvested using conventional method.
The PH of plot soil is 6~7 in step S1.
It needs to adopt conventional method before ganoid konjaku taro sowing in step S3 to carry out disinfection processing.
The test effect of Statistics Implementation example 1~6 and comparative example 1~2, the results are shown in Table 1.
Table 1:
It can be seen from the data in the table that the cultural method made between konjaku and coix lacryma-jobi of the invention, can significantly improve the production of konjaku Amount, reduces the disease incidence of konjak soft rot, remarkable in economical benefits.
It is important to point out that, above embodiments and test example are only limitted to do further technical solution of the present invention herein Elaboration and understanding, should not be understood as it is further to technical solution of the present invention limited, what those skilled in the art made The innovation and creation of non-protruding essential characteristics and marked improvement still fall within protection category of the invention.

Claims (7)

1. the cultural method made between a kind of konjaku and coix lacryma-jobi, it is characterised in that: the following steps are included:
Selection of land: S1 selects gentle gradient, height above sea level in 1000~1800m, draining is good, soil layer is deep and loose, organic matter Content is high, the soil texture is good and pH value is neutral or subacidity plot;
S2, site preparation: with the wide ridging of the moisture surface of 120cm, the high 40-50cm in ridge, ditch after the application of plot selected by step S1 well-rotted farmyard manure Wide 30cm;
S3, seed selection:
Konjaku seed selection: selection is during the growth process without the ganoid konjaku taro stayed in the extremely slight plot of incidence or morbidity, appearance shape State be round or high round, bulb is sufficiently mature, have sense of heaviness, epidermis are smooth, terminal bud it is scarlet it is sturdy, bud nest is shallow, disease-free spot, nothing The ganoid konjaku taro of wound;
Coix lacryma-jobi seed selection: big, the full current year seed of selection grain;
S4, sowing:
Konjaku sowing: in mid-March to by the end of April, when surface temperature is stablized at 10 DEG C or more, by 25~35cm × 25~35cm Seeding row spacing carry out water furrow planting, depth of planting is 15~20cm, when sowing, ganoid konjaku taro bud nest is put down gently in ditch upward, then Cover the fine earth of 5~10cm thickness, watering;
Coix lacryma-jobi sowing: it is sowed simultaneously with konjaku, plants a line coix lacryma-jobi in the one or both sides of ditch, seeding method is with dig reservoir program request Main, 3~5, every pool, the pool is away from 15~20cm;
S5, fertilising: the ratio for applying effective component when sowing in the sowing pool and seed furrow per acre is the calcium magnesium phosphate of 35:9:15 50~60kg, N P and K ternary compound fertilizer (NPK15:15:15) 40kg make seed manure;
S6, field management:
Konjaku field management: it after konjaku emergence, selects fair weather tillage and weeding 2~5 times;
Coix lacryma-jobi field management: when growing 4 leaves after coix lacryma-jobi emergence, removing close stand and weak seedling, and timely even Miao Dingmiao, seedling 3 is stayed in every cave ~4 plants;Tillage and weeding carries out in two times, shallowly uproots in 4 leaf of coix lacryma-jobi for the first time, carries out in conjunction with final singling;Second in coix lacryma-jobi jointing Phase carries out, and carries out in conjunction with ridging;After jointing, the first branch old leaf below and ineffective tillering are extractd;
S7, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control;
S8, harvest:
Konjaku harvest: after konjaku plant nature sprout tumble 10 days, fair weather is selected to harvest using conventional method;
Coix lacryma-jobi harvest: coix lacryma-jobi lower blade blade tip turns yellow, and 80% seed becomes to receive when black or original seed shell color using conventional method It obtains.
2. the cultural method made between a kind of konjaku according to claim 1 and coix lacryma-jobi, it is characterised in that: disease described in step S7 Pest control:
The konjaku prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control: konjaku is emerged after lamina, is found diseased plant, should be pulled out primary infection focus immediately, and concentrate take to it is separate The place in plot is destroyed by fire, is removed the sick soil in sick cave in time, is spread fertilizer over the fields polynary disinfectant powder in sick cave and surrounding;Before konjaku lamina and lamina Selecting fair weather to spray the broad spectrum antimicrobial agents such as Bordeaux mixture, Bravo or carbendazim afterwards, (drug spraying concentration is said according to product Bright book) prevention and treatment soft rot, it sprayed once, sprays 3~5 times every 7~10 days;
The coix lacryma-jobi prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control:
Smut:
Method one: it current year seed solarization two days in step S3 before sowing, is then immersed in water 24 hours, pulls out and drain the water Point, with 20% triadimefon, chemicals treatment is carried out by the 0.4% of current year seed weight;
Current year seed in step S3: being fitted into plastics establishment mesh bag before sowing, immerse in 85~90 DEG C of hot water by method two, It scalds kind 1~1.5 minute, pulls out at once, then divide on floor that cooling is dried rapidly;
Leaf blight: early stage sprays 500 times of liquid of Bordeaux mixture (1:10:100) or 65% wettable zineb, foliage-spray.
3. the cultural method made between a kind of konjaku according to claim 1 or 2 and coix lacryma-jobi, it is characterised in that: in step S1 The PH of plot soil is 6~7.
4. the cultural method made between a kind of konjaku according to claim 3 and coix lacryma-jobi, it is characterised in that: applied in step S2 Well-rotted farmyard manure include cow dung, chicken manure and sheep dung, mu applies 3000~5000 kilograms.
5. the cultural method made between a kind of konjaku according to claim 1 or 2 or 4 and coix lacryma-jobi, it is characterised in that: step S3 In ganoid konjaku taro sowing before need to carry out disinfection processing using polynary disinfectant powder.
6. the cultural method made between a kind of konjaku according to claim 5 and coix lacryma-jobi, it is characterised in that: apply fertilizer in step S5 When, fertilizer does not contact directly with ganoid konjaku taro, at least distance 5cm, and after the completion of fertilising, conditional place can use detritus earth mulch kind.
7. the cultural method made between a kind of konjaku and coix lacryma-jobi described according to claim 1 or 2 or 4 or 6, it is characterised in that: step After the completion of rapid S5, before rainy season set, ditch cleaning mentions soil, guarantees that plot draining is unimpeded.
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