CN109566348A - A kind of rice covers seed seedling raising ground substance disk and preparation method and application automatically - Google Patents

A kind of rice covers seed seedling raising ground substance disk and preparation method and application automatically Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109566348A
CN109566348A CN201811625489.6A CN201811625489A CN109566348A CN 109566348 A CN109566348 A CN 109566348A CN 201811625489 A CN201811625489 A CN 201811625489A CN 109566348 A CN109566348 A CN 109566348A
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China
Prior art keywords
ground substance
seedling raising
rice
seedling
disk
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CN201811625489.6A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN109566348B (en
Inventor
杨振东
高树林
邵明军
姜鹏
李艳亮
张俊升
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DONGYU AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING MACHINERY Co Ltd HARBIN
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DONGYU AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING MACHINERY Co Ltd HARBIN
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • A01G24/22Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material containing plant material
    • A01G24/25Dry fruit hulls or husks, e.g. chaff or coir
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/10Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material
    • A01G24/12Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing inorganic material containing soil minerals
    • A01G24/15Calcined rock, e.g. perlite, vermiculite or clay aggregates
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • A01G24/22Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material containing plant material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/20Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material
    • A01G24/28Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor based on or containing natural organic material containing peat, moss or sphagnum
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • A01G24/60Apparatus for preparing growth substrates or culture media
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G31/00Soilless cultivation, e.g. hydroponics
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G31/00Soilless cultivation, e.g. hydroponics
    • A01G31/02Special apparatus therefor
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/20Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions in agriculture, e.g. CO2
    • Y02P60/21Dinitrogen oxide [N2O], e.g. using aquaponics, hydroponics or efficiency measures

Abstract

The present invention provides a kind of rice to cover seed seedling raising ground substance disk and preparation method and application automatically, belongs to raising rice seedlings technical field.It is according to honeycomb structure that rice covers seed seedling raising ground substance disk automatically, it is formed as component by mold using extruding rice husk, corn stover, vermiculite, decomposed excrement and soddy soil and high temperature drying obtains just type, using cave as individual, it is obstructed between every cave with water-swelling material, whole seedling pan bottom and periphery degradation paper stickup solid, are fabricated to the Rice Seedling Culture Under Dry Condition machine transplanting of rice using the specification of seedling disk according to rice transplanter and cover seed seedling raising ground substance disk product automatically.Cover seed seedling raising ground substance disk nursery automatically using rice, both nursery soil had been substituted, also substituted for plastic seedling-cultivation plate, use can directly be put, the process after planting covered again is saved, raising rice seedlings working efficiency is improved, construction one is suitable for the matrix body of cold ground nursery root growth, the resistance during seedling growth is enhanced, strong sprout is cultivated.

Description

A kind of rice covers seed seedling raising ground substance disk and preparation method and application automatically
Technical field
The invention belongs to raising rice seedlings technical fields, and in particular to a kind of rice covers seed seedling raising ground substance disk and system automatically Preparation Method and application.
Background technique
Rice in China's agricultural production is one of main long-term cropping.It is developed so far planting technology, specific yield, economy The various aspects such as benefit have all been significantly increased, to guarantee that China's grain security plays important function.With the development of the times, It is higher and higher to the yield of Rice Production, quality requirements.Seedling-cultivation technique especially in rice shoot with rsgun and wide planting planting link is especially It is important, as the saying goes " the good half a year grain of seedling ", it is most important to raising yield of brown rice and quality to cultivate high-quality rice shoot.
Currently, being to cultivate seedling during universal machine transplanting of rice dry rice seedling, need to acquire fertile loam to cultivate rice seedling, this was both Non-renewable resources are wasted, manpower financial capacity is wasted.Moreover raising rice seedlings needs take soil throughout the year, high-quality soil resource is sharp Subtract, take native difficulty increasing, the soil for taking nutrition to cure is more difficult.Soil is non-renewable resources, is earth surface by thousand It 1000000 years, is gradually formed in nature by biological cycle, is the basis of plant growth.Due to raising rice seedlings soil, peasant household Unauthorized and wasteful mining high-quality soil, natural ecological environment is by artificial destruction.Peasants repeat every year to be taken soil, crushes, sieve Soil is storeed, mixes soil and mix the cumbersome operating process such as fertilizer and artificial balance, and a large amount of manpower and material resources are wasted.Especially China northeast water Rice planting area, breeding time is short, and active accumulated temperature is few, and fertility is grown early period slowly, and mid-term high-temperature time is short, and post drop is fast, low temperature cold Evil is more, can not guarantee the quality of seedlings of cold ground seedling, influences on yield and quality very big.In addition, low temperature is encountered when soil nursery, Be easy it is susceptible, greenhouse be bred as rice shoot rate substantially reduce.Therefore, the high rice shoot of overall qualities how is cultivated, is turned green after rice transplanting fast, It is in due course particularly important into the healthy and strong rice shoot of tiller.Peasant will pay very big energy every year thus and may not necessarily also cultivate to put into Strong seedling.
With the development of the times, people also cultivate seedling in such a way that different materials have made many artificial seedling mediums Seedling, but there is also many deficiencies in practice, and such as incubation rice shoot rate is low, and rice shoot is also easy to produce aerial root and water root, is bred as seedling Slow seedling is slow when being inserted into Honda, and period of seedling establishment is delayed, and yield, quality and maturity period are influenced;Although there is the base of substitution nursery soil in the market Matter, but product cannot be guaranteed the integrality of root system and substitution original plastic rice seedling-raising disk when machine rice transplantation, it is cumbersome, it is at high cost Etc..Thus, develop root Qiang Miaozhuan, good quality and high output, low-carbon environment-friendly, the soilless raising seedling substrate product for saving synergy, Er Qieshi Existing equipment and facility is answered to use, when nursery exempts seedling plastics seedling disk, and the product for not having to cover topsoil after planting again is Market there is an urgent need to.
Summary of the invention
In view of this, the purpose of the present invention is to provide a kind of rice to cover seed seedling raising ground substance disk and preparation method automatically And application, the seedling raising ground substance disk not only substitute traditional nursery soil and plastics seedling disk completely, balance, which can be sowed directly, exempts from The after planting operation of overburden soil again is gone, and the growing way and quality of rice shoot can also be improved.
A kind of rice provided by the invention covers seed seedling raising ground substance disk automatically, comprises the following components in parts by weight: 30~ 35 parts of extruding rice husks, broken section, 10~15 parts soddy soils of 30~35 parts of corn stovers, 10~15 parts of decomposed excrement and 10~20 portions of leech Stone;Each seedling raising ground substance disk further includes that an area is 0.32~0.33 × 0.62~0.63m2Degradation paper.
Preferably, it comprises the following components in parts by weight: 32 parts of extruding rice husks, 33 parts of broken section of corn stovers, 12 parts of careless carbon Soil, 12 parts of decomposed excrement and 15 parts of vermiculites;Each seedling raising ground substance disk further includes that an area is 0.33 × 0.63m2Degradation Paper.
The integral thickness of the seedling raising ground substance disk is 18~22mm, and the specification of the seedling raising ground substance disk is long 578~582mm × wide 278~282mm;
The upper surface of described seedling raising ground substance disk is provided with the depression of matrix form distribution, and the depth of the depression is 8~12mm, institute The specification for stating depression is long 10.8mm × wide 10mm;
Be provided with cave wall between every two depression, the cave wall with a thickness of 3~5mm;The bottom surface of the depression is away from seedling Substrate plate bottom surface with a thickness of 8~10mm;The seedling raising ground substance disk is horizontally arranged with 18 depressions, be vertically arranged with 36 it is recessed Cave.
Preferably, the integral thickness of the seedling raising ground substance disk is 20mm, the specification of the seedling raising ground substance disk be long 580mm × Wide 280mm;
The depth of the depression is 10mm;
Be provided with cave wall between every two depression, the cave wall with a thickness of 4mm;The bottom surface of the depression is away from seedling raising ground substance Try to get to the heart of a matter face with a thickness of 10mm.
Preferably, by the rice husk of 6~8mm of partial size, extruding 20s under the conditions of 300~400 DEG C is obtained the extruding rice husk.
Preferably, broken section of the corn stover of fineness is lower than 10mm.
Preferably, the granularity of the soddy soil is 20 mesh;The partial size of the vermiculite is 2~4mm;The decomposed excrement is corruption Ripe cow dung.
The present invention provides the preparation methods of the seedling raising ground substance disk, comprising the following steps:
1) extruding rice husk, broken section of corn stover, decomposed excrement, soddy soil and vermiculite are modulated into slurries with water, adjust acid extremely 4.5~5.0, it is prepared into disk slurries processed;
2) type is made by mold suction in the disk slurries processed, dry solidification under the conditions of 250~270 DEG C;It is educated The first type of seedling substrate plate;
3) cavities is accomplished fluently on degradation paper according to the distributing position of seedling raising ground substance disk pocket, the degradation paper of cavities will be accomplished fluently It wraps up in and is sticked on the bottom surface and side wall of the first type of the seedling raising ground substance disk, obtain seedling raising ground substance disk.
The seedling raising ground substance disk being prepared the present invention also provides the seedling raising ground substance disk or the preparation method exists Application in raising rice seedlings.
Preferably, the method for the raising rice seedlings, comprising the following steps:
Seedling raising ground substance disk is placed on the seedbed for being equipped with punching water conservation mulch, is then sowed with rice raise rice seedlings sower It into seedling raising ground substance disk, sprinkles profoundly water, rice seedling can be cultivated.
A kind of rice provided by the invention covers seed seedling raising ground substance disk automatically, comprises the following components in parts by weight: 30~ 35 parts of extruding rice husks, 30~35 parts of broken section of corn stovers, 10~15 parts of soddy soil, 10~15 parts of decomposed excrement and 10~20 Part vermiculite;Each seedling raising ground substance disk further includes that an area is 0.33 × 0.63m2Degradation paper.Extruding rice husk be conducive to it is permeable, Broken section of corn stover is easy to be retained, and is arranged in pairs or groups by aforementioned proportion and the water penetration and water-retaining property of seedling raising ground substance disk is adjusted, and is rice shoot Root growth provides sufficient moisture and oxygen.Soddy soil and the reasonably combined shape that can inhibit water root and aerial root of decomposed excrement At guarantee rice shoot root growth is healthy and strong.Prescription and vermiculite are arranged in pairs or groups simultaneously, are realized and are expanded after meeting water, Surface realization covers kind automatically Son removes after planting the troublesome operation of artificial earthing again from.Automatic covering seed seedling raising ground substance disk provided by the invention replaces nursery Soil and plastics seedling disk can be sowed after balance, remove after planting again the process of overburden soil from.Using seedling raising ground substance disk, cultivate Resistance is strong, is bred as the rice seedling that rice shoot rate is high, overall qualities are high.The rice seedling root system integrality brought out simultaneously is good, because It is root growth in independent pothole, forms cave strain, during machine rice transplantation, the mechanical damage that rice shoot root system is subject to significantly subtracts Small, turning green when being conducive to Honda shoot transplanting equipment, root of hair is fast after rice transplanting, root of hair is more, root of hair is long.Period of seedling establishment was than control 7 days in advance.
Seedling raising ground substance disk provided by the invention also has the advantage that simultaneously
(1) there is the characteristics of less investment, high efficiency, increasing both production and income.Automatic covering seed seedling raising ground substance disk nursery and routine Seedlings and soil investment is compared, and per hectare investment increases by 450 yuan.Comprehensive income compares, and substrate plate nursery increases by 2 than conventional seedlings and soil, 784 yuan.Seedling raising ground substance disk seedling net income increases by 2,334 yuan, input-output ratio 1:5.2.It improves product quality, high-quality and efficient Income does not calculate wherein.
(2) use for saving seedling plastics seedling disk, reduces the capital investment of seedling disk.It saves labor, eliminates soil moved in improve the original and educate A large amount of manpower, financial resources, material resources used in seedling.Balance work efficiency is high in greenhouse, and speed is fast, and the amount of labour used is few.Balance again can be directly sowed, It is more suitable for broadcasting the use of pendulum machine automatically.Manpower will not be striven because of processing seedbed soil, strive farming season.The Honda machine transplanting of rice is uniform, miss in seedling setting seedling rate It is low.Mu saves 10% than conventional with rice shoot quantity.It is light-weight after automatic covering seed seedling raising ground substance disk incubation seedling.It is normal to solve Honda Rule transport the big problem of the rice shoot amount of labour used.
(3) ecological benefits are significant, are the automatic covering seed seedling raising ground substance disk of production using wastes such as rice husk, crop materials Main raw material(s), realize organic substance cycling and reutilization, turn waste into wealth.Utilize supporting for the plant fibers such as rice husk, crop material Divide element reasonably combined, physicochemical property reasonable combination, automatic covering seed seedling raising ground substance plate seedling raising, which is more advantageous to, brings out rice shoot element The high rice seedling of matter is excellent seedling medium, is much stronger than soil nursery.
(4) existing seedling greenhouse facility and conventional seedling-cultivation technique is suitble to match.It is more suitable for existing rice transplanter machine Type uses, and is not necessarily to special facilities, equipment and technological transformation.
The seedling raising ground substance disk being prepared the present invention also provides the seedling raising ground substance disk or the preparation method exists Application in raising rice seedlings.Utilize the advantage more than Determination of Soluble Silicon in rice husk and easily absorbed.Again with corn stover, turf and The suitable collocation such as decomposed cow dung is automatic covering seed seedling raising ground substance disk base material, suitably conditioned water, fertilizer, air and heat product Element relationship, the seedling quality brought out are higher than soil nursery and other substrate seedlings.Moreover automatic covering seed seedling raising ground substance disk Good permeability, good heat preservation performance, root growth are vigorous.The rice shoot brought out using the seedling raising ground substance disk is more with root, bar is strong, robust seedling The characteristics of.The enhancing of rice shoot resistance, low-temperature resistance, anti-waterlogging, disease resistance etc..Seedling Quality in Rice is higher than conventional soil nursery and its Its artificial matrices' nursery.Greenhouse seedling planting percent is higher than the nursery of usual manner.Rice shoot main root is flourishing, and fibrous root root hair is more.Growth Rice shoot blade tip spits again big, advantage more obvious than the rice shoot that conventional native seedling raising and other matrix substrates are educated more than pearl in the process.It is bred as seedling The solid degree feel test of stem is also better than other controls.Experiments have shown that: it is educated using seedling raising ground substance disk provided by the invention It is compareed to the measurement of hundred plant dry weight of rice seedling than soil nursery and increases 2.1g.While Honda rice transplanting is more evenly, machine transplanting of rice miss in seedling setting seedling rate It reduces, uniformity between machine transplanting of rice Miao Cong is formed to be conducive to yielding Populations, realizes Rice Production high-yield and high-efficiency.Reach and protects Protect high-quality soil resource and ecological environment.The wastes such as agricultural crop straw are made full use of again, so that it is turned waste into wealth, are mitigated environment dirt The purpose of dye, ecological benefits are remarkably reinforced with social benefit.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is that rice covers seed seedling raising ground substance disk material object photo automatically;
Fig. 2 is automatic covering seed seedling raising ground substance disk floor plan design;
Fig. 3 is comparison diagram in automatic earthing seedling raising ground substance disk and conventional soil testing room;
Fig. 4 is automatic earthing seedling raising ground substance disk and conventional soil seedling in greenhouse comparison diagram;
Fig. 5 is automatic earthing seedling raising ground substance disk and conventional soil nursery field trial comparison diagram, and wherein Fig. 5-A is to cover automatically The rice shoot that native substrate plate is cultivated, Fig. 5-B are the rice shoot of conventional soil incubation.
Specific embodiment
A kind of rice provided by the invention covers seed seedling raising ground substance disk automatically, comprises the following components in parts by weight: 30~ 35 parts of extruding rice husks, broken section, 10~15 parts soddy soils of 30~35 parts of corn stovers, 10~15 parts of decomposed excrement and 10~20 portions of leech Stone;Each seedling raising ground substance disk further includes that an area is 0.32~0.33 × 0.62~0.63m2Degradation paper.
It includes extruding rice husk that rice provided by the invention covers seed seedling raising ground substance disk automatically.By weight, described swollen Changing rice husk includes 30~35 parts, preferably 32 parts.The preparation method of the extruding rice husk is preferably by the rice husk of 6~8mm of partial size It obtains within extruding 15~25 seconds under the conditions of 300~400 DEG C.The partial size of the rice husk is preferably 7mm.The temperature of the extruding is preferred It is 320~380 DEG C, more preferably 350 DEG C.The time of the extruding is preferably 20 seconds.Be conducive to after rice husk extruding permeable.
It includes broken section of corn stover that rice provided by the invention covers seed seedling raising ground substance disk automatically.By weight, institute Stating broken section of corn stover includes 30~35 parts, preferably 33 parts.Broken section of the corn stover is by corn stover naturally dry, warp It is obtained after crushing.The present invention is not particularly limited the method for the crushing, using breaking method known in the art. The fineness of broken section of smashed corn stover is preferably less than 10mm.Broken section of the corn stover is easy to be retained, and corn stover is broken The water penetration and water-retaining property of section and the rational proportion adjustable product of extruding rice husk.
It includes soddy soil that rice provided by the invention covers seed seedling raising ground substance disk automatically.By weight, the careless carbon Soil includes 10~15 parts, preferably 12 parts.The granularity of the soddy soil is 10~20 mesh, more preferably 20 mesh.The soddy soil Source be not particularly limited, using the source of soddy soil known in the art.
It includes decomposed excrement that rice provided by the invention covers seed seedling raising ground substance disk automatically.By weight, the corruption Ripe excrement includes 10~15 parts, preferably 12 parts.The present invention method decomposed to excrement is not particularly limited, using this field institute The well known decomposed method of excrement.The decomposed utilization rate for being conducive to improve biomass in excrement, while being conducive to kill Disinfect pathogen or helminth in excrement.The decomposed excrement includes decomposed cow dung.
It includes vermiculite that rice provided by the invention covers seed seedling raising ground substance disk automatically.By weight, the vermiculite packet Include 10~20 parts, more preferably 15 parts.The partial size of the vermiculite is 2~4mm, more preferably 3mm.
In the present invention, soddy soil and the reasonably combined formation that can inhibit water root and aerial root of decomposed cow dung vermiculite.Group Side arranges in pairs or groups with vermiculite, realizes and expands after meeting water, Surface realization covers seed automatically.
It includes degradation paper that rice provided by the invention covers seed seedling raising ground substance disk automatically.Every disk space required be 0.33 × 0.63m2Degradation paper.The effect of the degradation paper is to wrap up in be attached on the bottom surface and side wall of seedling raising ground substance disk, keeps seedling raising ground substance disk It is not chipping, maintain its configuration.
In the present invention, the integral thickness of the seedling raising ground substance disk is preferably 18~22mm, more preferably 20mm.It is described to educate The specification of seedling substrate plate preferably long 578~582mm × 278~282mm, more preferably long 580mm × wide 280mm.It is described to educate The upper surface of seedling substrate plate is provided with the depression of matrix form distribution.The depth of the depression is preferably 8~12mm, more preferably 10mm.The specification of the depression is long 10.8mm × wide 10mm (mold adsorption forming).Cave wall is provided between every two depression. 3~5mm of thickness of the cave wall, more preferably 4mm.The bottom surface of the depression is preferably 8 away from the try to get to the heart of a matter thickness in face of seedling raising ground substance ~10mm, more preferably 10mm.The seedling raising ground substance disk is horizontally arranged with 18 depressions, is vertically arranged with 36 depressions.Institute It states seedling raising ground substance disk and inserts the preparation of rice seedling disc specification according to popular dryland seedling machine.
The present invention provides the preparation methods of the seedling raising ground substance disk, comprising the following steps:
1) extruding rice husk, broken section of corn stover, decomposed excrement, soddy soil and vermiculite are modulated into slurries with water, adjust acid extremely 4.5~5.0, it is prepared into disk slurries processed;
2) type is made by mold suction in the disk slurries processed, dry solidification under the conditions of 250~270 DEG C;It is educated The first type of seedling substrate plate;
3) cavities is beaten on degradation paper according to the distributing position of seedling raising ground substance disk pocket, the degradation paper for being equipped with cavities is wrapped up in It is sticked on the bottom surface and side wall of the first type of the seedling raising ground substance disk, obtains seedling raising ground substance disk.
Extruding rice husk, broken section of corn stover, decomposed excrement, soddy soil and vermiculite are modulated into slurries with water by the present invention, are adjusted Acid is prepared into disk slurries processed to 4.5~5.0.
In the present invention, the siccative and water of the extruding rice husk, broken section of corn stover, decomposed excrement, soddy soil and vermiculite Allotment ratio be per kilogram siccative add 40 kg of water allotment.The tune acid is preferably to 4.8.The purpose for adjusting acid is to improve Rice shoot disease resistance is ingenious to utilize rice acidproof and this not acidproof characteristic of germ.
After obtaining disk slurries processed, type is made by mold suction in the disk slurries processed by the present invention, in 250~270 DEG C of conditions Lower dry solidification;Obtain seedling raising ground substance disk just type.
In the present invention, the temperature of the dry solidification is preferably 260 DEG C.The temperature of the dry solidification is conducive to make to educate Seedling substrate plate embryo quickly consolidates molding, is not susceptible to fragmentation, in addition realizes high-temperature sterilization deinsectization weed eradication again.
After obtaining the first type of seedling raising ground substance disk, the present invention will accomplish fluently cavities according to the distributing position of seedling raising ground substance disk pocket Degradation paper, which is wrapped up in, to be sticked on the bottom surface and side wall of the first type of the seedling raising ground substance disk, and seedling raising ground substance disk is obtained.
In the present invention, preferably cavities is mapped with seedling raising ground substance disk pocket when wrapping up in viscous degradation paper.After being conducive to Continuous rice seed germination absorbs moisture and gas.
The seedling raising ground substance disk being prepared the present invention also provides the seedling raising ground substance disk or the preparation method exists Application in raising rice seedlings.
In the present invention, the method for the raising rice seedlings, preferably includes following steps:
Seedling raising ground substance disk is placed on the seedbed for being equipped with punching water conservation mulch, is then sowed with rice raise rice seedlings sower It into seedling raising ground substance disk, sprinkles profoundly water, rice seedling can be cultivated.
The present invention is not particularly limited method of sowing, using popular rice raise rice seedlings sower known in the art Sowing.The present invention is also not specifically limited the application rate, using application rate known in the art.
Rice shoot is obtained after rice seed germination, nutrition required for rice shoot is supplied by the method for adding mating fertilizer after emergence It gives.In bud initial stage starvation situation, hestening rooting;Mating special fertilizer is sprayed in two times in rice shoot neat seedling stage and 1.5 leaf phases, regulates and controls rice Seedling growing way cultivates strong seedling.Mating special fertilizer is water-soluble rice seedling-growth soil regulator, commercially available.
Seed seedling raising ground substance disk and preparation method are covered automatically to a kind of rice provided by the invention below with reference to embodiment It is described in detail with application, but they cannot be interpreted as limiting the scope of the present invention.
Embodiment 1
Method for preparing ingredients thereof:
1, rice husk: being crossed the sieve of 6~8mm, cleaned by the preparation of extruding rice husk, and decontamination processing is carried out swollen using bulking machine Change, 350 DEG C of the temperature of extruding, collects puff, obtain extruding rice husk.
2, broken section of corn stover of preparation: dry, pulverize processing for corn stover, sieving, collect fineness in 10mm or less Broken section of corn stover.
3, the preparation of decomposed cow dung: by cow dung adjustment water content to 45%, cow dung is piled into prismatoid, to cow dung center temperature When degree is higher than 55 DEG C, turning is primary every turning in 3 days, turns over altogether 4 times.Cow dung after turning is fermented 20d under sealing condition, Obtain decomposed cow dung.
4, the preparation of thin soddy soil: the soddy soil of purchase is crushed, and sieving collects screenings, obtains thin soddy soil.
5, the selection of vermiculite: the vermiculite of particle in purchase.
Embodiment 2
1, following weight weighing: the corn stover that 35kg extruding rice husk, 35kg are crushed, thin soddy soil, the 15kg of 15kg is pressed Decomposed cow dung and 20kg vermiculite.
2, the preparation method of substrate plate is covered automatically
Extruding rice husk particle, crushing maize stalk, decomposed cow dung, vermiculite, turf material are mixed according to the above mentioned proportion It is even.It is mixed with every 1 kilogram of siccative and 40 kg of water, appropriate diluted acid solution is sprayed while puddling by pH value and is adjusted to 5.0.Again will The mixed serum pumping prepared is put into laminator slurry pool, is obtained with mold adsorption forming with 260 DEG C of dried by hot air stream at high temperature First type.The just type is to insert 280 × 580mm of rice seedling disc specification by popular dryland seedling machine, is prepared into wide by 280 × long 580mm, thickness The nido substrate plate of 20mm (its pocket base thickness degree 10mm, pocket depth 10mm, cave wall thickness 4mm) specification is spent, laterally 18 Depression, longitudinal 36 depressions, the specification of depression are 10.8 × 10mm.Then the dry first type disk of preparation is used and is beaten by cave wall thickness 4mm The degradation paper of good cavities is bonded on the bottom surface and side wall of first type disk of above-mentioned preparation, obtains the seedling base of 280 × 580 × 20mm Matter disk finished product.
Embodiment 3
1, following weight weighing: the corn stover that 30kg extruding rice husk, 30kg are crushed, thin soddy soil, the 10kg of 10kg is pressed Decomposed cow dung and 10kg vermiculite.
2, the preparation method of substrate plate is covered automatically
Extruding rice husk particle, crushing maize stalk, decomposed cow dung, vermiculite, turf material are mixed according to the above mentioned proportion It is even.Every 1 kilogram of siccative and the mixing of 40 kg of water spray appropriate diluted acid solution while mixing for pH value and are adjusted to 4.5.It again will system The mixed serum pumping got ready is put into laminator slurry pool, is obtained just with mold adsorption forming with 260 DEG C of dried by hot air stream at high temperature Type.The just type is to insert 280 × 580mm of rice seedling disc specification by popular dryland seedling machine, is prepared into wide by 280 × long 580mm, thickness The nido substrate plate of 20mm (its pocket base thickness degree 10mm, pocket depth 10mm, cave wall thickness 4mm) specification, lateral 18 recessed Cave, longitudinal 36 depressions, the specification of depression are 10.8 × 10mm.Cave wall thickness 4mm, then will the dry first type disk of preparation with accomplishing fluently The degradation paper of cavities is bonded on the bottom surface and side wall of first type disk of above-mentioned preparation, obtains the seedling raising ground substance of 280 × 580 × 20mm Disk finished product.
Embodiment 4
1, following weight weighing: the corn stover that 32kg extruding rice husk, 33kg are crushed, thin soddy soil, the 13kg of 12kg is pressed Decomposed cow dung and 15kg vermiculite.
2, the preparation method of substrate plate is covered automatically
Extruding rice husk particle, crushing maize stalk, decomposed cow dung, vermiculite, turf material are mixed according to the above mentioned proportion It is even.Every 1 kilogram of siccative and the mixing of 40 kg of water spray appropriate diluted acid solution while mixing for pH value and are adjusted to 4.8.It again will system The mixed serum pumping got ready is put into laminator slurry pool, is obtained just with mold adsorption forming with 260 DEG C of dried by hot air stream at high temperature Type.The just type is to insert 280 × 580mm of rice seedling disc specification by popular dryland seedling machine, is prepared into wide by 280 × long 580mm, thickness The nido substrate plate of 20mm (its pocket base thickness degree 10mm, pocket depth 10mm, cave wall thickness 4mm) specification, lateral 18 recessed Cave, longitudinal 36 depressions, the specification of depression are 10.8 × 10mm.Cave wall thickness 4mm, then will the dry first type disk of preparation with accomplishing fluently The degradation paper of cavities is bonded on the bottom surface and side wall of first type disk of above-mentioned preparation, obtains the seedling raising ground substance of 280 × 580 × 20mm Disk finished product.(see Fig. 1).
Embodiment 5
1, the preparation in seedbed: removing impurity removing to seedling greenhouse and seedbed, sprays fungicide disinfection and sterilization, is laid with punching water conservation Mulch is on seedbed.
2, the substrate plate product placement for preparing embodiment 2 is educated on being laid with the seedbed for punching water conservation mulch using rice Seedling planting with sowing machine, every cave application rate are 3~5 rice paddy seeds, are then watered, and substrate plate expands after meeting water, and surface layer is covered automatically Lid seed sprays mating special fertilizer in rice shoot neat seedling stage and 1.5 leaf phases in two times, regulates and controls rice into later period normal water and fertilizer management Seedling growing way cultivates strong seedling.
Comparative example 1
Rice shoot is cultivated using conventional plastic breeding disk
(1) seedbed preparation: seedbed is located in seedling greenhouse, cleans to seedling greenhouse, seedbed;It is uniformly sprayed with fungicide Apply seedling greenhouse, seedbed is sterilized, no disease and pests harm in guarantee seedling greenhouse;
(2) seedling prepares: setting plastic rice seedling-raising disk on seedbed, decomposed muck and fine earth are mixed sieving, are laid in In plastic rice seedling-raising disk, the depth for filling muck is 3~5mm;
(3) it sows seed rice: seed rice is sown in each cave of seedling-cultivation plate, spray a small amount of moisture, reach water layer thickness The 1/3~1/2 of seed rice thickness;
(4) seed rice covers: after watering, it will cover that fine earth is evenly laid out in each cave, it is flat with the overlap of plastic rice seedling-raising disk Together;
(5) rice shoot management: seed rice after planting pours rice shoot with originally water spray to the 1 core phase of 2 leaf, uses since the 1 core phase of 2 leaf Nutrient solution recycles by water pump and pours rice shoot;After planting vertical seedling is taken root to rice shoot to start to take off the in due course hardening of film;Before shoot transplanting equipment, According to seedling growth situation to rice shoot top dressing;
(6) play seedling fortune seedling: when 1 core phase of 3 leaf of rice shoot, plant height 12-15cm, volume seedling rolls up strip rice shoot block at rice shoot, it Seedling rice transplanting is transported afterwards.
The rice shoot that embodiment 5 and comparative example 1 are bred as is in the experimental field of the same greenhouse, observation experiment Tanaka's dewdrop As a result phenomenon is shown in Fig. 3.From the figure 3, it may be seen that rice shoot blade tip is spat during the seedling growth educated using automatic earthing seedling raising ground substance disk Pearl is mostly again big, has obvious advantage than conventional native seedling raising and other matrix substrate nursery.
Embodiment 6
(1) the rice shoot difference rice transplanting being bred as embodiment 5 and comparative example 1 is in the field plots of greenhouse, using identical side Method rice cultivation.Fig. 4 is after rice seedlings cultivating 25 days, and automatic earthing seedling raising ground substance disk and conventional soil seedling in greenhouse compare Figure.As shown in Figure 4, the rice shoot educated using automatic earthing seedling raising ground substance disk is fine in big Tanaka's growing way, turns green fast, root of hair and point Tiller is early, and paddy is precocious, high-quality, high yield.And use the seedling growing way that conventional soil greenhouse is educated in comparative example 1 weaker, it turns green relatively slow, Cause paddy mature slow, and low output.
(2) random respectively from the automatic earthing seedling raising ground substance disk nursery of plantation and conventional soil seedling in greenhouse to extract 100 Rice shoot, as a result, it has been found that the rice shoot main root that automatic earthing seedling raising ground substance disk is educated is flourishing, fibrous root root hair is more.It is bred as the stem of seedling Solid degree feel test is also better than other controls.The measurement of hundred plant dry weights is than conventional soil nursery compared to increase 2.1g.
(3) covering seed seedling raising ground substance disk nursery and conventional seedlings and soil performance analysis automatically:
1) direct plunge into: per hectare is opened using automatic covering seed seedling raising ground substance disk 450,3.00 yuan every (including it is mating Special fertilizer), amount to 1,350 yuan/hectare.Traditional seedlings and soil (856 farm of Heilungkiang) hectare needs 3 cubic metres of nursery soil, hectare soil And 300 yuan/hectare of freight charges;Sieve 50 yuan/hectare of native recruitment;20 yuan/hectare of seedbed herbicide;120 yuan/hectare of artificial balance;It is strong 120 yuan/hectare of seedling agent;90 yuan of diseases prevention medicine;Seedling disk 500 opens × 0.4 yuan=200 yuan;The above general expenses adds up to 900 yuan/hectare. Therefore, 450 yuan of more investments of the nursery of seed seedling raising ground substance disk (1,350 yuan) than conventional native (900 yuan) are covered automatically.
2) income comparison: 2,784 yuan of more incomes of automatic covering seed seedling raising ground substance disk nursery than conventional soil.
A. covering seed seedling raising ground substance disk nursery machine transplanting of rice miss in seedling setting seedling rate is low automatically, and disconnected sky of not being short of seedling saves artificial fill the gaps with seedlings work Sequence reduces 600 yuan/hectare of investment (3 working hours of per hectare of averagely filling the gaps with seedlings recruitment, 200 yuan of each working hour calculating) than conventional.
B. rice transplanting saves 10% than control with seedling quantity.50 disks/hectare fewer than control (conventional soil nursery), every disk valence 4 yuan of lattice calculating, can save 200 yuan.
C. yield is surveyed, more solito nursery seedling is compared using automatic covering seed seedling raising ground substance plate seedling raising and increases yield 640 Kilogram/hectare, amount of increase in production 8%.3.10 yuan of per kilogram, increase by 1984 yuan of income.
Direct benefit and indirect benefit comprehensive analysis: automatic covering seed seedling raising ground substance disk nursery and conventional seedlings and soil are put into It compares, per hectare investment increases by 450 yuan.Comprehensive income compares disk nursery and increases by 2,784 yuan than conventional seedlings and soil.Seedling raising ground substance disk Seedling net income increases by 2,334 yuan, input-output ratio 1:5.2.It improves product quality, and high-quality and efficient income does not calculate wherein.
It can be seen from the above, covering seed seedling raising ground substance disk nursery automatically using rice, that is, nursery soil is substituted, also substitution modeling Expect seedling-cultivation plate, can directly put use, the process for saving after planting overburden soil again.Its specification adapts to existing universal model rice transplanting The culture facilities such as machine and seedling culture shed use, without being further added by or being transformed new facility.Seed seedling raising ground substance plate seedling raising is covered with automatic, Soil, material-saving, saving of labor, time saving, province's expense are saved, is suitble to broadcast pendulum machine sowing kind automatically.Root growth environment has prominent than usual manner nursery Improve to broken property, by the reasonably combined of material and processing in quality, so that matrix physicochemical character and bioactivity preferably System's development, and construction one is suitable for the matrix body of cold ground nursery root growth, enhances the resistance during seedling growth.From And cultivate strong sprout.It turns green after rice shoot machine transplanting of rice Honda fast, root of hair and tiller are early, and paddy is precocious, high-quality, high yield.Transplanting simultaneously Field miss in seedling setting seedling rate reduces, and uniformity between machine transplanting of rice Miao Cong has built high photosynthetic efficiency group structure, realize transplanting rice high yield, Efficiently, high-quality.The agricultural waste materials such as rice husk, crop material are efficiently utilized, realize that organic substance recycles, become useless For treasured.Realize the sustainable development of the ecological agriculture.Reduce environmental pollution caused by unreasonable, unscientific stalk processing mode Problem.Ecological benefits are remarkably reinforced with social benefit.
The above is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, it is noted that for the ordinary skill people of the art For member, various improvements and modifications may be made without departing from the principle of the present invention, these improvements and modifications are also answered It is considered as protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of rice covers seed seedling raising ground substance disk automatically, which is characterized in that comprise the following components in parts by weight: 30~35 parts Extruding rice husk, broken section, 10~15 parts soddy soils of 30~35 parts of corn stovers, 10~15 parts of decomposed excrement and 10~20 parts of vermiculites; Each seedling raising ground substance disk further includes that an area is 0.32~0.33 × 0.62~0.63m2Degradation paper.
2. seedling raising ground substance disk according to claim 1, which is characterized in that comprise the following components in parts by weight: 32 parts of extrudings Rice husk, broken section, 12 parts soddy soils of 33 parts of corn stovers, 12 parts of decomposed excrement and 15 parts of vermiculites;Each seedling raising ground substance disk further includes One area is 0.33 × 0.63m2Degradation paper.
3. seedling raising ground substance disk according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the integral thickness of the seedling raising ground substance disk be 18~ 22mm, the specification of the seedling raising ground substance disk are long 578~582mm × wide 278~282mm;
The upper surface of described seedling raising ground substance disk is provided with the depression of matrix form distribution, and the depth of the depression is 8~12mm, described recessed The specification in cave is long 10.8mm × wide 10mm;
Cave wall, 3~5mm of thickness of the cave wall are provided between every two depression;The bottom surface of the depression is away from seedling raising ground substance disk Bottom surface with a thickness of 8~10mm;The seedling raising ground substance disk is horizontally arranged with 18 depressions, is vertically arranged with 36 depressions.
4. seedling raising ground substance disk according to claim 3, which is characterized in that the integral thickness of the seedling raising ground substance disk is 20mm, the specification of the seedling raising ground substance disk are long 580mm × wide 280mm;
The depth of the depression is 10mm;
Be provided with cave wall between every two depression, the cave wall with a thickness of 4mm;It tries to get to the heart of a matter away from seedling raising ground substance the bottom surface of the depression Face with a thickness of 10mm.
5. seedling raising ground substance disk described in any one according to claim 1~4, which is characterized in that the extruding rice husk is partial size 6 The rice husk of~8mm 15~25s of extruding under the conditions of 300~400 DEG C is obtained.
6. seedling raising ground substance disk described in any one according to claim 1~4, which is characterized in that broken section of the corn stover Fineness is lower than 10mm.
7. seedling raising ground substance disk described in any one according to claim 1~4, which is characterized in that the granularity of the soddy soil is 10~20 mesh;The partial size of the vermiculite is 2~4mm;The decomposed excrement is decomposed cow dung.
8. the preparation method of seedling raising ground substance disk described in claim 1~7 any one, which comprises the following steps:
1) extruding rice husk, broken section of corn stover, decomposed excrement, soddy soil and vermiculite are modulated into slurries with water, adjust acid to 4.5~ 5.0, it is prepared into disk slurries processed;
2) type is made by mold suction in the disk slurries processed, dry solidification under the conditions of 250~270 DEG C;Obtain seedling base The first type of matter disk;
3) cavities is accomplished fluently on degradation paper according to the distributing position of seedling raising ground substance disk pocket, the degradation paper for accomplishing fluently cavities is wrapped up in viscous On the bottom surface and side wall of type, seedling raising ground substance disk is being obtained at the beginning of the seedling raising ground substance disk.
What 9. seedling raising ground substance disk or preparation method according to any one of claims 8 described in claim 1~7 any one were prepared Application of the seedling raising ground substance disk in raising rice seedlings.
10. application according to claim 9, which is characterized in that the method for the raising rice seedlings, comprising the following steps:
Seedling raising ground substance disk is placed on the seedbed for being equipped with punching water conservation mulch, is then sowed with rice raise rice seedlings sower to educating It in seedling substrate plate, sprinkles profoundly water, rice seedling can be cultivated.
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CN113557873A (en) * 2021-08-26 2021-10-29 齐齐哈尔大学 Precision seeding environment-friendly bowl body seedling raising tray and preparation method thereof
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CN114600732A (en) * 2022-03-11 2022-06-10 广东省农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所 Iron-modified biochar rice seedling raising matrix, matrix plate and preparation method
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