CN106359024A - Automatic control method for narrow row-space root-divided alternative irrigation - Google Patents

Automatic control method for narrow row-space root-divided alternative irrigation Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106359024A
CN106359024A CN201610840746.2A CN201610840746A CN106359024A CN 106359024 A CN106359024 A CN 106359024A CN 201610840746 A CN201610840746 A CN 201610840746A CN 106359024 A CN106359024 A CN 106359024A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
water delivery
hollow billet
soil moisture
water
delivery hollow
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Pending
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CN201610840746.2A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
曹建生
胡春胜
郝小华
王贺辉
刘秀萍
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Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology of CAS
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Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology of CAS
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Application filed by Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology of CAS filed Critical Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology of CAS
Priority to CN201610840746.2A priority Critical patent/CN106359024A/en
Publication of CN106359024A publication Critical patent/CN106359024A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G25/00Watering gardens, fields, sports grounds or the like
    • A01G25/16Control of watering
    • A01G25/167Control by humidity of the soil itself or of devices simulating soil or of the atmosphere; Soil humidity sensors
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G25/00Watering gardens, fields, sports grounds or the like
    • A01G25/02Watering arrangements located above the soil which make use of perforated pipe-lines or pipe-lines with dispensing fittings, e.g. for drip irrigation

Abstract

The invention discloses an automatic control method for narrow row-space root-divided alternative irrigation. A group of water delivery capillary pipes with electromagnetic valves are respectively disposed on two sides of a crop row; soil moisture sensors are respectively embedded below the two groups of water delivery capillary pipes; when any group of water delivery capillary pipes deliver water, the soil humidity below the other group of water delivery capillary pipes is influenced. The automatic control method enables the horizontal wetness radiuses of the capillary pipes on the two sides of the crop row to be mutually influenced, the root-divided alternative irrigation with high efficiency and high automation is realized through construction of a corresponding automatic control system according to the degree of moisture contents of soils on the two sides of the crop row and the mutual interaction relation.

Description

A kind of narrow row is away from root-divided alternative irrigation autocontrol method
Technical field
The present invention relates to water-saving irrigation technique field, particularly to a kind of narrow row away from root-divided alternative irrigation technology.
Background technology
With the worsening shortages of freshwater resources and being continuously increased of water requirement, it is real that Developing Water-saving Agriculture has become countries in the world The important countermeasure of sustainable development under the conditions of existing Water Resources Restriction.China water resource occupancy volume per person only has 2300 cubic metres, about For the 1/4 of world's per capita share, come the 121st in the world, be one of 13 poor-water countries in the world, agricultural is to use simultaneously again Water rich and influential family, agricultural irrigation water amount accounts for the 65% about of national total supply.However, water resource is not enough and serious in agricultural production Waste, the low contradiction of utilization ratio are very prominent, and Developing Water-saving Agriculture is more urgent.In view of the irrigation and water conservancy of current China puts into water Flat restriction, improving surface irrigation will be the main flow of water-saving irrigation within considerable time, but for water saving potential, biological Water saving is research emphasis and the focus of following water-saving agriculture, therefore integrates ground and improves the comprehensive water saving with Biological Water Saving in Agriculture Technology is the primary study direction of China's water-saving agriculture.
Early in the 60-70 age in 20th century, foreign scholar has started to attempt irrigating and every ditch using interlacing on some crops Irrigation technique, has carried out systematic study to Crop Water Use Efficiency, evapotranspiration characteristic under these technology.1996, Kang Shaozhong On the basis of potted plant, plot experiment, land for growing field crops application test indoors, system proposes crop root subregion alternate irrigation first Technology, illustrates its concept, theoretical basiss and implementation.Kang Shao loyalty in 1997 etc. proposes and is suitable to fruit tree partial root zone and replaces The four kinds of application models irrigated, that is, alternate furrow irrigation system, portable alternatively drip irrigating system, ring-type automatic control type alternately drip Fill system and alternate infiltrating irrigation system.Pour water reality in conjunction with China orchard, some scholars also proposed development and replace hole irrigation (ware filling) Technology.In addition, for thin planting class field crop, also can achieve different root-zones on the premise of integrated application ridge furrow irrigation technology Between alternative water-supply.
Controlled root divided alternative irrigation as a kind of brand-new farmland water-saving new approaches and new technique, still locate at present by its research In initial stage, although it have been demonstrated that have in theory with implement on probability and huge water saving potential, but specifically real Also there are some problems during applying.Such as, the increase of the institution such as water-supply pipeline, its cost may be beyond routine Irrigate, so that its economic benefit decreases;Consider that the synthesis of soil water movement process, Root Distribution situation etc. replaces to fill The quantification irrigate and operableization level are also relatively low;The automatization level of root-divided alternative irrigation control system is also relatively low, cost ratio Higher, structure is complex, is unfavorable for large-area applications and popularization.
Content of the invention
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention is to provide a kind of narrow row away from root-divided alternative irrigation autocontrol method, makes crop The horizontal wetted radius of row both sides hollow billet exist and influence each other, the size according to crop row both sides soil moisture content and interaction Relation, by realizing high efficiency to the structure of corresponding automatic control system and supermatic narrow row is away from root-divided alternative irrigation.
For solving above-mentioned technical problem, the technical solution used in the present invention is as follows.
A kind of narrow row, away from root-divided alternative irrigation autocontrol method, is respectively provided with one group in crop row both sides and carries electromagnetic valve Water delivery hollow billet, below two groups of water delivery hollow billets respectively bury soil moisture sensor, all to another during arbitrary group of water delivery hollow billet water delivery Soil moisture below one group of water delivery hollow billet produces impact.
As a preferred technical solution of the present invention, one group of central intelligent controller is set, described soil moisture is passed Sensor arranges the signal input part in this central intelligent controller, arranges described electromagnetic valve in this central intelligent controller simultaneously Signal output part;Now, based on following two conditions:
1. the soil moisture content of synchronization agricultural land soil any two points be impossible to just the same;
2. all impact is produced on the soil moisture below another group of water delivery hollow billet during arbitrary group of water delivery hollow billet water delivery;
Irrigated to crop row both sides successively respectively by two groups of water delivery hollow billets of control realization of central intelligent controller, that is, certainly Move and realize b side water delivery hollow billet closing when water delivery hollow billet in a side is irrigated, reach both sides water delivery hollow billet after certain soil moisture requires and all close Close, when next time irrigates, water delivery hollow billet in b side is irrigated and the closing of a side water delivery hollow billet, reach both sides water delivery after certain soil moisture requires Hollow billet is turned off, Automatic Cycle.
As a preferred technical solution of the present invention, described central intelligent controller is powered by direct current dc24v power supply, It is provided with power supply output channel, at least 2 road voltage signal input channels, at least 2 road alarm relay output channels, its In:
Described power supply output channel is connected with described soil moisture sensor and provides dc12v power supply for the latter;
Described 2 tunnel control source passages are communicated to connect with the soil moisture sensor of crop row both sides respectively, receive crop respectively The soil moisture sensor of row both sides sends, according to soil moisture state, the 2 road voltage signals of returning, then by this 2 road voltage letter Number it is compared to the 2 tunnel alarm voltage values related with water-retaining quantity among field of soil set in advance respectively, central intelligent controller Control the folding of 2 road alarm relay output channels according to comparative result respectively;
Described 2 road alarm relay output channels are communicated to connect with the electromagnetic valve on crop row both sides water delivery hollow billet respectively;
Realize two groups of water delivery hollow billets by above-mentioned setting to be irrigated to crop row both sides successively respectively, that is, be automatically obtained a side defeated When water hollow billet is irrigated, water delivery hollow billet in b side is closed, and reaches both sides water delivery hollow billet after certain soil moisture requires and is turned off, next time irrigates When b side water delivery hollow billet irrigate and water delivery hollow billet in a side is closed, reaching both sides water delivery hollow billet after certain soil moisture requires is turned off, Automatic Cycle.
As a preferred technical solution of the present invention, described 2 tunnels related to water-retaining quantity among field of soil set in advance The value of alarm voltage value by the 50-80% of field capacity when corresponding soil moisture sensor output valve be defined, work as the soil water When the real output value of sub-sensor is less than described preset value, central intelligent controller controls corresponding alarm relay output logical Road closes, and opens corresponding electromagnetic valve and starts to irrigate;Otherwise closed electromagnetic valve.
As a preferred technical solution of the present invention, described soil moisture sensor be voltage sensor, buried depth in Crop root layer, it works under direct current dc12v power supply condition of power supply, and it is straight that the size according to soil moisture content exports a 0-5v Stream voltage signal, the relation of soil moisture content q voltage signal v is: q=v/5.
As a preferred technical solution of the present invention, described electromagnetic valve is normally closed solenoid valve, powers as direct current Dc12v, energising is opened, power-off is closed.
As a preferred technical solution of the present invention, described water delivery hollow billet is arranged on pressure water conveyer pipeline, has pressure defeated Water lines include supervisor and some arms, are respectively arranged with valve on supervisor and arm.
As a preferred technical solution of the present invention, two groups of water delivery hollow billets of crop row both sides are arranged on together by bypass Article one, on arm, and in the stem of water delivery hollow billet, electromagnetic valve is installed respectively,
As a preferred technical solution of the present invention, two groups of water delivery hollow billets of crop row both sides be separately mounted to two parallel On arm, and the stem in arm installs electromagnetic valve.
As a preferred technical solution of the present invention, described arm adopts the pe pipeline of ф 50mm, described water delivery hollow billet Using the pe drip irrigation zone of ф 20mm, dripper spacing is 30cm, and horizontal wetted radius are 50cm, two groups of water delivery hairs of crop row both sides Tube pitch be 60cm it is ensured that wherein side water delivery capillary watering when can cause the increase of opposite side soil moisture content.
Have the beneficial effects that using produced by technique scheme:
The present invention makes the horizontal wetted radius presence of crop row both sides hollow billet influence each other, according to crop row both sides soil moisture content Size and interaction relationship, by high efficiency and supermatic point are achieved to the structure of corresponding automatic control system Root alternate irrigation.Specifically, the present invention is set and system constructing by simply and cleverly principle, with " 1. synchronization farmland The soil moisture content of soil any two points be impossible to just the same, 2. arbitrary group of water delivery hollow billet water delivery when all to another group of water delivery Soil moisture below hollow billet produces impact " based on this 2 points, with foolproof several groups of sensors, electromagnetic valve and Simple controller, just efficient and supermatic achieve two groups of water delivery hollow billets and filled to crop row both sides successively respectively Irrigate, when that is, water delivery hollow billet in a side is irrigated, water delivery hollow billet in b side is closed, reach both sides water delivery hollow billet after certain soil moisture requires and all close Close, when next time irrigates, water delivery hollow billet in b side is irrigated and the closing of a side water delivery hollow billet, reach both sides water delivery after certain soil moisture requires Hollow billet is turned off, Automatic Cycle.
Meanwhile, the method for the present invention is also integrated with a point root water-saving irrigation technique, keeps the soil of crop root mobile layer Earth is dried in certain region of level (vertical) section, makes root system replace in the arid region of level (vertical) section simultaneously Existing, remain that a part for crop root is grown in the soil environment being dried or being more dried, such control effect tool There are high water saving and effect of increasing production;This is because, first, the crop root being in dry section can produce water stress signal biography It is delivered to leaf stoma, thus effectively adjust leaf stoma closing, controlling rising, and the crop root being in humid region absorbs from soil Moisture, to meet the need of the minimum life of crop, within making to be maintained at critical limit to the injury of crop;Secondly, alternative split-root During irrigation, upper soll layer is always intermittent is in dry section, the invalid evaporation loss between so both can having reduced, can improve again The breathability of soil, promotes crop root compensatory growth, strengthens the function of root system, improves the profit to soil moisture, nutrient for the root system With rate.
In sum, facing agricultural modernization of the present invention and the need strategy of Water resources security are asked, extensive around agricultural water The problem relatively low with water-saving irrigation automatization level, has carried out narrow row grinding away from root-divided alternative irrigation automatic control system and method Study carefully, be integrated with innovation Modern Sensor Technology with intelligent control technology it is achieved that the automatization away from root-divided alternative irrigation for the narrow row is controlled System, provides new highly effective technological means for water-saving irrigation automatization.
Brief description
Fig. 1 is the schematic diagram of one specific embodiment of the present invention, and wherein two groups of hollow billets of a, b are arranged on same arm On, and in hollow billet stem, electromagnetic valve is installed.
Fig. 2 is the schematic diagram of another specific embodiment of the present invention, and wherein two groups of hollow billets of a, b are separately mounted to two parallel Arm on, and arm stem install electromagnetic valve.
In figure: central intelligent controller (1), arm (2), water delivery hollow billet (3), electromagnetic valve (4), soil moisture sensor (5).
Specific embodiment
The following is the embodiment that inventor provides, it should be noted that these embodiments are the present invention preferably example, The present invention is not limited to these embodiments, and those skilled in the art is according to scheme disclosed by the invention, special to technology therein Levy made equivalence replacement, interpolation, belong to protection scope of the present invention.
Embodiment 1, plumbing system
Arm adopts the pe pipeline of ф 50mm, and hollow billet adopts the pe drip irrigation zone of ф 20mm, and dripper spacing is 30cm, and level moistens half Footpath is 50cm, and hollow billet is passed through bypass and is connected with arm.Lay a hollow billet, capillary pipe spacing in the left and right sides of every row crop respectively For 60cm it is ensured that wherein side capillary watering when can cause the increase of opposite side soil moisture (water content), and according to left and right It is divided into two groups of a, b, accompanying drawing 1 gives a, b structural representation that two groups of hollow billets are arranged on same arm, and in hollow billet stem Electromagnetic valve is installed, electromagnetic valve is normally closed solenoid valve, powers as direct current dc12v, i.e. energising unlatching, power-off closing.Accompanying drawing 2 is given Go out two groups of hollow billets of a, b to be separately mounted on two parallel arms, and the stem in arm has installed electromagnetic valve.
Embodiment 2, automatic control system
Select a row crop, respectively in the right and left of crop row, that is, the neighbouring installation soil moisture sensing of two hollow billets Device -1,2.Soil moisture sensor is voltage sensor, that is, under direct current dc12v power supply condition of power supply, according to soil moisture The size of (water content), will export a 0-5v d. c. voltage signal.Soil moisture content (q) voltage signal relation (v) is: q= v/5.Its power supply is provided by central intelligent controller power supply output channel, and 0-5v d. c. voltage signal is led to by control source Road is conveyed to central intelligent controller, is compared with soil moisture (water content) low alarm setting value simultaneously, arranges soil herein Humidity (water content) low alarm setting value is the 65% of field capacity.
Embodiment 3, the narrow row automatization away from root-divided alternative irrigation realizes.
Clear and definite first, the target of this research is: " narrow row away under the conditions of, efficient and supermatic achieve two groups Water delivery hollow billet is irrigated to crop row both sides respectively successively, and when that is, water delivery hollow billet in a side is irrigated, water delivery hollow billet in b side is closed, and reaches After necessarily soil moisture requires, both sides water delivery hollow billet is turned off, and when next time irrigates, water delivery hollow billet in b side is irrigated and a side water delivery hollow billet pass Close, reach both sides water delivery hollow billet after certain soil moisture requires and be turned off, Automatic Cycle ".
For this reason, our creativeness propose at following 2 points as the basis realizing said system function and starting point: " 1. The soil moisture content of synchronization agricultural land soil any two points be impossible to just the same, 2. arbitrary group of water delivery hollow billet water delivery when equal Impact is produced on the soil moisture below another group of water delivery hollow billet ".
Specifically, the soil moisture (water content) of agricultural land soil any two points be impossible to just the same, more or less all Can there are some differences, the numerical value that this will result in a wherein soil moisture sensor -1 first drops to central intelligent controller Low alarm setting value (the 65% of field capacity), thus driving first via warning output passage first to close, corresponding electromagnetic valve immediately A opens, and a group hollow billet starts to pour water, and because the spacing of two groups of hollow billets of a, b is near enough, horizontal wetted radius presence influences each other, this Sample as a result, the numerical value of another soil moisture sensor -2 also no longer declines, but rise that is to say, that second tunnel report to the police Output channel will not be closed again, and electromagnetic valve b also will not open again, until this water-pouring process terminates (field capacity).Afterwards, Due to the difference of two soil moisture sensors -1,2 positions, the soil moisture near this hollow billet do not poured water (contains The water yield) can be more low, during the field evapotranspiration in later stage is sent out, during rate is first dropped to by the numerical value of soil moisture sensor -2 Centre intelligent controller low alarm setting value (the 65% of field capacity), thus drive the second tunnel warning output passage first to close, immediately Corresponding electromagnetic valve b opens, and b group hollow billet starts to pour water, also due to the spacing of two groups of hollow billets of a, b is near enough, level moistens Radius presence influences each other, as a result, the numerical value of another soil moisture sensor -1 also no longer declines, but on Rise that is to say, that first via warning output passage is not closed again, electromagnetic valve a also will not open again, until this water-pouring process knot Bundle.Circulate successively, realize narrow row away under the conditions of root-divided alternative irrigation automatic control process.
As fully visible, the present invention is set and system constructing by simply and cleverly principle, with foolproof several groups Sensor, electromagnetic valve and simple controller, that is, achieve the target of original start, efficient and supermatic achieve two groups Water delivery hollow billet is irrigated to crop row both sides respectively successively.
Foregoing description is only used as the enforceable technical scheme of the present invention and proposes, not as single to its technical scheme itself Restrictive condition.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of narrow row away from root-divided alternative irrigation autocontrol method it is characterised in that: be respectively provided with one group in crop row both sides Water delivery hollow billet (3) with electromagnetic valve (4), buries soil moisture sensor (5) respectively below two groups of water delivery hollow billets (3), arbitrary All impact is produced on the soil moisture below another group of water delivery hollow billet (3) during group water delivery hollow billet (3) water delivery.
2. narrow row according to claim 1 away from root-divided alternative irrigation autocontrol method it is characterised in that: setting one group in Centre intelligent controller (1), by the signal input part in this central intelligent controller (1) for described soil moisture sensor (5) setting, The signal output part in this central intelligent controller (1) by described electromagnetic valve (4) setting simultaneously;Now, with following two conditions Based on:
1. the soil moisture content of synchronization agricultural land soil any two points be impossible to just the same;
2. all impact is produced on the soil moisture below another group of water delivery hollow billet (3) during arbitrary group of water delivery hollow billet (3) water delivery;
Filled to crop row both sides successively respectively by two groups of water delivery hollow billets (3) of control realization of central intelligent controller (1) Irrigate, that is, be automatically obtained b side water delivery hollow billet (3) when a side water delivery hollow billet (3) is irrigated and close, reach two after certain soil moisture requires Side water delivery hollow billet (3) is turned off, and b side water delivery hollow billet (3) when next time irrigates is irrigated and a side water delivery hollow billet (3) closing, reaches certain Both sides water delivery hollow billet (3) after soil moisture requires is turned off, Automatic Cycle.
3. narrow row according to claim 2 away from root-divided alternative irrigation autocontrol method it is characterised in that: described central authorities intelligence Can be powered by direct current dc24v power supply on controller, be provided with power supply output channel, at least 2 road voltage signal input channels, At least 2 road alarm relay output channels, wherein:
Described power supply output channel is connected with described soil moisture sensor (5) and provides dc12v power supply for the latter;
Described 2 tunnel control source passages are communicated to connect with the soil moisture sensor (5) of crop row both sides respectively, receive respectively and make The soil moisture sensor (5) of thing row both sides sends, according to soil moisture state, the 2 road voltage signals of returning, then by this 2 tunnel Voltage signal is compared to the 2 tunnel alarm voltage values related with water-retaining quantity among field of soil set in advance respectively, central authorities' intelligence Controller (1) controls the folding of 2 road alarm relay output channels respectively according to comparative result;
Described 2 road alarm relay output channels respectively with crop row both sides water delivery hollow billet (3) on electromagnetic valve (4) communication link Connect;
Realize two groups of water delivery hollow billets (3) by above-mentioned setting to be irrigated to crop row both sides successively respectively, that is, be automatically obtained a side When water delivery hollow billet (3) is irrigated, b side water delivery hollow billet (3) is closed, and reaches both sides water delivery hollow billet (3) after certain soil moisture requires and all closes Close, b side water delivery hollow billet (3) when next time irrigates is irrigated and a side water delivery hollow billet (3) closing, reach two after certain soil moisture requires Side water delivery hollow billet (3) is turned off, Automatic Cycle.
4. narrow row according to claim 3 away from root-divided alternative irrigation autocontrol method it is characterised in that: described set in advance The value of the fixed 2 tunnel alarm voltage values related to water-retaining quantity among field of soil is with corresponding soil during the 50-80% of field capacity Moisture transducer (5) output valve is defined, when the real output value of soil moisture sensor (5) is less than described preset value, central authorities Intelligent controller (1) controls corresponding alarm relay output channel closure, opens corresponding electromagnetic valve (4) and starts to irrigate;No Then electromagnetic valve (4) cuts out.
5. narrow row according to claim 3 away from root-divided alternative irrigation autocontrol method it is characterised in that: the described soil water Sub-sensor (5) is voltage sensor, and in crop root layer, it works under direct current dc12v power supply condition of power supply buried depth, root Size according to soil moisture content exports a 0-5v d. c. voltage signal, and the relation of soil moisture content q voltage signal v is: q=v/ 5.
6. narrow row according to claim 3 away from root-divided alternative irrigation autocontrol method it is characterised in that: described electromagnetic valve (4) it is normally closed solenoid valve, power as direct current dc12v, energising unlatching, power-off closing.
7. narrow row according to claim 3 away from root-divided alternative irrigation autocontrol method it is characterised in that: described water delivery hair Manage (3) to be arranged on pressure water conveyer pipeline, pressure water conveyer pipeline includes supervisor and some arms (2), supervisor and arm divide It is not provided with valve.
8. narrow row according to claim 7 away from root-divided alternative irrigation autocontrol method it is characterised in that: crop row both sides Two groups of water delivery hollow billets (3) be arranged on same arm (2) by bypass, and respectively water delivery hollow billet (3) stem install Electromagnetic valve (4).
9. narrow row according to claim 7 away from root-divided alternative irrigation autocontrol method it is characterised in that: crop row both sides Two groups of water delivery hollow billets (3) be separately mounted on two parallel arms (2), and arm stem install electromagnetic valve (4).
10. narrow row according to claim 8 or claim 9 away from root-divided alternative irrigation autocontrol method it is characterised in that: described Pipe (2) adopts the pe pipeline of ф 50mm, and described water delivery hollow billet (3) adopts the pe drip irrigation zone of ф 20mm, and dripper spacing is 30cm, water Flat radius of wetted bulb is 50cm, and two groups of water delivery hollow billet (3) spacing of crop row both sides are 60cm it is ensured that wherein side water delivery hollow billet (3) increase of opposite side soil moisture content can be caused when pouring water.
CN201610840746.2A 2016-09-22 2016-09-22 Automatic control method for narrow row-space root-divided alternative irrigation Pending CN106359024A (en)

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