CN106192938B - A kind of ecological canal system and construction method for farmland water-break pollution prevention - Google Patents

A kind of ecological canal system and construction method for farmland water-break pollution prevention Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106192938B
CN106192938B CN201610546685.9A CN201610546685A CN106192938B CN 106192938 B CN106192938 B CN 106192938B CN 201610546685 A CN201610546685 A CN 201610546685A CN 106192938 B CN106192938 B CN 106192938B
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canal
water
plant
pool
library
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CN106192938A (en
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陈庆锋
赵长盛
李荣斌
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Shandong Analysis and Test Center
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Shandong Analysis and Test Center
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02BHYDRAULIC ENGINEERING
    • E02B11/00Drainage of soil, e.g. for agricultural purposes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G2/00Vegetative propagation
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/32Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage characterised by the animals or plants used, e.g. algae
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/34Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage characterised by the microorganisms used
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02BHYDRAULIC ENGINEERING
    • E02B13/00Irrigation ditches, i.e. gravity flow, open channel water distribution systems
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2101/00Nature of the contaminant
    • C02F2101/10Inorganic compounds
    • C02F2101/105Phosphorus compounds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2101/00Nature of the contaminant
    • C02F2101/10Inorganic compounds
    • C02F2101/16Nitrogen compounds, e.g. ammonia
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W10/00Technologies for wastewater treatment
    • Y02W10/10Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage

Abstract

Ecological canal system for farmland water-break pollution prevention of the invention is constructed including sublateral canal, branch canal, library/pool and the trunk canal being sequentially communicated by following steps: 1) building of sublateral canal: 1-1) finishing sublateral canal;1-2) planting plants;1-3) multistage stone rank is arranged in;2) building of branch canal: 2-1) finishing branch canal;2-2) branch canal side slope is arranged in;2-3) builds soil property and intercepts dam;2-4) planting plants and arrangement artificial aquatic weed;2-5) gabion is arranged in;3) library /pool building;4) building in the trunk canal.This construction method is that finishing and ecological reconstruction are carried out on the basis of original irrigation canals and ditches, it is more conducive to agricultural surface runoff and the discharge of farmland irrigating water, entire transformation process does not change the pattern of agricultural production, irrigation canals and ditches can be improved to the detergent power of polluter in agricultural drain simultaneously, do not occupy cultivated land additionally resource, construction method, technique and daily maintenance are simple, it is easy to accomplish and promote.

Description

A kind of ecological canal system and construction method for farmland water-break pollution prevention
Technical field
The present invention relates to agricultural non -point pollution control technology fields, are more particularly to a kind of life of resistance control farmland water-break pollution State sewerage construction method, the Traditional Agricultural irrigated area seriously polluted suitable for farmland water-break, especially the Plain agriculture of irrigation canals and ditches in length and breadth Industry area.
Background technique
Currently, agricultural non-point source pollution caused by agricultural non-point source pollution especially agricultural production and life activity, has become The most important source of water environment pollution.Agricultural non-point source pollution refers in Agricultural Activities, the nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus element, pesticide And other organic or inorganic polluters, it is leaked by the rainwash in farmland and farmland, the pollution of the water environment of formation, it is main It to include pollution by chemical fertilizer, pollution by pesticides and centralization-breeding factory pollution.It is generally deposited in the world currently, agricultural non-point source pollution has become A serious environmental problems.The result of study of many countries and regions confirms in the world, and agricultural non-point source pollution is to cause The main reason for water eutrophication.In China with the increase of rural activity and applying quantity of chemical fertilizer, agricultural non-point source pollution is to water The ratio that environment pollutes also is increasing.Have become maximum nitrogen fertilizer production and consumption in the world in China in 2008 State, total fertilizer consumption reach 52,000,000 tons, account for the 1/3 of world's total flow, and the farmland amount of application that is averaged is about 230 kg N hm-2, in some provinces, the amount of application that is averaged reaches 400 kg N hm-2, the amount of application of some vegetable fields is even more than 1000 kg N hm-2.Excessive application chemical fertilizer can aggravate the eutrophication of surface water body.According to investigation in the eutrophication of Dian Chi, agricultural area source is dirty Dye contributes to 44.5% nitrogen and 26.7% phosphorus respectively.In Taihu Lake 40% ~ 90% total nitrogen and 38% ~ 90% total phosphorus from agriculture Field.
Both at home and abroad during administering pollution of area source, gradually recognize that ecological process is effectively arranging for controlling area-source pollution It applies, Technical comparing is mature at present and has using more ecological process: artificial swamp, front damming, vegetation buffer strip, land and water interlock Band etc..Although these technologies can effective preventing and controlling agricultural area source pollution, due to needing biggish occupied area, it is difficult to big Range promotes and applies, and is not suitable for the national conditions that China has a large population and a few land especially.Farm field irrigation drainage Box Drain is farmland ecosystem weight Component part is wanted, primarily serves irrigation in agricultural production, the effect that water storage is even controlled flood.In recent years, both domestic and external Person generally believes that farm field irrigation drainage Box Drain is the ecological engineering system with river or wet land system feature, has aquatic ecosystem The ecological functions of system, gradually as a kind of important means for controlling agricultural non-point source pollution.And ecological canal is a kind of novel Ecological engineering science technology is mainly made of engineering measure and botanical system two parts.Mainly for current agricultural irrigation canals and ditches into draining Have a single function, trench architectures destroy phenomena such as significant and hardening trend accelerates, ecological canal follows ecological principle, is protecting Under the premise of card Tu Shui, rustic exchange and ecologic structure are not destroyed, slope protection and river bottom protection intensity are suitably increased by engineering measure, constructed Stablize the ecosystem, the effects of by plant absorption and adsorption by soil, plays the function of purifying water and intercept pollutant.Cause This, ecological canal has the characteristics that ecological functions are complete, pollutant rejection is high, landscape is pleasing, slope protection is efficient.Ecological canal Invention and building can well solve the contradiction between people ground, but due to the area differentiation and regional economy of agricultural non-point source pollution The difference of development level, there is presently no the ecological canals for being generally applicable to different agricultural tillage areas.
Summary of the invention
The present invention in order to overcome the shortcomings of the above technical problems, provides a kind of ecology for farmland water-break pollution prevention Sewerage and construction method.
Ecological canal system for farmland water-break pollution prevention of the invention, including sublateral canal, branch canal, library/pool and trunk canal, Sublateral canal, branch canal are spaced apart in farmland, and sublateral canal is communicated with branch canal, so that the farmland water-break for entering sublateral canal to be discharged into branch canal; Branch canal is communicated with library/pool, to be discharged into the farmland water-break in branch canal into library/pool;Library/pool is communicated with trunk canal, so as to library/pool In water be discharged through trunk canal;It is characterized by: kind is implanted with native plants on the canal bottom of sublateral canal, side slope, sublateral canal enters entering for branch canal It is provided with multistage stone rank at mouthful, to realize the retention to silt, suspended matter in the water-break of farmland;It is arranged at intervals in branch canal waterproof Soil property intercept dam, permeable dike is provided between adjacent interceptions dam, the canal bottom of branch canal is equipped with that haydite, sandstone and gravel form Particulate substrates adsorbent material, to realize the absorption to phosphorus and nitrogen in water-break, the side slope of branch canal is on base to build one layer of perforaled tile Or gabion and plant shore protection plant, setting artificial aquatic weed;The canal bottom kind of branch canal is implanted with submerged plant, floating plant and very water is planted Object, to realize the purified treatment to farmland water-break;
Branch canal enters library/pool inlet and is provided with gabion, to realize the interception to solid waste;It is planted in library/pool There are submerged plant, floating plant and emergent aquactic plant, and several Artificial Fish slots are set on periphery, biological habitat is provided, so as to extensive The rehydration ecosystem;The inlet that library/pool enters trunk canal is provided with gabion dykes and dams, and kind is implanted with emergent aquactic plant, trunk canal side in trunk canal It is arranged at intervals with shore protection timber on slope and plants and is implanted with shore protection plant.
The construction method of ecological canal system for farmland water-break pollution prevention of the invention, which is characterized in that pass through Following steps are realized:
1) building of sublateral canal: 1-1) finishing sublateral canal, finishing and ecological reconstruction are carried out on the basis of original sublateral canal, according to easy In the layout principles that water in farmland is discharged, excavation width is 30~60cm, depth is 50~120cm, side slope ratio is 1:1.0 ~1:1.5, cross section are trapezoidal sublateral canal, and by the canal bottom of sublateral canal and the bluff of two sides;1-2) planting plants, in hair Tartary buckwheat, purslane and Chinese pennisetum eciophyte are planted on the canal bottom of canal, side slope, to consolidate sublateral canal structure, are prevented erosion With the pollution of nitrogen phosphorus;1-3) multistage stone rank is arranged in, and the multistage stone being laid to by gravel is arranged in the inlet that sublateral canal enters branch canal Rank, for stopping and precipitating the silt carried in agricultural drain, suspended matter;
2) building of branch canal: 2-1) finishing branch canal, according to width be 120~240cm, depth is 100~200cm, side Slope carries out finishing and ecological reconstruction than the size for 1:2.0~1:2.5, to original branch canal, and constructing cross section is trapezoidal branch Canal, while by the canal bottom of branch canal and bluff;2-2) branch canal side slope is arranged in, applies soil first in the branch canal side slope of leveling Earth modifying agent, for improving side slope soil structure;Then it is built in branch canal side slope bottom and builds one layer of perforaled tile or gabion, finally in band Slope-protecting plant is planted in the hole of hole brick or gabion;Slope-protecting plant is taken root according to waterflooding side slope plantation emergent aquactic plant, upper slope kind It is the principle of flourishing native plants;2-3) builds soil property and intercepts dam, and every 200m builds 2~3 fluid-tight soil in branch canal Matter intercepts dam, so that farmland water-break to be trapped in branch canal;Then it is intercepted adjacent two and builds multiple permeable dikes between dam, and The canal bottom of branch canal is laid with the granular matrix adsorbent material of haydite, sandstone and gravel composition, to realize to nitrogen phosphorus in the water-break of farmland The absorption of nutriment;2-4) planting plants and arrangement artificial aquatic weed plant emergent aquactic plant, floating plant and are sunk in branch canal Water plant, to realize the absorption to nitrogen and phosphorus element in the water-break of farmland;And artificial aquatic weed is hung in the side slope of branch canal, it utilizes Pollutant in water is moved back in the biological membrane degradation of artificial aquatic weed surface formation, decomposition, absorption;2-5) gabion is arranged in, enters in branch canal Gabion is arranged along water (flow) direction in library/pool inlet, to realize to the biggish rubbish of individual, floating material and agricultural in the water-break of farmland The interception of waste;Administrative staff periodically clear up interceptor;Artificial aquatic weed is hung on gabion simultaneously, to enhance irrigation canals and ditches Water quality purification function;
3) library /pool building: 3-1) excavation library/pool, holds according to local precipitation and saturation moisture capacity design library/pool Amount excavates library/pool not less than library/pool total depth 2/3 principle according to water level in library/pool, and library/pool is for storing and purifying farmland Water-break, and the recharge farmland when farmland need to pour water;3-2) gabion dykes and dams are arranged in, are arranged in the exit that library/pool enters trunk canal The top of gabion dykes and dams, gabion dykes and dams is at the 2/3 of trunk canal depth;3-3) planting plants, plantation is endured water and is planted in library/pool Object, floating plant and submerged plant, to realize the purified treatment to farmland water-break;3-4) fish slot is arranged in, places in library/pool Several Artificial Fish slots, and put spiral shell, crucian, loach benthon in a suitable place to breed, to increase library/pool wetlands ecosystems stability, promote Into the degradation of pollutant in library/pool;
4) building in the trunk canal: 4-1) finishing trunk canal, according to width be 240~500cm, depth is 200~400cm, side Slope carries out finishing and ecological reconstruction than the size for 1:2.0~1:2.5, to original trunk canal, and building cross section is trapezoidal trunk canal; 4-2) using timber shore protection and plants shore protection plant, and in trunk canal, side slope is on base builds one layer of perforaled tile or gabion, and on the side in trunk canal Timber is squeezed at interval on slope, realizes the protection of trunk canal side slope;Slope-protecting plant is planted in the hole of perforaled tile or gabion simultaneously;Slope protection Plant is according to waterflooding side slope plantation emergent aquactic plant, the principle of the native plants of upper slope plantation well developed root system, on the side in trunk canal Shore protection plant is planted on slope;4-3) planting plants plant emergent aquactic plant in trunk canal, to realize purification of the trunk canal to water body.
The construction method of ecological canal system for farmland water-break pollution prevention of the invention, branch canal, library/pool and trunk canal The emergent aquactic plant of middle plantation includes Chinese celery, wild rice stem, reed and calamus;The floating plant planted in branch canal and library/pool includes hollow Dish, submerged plant includes waterweed, eel grass, according to beautiful and natural principle reasonable Arrangement.
The construction method of ecological canal system for farmland water-break pollution prevention of the invention, the plant in sublateral canal need Harvesting, harvested plant are used for producing methane or returning to the field after being used as animal feed or drying;
The aquatic plant harvesting that will periodically grow in branch canal, library/pool and trunk canal avoids biomass from rotting to generate two in ditch Secondary pollution;Regular dredging is carried out to trunk canal simultaneously, on the one hand purpose is to remove silt, keep channel draining unobstructed, on the other hand It can maintain the preferable nitrogen phosphorus consumption effect of ecological canal.
The construction method of ecological canal system for agriculture water-break pollution prevention of the invention, the permeable dike are flat by two The porous disc of row setting and the gravel filling layer composition between porous disc, so as to be formed by permeable dike with water penetration; And vegetation is planted on permeable dike.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following advantages and beneficial effects:
(1) this construction method is that ecological reconstruction is carried out on the basis of original irrigation canals and ditches, and do not occupy cultivated land additionally resource, structure Construction method, technique and daily maintenance are simple, it is easy to accomplish and promote;
(2) discharge in agricultural surface runoff and farmland irrigating water would be more advantageous in the ecological canal after building up, and entirely changes It makes process and does not change the pattern of agricultural production, simultaneously because increasing the vegetation coverage and irrigation canals and ditches biomass of irrigation canals and ditches, improve The detergent power that irrigation canals and ditches pollute agricultural drain;
(3) this construction method will not generate secondary pollution, and the bed mud generated in operational process and plant can make Raw material is prepared for fertilizer returning to the field or biogas, can not only reduce fertilizer application can also reduce energy consumption;
(4) this construction method is beneficial to irrigation canals and ditches ecosystem restoration, reduce in agricultural drain the nutriments such as nitrogen phosphorus into Enter river/lake, cause water eutrophication, also helps and build good landscape atmosphere.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is the schematic diagram of ecological canal system of the invention;
Fig. 2 is the structure chart of ecological canal system of the invention;
Fig. 3 is that sublateral canal enters the cross-sectional view at branch canal in the present invention;
Fig. 4 is the structure chart of branch canal in the present invention;
Fig. 5 is the cross-sectional view of permeable dike in the present invention.
In figure: 1 sublateral canal, 2 branch canal, the 3 libraries/pool, 4 trunk canals, 5 farmlands, 6 side slopes, 7 canal bottoms, 8 multistage stone ranks, 9 soil properties intercept Dam, 10 permeable dikes, 11 gabions, 12 shore protection timbers, 13 gabion dykes and dams, 14 landscape plants, 15 perforaled tiles or gabion, 16 native country are planted Object, 17 submerged plants, 18 floating plants, 19 emergent aquactic plants, 20 artificial aquatic weeds, 21 landscape plants, 22 granular matrix adsorption materials Material, 23 fish slots, 24 silts, 25 porous discs, 26 gravel filling layers, 27 vegetation.
Specific embodiment
The invention will be further described with embodiment with reference to the accompanying drawing.
As depicted in figs. 1 and 2, the schematic diagram and structure chart of ecological canal system of the invention is set forth, by hair Canal 1, branch canal 2, library/pool 3 and trunk canal 4 form, and sublateral canal 1 is arranged at intervals in farmland 5, and is communicated with branch canal 2, for that will enter hair Farmland water-break in canal 1 is discharged into branch canal 2, and the eciophytes 16 such as tartary buckwheat, purslane and Chinese pennisetum are planted in sublateral canal 1, The multistage stone rank 8 being laid to by gravel is arranged in the inlet that sublateral canal 1 enters branch canal 2, as shown in figure 3, giving hair in the present invention Canal enters the cross-sectional view at branch canal, shown in multistage stone rank 8 be three-level stone rank, multistage stone rank 8 realizes mud during the water-break of farmland The retention of sand 24.Shown in branch canal 2 communicated with library/pool 3, library/pool 3 is communicated with trunk canal 4.
The canal bottom of branch canal 2 is laid with by granular matrix adsorbent material 22, and adsorbent material is made of haydite, sandstone and gravel, For the absorption to nitrogen phosphorus substance in water.It is arranged at intervals with fluid-tight soil property in branch canal 2 and intercepts dam 9, such as every 200 meters settings one A soil property intercepts dam 9, intercepts dam 9 for shutting off the farmland water-break entered by sublateral canal 1 in branch canal 2, and realize purification of water quality. Permeable dike 10 is provided between adjacent interception dam 9, the side slope of branch canal 2 is on base to build one layer of perforaled tile or gabion, the plantation of waterflooding side slope Emergent aquactic plant, upper slope plant the landscape plant of well developed root system, and artificial aquatic weed, branch canal are arranged in the side slope of branch canal 2 Canal bottom kind be implanted with submerged plant 17, floating plant 18 and emergent aquactic plant 19, to realize the purification of farmland water-break.
As shown in figure 4, giving the structure chart of branch canal in the present invention, it is provided in the inlet that branch canal 2 enters library/pool 3 Gabion 11 is arranged on gabion 11 with realizing the interception to individual biggish rubbish, floating material and agricultural wastes in the water-break of farmland There is artificial aquatic weed 20, administrative staff periodically clear up interceptor.Kind is implanted with submerged plant 17, floating plant 18 in library/pool 3 With emergent aquactic plant 19, and several Artificial Fish slots are placed, shallow water biology is put in a suitable place to breed, such as spiral shell, crucian, loach;Library/pool 3 enters trunk canal 4 Inlet be provided with gabion dykes and dams 13, kind is implanted with emergent aquactic plant in trunk canal 4, and interval is inserted with shore protection timber 12 simultaneously in the side slope of trunk canal Kind is implanted with shore protection plant.
As shown in figure 5, giving the structural schematic diagram of permeable dike in the present invention, permeable dike 10 is disposed in parallel permeable by two Plate 25 and the gravel filling layer 26 between porous disc 25 form, so as to be formed by permeable dike with water penetration;Permeable Vegetation 27 is planted on dam.
The construction method of ecological canal system for farmland water-break pollution prevention of the invention, by following steps come real It is existing:
1) building of sublateral canal:
1-1) modifies sublateral canal, finishing and ecological reconstruction is carried out on the basis of original sublateral canal, according to being easy to water in farmland The layout principles of discharge, excavation width is 30~60cm, depth is 50~120cm, side slope ratio is 1:1.0~1:1.5, cross section For trapezoidal sublateral canal, and by the canal bottom of sublateral canal and the bluff of two sides;
1-2) planting plants are planted tartary buckwheat, purslane and/or Chinese pennisetum in the canal bottom of sublateral canal, side slope and are locally planted Object, to consolidate sublateral canal structure, the pollution to prevent erosion with nitrogen phosphorus;
1-3) multistage stone rank is arranged in, and the multistage stone rank being laid to by gravel is arranged in the inlet that sublateral canal enters branch canal, uses The suspended matters such as the silt carried in blocking and precipitating agricultural drain;
2) building of branch canal:
2-1) modifies branch canal, and according to width be 120~240cm, depth is 100~200cm, side slope ratio is 1:2.0~1: 2.5 size carries out finishing and ecological reconstruction to original branch canal, and constructing cross section is trapezoidal branch canal, while by branch canal Canal bottom and bluff;
2-2) branch canal side slope is arranged in, applies soil conditioner in the branch canal side slope of leveling first, for improving side slope soil Earth structure;Then it is built in branch canal side slope bottom and builds one layer of perforaled tile or gabion, shield is finally planted in the hole of perforaled tile or gabion Slope plant;Slope-protecting plant is according to waterflooding side slope plantation emergent aquactic plant, the principle of the native plants of upper slope plantation well developed root system;
2-3) builds soil property and intercepts dam, and every 200m builds 2~3 fluid-tight soil properties and intercepts dams in branch canal, to incite somebody to action Farmland water-break is trapped in branch canal;Then multiple permeable dikes are built between adjacent two interception dam, and are laid at the canal bottom of branch canal The granular matrix adsorbent material of haydite, sandstone and gravel composition, to realize the absorption to phosphorus and nitrogen in the water-break of farmland;
2-4) planting plants and arrangement artificial aquatic weed, plant emergent aquactic plant, floating plant and submerged plant in branch canal, To realize the absorption to nitrogen and phosphorus element in the water-break of farmland;And artificial aquatic weed is hung in the side slope of branch canal, utilize artificial water Pollutant in water is moved back in the biological membrane degradation of careless surface formation, decomposition, absorption;
2-5) gabion is arranged in, arranges gabion along water (flow) direction in the inlet that branch canal enters pool, is moved back with realizing to farmland The interception of individual biggish rubbish, floating material and agricultural wastes in water;Administrative staff periodically clear up interceptor;Simultaneously Artificial aquatic weed is hung, on gabion to enhance the water quality purification function of irrigation canals and ditches;
3) library /pool building:
3-1) excavates library/pool, according to local precipitation and saturation moisture capacity design library/pool capacity, according to library/pool Nei Shui Library/pool is excavated not less than library/pool total depth 2/3 principle in position, and library/pool is used to storing and purifying farmland water-break, and in farmland Recharge farmland when need to pour water;
3-2) gabion dykes and dams are arranged in, and gabion dykes and dams, the top of gabion dykes and dams is arranged in the exit that library/pool enters trunk canal In trunk canal depth 2/3 at;
3-3) planting plants plant emergent aquactic plant, floating plant and submerged plant in pool, are moved back with realizing to farmland The purified treatment of water;
3-4) fish slot is arranged in, several Artificial Fish slots is placed in library/pool, and put spiral shell, crucian, loach benthon in a suitable place to breed, To increase library/pool wetlands ecosystems stability, promote the degradation of pollutant in library/pool;
4) building in the trunk canal:
4-1) modifies trunk canal, and according to width be 240~500cm, depth is 200~400cm, side slope ratio is 1:2.0~1: 2.5 size carries out finishing and ecological reconstruction to original trunk canal, and building cross section is trapezoidal trunk canal;
4-2) is using timber shore protection and shore protection plant is planted, and in trunk canal, side slope is on base builds one layer of perforaled tile or gabion, and Timber is squeezed at interval in the side slope in trunk canal, realizes the protection of trunk canal side slope;Slope protection is planted in the hole of perforaled tile or gabion simultaneously Plant;Slope-protecting plant plants the principle of the native plants of well developed root system according to waterflooding side slope plantation emergent aquactic plant, upper slope, Shore protection plant is planted in the side slope in trunk canal;
4-3) planting plants plant emergent aquactic plant in trunk canal, to realize purification of the trunk canal to water body.
Wherein, the emergent aquactic plant planted in branch canal, library/pool and trunk canal includes reed, Chinese celery, wild rice stem and calamus etc.;Branch canal It include water spinach etc. with the floating plant planted in library/pool, submerged plant includes waterweed, eel grass etc., according to beautiful and natural Principle reasonable Arrangement.
Plant in sublateral canal needs to gather in, and harvested plant is used to make after being used as animal feed or drying Biogas or returning to the field;
The aquatic plant harvesting that will periodically grow in branch canal, library/pool and trunk canal avoids biomass from rotting to generate two in ditch Secondary pollution;Regular dredging is carried out to trunk canal simultaneously, on the one hand purpose is to remove silt, keep channel draining unobstructed, on the other hand It can maintain the preferable nitrogen phosphorus consumption effect of ecological canal.
The removal principle of the water pollutant of ecological canal system for agriculture water-break pollution prevention of the invention is: The biggish rubbish of some individuals, floating material and agricultural wastes etc. are intercepted by gabion, can artificially be removed by administrative staff;Sewage Contained in major part silt and suspended particulate matter etc. via multistage stone rank 8 retain remove;It is embedded on 2 two sidewalls of branch canal Artificial aquatic weed, the artificial aquatic weed on gabion there is maximum specific surface area in limited volume, in the effect of slow-flowing stream Under, it can form stable biomembrane with pollutant in adsorbed water body, Sync enrichment microorganism, it is degradable, decompose, be absorbed and utilized one A little polluters reduce the concentration of pollutant.The water plant planted in branch canal 2, library/pool 3 and trunk canal 4 grows reproduction at it It can be largely adsorbed in the process using the bioactive elemements in water body, reduce the content of water body N, Arg-Pro-Lys-Pro-Gln-Gln-Phe-Phe-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, also have one to pesticide herbicide Fixed resistance control effect, reduces content of these substances in water body, reduces the total load amount of agricultural non-point source pollution.

Claims (7)

1. a kind of ecological canal system for farmland water-break pollution prevention, including it is sublateral canal (1), branch canal (2), the library/pool (3) and dry Canal (4), sublateral canal, branch canal are spaced apart in farmland, and sublateral canal is communicated with branch canal, so that the farmland water-break for entering sublateral canal is discharged into branch In canal;Branch canal is communicated with library/pool, to be discharged into the farmland water-break in branch canal into library/pool;Library/pool is communicated with trunk canal, so as to Water in library/pool is discharged through trunk canal;It is characterized by: kind is implanted with native plants (16) on the canal bottom of sublateral canal, side slope, sublateral canal enters The inlet of branch canal is provided with multistage stone rank (8), to realize the retention to silt and suspended matter in the water-break of farmland;It is spaced in branch canal It is provided with fluid-tight soil property and intercepts dam (9), be provided with permeable dike (10) between adjacent interception dam, the canal bottom of branch canal is equipped with pottery The granular matrix adsorbent material of grain, sandstone and gravel composition, to realize the absorption to phosphorus and nitrogen in water-break, branch canal Side slope is on base to build one layer of perforaled tile or gabion and plants shore protection plant, setting artificial aquatic weed;The canal bottom kind of branch canal is implanted with heavy water and plants Object, floating plant and emergent aquactic plant, to realize the purified treatment to farmland water-break;
Branch canal enters library/pool inlet and is provided with gabion, to realize the interception to solid waste;Kind is implanted with heavy in library/pool Water plant, floating plant and emergent aquactic plant, and several Artificial Fish slots are set on periphery, biological habitat is provided, to restore water The ecosystem;The inlet that library/pool enters trunk canal is provided with gabion dykes and dams, plants in trunk canal and is implanted with emergent aquactic plant, in the side slope of trunk canal It is arranged at intervals with shore protection timber and plants and be implanted with shore protection plant.
2. a kind of construction method of the ecological canal system described in claim 1 for farmland water-break pollution prevention, feature It is, is realized by following steps:
1) building of sublateral canal:
1-1) modifies sublateral canal, finishing and ecological reconstruction is carried out on the basis of original sublateral canal, according to being easy to for water in farmland being discharged Layout principles, excavate width be 30~60cm, depth is 50~120cm, side slope ratio is 1:1.0~1:1.5, cross section be ladder The sublateral canal of shape, and by the canal bottom of sublateral canal and the bluff of two sides;
1-2) planting plants plant tartary buckwheat, purslane and/or Chinese pennisetum eciophyte in the canal bottom of sublateral canal, side slope, with Firm sublateral canal structure, the pollution to prevent erosion with nitrogen phosphorus;
1-3) multistage stone rank is arranged in, the multistage stone rank being laid to by gravel is arranged in the inlet that sublateral canal enters branch canal, for hindering Silt, the suspended matter carried in gear and precipitating agricultural drain;
2) building of branch canal:
2-1) modifies branch canal, and according to width be 120~240cm, depth is 100~200cm, side slope ratio is 1:2.0~1:2.5 Size, finishing and ecological reconstruction are carried out to original branch canal, constructing cross section is trapezoidal branch canal, while by the canal bottom of branch canal And bluff;
2-2) branch canal side slope is arranged in, applies soil conditioner in the branch canal side slope of leveling first, for improving side slope soil knot Structure;Then it is built in branch canal side slope bottom and builds one layer of perforaled tile or gabion, finally planted slope protection in the hole of perforaled tile or gabion and plant Object;Slope-protecting plant is according to waterflooding side slope plantation emergent aquactic plant, the principle of the native plants of upper slope plantation well developed root system;
2-3) builds soil property and intercepts dam, and every 200m builds 2~3 fluid-tight soil properties and intercepts dams in branch canal, so as to by farmland Water-break is trapped in branch canal;Then multiple permeable dikes are built between adjacent two interception dam, and the canal bottom of branch canal be laid with haydite, The granular matrix adsorbent material of sandstone and gravel composition, to realize the absorption to phosphorus and nitrogen in the water-break of farmland;
2-4) planting plants and arrangement artificial aquatic weed, plant emergent aquactic plant, floating plant and submerged plant, in branch canal with reality Now to the absorption of nitrogen and phosphorus element in the water-break of farmland;And artificial aquatic weed is hung in the side slope of branch canal, utilize artificial aquatic weed table Pollutant in water is moved back in the biological membrane degradation of face formation, decomposition, absorption;
2-5) gabion is arranged in, enters library/pool inlet in branch canal and arranges gabion along water (flow) direction, to realize to farmland water-break The interception of middle individual biggish rubbish, floating material and agricultural wastes;Administrative staff periodically clear up interceptor;Exist simultaneously Artificial aquatic weed is hung on gabion, to enhance the water quality purification function of irrigation canals and ditches;
3) library /pool building:
3-1) excavates library/pool, according to local precipitation and saturation moisture capacity design library/pool capacity, not according to water level in library/pool Library/pool is excavated lower than library/pool total depth 2/3 principle, library/pool needs to fill for storing and purifying farmland water-break in farmland Recharge farmland when water;
3-2) gabion dykes and dams are arranged in, gabion dykes and dams are arranged in the exit that library/pool enters trunk canal, the top of gabion dykes and dams is in At the 2/3 of trunk canal depth;
3-3) planting plants plant emergent aquactic plant, floating plant and submerged plant in library/pool, to realize to farmland water-break Purified treatment;
3-4) fish slot is arranged in, several Artificial Fish slots is placed in library/pool, and put spiral shell, crucian, loach benthon in a suitable place to breed, to increase Add library/pool wetlands ecosystems stability, promotes the degradation of pollutant in library/pool;
4) building in the trunk canal:
4-1) modifies trunk canal, and according to width be 240~500cm, depth is 200~400cm, side slope ratio is 1:2.0~1:2.5 Size, to original trunk canal carry out finishing and ecological reconstruction, building cross section be trapezoidal trunk canal;
4-2) using timber shore protection and plants shore protection plant, and in trunk canal, side slope is on base builds one layer of perforaled tile or gabion, and in trunk canal Side slope on interval squeeze into timber, realize the protection of trunk canal side slope;Slope-protecting plant is planted in the hole of perforaled tile or gabion simultaneously; Slope-protecting plant is according to waterflooding side slope plantation emergent aquactic plant, the principle of the native plants of upper slope plantation well developed root system, in trunk canal Side slope on plant shore protection plant;
4-3) planting plants plant emergent aquactic plant in trunk canal, to realize purification of the trunk canal to water body.
3. the construction method of the ecological canal system according to claim 2 for farmland water-break pollution prevention, feature Be: the emergent aquactic plant planted in branch canal, library/pool and trunk canal includes reed, Chinese celery, wild rice stem and calamus;It is planted in branch canal and library/pool The floating plant of plant includes water spinach, and submerged plant includes waterweed, eel grass, according to beautiful and natural principle reasonable Arrangement.
4. the construction method of the ecological canal system according to claim 2 for farmland water-break pollution prevention, feature Be: the plant in sublateral canal needs to gather in, and harvested plant is used for natural pond processed after being used as animal feed or drying Gas or returning to the field;
The aquatic plant harvesting that will periodically grow in branch canal, library/pool and trunk canal avoids biomass from rotting to generate secondary dirt in ditch Dye;Regular dredging is carried out to trunk canal simultaneously, on the one hand purpose is to remove silt, keep channel draining unobstructed, on the other hand can be with The preferable nitrogen phosphorus of ecological canal is maintained to dissolve effect.
5. the construction method of the ecological canal system according to claim 2 for farmland water-break pollution prevention, feature Be: the permeable dike (10) is by two porous discs (25) disposed in parallel and the gravel filling layer (26) between porous disc Composition, so as to be formed by permeable dike with water penetration;Vegetation (27) are planted on permeable dike simultaneously.
6. the construction method of the ecological canal system according to claim 2 for farmland water-break pollution prevention, feature Be: the system can also be dwelt while the water-break of prevention and control farmland is polluted by the way that several Artificial Fish slots are arranged for fish and bottom Object provides biological habitat, restores the aquatic ecosystem of farmland ditch.
7. the construction method of the ecological canal system according to claim 2 for farmland water-break pollution prevention, feature Be: this construction method is that finishing and ecological reconstruction are carried out on the basis of original irrigation canals and ditches, is more conducive to agricultural surface runoff With the discharge of farmland irrigating water, entire transformation process does not change the pattern of agricultural production, while irrigation canals and ditches can be improved and arrange farmland The detergent power of pollutant in water, do not occupy cultivated land additionally resource, and construction method, technique and daily maintenance are simple, is easy to real Existing and popularization.
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