CN107853121B - Comprehensive control system and method for agricultural non-point source pollution of hillside fields - Google Patents

Comprehensive control system and method for agricultural non-point source pollution of hillside fields Download PDF

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CN107853121B
CN107853121B CN201711290461.7A CN201711290461A CN107853121B CN 107853121 B CN107853121 B CN 107853121B CN 201711290461 A CN201711290461 A CN 201711290461A CN 107853121 B CN107853121 B CN 107853121B
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water
ditch
drainage ditch
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point source
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CN107853121A (en
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任斐鹏
张平仓
刘纪根
程冬兵
张冠华
黄金权
范仲杰
钱峰
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Changjiang River Scientific Research Institute Changjiang Water Resources Commission
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F9/00Multistage treatment of water, waste water or sewage
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02BHYDRAULIC ENGINEERING
    • E02B11/00Drainage of soil, e.g. for agricultural purposes
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02BHYDRAULIC ENGINEERING
    • E02B11/00Drainage of soil, e.g. for agricultural purposes
    • E02B11/005Drainage conduits
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F2001/007Processes including a sedimentation step
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2101/00Nature of the contaminant
    • C02F2101/10Inorganic compounds
    • C02F2101/105Phosphorus compounds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2101/00Nature of the contaminant
    • C02F2101/10Inorganic compounds
    • C02F2101/16Nitrogen compounds, e.g. ammonia
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/28Anaerobic digestion processes
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/32Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage characterised by the animals or plants used, e.g. algae

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  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • General Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Agronomy & Crop Science (AREA)
  • Mechanical Engineering (AREA)
  • Civil Engineering (AREA)
  • Structural Engineering (AREA)
  • Environmental & Geological Engineering (AREA)
  • Hydrology & Water Resources (AREA)
  • Water Supply & Treatment (AREA)
  • Chemical & Material Sciences (AREA)
  • Organic Chemistry (AREA)
  • Botany (AREA)
  • Environmental Sciences (AREA)
  • Treatment Of Biological Wastes In General (AREA)
  • Purification Treatments By Anaerobic Or Anaerobic And Aerobic Bacteria Or Animals (AREA)

Abstract

The invention provides a comprehensive control system and method for agricultural non-point source pollution of hillside fields. The soil erosion control system can control the generation, migration and output of agricultural non-point source substances at the source; the ecological ditch system can effectively deposit sediment, purify water quality and reduce the concentration of pollutants; the cascade water storage system can accumulate water coming from the upper part, deposit sediment, purify water quality and provide irrigation water sources for sloping farmland below; the terminal purifying system consists of a sedimentation tank, an anaerobic digestion tank and an artificial wetland and is used for ecologically intercepting and purifying the water entering the river and entering the warehouse. The invention fully utilizes the topography condition of the hillside fields, adopts effective prevention and control measures and methods aiming at the key process and different stages of the occurrence of the non-point source pollution in the agricultural cultivation process, improves the recycling efficiency of the water and fertilizer resources of the hillside fields, and reduces the water and soil loss of the hillside fields and the non-point source pollution output.

Description

Comprehensive control system and method for agricultural non-point source pollution of hillside fields
Technical Field
The invention relates to the fields of ecological protection, non-point source pollution control and water and soil conservation, in particular to a comprehensive control system and method for agricultural non-point source pollution of hillside fields.
Background
The hillside farmland is the land utilized by the cultivation mode on the hillside slope, and has the problems of low productivity, poor water and fertilizer retention capability, water and soil loss, serious non-point source pollution output and the like due to large gradient and fluctuation of terrain. The three gorges reservoir area is one of areas with most concentrated distribution of slope farmland in China, the area of the slope farmland is about 0.358 hundred million mu, and the area of the slope farmland accounts for more than 80 percent of the area of the farmland in the area and is far higher than the average level of 20 percent of the whole country. These hillside fields are the basis for people in the three gorges reservoir area to live, and are the main source of sediment and non-point source pollution in the three gorges reservoir area.
The source pollution process of the hillside fields is usually associated with the water and soil loss process. Because the slope surface of the hillside farmland is high in gradient, after rainfall reaches the ground surface, the rapid surface runoff downwards along the hillside farmland is easily formed under the comprehensive influence of gravity and the supporting force of the hillside farmland, soil and nutrient substances are washed, so that the nutrient substances required by crop growth are output along with runoff and sediment, and non-point source pollution is formed. Taking three gorges reservoir as an example, the loss of nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil of the hillside farmland in rainy season is 1.038kg/hm respectively 2 、0.509kg/hm 2 Is far greater than the regional plain region loss level.
Experiments show that the nitrogen in the surface runoff of the hillside fields mainly comprises nitrate nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen and the like, and the nitrate nitrogen is mainly output; the phosphorus is soluble phosphorus and granular phosphorus, and the granular phosphorus is the main component. The current domestic technology for preventing and controlling the source pollution of the slope cultivated land mainly comprises methods of slope changing, hedge, slow release fertilizer application, cultivation measure improvement and the like; researchers also prevent water and soil loss through preventing and controlling the change of the slope cultivation mode, and prevent and control the source pollution of the cultivated land in the hilly and low mountain areas through source control, process control and end treatment. The application of the techniques plays an important role in preventing and controlling soil erosion and surface source pollution in China.
Although we have made intensive researches on the single technology of non-point source pollution control, great progress is made, china still lacks effective methods and control systems in the aspects of comprehensive control and system management of agricultural non-point source pollution in hillside fields, and particularly, the related achievements of non-point source pollution control by combining the non-point source pollution and water and soil loss processes with analysis are not very common.
Based on the three gorges reservoir area and the soil and water resource pollution process and occurrence mechanism of the upper slope farmland of the Yangtze river, the advantages and disadvantages of the soil and water resources of the slope farmland are comprehensively considered, and a comprehensive control system and method which comprise the combination of soil and water loss, non-point source pollution control, land productivity improvement and efficient utilization of the water and fertilizer resources are formed, so that the method has important practical significance. Aiming at the problems of prominent man-ground contradiction, large rainfall and steep topography, the system and the method for comprehensively controlling agricultural non-point source pollution in the three gorges reservoir area slope farmland are of more practical significance.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention provides a comprehensive control system and a method for agricultural non-point source pollution of a hillside land, which are used for recycling the hillside runoff, realizing the interception of nitrogen and phosphorus in the hillside runoff to the greatest extent, realizing the control and clean production of the non-point source pollution and having important significance for controlling the non-point source pollution of the hillside land.
In order to achieve the above purpose, the present invention adopts the following technical scheme:
the comprehensive control system comprises a soil erosion control system, an ecological ditch system, a step water storage system and a terminal purification system, wherein the soil erosion control system comprises a fine ditch erosion control ladder bank and hedges planted on the fine ditch erosion control ladder bank, the ecological ditch system comprises a intercepting drainage ditch and a sand setting tank, the step water storage system comprises water reservoirs distributed at different heights, and the terminal purification system comprises a sediment deposition tank, an anaerobic digestion tank, an artificial wetland and an ecological floating bed; the fine groove erosion control terraces are formed by constructing terraces along contour lines on the slope surface with critical slope lengths of fine groove erosion as intervals; the first-stage intercepting drainage ditch is divided into two stages, grass planting bricks are paved on the surface of the first-stage intercepting drainage ditch, the grass planting bricks are distributed along the slope surface contour line vertical to the slope surface low-lying position, the second-stage intercepting drainage ditch is distributed along the slope surface contour line, the first-stage intercepting drainage ditch is connected with the second-stage intercepting drainage ditch through a sand setting pond distributed in the middle, and ecological grass ditches are formed after wet plants are planted in the first-stage intercepting drainage ditch; the upper end of the reservoir is provided with a flood overflow port connected with the drainage ditch, the inlet of the reservoir is connected with the ecological grass ditch, and the outlet of the reservoir is connected with the irrigation ditch of the cultivated land below.
Furthermore, the width of the fine groove erosion control step is 10-20cm, and the height is 15-20 cm.
Further, the hedge is mainly made of broad-spectrum perennial herbaceous plants, and species types include daylily, honeysuckle and amorpha fruticosa.
Further, the primary intercepting drainage ditch and the secondary intercepting drainage ditch are in an inverted trapezoid shape, the width of the upper end of the primary intercepting drainage ditch is 30-50cm, the width of the lower end of the primary intercepting drainage ditch is 10-20cm, and the depth of the primary intercepting drainage ditch is more than 50cm; the width of the upper end of the secondary section drainage ditch is 10-20cm, and the depth is 10-20cm.
Further, the grit chamber is a conical deceleration grit chamber, the radius of the upper port is 15-25cm, the radius of the lower port is 5-10cm, and the depth is 30-50cm, and the grit chamber is arranged on the path of the intercepting drainage ditch.
Further, the wet plant is one or a combination of cress, corm Eleocharitis, water spinach and bermuda grass.
Furthermore, 1 reservoir is arranged according to the average 20-50 mu land confluence range, the reservoir is cylindrical, the radius of the reservoir opening is 0.8-1.0 m, and the depth is 1.5-3.0 m.
Further, the terminal purifying system consists of a pretreatment unit and a main body treatment unit, wherein the pretreatment unit mainly comprises a sediment deposition tank and an anaerobic digestion tank; the main body unit comprises an artificial wetland and an ecological floating bed.
An integrated control method for agricultural non-point source pollution of cultivated land comprises the following steps:
constructing terraces along contour lines on the slope surface with critical slope length of the occurrence of the fine trench erosion as intervals to form fine trench erosion control terraces, and planting plant hedges on the fine trench erosion control terraces to form a soil erosion control system;
the method comprises the steps that an open ditch mode is adopted on a hillside cultivated land, a hillside runoff output path is arranged, a water interception and drainage ditch, a sand setting pond and an ecological grass ditch are arranged, the water interception and drainage ditch is divided into two stages, grass planting bricks are paved on the surface of a primary water interception and drainage ditch, the grass planting bricks are arranged along a slope surface contour line vertical to a slope surface low-lying position, a secondary water interception and drainage ditch is arranged along the slope surface contour line, the primary water interception and drainage ditch is connected with the secondary water interception and drainage ditch through the sand setting pond arranged in the middle, and the ecological grass ditch is formed after wet plants are planted in the primary water drainage ditch;
the slope surface is provided with a step water storage system, the step water storage system is formed by connecting a plurality of water reservoirs distributed from top to bottom on the slope surface where the hillside farmland is located, the upper end of each water reservoir is provided with a flood overflow port connected with a drainage ditch, the inlet of each water reservoir is connected with an ecological grass ditch, and the outlet of each water reservoir is connected with an irrigation ditch of the hillside farmland below;
the terminal purification system is arranged to ecologically intercept and purify the water entering and entering the river, and comprises a pretreatment unit and a main body treatment unit, wherein the pretreatment unit mainly comprises a sediment deposition tank and an anaerobic digestion tank, and the main body unit comprises an artificial wetland and an ecological floating bed
Further, the hedge is mainly made of broad-spectrum perennial herbaceous plants, and species types include daylily, honeysuckle and amorpha fruticosa.
Compared with the existing technology for preventing and controlling agricultural non-point source pollution in hillside fields, the invention has the following remarkable characteristics and advantages:
according to the invention, the soil erosion control system of the slope surface is used for controlling the occurrence of water and soil loss and the output of source pollution, the ecological ditch system is used for filtering sediment and nutrient substances in the surface runoff, the cascade water storage system is used for realizing the redistribution of the slope surface water resources, the cyclic utilization of the water and fertilizer resources is promoted, and the terminal purification system is used for realizing the re-filtration and clean output of the slope surface runoff. The invention has the advantages of simple operation, low construction cost, convenient management and protection, repeated utilization, low operation management and protection cost, wide application range, ecological cleaning and higher social and economic benefits and ecological benefits. Compared with the control of a slope 'terraced bank fine ditch erosion control-grit chamber-reservoir-sediment deposition chamber' of the system, the control of the system can improve the filtering degree of sediment by adopting a single technology, and 'hedgerow-ecological grass ditch-constructed wetland-biological floating island' can obviously improve the interception rate and absorption rate of nitrogen and phosphorus in slope runoff; compared with the traditional method, the cascade reservoir can increase the redistribution and utilization of slope water and fertilizer resources, and is used as an emergency irrigation water source for seasonal drought of the slope farmland.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of the structure of the integrated control system for agricultural non-point source pollution in hillside fields;
FIG. 2 is a flow chart of the method for comprehensively preventing and controlling agricultural non-point source pollution of the hillside fields;
FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of a soil erosion control system and an ecological ditch system according to the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a schematic layout of a drainage system of the present invention;
fig. 5 is a schematic view of the structure of the reservoir of the step water storage system of the present invention.
Detailed Description
The technical solutions of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the accompanying drawings.
The invention provides a system and a method for comprehensively preventing and controlling agricultural non-point source pollution of hillside fields, which combine efficient recycling of water, soil and fertilizer resources of the hillside fields with agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control, and are important technical guarantees for relieving the problem of man-ground contradiction in hillside areas.
Referring to fig. 1 and 2, the integrated control system includes a soil erosion control system, an ecological ditch system, a step water storage system, and a terminal purification system. The soil erosion control system comprises a fine-ditch erosion control ladder bank and a hedgerow planted on the fine-ditch erosion control ladder bank, and can control the generation, migration and output of agricultural non-point source pollutants at the source; the ecological ditch system comprises a water interception ditch and a sand setting tank, so that sediment can be effectively deposited, water quality can be purified, and pollutant concentration can be reduced; the cascade water storage system comprises water reservoirs distributed at different heights, each water reservoir can store water coming from the upper part, deposit sediment, purify water quality and provide irrigation water sources for sloping farmland below; the terminal purification system comprises a sediment deposition tank, an anaerobic digestion tank, an artificial wetland and an ecological floating bed.
As shown in fig. 3, the steps are built on the slope along the contour line with the critical slope length (L) of the fine groove erosion as the interval, so as to form the fine groove erosion control steps. The critical slope length is shown in Table 1, the width of the step ridge is 10-20cm, and the height is 15-20 cm. The fine ditch erosion control step can reduce the output of source head and surface source pollutants by preventing the formation of fine ditches and the erosion of slope soil.
TABLE 1 statistics of critical slope length for typical hillside land trench erosion
Planting hedges on the fine ditch erosion control terraced fields, wherein the hedges mainly comprise wide-adaptability perennial herbaceous plants, species types comprise daylily, honeysuckle, amorpha fruticosa and the like, a miniature filter belt is formed, sediment in surface runoff is retained, nutrient substances in the surface runoff are absorbed, and interception and filtration are formed before the surface runoff leaves the slope.
The hedge is preferably planted specifically as follows: planting on a slope in spring, loosening soil on the shallow layer of the slope before sowing, and then planting by adopting a sowing or cutting mode, wherein sowing is needed, and the sowing density is 300-500 grains/m 2 Planting by cutting with a planting density of 50-100 plants/m 2 . After planting, the invention needs to manage the plant hedges, wherein the plant hedge management comprises seedling management and harvesting management. In the present invention, the seedling management is preferably weed removal; the harvesting management is mainly flower and fruit harvesting and hedge trimming, and the hedge trimming is mainly performed when the hedge height is larger than 0.5m, and the hedge trimming mode is to trim branches and leaves higher than 30 cm.
The method is characterized in that an open ditch mode is adopted on a sloping farmland, a slope runoff output path is laid, a drainage intercepting ditch, a sand setting tank and an ecological grass ditch are arranged, the drainage intercepting ditch, the sand setting tank and the ecological grass ditch are connected together through the diversion ditch, a continuous treatment system is formed, and the runoff process is controlled.
As shown in fig. 4, the intercepting drainage ditch is divided into two stages, wherein the intercepting drainage ditch at one stage is in an inverted trapezoid shape, grass planting bricks are paved on the surface of the intercepting drainage ditch, the intercepting drainage ditch has drainage and biological filtering functions, and the intercepting drainage ditch is distributed along a slope surface low-lying position and is perpendicular to a slope surface contour line; the secondary intercepting drainage ditch is inverted trapezoid, has the functions of collecting surface runoff, intercepting soil middling flow and draining water, and is distributed along the slope contour line. The width of the upper end of the primary intercepting drainage ditch is 30-50cm, the width of the lower end of the primary intercepting drainage ditch is 10-20cm, and the depth of the primary intercepting drainage ditch is more than 50cm; the width of the upper end of the secondary section drainage ditch is 10-20cm, and the depth is 10-20cm. The primary intercepting drainage ditch is connected with the secondary intercepting drainage ditch through a sand setting tank arranged in the middle.
The sand setting tank is a small sand setting tank and is a conical deceleration sand setting tank, the radius of the upper port of the conical deceleration sand setting tank is 15-25cm, the radius of the lower port of the conical deceleration sand setting tank is 5-10cm, the depth of the lower port of the conical deceleration sand setting tank is 30-50cm, and the conical deceleration sand setting tank is made of plastic materials and is arranged on a path of a drainage intercepting ditch. The small sand setting tank needs to be cleaned by sediment periodically, the cleaning time is 3-5 days before or after the next storm, and the sediment can be continuously utilized after being cleaned.
The ecological grass ditch is a comprehensive system for filtering, absorbing and adsorbing non-point source pollution formed after planting wet plants in the first-stage drainage ditch, and is mainly used for further retarding sediment in runoff and absorbing agricultural non-point source pollutants such as nitrogen, phosphorus and the like. The ecological grass ditch consists of a ditch body structure and wet plants, wherein the ditch body structure is a primary drainage ditch; the wet plant is a herbal plant with strong adsorptivity, certain stress resistance and certain economic value, and the specific plant is: cress, corm Eleocharitis, water spinach, bermuda grass, etc. The ecological grass ditch is arranged between the grit chamber and the reservoir, can further intercept runoff sediment and absorb nitrogen, phosphorus and other non-point source substances.
In the invention, a step water storage system is arranged on the slope surface and used for storing the runoff of the slope surface and redistribution of water and fertilizer resources of the slope surface. The step water storage system is formed by connecting a plurality of water reservoirs distributed from top to bottom from high to low on a slope surface where a sloping farmland is located, the number of the water reservoirs is 1 according to an average 20-50 mu land converging range, the water reservoirs are cylindrical, the radius of a pool opening is 0.8-1.0 m, the depth is 1.5-3.0 m, anti-seepage treatment is carried out on the inner wall and the bottom of the water reservoirs, flood overflow openings are reserved at the upper ends of the water reservoirs, and the flood overflow openings are connected with drainage ditches. As shown in fig. 5, the impounding reservoirs are connected with ecological grass ditches at the inlet and connected with irrigation ditches of the cultivated land below at the outlet, and the different impounding reservoirs are connected through an ecological ditch system.
In the invention, a terminal purifying system is arranged to ecologically intercept and purify the water entering and entering the river, and the terminal purifying system consists of a pretreatment unit and a main body treatment unit, wherein the pretreatment unit mainly comprises a sediment deposition tank and an anaerobic digestion tank; the main body unit comprises an artificial wetland and an ecological floating bed.
Preferably, the sediment deposition tank can be built according to the width of 2m, the length of 3-5 m and the depth of 1m, the sediment deposition tank is a sand filter tank, multistage matched filter materials are adopted in the sand filter belt, large-particle-size stone filter materials are adopted in the upper layer, small-particle-size broken sand filter materials are adopted in the lower layer, the thickness ratio of the upper layer to the lower layer is 2:1, and incoming water can enter the sediment deposition tank through the upper part, and is discharged from the lower part to enter the anaerobic digestion tank after double-layer filtration.
Preferably, the anaerobic digestion tank is 2m wide and 3-5 m long and 0.5m deep, and the tank wall is subjected to anti-seepage treatment.
Preferably, the artificial wetland is formed by artificial wetland with the width of 3m and the length of 20-50m, the artificial wetland is planted with wet herbaceous plants, and plant species comprise plants such as bermuda grass, reed, typha, allium fistulosum, dwarf lilyturf tuber and the like, and the plants are mixed and planted according to equal proportion (the quantity ratio of seed particles);
preferably, the ecological floating bed is composed of a floating island and aquatic plants, the floating island is a framed wet floating island, the plants select canna, typha and other aquatic plants, the ecological floating bed is arranged at the junction of the constructed wetland and the water surface of a river or a lake reservoir, and the ecological floating bed needs to be regularly maintained and managed, so that the aquatic plants can be harvested and treated, and the total amount of non-point source pollution such as nitrogen, phosphorus and the like in a river water body is reduced.
The foregoing is merely illustrative embodiments of the present invention, and the present invention is not limited thereto, and any changes or substitutions that may be easily contemplated by those skilled in the art within the scope of the present invention should be included in the scope of the present invention.

Claims (3)

1. An agricultural non-point source pollution comprehensive control system for hillside fields is characterized in that: the system comprises a soil erosion control system, an ecological ditch system, a step water storage system and a terminal purification system, wherein the soil erosion control system comprises a fine ditch erosion control step and a plant fence planted on the fine ditch erosion control step, the ecological ditch system comprises a water interception ditch and a sand setting tank, the step water storage system comprises water reservoirs distributed at different heights, and the terminal purification system comprises a sediment deposition tank, an anaerobic digestion tank, an artificial wetland and an ecological floating bed; the fine groove erosion control terraces are formed by constructing terraces along contour lines on the slope surface with critical slope lengths of fine groove erosion as intervals; the first-stage intercepting drainage ditch is divided into two stages, grass planting bricks are paved on the surface of the first-stage intercepting drainage ditch, the grass planting bricks are distributed along the slope surface contour line vertical to the slope surface low-lying position, the second-stage intercepting drainage ditch is distributed along the slope surface contour line, the first-stage intercepting drainage ditch is connected with the second-stage intercepting drainage ditch through a sand setting pond distributed in the middle, and ecological grass ditches are formed after wet plants are planted in the first-stage intercepting drainage ditch; the upper end of the reservoir is provided with a flood overflow port connected with a drainage ditch, the inlet of the reservoir is connected with an ecological grass ditch, and the outlet of the reservoir is connected with a farmland irrigation ditch below;
the width of the fine groove erosion control step ridge is 10-20cm, and the height is 15-20 cm;
the hedge is mainly prepared from eurytopic perennial herb, and species types include daylily, honeysuckle and amorpha fruticosa;
the primary intercepting drainage ditch and the secondary intercepting drainage ditch are reverse trapezoids, the width of the upper end of the primary intercepting drainage ditch is 30-50cm, the width of the lower end of the primary intercepting drainage ditch is 10-20cm, and the depth of the primary intercepting drainage ditch is greater than 50cm; the width of the upper end of the secondary section drainage ditch is 10-20cm, and the depth is 10-20 cm;
the sand setting tank is a conical deceleration sand setting tank, the radius of an upper port is 15-25cm, the radius of a lower port is 5-10cm, and the depth is 30-50cm, and the sand setting tank is arranged on a drainage ditch cutting path;
the wet plant is one or the combination of cress, corm Eleocharitis, water spinach and bermuda grass;
the number of the water reservoirs is 1 according to an average 20-50 mu land confluence range, the water reservoirs are cylindrical, the radius of the pool opening is 0.8-1.0 m, the depth is 1.5-3.0 m, and a valve is arranged at the outlet of the water reservoirs;
the planting of the plant hedge is specifically as follows: planting on a slope in spring, loosening soil on the shallow layer of the slope before sowing, and then planting by adopting a sowing or cutting mode, wherein sowing is needed, and the sowing density is 300-500 grains/m 2 Planting by cutting with a planting density of 50-100 plants/m 2
2. The integrated control system for agricultural non-point source pollution for hillside fields according to claim 1, wherein: the terminal purifying system consists of a pretreatment unit and a main body treatment unit, wherein the pretreatment unit mainly comprises a sediment deposition tank and an anaerobic digestion tank; the main body treatment unit comprises an artificial wetland and an ecological floating bed.
3. A method for comprehensively preventing and controlling agricultural non-point source pollution of cultivated land, which is characterized by adopting the system for comprehensively preventing and controlling agricultural non-point source pollution of sloping cultivated land according to any one of claims 1 or 2, and comprising the following steps:
constructing terraces along contour lines on the slope surface with critical slope length of the occurrence of the fine trench erosion as intervals to form fine trench erosion control terraces, and planting plant hedges on the fine trench erosion control terraces to form a soil erosion control system;
the method comprises the steps that an open ditch mode is adopted on a hillside cultivated land, a hillside runoff output path is arranged, a water interception and drainage ditch, a sand setting pond and an ecological grass ditch are arranged, the water interception and drainage ditch is divided into two stages, grass planting bricks are paved on the surface of a primary water interception and drainage ditch, the grass planting bricks are arranged along a slope surface contour line vertical to a slope surface low-lying position, a secondary water interception and drainage ditch is arranged along the slope surface contour line, the primary water interception and drainage ditch is connected with the secondary water interception and drainage ditch through the sand setting pond arranged in the middle, and the ecological grass ditch is formed after wet plants are planted in the primary water drainage ditch;
the slope surface is provided with a step water storage system, the step water storage system is formed by connecting a plurality of water reservoirs distributed from top to bottom on the slope surface where the hillside farmland is located, the upper end of each water reservoir is provided with a flood overflow port connected with a drainage ditch, the inlet of each water reservoir is connected with an ecological grass ditch, and the outlet of each water reservoir is connected with an irrigation ditch of the hillside farmland below;
a terminal purification system is arranged to carry out ecological interception and purification on water entering a river and entering a warehouse, the terminal purification system comprises a pretreatment unit and a main body treatment unit, the pretreatment unit mainly comprises a sediment deposition tank and an anaerobic digestion tank, and the main body unit comprises an artificial wetland and an ecological floating bed;
the hedge is mainly prepared from eurytopic perennial herb, and the species type comprises daylily, honeysuckle and amorpha fruticosa.
CN201711290461.7A 2017-12-08 2017-12-08 Comprehensive control system and method for agricultural non-point source pollution of hillside fields Active CN107853121B (en)

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