CN106069564A - Produce and go sightseeing to pluck the kyoto grape Labor-saving cultural method taken into account - Google Patents

Produce and go sightseeing to pluck the kyoto grape Labor-saving cultural method taken into account Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106069564A
CN106069564A CN201610442591.7A CN201610442591A CN106069564A CN 106069564 A CN106069564 A CN 106069564A CN 201610442591 A CN201610442591 A CN 201610442591A CN 106069564 A CN106069564 A CN 106069564A
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China
Prior art keywords
shoot
fruit
branch
fringe
stays
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CN201610442591.7A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
毛妮妮
刘伟忠
刘照亭
任俊鹏
郭建
鲁群
周蓓蓓
王志娟
王建萍
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Jurong Wanshanhongbian Seasonal Fruit Specialized Cooperative Union
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Jurong Wanshanhongbian Seasonal Fruit Specialized Cooperative Union
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Priority to CN201610442591.7A priority Critical patent/CN106069564A/en
Publication of CN106069564A publication Critical patent/CN106069564A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/02Cultivation of hops or vines
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/04Supports for hops, vines, or trees
    • A01G17/06Trellis-work
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants

Abstract

The invention discloses and a kind of produce and go sightseeing to pluck the kyoto grape Labor-saving cultural method taken into account, select including field, the various measures such as frame is built, cultivation matrix, ridging, field planting, water management, " ψ " shape pruning, denuclearization process, soil management technology, bird prevention net covering, priming leaf, bagging technique, the techniques of pest control.The present invention uses " ψ " shape pruning mode that Fructus Vitis viniferae is carried out shaping, meets the habit of kyoto grape, and tree body reaches reproductive growth and nourishing and growing and balances each other, and bud differentiation rate, fruit-setting rate, fruit pol, fruit yield and quality significantly improve;Both can mechanization gather, the most suitably go sightseeing pluck, can Fructus Vitis viniferae industrialization produce in spread.

Description

Produce and go sightseeing to pluck the kyoto grape Labor-saving cultural method taken into account
Technical field
The invention belongs to field of plant growing technology, be specifically related to grape planting process, particularly relate to a kind of production and sight Light plucks the kyoto grape Labor-saving cultural method taken into account.
Background technology
Along with the popularization of vinegrowing technology, wine-growing is more kept on improving by people, by accurate field planting, precisely Management and efficient liquid manure utilize, it is thus achieved that the Fructus Vitis viniferae of higher quality.At south China summer high temperature high humidity, with heavy rainfall, adopt With plane pergola system Fructus Vitis viniferae, Fructus Vitis viniferae can be made the highest, alleviate the rainwater propagation to soil disease, but on producing at present In branch management technique, pruning technique, flower and fruit management technology, water and fertilizer management technology in wide variety of vinegrowing pattern The most complex etc. link, it is difficult to be grasped by wide farmers, and labor intensity is high, efficiency is low;Use single wall pergola cultivation, T Type pergola cultivation Fructus Vitis viniferae, ventilation and penetrating light is poor, and frame face is limited, and space availability ratio is low, and grape branch increment is not enough, leads Cause leaf area is relatively fewer, has certain impact to yield, and tree-like disorder does not has rule, and branch intersects straggly, management inconvenience.Special It not now with Agro-ecology garden, the fast development of agricultural sightseeing tourism, to the demand of ornamental type agriculture cultivation model day by day Increase, and ornamental type agricultural is to utilize modern agriculture facility, modern biotechnology science and technology and natural, ecological principle, integration agricultural resource, Landscape art, a kind of existing production function of agronomic technique have again the cultivation mode of ornamental value.I.e. some usually used as food With, the medicinal and plant of other economic uses, make and give the function that they are new so that it is having and view and admire aesthetic values, thus Realize the combination of agricultural and landscape art, promote that agricultural develops to landscape, ecology, urbanization direction.But Fructus Vitis viniferae at present Some cultivation Training systems be not appropriate for as sightseeing type Fructus Vitis viniferae develop, therefore, be badly in need of a kind of novel Fructus Vitis viniferae Training system Adapt to plantation and the development of sightseeing harvesting type Fructus Vitis viniferae.
Summary of the invention
For present situation, the present invention provides a kind of brand-new producing and go sightseeing to pluck the kyoto grape Labor-saving cultivation side taken into account Method, this method both can gather in mechanization, the most suitably went sightseeing to pluck, can in the industrialization of Fructus Vitis viniferae produces spread.
For solving above-mentioned technical problem, the present invention adopts the following technical scheme that
Producing and go sightseeing to pluck the kyoto grape Labor-saving cultural method taken into account, described cultural method comprises the steps:
(1) field selects: select to close on water source, and it is convenient to irrigate, level of ground water at below 2m, the plot that physical features is smooth;
(2) frame is built: use horizontal grid frame;Described horizontal grid frame height is 1.9~2m, described frame by The wire side composition of concrete column, shelf and zinc-coated wire braiding, draws the hot dip galvanizing steel strand of 7 gangs of a diameter of 1cm, forms the bone of frame Frame, is strained and fixed on side column and pillar with tightener, along to side column 1.8mm hot-dip galvanizing steel wire weaving 40cm × 40cm plane grid;
(3) cultivation matrix: use rice chaff, Vermiculitum, yellow sand, garden mould, lichen, vinegar, coconut palm bran, pine squama, peat, become thoroughly decomposed
Chicken manure, by volume 1:1:1:1:1:1:1:1:2:2 mixing, it is desirable to without pathogen, roguing of sieving uniformly mixes, Substrate is tieed up
Hold porosity about 50~60%, pH value 5.5~7;
(4) ridging: using high ridge cultivation, the specification of ridging is width × height=1.2m × 0.6m, length regard depending on condition, ridge Surrounding use marble slab, plastics limit heel piece, cement brick wall, glass, plastics, resin or stone to reinforce, formed with surrounding every Exhausted space, fills cultivation matrix in ridge, upper surface covers 2~3cm thick bark bits, paving gardening ground, both sides, ridge cloth;
(5) field planting:
Select that kind is pure, physically well develop, bud is full, rugosity is good at more than 0.4cm, root system in the middle part of branch, distribution all Even and 1 year raw kyoto grape Seedling without pest and disease damage, mid-February to early March field planting, spacing in the rows is 5 meters, and line-spacing is 6 meters, field planting Front root system 700 times of liquid disinfectants of 70% thiophanate methyl wettable powder, stem 3 Baume degrees~5 Baume degrees lime sulfurs disappear Poison;
Being placed on the central point on ridge by Fructus Vitis viniferae shoot root, held up by nursery stock directly, root is made in order rear earthing having peace of mind, usual earthing is extremely Under grafting mouth, watering permeable, trunk stays 3~4 full bud cutting backs;
(6) water management: when water capacity is less than 20%, it is necessary to pour water, uses pouring, sprinkling irrigation, drip irrigation method, waters When the water time is when budding period, Fruit and summer high temperature, Drought in Autumn;
(7) " ψ " shape pruning:
First Year, after nursery stock germinates, from the young sprout sprouted, 1 orthostatic of selecting and remain is strong, and the young sprout that growing way is vigorous is upwards given birth to Long, remaining young sprout is erased, and when young sprout grows to more than 25 centimetres, lures with bamboo pole and guides upper vertical growth into;Young sprout grow to 1.8~ During 1.9m, namely carrying out pinching during B point, sublateral shoot can be sprouted in the position of pinching, therefrom selects three most useful for being fixed to frame On, and between three major branches, angle two-by-two can be adjusted to 45 ° and the vigorous sublateral shoot of growing way as major branch BC, BD, BE, three Major branch moves towards along iron wire, is forward fixed on iron wire, and the close angle between two major branches is maintained at 45 °, major branch forward end Growth, keeps apical dominance, and side shoot is cultivated in major branch both sides, and side shoot is the arrangement of vein shape, and it is left that side shoot homonymy spacing is maintained at 20cm The right side, pinching when side shoot 12~13 leaves, the sublateral shoot that side shoot is sprouted stays 2 leaf pinching repeatedly, and the sublateral shoot that major branch front end is sprouted stays A strong holding grows forward, stays 5 leaf pinching repeatedly, and all major branches, side shoot are fixed on rack in time, and trunk does not stay side Branch, removes without exception, during winter pruning, removes sick and weak branch, the thickest withe excessively, and remaining bearing basal shoot stays 1-4 bud cutting back;
Second Year and after, the bud on spring bearing basal shoot is sprouted, and position of selecting and remain is good, and 1~2 young sprout of robust growth is made For fruitful branch then, being fixed in time on rack, fruitful branch is the arrangement of vein shape, and homonymy spacing is maintained at about 20cm, side shoot Pinching during 12 leaves, the sublateral shoot that side shoot is sprouted stays 2 leaf pinching repeatedly, and the sublateral shoot that major branch front end is sprouted stays the most strong one to protect Holding and grow forward, stay 5 leaf pinching repeatedly, trunk does not stay side shoot, removes without exception, during winter pruning, removes sick and weak branch, crosses thick mistake Withe, remaining bearing basal shoot stays 1~4 bud cutting backs, according to branch Auto-regulating System of Density of Heavy Medium branch amount, it is ensured that the coming year, fruitful branch did not wanted overstocked or mistake Dilute;
(8) denuclearization processes:
Whole fringe: before process, is all fixed to branch on iron wire, is made in order by spica, and the most vertically downward, each spica is dredged Except secondary fringe and top Zhi Sui, removing fringe point 2cm, bounce back long small ear, leaves portion 14~15 branck spike;
Determine fringe: after bearing fruit, treat that fruit grain grows to big Semen Glycines size, remove that position is the best, the irregular fruit ear of fringe shape, with 13 Sheet blade stays 1 fringe fruit as standard;
Fruit thinning: every fringe stays 60~65, removes extruding fruit, hinders fringe shape fruit;
Chemicals treatment:
1. processing for the first time and within 1~3 day, carry out dipping in fringe after Sheng is spent, agents useful for same is GA35~10ppm, phenyl ureas is thin Born of the same parents' mitogen 1~2ppm, Piao glycolylurea 0.83mL/L and cough up bacterium cyanogen 0.2g/L;
2. second time processes and within 12~15 days, carries out dipping in fringe after processing for the first time, and agents useful for same is GA320~30ppm, benzene The base ureas basic element of cell division 3~5ppm, Piao glycolylurea 0.83mL/L, cough up bacterium cyanogen 0.2g/L;
(9) soil management
In order to obtain harvesting high-quality high-yield, need annual fertilizing in autumn, increase soil fertility.In ridge, trunk surrounding is the most alternately dug Diagonal formula shallow ridges, applies the organic substances such as Caulis et Folium Oryzae, fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer, micro-fertilizer, mu execute Caulis et Folium Oryzae 800kg, fertilizer 800~ 1000kg, calcium magnesium phosphate 30~40kg, potassium sulfate 10~15kg.Applied fertilizer by excavation, create suitable environment to root growth, The shoot growth of grapevine seedling is healthy and strong, and blade face assimilation is strengthened, beneficially flower_bud formation and the raising of yield;
(10) bird prevention net covers: in order to prevent and treat bird pest, covers bird prevention net before fruit maturation.Fruit harvesting is taken off after terminating Go;
(11) priming leaf: if canopy face blade is the most intensive, fruit color phase first segment below fruit ear start to extract 1~ The blade of 3 joints.After priming leaf, fruit ear is more receptive to be shined upon, and can improve fruit color and quality.Additionally covered ground reflective membrane Also contribute to coloring;
(12) bagging technique: after fruit thinning has worked, immediately bagging, prevent and treat pollution by pesticides;
(13) techniques of pest control: annual medication about 6 times, rest period uses 5 degree of lime sulfurs that grapevine seedling is abundant Sterilization, greatly reduces cause of disease radix, and trophophase uses 10% 1500 times of liquid of generation height wettable powder, 1000 times of liquid of 50% sporgon Or use 45% crystal lime polysulfies 400~600 times, prevent and treat grapevine anthracnose, anthrax, white rot, use 50% Sukeling 800 times of liquid of wettable powder, 1000 times of liquid preventing and treating grape grey moulds of 40% pyrimethanil, 25% Amici reaches 1500 times Liquid, 2000 times of liquid of 50% dimethomorph prevent and treat downy mildew, use 48% happy these 1500 times of liquid, 73% propargite 1500~2000 Times liquid preventing and treating grape mealybug and red spider.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows:
1, the present invention uses " ψ " shape pruning mode that Fructus Vitis viniferae is carried out shaping, meets the habit of kyoto grape, tree Body reaches reproductive growth and nourishing and growing and balances each other, and bud differentiation rate, fruit-setting rate, fruit pol, fruit yield and quality are obvious Improve;
2, line-spacing is relatively big, tree-like succinctly, make branches and tendrils rationally arrangement, it is ensured that good ventilation and illumination;
3, save fertile, water saving, accomplish the saving energy;
4, denuclearization processing method uses suitable reagent to process, and treatment effect is preferable, and the present invention can reduce Dredge the operation of grain, laborsaving saving of labor, moreover it is possible to the disease that the when of avoiding dredging grain, manual operation and mechanical loss cause.
5, cultivation management is easy, prunes simplicity, and labor intensity significantly reduces, and improves work efficiency, convenient to operation.
6, standardization level is high, and paving gardening ground, both sides, ridge cloth, field is attractive in appearance totally, anti-weeds, reduces air humidity, effectively Reduce pest and disease damage to occur, reduce pesticide dosage.
7, both can mechanization gather, the most suitably go sightseeing pluck, can Fructus Vitis viniferae industrialization produce in spread.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the present invention " ψ " shape pruning schematic diagram;
Wherein, AB length 1.8~1.9m;1 trunk;2 major branches (include BC, BD, BE);3 side shoots.
Detailed description of the invention
By specific embodiment, the present invention will be described in detail below.These embodiments are provided to be able to more Thoroughly understand the present invention, and complete for the scope of the present invention can be conveyed to those skilled in the art.
" comprising " or " including " as mentioned by the middle of description and claim in the whole text is an open language, therefore should It is construed to " comprise but be not limited to ".Description subsequent descriptions is to implement the better embodiment of the present invention, and right described description is For the purpose of the rule of description, it is not limited to the scope of the present invention.Protection scope of the present invention is when regarding appended power Profit requires that defined person is as the criterion.
Without specified otherwise, material of the present invention and various chemical agent are all bought from market.
A kind of production plucks, with sightseeing, the kyoto grape Labor-saving cultural method taken into account, and comprises the steps:
(1) field selects: select to close on water source, and it is convenient to irrigate, level of ground water at below 2m, the plot that physical features is smooth;
(2) frame is built: use horizontal grid frame;Described horizontal grid frame height is 1.9~2m, described frame by The wire side composition of concrete column, shelf and zinc-coated wire braiding, draws the hot dip galvanizing steel strand of 7 gangs of a diameter of 1cm, forms the bone of frame Frame, is strained and fixed on side column and pillar with tightener, along to side column 1.8mm hot-dip galvanizing steel wire weaving 40cm × 40cm plane grid;
(3) cultivation matrix: use rice chaff, Vermiculitum, yellow sand, garden mould, lichen, vinegar, coconut palm bran, pine squama, peat, the chicken become thoroughly decomposed Excrement, by volume 1:1:1:1:1:1:1:1:2:2 mixing, it is desirable to without pathogen, roguing of sieving uniformly mixes, substrate maintains hole Degree about 50~60%, pH value 5.5~7;
(4) ridging: using high ridge cultivation, the specification of ridging is width × height=1.2m × 0.6m, length regard depending on condition, ridge Surrounding use marble slab, plastics limit heel piece, cement brick wall, glass, plastics, resin or stone to reinforce, formed with surrounding every Exhausted space, fills cultivation matrix in ridge, upper surface covers 2~3cm thick bark bits, paving gardening ground, both sides, ridge cloth;
(5) field planting:
Select that kind is pure, physically well develop, bud is full, rugosity is good at more than 0.4cm, root system in the middle part of branch, distribution all Even and 1 year raw kyoto grape Seedling without pest and disease damage, mid-February to early March field planting, spacing in the rows is 5 meters, and line-spacing is 6 meters, field planting Front root system 700 times of liquid disinfectants of 70% thiophanate methyl wettable powder, stem 3 Baume degrees~5 Baume degrees lime sulfurs disappear Poison;
Being placed on the central point on ridge by Fructus Vitis viniferae shoot root, held up by nursery stock directly, root is made in order rear earthing having peace of mind, usual earthing is extremely Under grafting mouth, watering permeable, trunk stays 3~4 full bud cutting backs;
(6) water management: when water capacity is less than 20%, it is necessary to pour water, uses pouring, sprinkling irrigation, drip irrigation method, waters When the water time is when budding period, Fruit and summer high temperature, Drought in Autumn;
(7) " ψ " shape pruning:
First Year, after nursery stock germinates, from the young sprout sprouted, 1 orthostatic of selecting and remain is strong, and the young sprout that growing way is vigorous is upwards given birth to Long, remaining young sprout is erased, and when young sprout grows to more than 25 centimetres, lures with bamboo pole and guides upper vertical growth into;Young sprout grow to 1.8~ During 1.9m, namely carrying out pinching during B point, sublateral shoot can be sprouted in the position of pinching, therefrom selects three most useful for being fixed to frame On, and between three major branches, angle two-by-two can be adjusted to 45 ° and the vigorous sublateral shoot of growing way as major branch BC, BD, BE, three Major branch moves towards along iron wire, is forward fixed on iron wire, and the close angle between two major branches is maintained at 45 °, major branch forward end Growth, keeps apical dominance, and side shoot is cultivated in major branch both sides, and side shoot is the arrangement of vein shape, and it is left that side shoot homonymy spacing is maintained at 20cm The right side, pinching when side shoot 12~13 leaves, the sublateral shoot that side shoot is sprouted stays 2 leaf pinching repeatedly, and the sublateral shoot that major branch front end is sprouted stays A strong holding grows forward, stays 5 leaf pinching repeatedly, and all major branches, side shoot are fixed on rack in time, and trunk does not stay side Branch, removes without exception, during winter pruning, removes sick and weak branch, the thickest withe excessively, and remaining bearing basal shoot stays 1-4 bud cutting back;
Second Year and after, the bud on spring bearing basal shoot is sprouted, and position of selecting and remain is good, and 1~2 young sprout of robust growth is made For fruitful branch then, being fixed in time on rack, fruitful branch is the arrangement of vein shape, and homonymy spacing is maintained at about 20cm, side shoot Pinching during 12 leaves, the sublateral shoot that side shoot is sprouted stays 2 leaf pinching repeatedly, and the sublateral shoot that major branch front end is sprouted stays the most strong one to protect Holding and grow forward, stay 5 leaf pinching repeatedly, trunk does not stay side shoot, removes without exception, during winter pruning, removes sick and weak branch, crosses thick mistake Withe, remaining bearing basal shoot stays 1~4 bud cutting backs, according to branch Auto-regulating System of Density of Heavy Medium branch amount, it is ensured that the coming year, fruitful branch did not wanted overstocked or mistake Dilute;
(8) denuclearization processes:
Whole fringe: before process, is all fixed to branch on iron wire, is made in order by spica, and the most vertically downward, each spica is dredged Except secondary fringe and top Zhi Sui, removing fringe point 2cm, bounce back long small ear, leaves portion 14~15 branck spike;
Determine fringe: after bearing fruit, treat that fruit grain grows to big Semen Glycines size, remove that position is the best, the irregular fruit ear of fringe shape, with 13 Sheet blade stays 1 fringe fruit as standard;
Fruit thinning: every fringe stays 60~65, removes extruding fruit, hinders fringe shape fruit;
Chemicals treatment:
1. processing for the first time and within 1~3 day, carry out dipping in fringe after Sheng is spent, agents useful for same is GA35~10ppm, phenyl ureas is thin Born of the same parents' mitogen 1~2ppm, Piao glycolylurea 0.83mL/L and cough up bacterium cyanogen 0.2g/L;
2. second time processes and within 12~15 days, carries out dipping in fringe after processing for the first time, and agents useful for same is GA320~30ppm, benzene The base ureas basic element of cell division 3~5ppm, Piao glycolylurea 0.83mL/L, cough up bacterium cyanogen 0.2g/L;
(9) soil management
In order to obtain harvesting high-quality high-yield, need annual fertilizing in autumn, increase soil fertility.In ridge, trunk surrounding is the most alternately dug Diagonal formula shallow ridges, applies the organic substances such as Caulis et Folium Oryzae, fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer, micro-fertilizer, mu execute Caulis et Folium Oryzae 800kg, fertilizer 800~ 1000kg, calcium magnesium phosphate 30~40kg, potassium sulfate 10~15kg.Applied fertilizer by excavation, create suitable environment to root growth, The shoot growth of grapevine seedling is healthy and strong, and blade face assimilation is strengthened, beneficially flower_bud formation and the raising of yield;
(10) bird prevention net covers: in order to prevent and treat bird pest, covers bird prevention net before fruit maturation.Fruit harvesting is taken off after terminating Go;
(11) priming leaf: if canopy face blade is the most intensive, fruit color phase first segment below fruit ear start to extract 1~ The blade of 3 joints.After priming leaf, fruit ear is more receptive to be shined upon, and can improve fruit color and quality.Additionally covered ground reflective membrane Also contribute to coloring;
(12) bagging technique: after fruit thinning has worked, immediately bagging, prevent and treat pollution by pesticides;
(13) techniques of pest control: annual medication about 6 times, rest period uses 5 degree of lime sulfurs that grapevine seedling is abundant Sterilization, greatly reduces cause of disease radix, and trophophase uses 10% 1500 times of liquid of generation height wettable powder, 1000 times of liquid of 50% sporgon Or use 45% crystal lime polysulfies 400~600 times, prevent and treat grapevine anthracnose, anthrax, white rot, use 50% Sukeling 800 times of liquid of wettable powder, 1000 times of liquid preventing and treating grape grey moulds of 40% pyrimethanil, 25% Amici reaches 1500 times Liquid, 2000 times of liquid of 50% dimethomorph prevent and treat downy mildew, use 48% happy these 1500 times of liquid, 73% propargite 1500~2000 Times liquid preventing and treating grape mealybug and red spider.
In order to prove beneficial effects of the present invention, applicant has also carried out following test:
Test one:
Within 2013 2015, in base, Jurong City of Jiangsu Province, choose the kyoto grape tree that growing state is basically identical, Other cultivation management measures are identical, cultivate only with different tree form: A1: the "T"-shaped shaping of hedge frame;A2: horizontal rack " X " shaping; A3: the present invention i.e. horizontal rack " ψ " shape shaping (Fig. 1 is shown in by schematic diagram).Compared in 2015 three kinds of tree-like lower tree phases difference and The difference of fruit quality.Specifically compare and see Tables 1 and 2, from table 1 it follows that the present invention increases thick and bud differentiation to stem Act on all obvious than A1 and A2.From table 2 it can be seen that the period of maturation of the present invention having shifted to an earlier date compared with other two kinds of planting types, And its Single seed weight, soluble solid content dramatically increase than other two process, and titratable acid content is remarkably decreased, explanation The grape fruit quality of the present invention is presented with obvious advantage generally.
Table 1:2015 Grape Dormancy phase increment compares
Table 2:2015 fruit quality situation compares
Test two:
In May, 2015, in base, Jurong City of Jiangsu Province, chooses identical plot, growing state is basically identical, use this The raw kyoto grape tree in bright carry out cultivating 4 years, as examination material, uses different reagent combinations to carry out denuclearization and processes experiment.In In August, 2015, fruit maturation was gathered, and compared the difference of fruit quality.Wherein table 3 is different agents used in the present invention guide look Table, table 4 is different disposal catalog of the present invention, and the plain glycolylurea that different disposal is used is 0.83mL/L, coughs up bacterium cyanogen and be 0.2g/L;Table 5 is that after different disposal condition processes, fruit quality conditions compares, wherein, as can be seen from Table 5, and the simple grain of C3 Weight, soluble solid content are suitable, and the fruit ear degree of packing is moderate, and big granule situation is less, and sarcocarp mouthfeel is more crisp, and degree of disease is relatively Gently, comprehensively comparing, the effect of C3 is best.
Table 3 different agents used in the present invention catalog
Table 4 different disposal catalog
Fruit quality situation under the conditions of 5 2015 years different disposal of table compares
The foregoing is only embodiments of the invention, not thereby limit the scope of the claims of the present invention, every utilize this Equivalent structure or equivalence flow process that bright description is made convert, or are directly or indirectly used in other relevant technology necks Territory, is the most in like manner included in the scope of patent protection of the present invention.

Claims (5)

1. produce and go sightseeing to pluck the kyoto grape Labor-saving cultural method taken into account, it is characterised in that described cultural method includes Following steps:
(1) field selects: select to close on water source, and it is convenient to irrigate, level of ground water at below 2m, the plot that physical features is smooth;
(2) frame is built: use horizontal grid frame;
(3) cultivation matrix: use rice chaff, Vermiculitum, yellow sand, garden mould, lichen, vinegar, coconut palm bran, pine squama, peat, the chicken manure that becomes thoroughly decomposed by Volume ratio is 1:1:1:1:1:1:1:1:2:2 mixing, and described substrate will be without pathogen, and roguing of sieving uniformly mixes, and substrate maintains Porosity is 50~60%, and pH value is 5.5~7;
(4) ridging: using high ridge cultivation, the specification of ridging is width × height=1.2m × 0.6m, length regard depending on condition, the four of ridge Zhou Caiyong marble slab, plastics limit heel piece, cement brick wall, glass, plastics, resin or stone are reinforced, and are formed and surrounding isolation Space, fills cultivation matrix in ridge, upper surface covers 2~3cm thick bark bits, paving gardening ground, both sides, ridge cloth;
(5) field planting:
Select that kind is pure, physically well develop, bud is full, in the middle part of branch rugosity more than 0.4cm, root system is good, be evenly distributed and Without 1 year raw kyoto grape Seedling of pest and disease damage, mid-February to early March field planting, spacing in the rows is 5 meters, and line-spacing is 6 meters, root before field planting System's 700 times of liquid disinfectants of 70% thiophanate methyl wettable powder, stem is sterilized with 3~5 Baume degrees lime sulfurs;
Being placed on the central point on ridge by Fructus Vitis viniferae shoot root, held up by nursery stock directly, root is made in order rear earthing having peace of mind, earthing is to grafting mouth Under, water permeable, trunk stays 3~4 full bud cutting backs;
(6) water management: when water capacity is less than 20%, it is necessary to pour water, uses pouring, sprinkling irrigation or drip irrigation method;
(7) " ψ " shape pruning:
First Year, after nursery stock germinates, from the young sprout sprouted, 1 orthostatic of selecting and remain is strong, and the young sprout that growing way is vigorous grows up, Remaining young sprout is erased, and when young sprout grows to 25 centimetres, lures with bamboo pole and guides upper vertical growth into;When young sprout length is to 1.8~1.9m, also Being exactly to carry out pinching during B point, sublateral shoot can be sprouted in the position of pinching, and therefrom selection three is most useful for being fixed on frame, and three Between major branch, angle two-by-two can be adjusted to 45 ° and the vigorous sublateral shoot of growing way as major branch BC, BD, BE, and three major branches are along ferrum Silk trend, is forward fixed on iron wire, and the close angle between two major branches is maintained at 45 °, and major branch forward end grows, and keeps Apical dominance, major branch both sides cultivation side shoot, side shoot is the arrangement of vein shape, and side shoot homonymy spacing is maintained at about 20cm, and side shoot is Pinching during 12~13 leaves, the sublateral shoot that side shoot is sprouted stays 2 leaf pinching repeatedly, and the sublateral shoot that major branch front end is sprouted stays the most strong one Individual holding grows forward and stays 5 leaf pinching repeatedly, and all major branches, side shoot are fixed on rack, and trunk does not stay side shoot, goes without exception Removing, during winter pruning, remove sick and weak branch, the thickest withe excessively, remaining bearing basal shoot stays 1~4 bud cutting backs;
Second Year and after, the bud on spring bearing basal shoot is sprouted, and position of selecting and remain is good, and 1~2 young sprout of robust growth is as working as Annual bearing branch, is fixed on rack, and fruitful branch is the arrangement of vein shape, and homonymy spacing is maintained at about 20cm, during 12 leaves of side shoot Pinching, the sublateral shoot that side shoot is sprouted stays 2 leaf pinching repeatedly, the sublateral shoot that major branch front end is sprouted, and stays the most strong one to keep to previous existence Growing, stay 5 leaf pinching repeatedly, trunk does not stay side shoot, removes without exception, during winter pruning, removes sick and weak branch, crosses thick withe excessively, its Remaining bearing basal shoot stays 1~4 bud cutting backs, according to branch Auto-regulating System of Density of Heavy Medium branch amount, it is ensured that the coming year, fruitful branch was not wanted overstocked or the dilutest;
(8) denuclearization processes:
Whole fringe: before process, is all fixed to branch on iron wire, is made in order by spica, and the most vertically downward, each spica removes pair Fringe and top Zhi Sui, remove fringe point 2cm, and bounce back long small ear, leaves portion 14~15 branck spike;
Determine fringe: after bearing fruit, treat that fruit grain grows to big Semen Glycines size, remove that position is the best, the irregular fruit ear of fringe shape, with 13 leaves Sheet stays 1 fringe fruit as standard;
Fruit thinning: every fringe stays 60~65, removes extruding fruit, hinders fringe shape fruit;
Chemicals treatment:
1. processing for the first time and within 1~3 day, carry out dipping in fringe after Sheng is spent, agents useful for same is GA35~10ppm, phenyl ureas cell division Element 1~2ppm, Piao glycolylurea 0.83mL/L and cough up bacterium cyanogen 0.2g/L;
2. second time processes and within 12~15 days, carries out dipping in fringe after processing for the first time, and agents useful for same is GA320~30ppm, phenyl ureas The basic element of cell division 3~5ppm, Piao glycolylurea 0.83mL/L and cough up bacterium cyanogen 0.2g/L;
(9) bagging: after fruit thinning has worked, immediately bagging, prevent and treat pollution by pesticides.
The kyoto grape Labor-saving cultural method that production the most according to claim 1 takes into account with harvesting of going sightseeing, its feature exists In, described horizontal grid frame height is 1.9~2m, the wire side group that described frame is woven by concrete column, shelf and zinc-coated wire Become, draw the hot dip galvanizing steel strand of 7 gangs of a diameter of 1cm, form the skeleton of frame, be strained and fixed at side column and pillar with tightener On, along two side column 1.8mm hot-dip galvanizing steel wire weaving 40cm × 40cm plane grids.
The kyoto grape Labor-saving cultural method that production the most according to claim 1 takes into account with harvesting of going sightseeing, its feature exists Also including fertilizing management in, described cultural method: annual fertilizing in autumn, in ridge, the most alternately to dig diagonal formula shallow for trunk surrounding Ditch, mu executes the Caulis et Folium Oryzae 800kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed, fertilizer 800~1000kg, calcium magnesium phosphate 30~40kg, potassium sulfate 10~15kg.
The kyoto grape Labor-saving cultural method that production the most according to claim 1 takes into account with harvesting of going sightseeing, its feature exists In, described cultural method also includes priming leaf, if canopy face blade is the most intensive, fruit color phase first segment below fruit ear is opened Begin to extract the blade of 1~3 joints, and help coloring at covered ground reflective membrane.
The kyoto grape Labor-saving cultural method that production the most according to claim 1 takes into account with harvesting of going sightseeing, its feature exists In, described cultural method also includes the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control: annual medication 5~6 times, rest period uses 5 Baume degrees lime sulfurs by Portugal Grape plant sufficiently sterilised, trophophase uses 10% 1500 times of liquid of generation height wettable powder, 1000 times of liquid of 50% sporgon or use 45% crystal lime polysulfies 400~600 times of liquid, prevent and treat grapevine anthracnose, anthrax, white rot, uses 50% Sukeling wettable Property 800 times of liquid of powder, 1000 times of liquid of 40% pyrimethanil preventing and treating grape grey moulds, use 25% Amici to reach 1500 times Liquid, 2000 times of liquid of 50% dimethomorph prevent and treat downy mildew, use 48% happy these 1500 times of liquid, 73% propargite 1500~2000 Times liquid preventing and treating grape mealybug and red spider.
CN201610442591.7A 2016-06-20 2016-06-20 Produce and go sightseeing to pluck the kyoto grape Labor-saving cultural method taken into account Pending CN106069564A (en)

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CN107232020A (en) * 2017-07-13 2017-10-10 镇江万山红遍农业园 A kind of breeding method for improving organic golden finger grape potted landscape ornamental quality
CN107295941A (en) * 2017-05-25 2017-10-27 贾强 A kind of field planting of grape of taking shelter from rain and cultivation management method
CN108040814A (en) * 2017-12-20 2018-05-18 杨凤素 A kind of container seedling matrix formulations and preparation method thereof
CN108450227A (en) * 2018-01-30 2018-08-28 山东博华高效生态农业科技有限公司 A kind of pruning method of grape
CN111328622A (en) * 2020-03-31 2020-06-26 福建省农业科学院果树研究所 Method for transforming tree form of southern trellis close-planted vineyard and application thereof

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CN104160913A (en) * 2014-08-25 2014-11-26 镇江万山红遍农业园 Method for cultivating sunshine rose grapes in labor-saving mode
CN104160915A (en) * 2014-09-03 2014-11-26 镇江万山红遍农业园 High-density labor-saving shaping cultivation method for grape vine
CN105123423A (en) * 2015-07-21 2015-12-09 句容市万山红遍应时鲜果专业合作联社 Plantation method for improving sugar content of shine-muscat

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CN103392553A (en) * 2013-08-14 2013-11-20 镇江万山红遍农业园 Method for shaping and planting fly-bird-type grapevine
CN103430803A (en) * 2013-09-04 2013-12-11 镇江万山红遍农业园 Shaping cultivation method of peach tree shape with three boughs and one center truck
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CN111328622A (en) * 2020-03-31 2020-06-26 福建省农业科学院果树研究所 Method for transforming tree form of southern trellis close-planted vineyard and application thereof

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