CN105815099A - Milkvetch and forage type tall fescue interplanting stereo cultivation method - Google Patents

Milkvetch and forage type tall fescue interplanting stereo cultivation method Download PDF

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CN105815099A
CN105815099A CN201610330360.7A CN201610330360A CN105815099A CN 105815099 A CN105815099 A CN 105815099A CN 201610330360 A CN201610330360 A CN 201610330360A CN 105815099 A CN105815099 A CN 105815099A
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ridge
soil
fertilizer
ridges
radix astragali
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CN105815099B (en
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王虎威
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Ma Xijiang
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王虎威
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G20/00Cultivation of turf, lawn or the like; Apparatus or methods therefor
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for

Abstract

The invention discloses a milkvetch and forage type tall fescue interplanting stereo cultivation method. The method comprises the steps of 1, land selection and preparation, wherein arch high ridges are made on a selected and plowed land parcel, the edges of the ridges are separated with hollow bricks, and then water and fertilizer troughs are dug in the middles of the ridge surfaces along the ridges; 2, soil pretreatment and fertilizer application; 3, seed pretreatment; 4, sowing; 5, field management; 6, pest and disease control; 7, harvesting. According to the milkvetch and forage type tall fescue interplanting stereo cultivation method, staggered type stereo space is formed by making the arch high ridges and closing the ridges with the hollow bricks, the stability of the ridges is ensured, and the growth space of the root systems of milkvetch is ensured; the water and fertilizer troughs are dug in the high ridges, the nutrition demands of milkvetch for growth are ensured, and water and fertilizer waste can be avoided; meanwhile, compounded base fertilizer is applied in the water and fertilizer troughs to regulate the pass-through degree and the water and fertilizer content of soil, the emergence rate of milkvetch is increased, the growth speed is increased, the yield is increased, and the quality is improved.

Description

The Radix Astragali and forage type alta fascue interplanting and three-dimensionally cultivating method
Technical field
The invention belongs to Chinese crude drug planting technology field, particularly relate to the Radix Astragali and forage type alta fascue interplanting and three-dimensionally cultivating method.
Background technology
The Radix Astragali, also known as Radix Astragali or north Millefolium, for leguminous plant Radix Astagali or the root of Radix Astragali, is the important kind of China's famous Chinese medicine material and foreign exchange earning.Its mild in medicine property and, both can be eliminating evil, again can righting, for the panacea of invigorating QI to consolidate the body surface resistance, be widely used in clinical configuration or daily health caring.In recent years, causing wild Radix Astragali resource the most rare owing to excessively excavating, for solving disparities between supply and demand, China mainly passes through the artificial growth Radix Astragali to meet the market demand.Radix Astragali system deep rooted plant, happiness is nice and cool, drought-enduring, cold To Be Protected from Heat, water funk flood, avoids high temperature, artificial growth more options soil layer is deep, the soil is porous, fertile, draining good, the highest and the driest neutrality or the level land of subacidity sand loam or the plantation of hillside on the sunny side, and it generally utilizes stubble-cleaning (rotary tillage) subsoiling ridger to carry out soil subsoiling ridging or little four-wheel suspension dental formulas deep soil loosing shovel subsoiling ridging when whole ground, and the degree of depth reaches more than 35cm, while being beneficial to soil moisture conservation, also can improve emergence rate.It is known that during agricultural planting, when ridge requirement for height is higher, between ridge, width is the most relative increases, and existing astragalus cultivation mostly is single cropping, only plants the Radix Astragali on ridge, and between ridge, sky then leaves unused with staying wastes.
The problem the highest for solving above-mentioned land utilization ratio, Chinese patent CN1418594A discloses the Radix Astragali and the method for papaw interplanting and three-dimensionally cultivating, disclose " in the environment of different regions; by the short and small Radix Astragali and tall and big papaw interplanting and three-dimensionally cultivating; field planting in strong sprout; watering, fertilizing, the technical step of the field management such as results, reach to make full use of space and the method for daylight intercropping cultivation ".The method improves the utilization rate in daylight and soil relatively, but papaw tree is high megaphanerophyte, and its root system is sturdy deep, strives water and strives fertile ability very by force, causes Radix Astragali liquid manure absorbtivity not enough, have a strong impact on yield and quality.
Forage type alta fascue, also known as Fa En or alta fascue seed, it has short subterraneous stem, and plant height is up to 2m.The suitableeest in annual precipitation 450~1000mm, average temperature of the whole year 9~the area of 15 DEG C and fertile, moistening and have the grown on soil of more humus grow, but also can grow on the soil of highly acid (pH4.7) to the most alkaline (pH9.0).The most barren-resistant ability is the strongest, at other Cool-Season Forage Species bad adaptability and the grown on soil of impeded drainage such as rye grasses, and can obtain high yield.It also has drought resisting, cold-resistant, the heat-resisting and feature of moisture-proof, both can safe overwintering under the cryogenic conditions of-15 DEG C in the winter time, can be widely cultivated on the soil of the inclement conditions such as warm temperate zone, Subtropical hill hillock and salt-soda soil at continued propagation under the summer hot conditions of 38 DEG C again.Meanwhile, because of its well developed root system, after planting 6 years, the total root quantity in 0~20cm soil layer is up to 523kg/ mu, it is possible to play reduction soil density, improves Soil structure, reduces the effect of the erosion of soil.
Summary, the soil environment that Radix Astragali happiness is high and dry, and forage type alta fascue can in damp soil environment high yield, and Soil structure and density can be improved, thus, forage type alta fascue is planted sky between the ridge that physical features is relatively low and stays ground, and by astragalus cultivation on ridge, the utilization rate in field can be improved, more can make full use of nature rainwater, the Radix Astragali is had good prospect with the plantation of forage type alta fascue interplanting and three-dimensionally.
Summary of the invention
It is an object of the invention to: a kind of Radix Astragali and forage type alta fascue interplanting and three-dimensionally cultivating method are provided, by making arch high ridge and sealing ridge with hollow brick, formed " dislocation type solid space ", both ensured the stability on ridge, and avoided again Radix Astragali Root growing space;Then on high ridge, excavate liquid manure groove, it is ensured that the nutritional need of Radix Astragali growth, be more avoided that liquid manure is wasted;In liquid manure groove, use compounding base manure, the regulation penetrating degree of soil and liquid manure content simultaneously, promote Radix Astragali emergence rate, and accelerate the speed of growth, improve the yield and quality.
To achieve these goals, the present invention adopts the following technical scheme that
The Radix Astragali and forage type alta fascue interplanting and three-dimensionally cultivating method, comprise the following steps:
1) selection of land and whole: the plot chosen and turn over is made wide 1.5~2m, the arch high ridge of high 35~50cm, distance between the ridges 1.2~1.5m, and limit, ridge hollow brick cuts off, and face, ridge radian is 2.80~2.85;Then in the middle of face, ridge, the liquid manure groove of wide 20~25cm is dug along direction, ridge;
2) soil pretreatment and fertilising: to step 1) the liquid manure groove that performs uses sufficient base manure, described base manure is mixed by the muck that becomes thoroughly decomposed, fine sand, fertilizer and turfy soil, and the muck that becomes thoroughly decomposed therein includes the component of following mass percent: horsehit 50~70%, sheep stool 30~50%;After fertilising mu with 70% fenaminosulf 1.5~2.0kg be watered pouring face, ridge to complete wetting soil 3~5cm, wherein, each ingredients weight parts of described base manure is muck 60~70 parts, fine sand 3~5 parts, fertilizer 15~25 parts, turfy soil 1~2 parts of becoming thoroughly decomposed;
3) Seeds preprocess: astragalus membranaceus seed is placed in 65% sulfuric acid solution seed soaking 4 minutes, after taking-up, clear water is rinsed well, it is then placed in the solution being mixed by gibberellins, potassium permanganate, carbendazim and 80 DEG C of hot water, wherein, gibberellins mass concentration is 0.02%, potassium permanganate mass concentration is 1~2%, and carbendazim mass concentration is 0.3~0.5%;
4) sowing: the Radix Astragali sowing time is 3~April, and the astragalus membranaceus seed processed is sowed at the face, ridge away from liquid manure groove 20~30cm, type of seeding can use bunch planting or the sowing of bar ditch;The forage type alta fascue sowing time is 4~May, determine the Radix Astragali emerge neat after carry out, forage type alta fascue is sowed at sky between ridge and stays on the ground, using the sowing of bar broadcasting method, be 25~30cm by line-spacing, the degree of depth is 3.5~5cm to open seed furrow, in ditch, the organic manure of thick 1.2~1.5cm is applied after holding seed furrow successfully, then being laid on barnyard manure by the moistening field soil dug out, thickness is 1.3~1.5cm, then scatters seeds;
5) field management;
6) prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control;
7) results.
Compared with prior art, the beneficial effects of the present invention is:
1) present invention makes full use of the Radix Astragali and the biological nature of forage type alta fascue, " dislocation type solid space " is built in field, by astragalus cultivation on arch high ridge, create high and dry moderate soil environment, ensure Radix Astragali emergence rate and surging growth, and forage type alta fascue is planted sky between ridge and stays on the ground, create moistening fertile soil environment, ensure the emergence rate of forage type alta fascue and surging growth, utilize the characteristic that forage type alta fascue is the strongest simultaneously, impact on ridge interrow crop when reducing the labor management Radix Astragali during interplanting as far as possible, avoid causing the problems such as the underproduction, reach the Radix Astragali and the purpose of the double high yield of forage type alta fascue.
2) present invention excavates liquid manure groove on high ridge, it is ensured that the nutritional need of Radix Astragali growth, is more avoided that liquid manure is wasted;In liquid manure groove, use compounding base manure, the regulation penetrating degree of soil and liquid manure content simultaneously, promote Radix Astragali emergence rate, and accelerate the speed of growth, improve the yield and quality.
3) Radix Astragali and forage type alta fascue are interplanted by the present invention, the advantage making full use of forage type alta fascue well developed root system, can effectively reduce soil density, improve Soil structure, reduce the erosion of soil, more Radix Astragali growth provides optimal permiable soil environment, strengthens the growth of Radix Astragali subterraneous root, improves medical material quanlity.
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with specific embodiment, technical scheme is described further, in order to the understanding of same domain technical staff.
Embodiment 1
The Radix Astragali and forage type alta fascue interplanting and three-dimensionally cultivating method, comprise the following steps:
1) selection of land and whole: Radix Astragali system deep rooted plant, soil layer should be selected deep, the soil is porous, fertile, draining is good, and physical features is high and dry, milpa is made in neutrality on the sunny side or subacidity sandy loam plot, and the plot chosen and turn over is made wide 1.5~2m, the arch high ridge of high 35~50cm, distance between the ridges 1.2~1.5m, limit, ridge hollow brick cuts off, and face, ridge radian is 2.80~2.85;Then in the middle of face, ridge, the liquid manure groove of wide 20~25cm is dug along direction, ridge;
2) soil pretreatment and fertilising: to step 1) the liquid manure groove that performs uses sufficient base manure, described base manure is mixed by the muck that becomes thoroughly decomposed, fine sand, fertilizer and turfy soil, and the muck that becomes thoroughly decomposed therein includes the component of following mass percent: horsehit 50~70%, sheep stool 30~50%;After fertilising mu with 70% fenaminosulf 1.5~2.0kg be watered pouring face, ridge to complete wetting soil 3~5cm, wherein, each ingredients weight parts of described base manure is muck 60~70 parts, fine sand 3~5 parts, fertilizer 15~25 parts, turfy soil 1~2 parts of becoming thoroughly decomposed;
3) Seeds preprocess: astragalus membranaceus seed is placed in 65% sulfuric acid solution seed soaking 4 minutes, after taking-up, clear water is rinsed well, it is then placed in the solution being mixed by gibberellins, potassium permanganate, carbendazim and 80 DEG C of hot water, wherein, gibberellins mass concentration is 0.02%, potassium permanganate mass concentration is 1~2%, and carbendazim mass concentration is 0.3~0.5%;
4) sowing: the Radix Astragali sowing time is 3~April, and the astragalus membranaceus seed processed is sowed at the face, ridge away from liquid manure groove 20~30cm, type of seeding can use bunch planting or the sowing of bar ditch;The forage type alta fascue sowing time is 4~May, determine the Radix Astragali emerge neat after carry out, forage type alta fascue is sowed at sky between ridge and stays on the ground, using the sowing of bar broadcasting method, be 25~30cm by line-spacing, the degree of depth is 3.5~5cm to open seed furrow, in ditch, the organic manure of thick 1.2~1.5cm is applied after holding seed furrow successfully, then being laid on barnyard manure by the moistening field soil dug out, thickness is 1.3~1.5cm, then scatters seeds;
5) field management:
1. thinning, final singling and fill the gaps with seedlings: the Radix Astragali is emerged for after planting about 10 days, after Seedling all sprouts, between proceeding by, final singling;Thinning is wanted early, to shade mutually in order to avoid plant is crowded, strive fertilizer and take water by force, and the general thinning of the Radix Astragali 2~3 times are carried out when height of seedling 6cm for the first time, and second time is carried out when height of seedling 10~12cm, then carries out final singling.Seedling 3~4 strain is stayed in every cave of bunch planting, drilling stay strain in strong sprout 1 every 10~12cm, Seedling 1 strain (can by a tree transplanted gone out, allow seedling continued growth) is stayed in nursery every 2~3cm, rejects weak Seedling, seedling, sick Seedling, stays strong sprout;During final singling, being short of seedling if having, after-culture should be carried out, fill the gaps with seedlings need in the afternoon or at dusk carrying out at cloudy day or fine day, can cultivate in advance with Seedling or select from a lower Seedling;Forage type alta fascue adaptability is very strong, and emergence rate is the highest, after emerging, to seedling overstocked carry out suitable thinning;
Middle weeding: Radix Astragali growth of seedling is slow, often grass Seedling long after emerging, because of timely weeding, weeding combines intertillage and carries out, and intertillage is typically carried out 3~4 times every year, combines thinning and carry out weeding in first time during height of seedling about 5cm;Carry out second time during height of seedling 7~8cm to intertill;Carry out third time after final singling to intertill, carry out with backsight weeds in field situation;After Second Year in 4,6, JIUYUE respectively intertill once, the intertillage degree of depth is carried out by the principle of " seedling stage is shallow, and strain is deep; Seedling is other shallow, deep in row ", accomplishes no seedling injury, do not bury Seedling, do not hinder root, do not stay grass, it is specifically intended that, in liquid manure groove, weed growth is quickly, therefore, use herbicide and manually combine weeding, it is ensured that liquid manure groove is without weeds;The method that forage type alta fascue uses artificial weeding is carried out, the same Radix Astragali of specific implementation method;
3. topdressing: Radix Astragali happiness fertilizer, in order to meet the different growing needs to nutrient, improve yield, growth 1 year, in combining every year, weeding topdressed 3 times;In combination second time of topdressing for the first time, weeding is carried out, and will gently execute and partially execute, and seedling is executed more, seedlings Shaoshi, catches up with seedlings promoting seedling, and the Seedling that dies down is strong sprout, reaches the purpose that Seedling is neat, Miao Yun, Seedling are strong;Mu is executed night soil 700kg or is watered to water with ammonium sulfate 12kg and executes;Second time combines weeding in third time and carries out, and every mu applies at liquid manure groove trench digging with after compost 1000kg, calcium superphosphate 30kg, ammonium sulfate 5kg mix homogeneously, executes rear earthing;Third time enter winter Seedling withered after every mu mix thoroughly apply field with mixing after barnyard manure 1500kg, calcium superphosphate 35kg, cake fertilizer 120kg, earth up after executing antifreeze;The method of ditching-fertilizing is then used to topdress forage type alta fascue between ridge;
4. pinch, pluck flower bud: pinch, pluck flower bud and can break the growth vigor on stem top, suppress Radix Astragali plant height, control plant strain growth on the ground, reduce nutrient consumption, promote root growth, improve Radix Astragali yield;Pluck flower bud in time mid-June alabastrum occurring, extractd, pluck flower bud 3~4 times the most every year, pinch and then want " in good time ", pinch too early, aerial growth can be affected, reduce leaf-area coefficient, affect photosynthesis, reduce yield, pinch too late, then do not have due effect, according to Radix Astragali growth and development characteristics, in good time Topping Time is preferably in late July;
5. survive the winter cold-proof: enter winter soil freeze-up before, remove in time Radix Astragali dry branches and fallen leaves, the compounding fertilizer in liquid manure groove trained on the root head of the Radix Astragali simultaneously, then earthing 1~2cm is to ensure Radix Astragali safe overwintering;
6) prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control: when pest and disease damage occurs, uses conventional control means to carry out pesticide-germicide;
7) results: interplanting Second Year summer, can start to gather in the crops forage type alta fascue, use reaping hook to extract away from main root about 5cm, after mowing, suitably water to ensure herbage growth every time;The Radix Astragali is gathered in the crops when sowing the 3rd year, and general plant in the fall of gathering is carried out when withering, it is possible to carry out before in next year, spring not yet sprouts, and because now root growth is sufficient, the active constituent content of accumulation is high, and Radix Astragali yield is high.
Use the inventive method interplanting Radix Astragali and forage type alta fascue, the per mu yield Radix Astragali 240~280kg, and start to gather in forage type alta fascue from Second Year, can gather in every year 2~3 times.
It follows that use interplanting method of the present invention, it is achieved that herbage and the technical purpose of the double high yield of the Radix Astragali, and significantly improve the medical material quanlity of the Radix Astragali, there is good market prospect.

Claims (2)

1. the Radix Astragali and forage type alta fascue interplanting and three-dimensionally cultivating method, comprise the following steps: 1) selection of land and whole, 2) soil pretreatment and fertilising, 3) Seeds preprocess, 4) sowing, 5) field management, 6) prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control, 7) results, it is characterised in that: described step 1) in selection of land and whole ground, the plot chosen and turn over is made wide 1.5~2m, the arch high ridge of high 35~50cm, distance between the ridges 1.2~1.5m, limit, ridge hollow brick cuts off, and face, ridge radian is 2.80~2.85;Then in the middle of face, ridge, the liquid manure groove of wide 20~25cm is dug along direction, ridge;Described step 2) soil pretreatment and fertilising in, to step 1) the liquid manure groove that performs uses sufficient base manure, described base manure is mixed by the muck that becomes thoroughly decomposed, fine sand, fertilizer and turfy soil, and the muck that becomes thoroughly decomposed therein includes the component of following mass percent: horsehit 50~70%, sheep stool 30~50%;After fertilising, mu is watered pouring face, ridge to complete wetting soil 3~5cm with 70% fenaminosulf 1.5~2.0kg;Described step 3) in Seeds preprocess, astragalus membranaceus seed is placed in 65% sulfuric acid solution seed soaking 4 minutes, after taking-up, clear water is rinsed well, it is then placed in the solution being mixed by gibberellins, potassium permanganate, carbendazim and 80 DEG C of hot water, wherein, gibberellins mass concentration is 0.02%, and potassium permanganate mass concentration is 1~2%, and carbendazim mass concentration is 0.3~0.5%;Described step 4) in sowing, the astragalus membranaceus seed processed is sowed at the face, ridge away from liquid manure groove 20~30cm, forage type alta fascue is sowed at sky between ridge and stays on the ground.
2. the Radix Astragali as claimed in claim 1 and forage type alta fascue interplanting and three-dimensionally cultivating method, it is characterised in that: each ingredients weight parts of described base manure is muck 60~70 parts, fine sand 3~5 parts, fertilizer 15~25 parts, turfy soil 1~2 parts of becoming thoroughly decomposed.
CN201610330360.7A 2016-05-18 2016-05-18 Radix Astragali and forage type alta fascue interplanting and three-dimensionally cultivating method Active CN105815099B (en)

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CN109644870A (en) * 2018-12-30 2019-04-19 信阳农林学院 A kind of method of turf grass species subgroup training explant disinfection

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CN109644870A (en) * 2018-12-30 2019-04-19 信阳农林学院 A kind of method of turf grass species subgroup training explant disinfection

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