CN104429463A - High-yield cultivation method for interplanting autumn sorghum after harvesting of tobacco leaves - Google Patents

High-yield cultivation method for interplanting autumn sorghum after harvesting of tobacco leaves Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104429463A
CN104429463A CN201410612055.8A CN201410612055A CN104429463A CN 104429463 A CN104429463 A CN 104429463A CN 201410612055 A CN201410612055 A CN 201410612055A CN 104429463 A CN104429463 A CN 104429463A
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chinese sorghum
sorghum
autumn
leaf
tobacco
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张化文
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NANDAN COUNTY AGRICULTURE BUREAU
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NANDAN COUNTY AGRICULTURE BUREAU
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C1/00Apparatus, or methods of use thereof, for testing or treating seed, roots, or the like, prior to sowing or planting
    • A01C1/06Coating or dressing seed
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for

Abstract

The invention discloses a high-yield cultivation method for interplanting autumn sorghum after harvesting of tobacco leaves. The method includes the steps of preparation of land for growing field crops, spraying of weed killers for weed extirpation, seed treatment, sowing, spraying of weed killers for extirpating the weeds, extirpating of tobacco stems, dressing of hole applied fertilizer, spraying of chemical for prevention of plant diseases and insect pests, thinning and final singling, dressing of stalk strengthening fertilizer, spraying of chemical for prevention of the plant diseases and insect pests, and timely harvesting. By means of the high-yield cultivation method for interplanting the autumn sorghum after harvesting of the tobacco leaves, the growth season and soil sources idled after tobacco leaf curing is conducted can be fully utilized, harvesting of the tobacco leaves and harvesting of the autumn sorghum are achieved, the tobacco land cropping index is increased, the crop yield per unit area is increased, and economical benefits are increased.

Description

Autumn Chinese sorghum high-yield cultivating method is interplanted after a kind of cigarette
Technical field
The invention belongs to technical field of crop cultivation, after especially relating to a kind of cigarette, interplant autumn Chinese sorghum high-yield cultivating method.
Background technology
Chinese sorghum is grass family, sorghum.Another name chinese sorghum, sorgo etc., be described as the high-yield crop in " iron crops " by the masses, it is comparatively wide in Chinese cultivated, is maximum with various places, northeast.Chinese sorghum grain is edible, wine brewing (liquor made from sorghum) or making maltose.The plantation of Chinese sorghum can be divided into the spring to do to do two kinds with the autumn, and the spring does sowing time about the first tenday period of a month in the middle ten days and the last ten days in March to April, and the time is too early unsuitable, and because early stage sowing temperature is low, poor growth, runs into cold current easily withered.Autumn is then selected to sow between the last ten-days period in the last ten-days period in June to July, and the time is unsuitable too late, in order to avoid the fertility middle and later periods meets low temperature, impact is given birth to and the delayed maturity phase, causes yield per unit area low.
In China, in the plant development process of Chinese sorghum, be all utilize tract to plant single sorghum variety, land utilization rate is low, and economic benefits are poor.And China is the first leaf tobacco production big country in the world, according to statistics, within 2012, China's plantation flue-cured tobacco area is up to 2,118 ten thousand mu, accounts for 1.11% of national plantation total 18.26 hundred million mu, accounts for 0.86% of the total sowing area 23.5 hundred million mu in the whole nation.But the but no longer Planting Crops then of the soil after major part plantation flue-cured tobacco, causes land resources to waste.In conjunction with plantation flue-cured tobacco and Chinese sorghum technology, interplant Chinese sorghum state in the soil after plantation tobacco leaf, not only can improve the availability of Land Units area, improve cigarette ground cropping index, and unit are economic benefit can be improved, thus increase peasant economy income.
Interplanting namely between the plant in front plant growth later stage in season sowing or transplant after season crop planting patterns, it periodically can not only make full use of space to contrast nonoculture, the more important thing is can extend after season crop growth time, raise the multiple-cropping index, improving annual unit in same output, is the planting patterns in a kind of intensive utilization time and soil.Interplant the difference maximum with intercropping and be that the former is very short for the symbiosis phase of crop, be generally no more than the half in the interplanting crops time of infertility, and the symbiosis phase of interculture at least accounts for the half or over half in the time of infertility of a kind of crop.Interplanting stresses intensive utilization photo-thermal water resource in time, and intercropping stresses spatially intensive utilization photo-thermal water resource.Therefore, interplant Chinese sorghum after cigarette, 1 year same soil can gather in the crops two kinds of crops, benefit is greatly improved, and therefore, interplants a kind of beyond doubt new way improving cigarette ground unit are cropping index and economic benefit of Chinese sorghum after cigarette.
Domestic patent database disclosed some relevant interplanting Chinese sorghum culture techniques in recent years:
Such as: patent document [application number] CN201110058369.4, [publication number] CN102172159A discloses one " a kind of stereo cultivation method of Chinese sorghum interplant of bean ", its method is: Chinese sorghum is prior to soybean planting, and adopt banded unpacking, case face width is 120 ~ 135cm, adopt wide-narrow row planting Chinese sorghum, wide every trade is apart from being 80 ~ 100cm, and narrow row line-spacing is 35 ~ 40cm, in the wide row of Chinese sorghum, plant 1 ~ 2 row soybean, the spacing of soybean and Chinese sorghum is 35 ~ 50cm, and in soybean band, line-spacing is 30cm.This invention is the spatial niche complementary advantage utilizing long-stalked crops Chinese sorghum and short-stalked crop soybean, height canopy structure straggly is formed in field, although improve land utilization efficiency and resource utilization to a certain extent, but this culture technique is the method for a kind of kind crop, require Chinese sorghum and Chinese sorghum, plantation spacing between soybean with soybean can be larger, planting density is more sparse, and when planting simultaneously, long-stalked crops Chinese sorghum can cover the illumination of short-stalked crop soybean, affect the growth of short-stalked crop soybean, also fertilizer can be fought for when adding and grow between these two kinds of crops, once miscarriage, easily cause the growth fraction of these two kinds of crops slower, affect harvest.
Patent document [application number] CN201010162601.4, [publication number] CN102232341A discloses " production method of field of planting cured tobacco interplanting herbage stock keeping, fowl circulation pattern ", in the ground of plantation flue-cured tobacco, interplant herbage; By field of planting cured tobacco ridging, the capable not ridging of herbage of interplanting, both are the plantation in multi-ribbon shape separately successively; Herbage is used for stock keeping or eat careless fowl, directly the grassplot that sheep or goose or chicken are herded in interplanting is searched for food after the middle part tobacco leaf of flue-cured tobacco is plucked; Using the poultry raised in hurdle, poultry manure as the raw material of fermentation methane production, produce natural pond slag that biogas is left, natural pond liquid is applied to planted flue-cured tobacco again; Also plant sweet sorghum as isolation strip around flue-cured tobacco interplanting herbage plot, isolation strip 3m-4m is wide.The culture technique of interplanting other crops after this cigarette is only plant sweet sorghum around flue-cured tobacco interplanting herbage plot, directly interplants the culture technique of Chinese sorghum, also do not illustrate that this cultivation method directly can interplant Chinese sorghum after being also applicable to flue-cured tobacco after not disclosing flue-cured tobacco.
Along with Chinese sorghum process raw material as drinks, the demand of forage compounding raw material is increasing, the market demand of Chinese sorghum sharply increases, and drought, floods frequently occur in recent years, and plough minimizing, population increase, the production of Chinese sorghum can not meet the demand in market.Therefore, interplant Chinese sorghum culture technique after research cigarette should be strengthened, make full use of land resources, improve the output of Chinese sorghum.
Summary of the invention
The object of this invention is to provide and a kind ofly utilize the season of growth idle after tobacco flue-curing and land resources, raising cigarette ground cropping index and unit are economic benefit, after finally realizing the cigarette of the bumper harvests of tobacco leaf and Chinese sorghum, interplant autumn Chinese sorghum high-yield cultivating method.
In order to achieve the above object, the present invention solves the technical scheme that its technical problem takes and is: interplant autumn Chinese sorghum high-yield cultivating method after cigarette, comprise the steps:
The preparation in A, land for growing field crops: 7-10 days before sowing, full field is watered 50-60 kilograms with 0.5 kilogram, 40% glyphosate aqua and sprays weeding.
B, seed treatment: sow the previous day, put sorghum seeds and soak 24 hours at normal temperatures, taken out by seed and use hundred worms spirit and carbendazim mix and blends again, sow immediately after stirring after immersion.
C, sowing: when tobacco flue-curing also has agent 3-5 sheet leaf, by every mu of ground sowing quantity 0.75-1 kilogram, seed is broadcast portion on the upper side in both sides, cigarette railway carriage or compartment, wherein cave is apart from 35-42 centimetres, every bunch planting 5-6 grain seed, after planting use thin mud capping kind, lid kind of earth thickness 2-3 centimetre.
D, herbicide spraying weeding: after planting, every mu is watered 50-60 kilograms with 350-500 grams, atrazine pulvis, sprays envelope and keeps away weeding.
E, pull out tobacco rod in time: after tobacco flue-curing terminates, pull out tobacco rod in time.
F, impose and propose seed manure and prevention and elimination of disease and pests in time: impose in time when Sorghum Seedlings grows to 3-4 leaf and carry seed manure, every mu of use 7.5-10 kilograms of urea impose; Spray control snout moth's larva and chrysanthemum leaf disease, leaf spot and anthracnose with Avermectin, carbendazim, thiophanate methyl mixing simultaneously.
G, thinning and final singling: when Chinese sorghum young plant grows to 4-5 sheet leaf, carry out thinning and final singling, during final singling remove the strongest and the most weak seedling, the seedling that every cave stays 3 strains onesize.
H, impose the fertile and prevention and elimination of disease and pests of strong bar in time: when Chinese sorghum young plant grows to 5-7 sheet leaf, impose strong bar fertile, every mu of use 20 kilograms of urea, 15 kilograms of potash fertilizer mixing impose; Chinese sorghum 5-7 leaf, 9-10 leaves and before heading flowering with carbendazim, thiophanate methyl, Imidacloprid and Avermectin mixed atomizing prevent eliminating aphis, snout moth's larva, purple spot, leaf spot and anthracnose.
I, to gather in time: when until jowar seed, hardening or maturation is to 80-90%, gather in.
Select excellent further, in steps A, the preparatory stage in land for growing field crops is annual 20 to June 30 June.In step C, Chinese sorghum seedtime is 1-July 15 July.
In described step D, atrazine used is 50% atrazine pulvis.
Carry out imposing after selecting cloudy day or rain in described step e, F and carry seed manure and strong bar fertilizer, easily make fertilizer incorporate as soon as possible in earth; Select fine day spraying pesticide, mainly because fine day spraying pesticide more easily makes insect dead.
Compared with prior art, tool has the following advantages in the present invention:
(1) sowing time is suitable: interplant autumn Chinese sorghum after cigarette and the Qiu Zuoyin sowing time too late Chinese sorghum late growing stage that makes can be avoided to run into microthermal climate, thus impact growth and delayed maturity, once the maturing stage postpones, the high harvest of Chinese sorghum just can not be realized.
(2) seed sprouting and emergence rate high: sow after adopting hundred worms spirits and carbendazim mixing to dress seed, plant like this, seed can prevent soil insect as the harm of Paederus densipennis Bernh and the sick worm such as seedling blight, red-leaf disease after drug treating again; After planting use thin earth lid kind, lid kind of earth thickness only has 2-3 centimetre, very thin, reduces the factor of emerging affect seed, such sorghum seeds germination and emergence rate higher.
(3) land resources is made full use of: interplant autumn Chinese sorghum after cigarette and can make full use of soil idle after tobacco flue-curing and season, make full use of one the first half year abundance temperature, light, water almost resource, realize the bumper harvests of tobacco leaf and Chinese sorghum, improve cigarette ground cropping index and unit are economic benefit.
Generally speaking, interplant autumn Chinese sorghum high-yield cultivating method after cigarette of the present invention to have and make full use of land resources idle after tobacco flue-curing and the season of growth of the second half year, realize the bumper harvests of tobacco leaf and Chinese sorghum, with improving cigarette with the feature of crop output per area and economic benefit.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with embodiment, set forth the present invention further:
One, experimental group: interplant autumn Chinese sorghum cultivation method after adopting the inventive method cigarette
A, June 25, namely sow first 8 days, be watered 50-60 kilograms with 40% gyphosate solution 0.5 kilogram and spray and carry out full field and spray weeding;
B, sowing the previous day, sorghum seeds is put and is soaked in water at normal temperatures flat 12-24 hours, after immersion by seed take out again with hundred worms spirit and carbendazim mix dress seed, then sow immediately;
C, July 3, when namely tobacco flue-curing also has 3-5 sheet leaf, by every mu of ground sowing quantity 0.75-1 kilogram, seed is broadcast portion on the upper side in both sides, cigarette railway carriage or compartment, wherein cave is apart from 35-40 centimetres, every bunch planting 5-6 grain seed, after planting uses thin mud capping kind, lid kind of earth thickness 2-3 centimetre;
D, herbicide spraying envelope keeps away weeds: after planting, is watered 50-60 kilograms sprays envelope and keep away weeds with row 50% atrazine pulvis 500.
E, pull out tobacco rod in time: after tobacco flue-curing terminates, pull out tobacco rod in time.
F, impose and propose seed manure and prevention and elimination of disease and pests in time: impose in time when Sorghum Seedlings grows to and is afraid of 3-4 leaf and carry seed manure, every mu of use 7.5-10 kilograms of urea impose; Meanwhile, control snout moth's larva and chrysanthemum leaf disease, leaf spot and anthracnose etc. is sprayed with Avermectin, carbendazim, thiophanate methyl mixing.
G, thinning and final singling: when Chinese sorghum young plant grows to 4-5 sheet leaf, carry out thinning and final singling, during final singling, remove the strongest and the most weak seedling, the seedling that every cave stays 3 strains onesize.
H, impose the fertile and prevention and elimination of disease and pests of strong bar in time: when Chinese sorghum young plant grows to face 5-7 sheet leaf, impose strong bar fertile, every mu of use 25 kilograms of urea, 20 kilograms of potash fertilizer mixing impose.Chinese sorghum 5-7 leaf, 9-10 leaves and before heading flowering with the pestsides synthesis such as carbendazim, thiophanate methyl, Imidacloprid and Avermectin spraying control prevent eliminating aphis, snout moth's larva, purple spot, leaf spot and anthracnose etc.
E, to gather in time: until jowar seed during hardening or ripe 80-90%, gather in time.
H, to gather in time during hardening or ripe 80-90% until jowar seed.
Two, tobacco leaf compares group only: select the land for growing field crops of the most contiguous experimental group only to compare group as tobacco leaf, control group adopts local traditional cultivation method single cropping tobacco leaf, corn was not planted in the soil of control group before plantation tobacco leaf, implantation time and experimental group same period, other field management is all consistent with the level of production of experimental group.
Three, Chinese sorghum compares group only: select the land for growing field crops of the most contiguous experimental group only to compare group as Chinese sorghum, control group adopts local traditional cultivation method single cropping Chinese sorghum, corn was planted in the soil of control group before plantation Chinese sorghum, implantation time and experimental group same period, other field management is all consistent with the level of production of experimental group.
Four, the present invention interplants the effect of autumn Chinese sorghum high-yield cultivating method after evaluating cigarette by calculating Land Equivalent Ratio.
Land Equivalent Ratio: the ratio of the income when income in same farmland during two or more crop companion cropping and each crop nonoculture.Weigh the index of companion cropping than nonoculture volume increase degree.Interplant autumn Chinese sorghum after cigarette, its expression formula is: Land Equivalent Ratio (LER)=(output during output ÷ tobacco leaf nonoculture during tobacco intercropping)+(output during output ÷ Chinese sorghum nonoculture during Chinese sorghum intercropping).If LER is greater than 1, namely represent that intercropping is higher than nonoculture efficiency, the output when soil of LER just can reach interplanting during nonoculture.(LER-1) × 100% is the rate of growth of companion cropping.
Five, result of the test sees the following form:
From above-mentioned result of the test, tobacco leaf average yield per mu 145kg, Chinese sorghum average yield per mu 400kg, routinely tobacco leaf unit price 18 yuan/kg, Chinese sorghum unit price 4.4 yuan/kg calculates, and per mu yield value can reach 4370 yuan; Tobacco leaf compares group per mu yield 150kg only, the output value 2700 yuan; Chinese sorghum compares group per mu yield 500kg only, the output value 2200 yuan.Therefore, interplant after cigarette provided by the invention that autumn Chinese sorghum high-yield cultivating method is cleaner than tobacco to be compared the per mu yield of group single cropping tobacco leaf and increase by 1670 yuan (4370-2700=1670 units); Onlyer than Chinese sorghum, compare the per mu yield of group single cropping Chinese sorghum and increase by 1730 yuan (4370-2200=2170 units).
Land Equivalent Ratio is: Land Equivalent Ratio (LER)=(145 ÷ 150)+(400 ÷ 500)=1.7667
Growth rate is: (1.7667-1) × 100%=76.67%
From calculating, Land Equivalent Ratio 1.7667 > 1, growth rate 76.67%, autumn Chinese sorghum high-yield cultivating method is interplanted higher than nonoculture efficiency after describing cigarette, output when just can reach interplanting with the soil of 1.7667 during nonoculture, good in economic efficiency, the season of growth of leaving unused after taking full advantage of tobacco flue-curing and land resources.

Claims (5)

1. interplant an autumn Chinese sorghum high-yield cultivating method after cigarette, it is characterized in that comprising the steps:
The preparation in A, land for growing field crops: 7-10 days before sowing, full field is watered 50-60 kilograms with 0.5 kilogram, 40% glyphosate aqua and sprays weeding;
B, seed treatment: sow the previous day, put sorghum seeds and soak 24 hours at normal temperatures, taken out by seed and use hundred worms spirit and carbendazim mix and blends again, sow immediately after stirring after immersion;
C, sowing: when tobacco flue-curing also has agent 3-5 sheet leaf, by every mu of ground sowing quantity 0.75-1 kilogram, seed is broadcast portion on the upper side in both sides, cigarette railway carriage or compartment, wherein cave is apart from 35-42 centimetres, every bunch planting 5-6 grain seed, after planting use thin mud capping kind, lid kind of earth thickness 2-3 centimetre;
D, herbicide spraying weeding: after planting, every mu is watered 50-60 kilograms with 350-500 grams, atrazine pulvis, sprays envelope and keeps away weeding;
E, pull out tobacco rod in time: after tobacco flue-curing terminates, pull out tobacco rod in time;
F, impose and propose seed manure and prevention and elimination of disease and pests in time: impose in time when Sorghum Seedlings grows to 3-4 leaf and carry seed manure, every mu of use 7.5-10 kilograms of urea impose; Spray control snout moth's larva and chrysanthemum leaf disease, leaf spot and anthracnose with Avermectin, carbendazim, thiophanate methyl mixing simultaneously;
G, thinning and final singling: when Chinese sorghum young plant grows to 4-5 sheet leaf, carry out thinning and final singling, during final singling remove the strongest and the most weak seedling, the seedling that every cave stays 3 strains onesize;
H, impose the fertile and prevention and elimination of disease and pests of strong bar in time: when Chinese sorghum young plant grows to 5-7 sheet leaf, impose strong bar fertile, every mu of use 20 kilograms of urea, 15 kilograms of potash fertilizer mixing impose; Chinese sorghum 5-7 leaf, 9-10 leaves and before heading flowering with carbendazim, thiophanate methyl, Imidacloprid and Avermectin mixed atomizing prevent eliminating aphis, snout moth's larva, purple spot, leaf spot and anthracnose;
I, to gather in time: when until jowar seed, hardening or maturation is to 80-90%, gather in.
2. interplant autumn Chinese sorghum high-yield cultivating method after cigarette according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: in described steps A, the preparatory stage in land for growing field crops is annual 20 to June 30 June.
3. interplant autumn Chinese sorghum high-yield cultivating method after cigarette according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: in described step C, Chinese sorghum seedtime is 1-July 15 July.
4. interplant autumn Chinese sorghum high-yield cultivating method after cigarette according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: in step D, atrazine used is 50% atrazine pulvis.
5. interplant autumn Chinese sorghum high-yield cultivating method after cigarette according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: carry out imposing after selecting cloudy day or rain in step e, F and carry seed manure and strong bar is fertile, select fine day spraying pesticide.
CN201410612055.8A 2014-11-05 2014-11-05 High-yield cultivation method for interplanting autumn sorghum after harvesting of tobacco leaves Pending CN104429463A (en)

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CN105724137A (en) * 2016-03-08 2016-07-06 李家建 Method for utilizing wheat to assist prevention and control of underground pests of sorghums at seedling stage
CN111528011A (en) * 2020-05-18 2020-08-14 四川省农业科学院水稻高粱研究所 No-tillage direct seeding method for original-nest sorghum after rape harvesting
CN115191309A (en) * 2022-07-25 2022-10-18 四川南岳农业科技有限公司 Disease and pest resistant tobacco cultivation method

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105724137A (en) * 2016-03-08 2016-07-06 李家建 Method for utilizing wheat to assist prevention and control of underground pests of sorghums at seedling stage
CN111528011A (en) * 2020-05-18 2020-08-14 四川省农业科学院水稻高粱研究所 No-tillage direct seeding method for original-nest sorghum after rape harvesting
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Application publication date: 20150325