CN104335801A - Method for increasing seed production yield of sterile line of broccoli - Google Patents

Method for increasing seed production yield of sterile line of broccoli Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104335801A
CN104335801A CN201410423020.XA CN201410423020A CN104335801A CN 104335801 A CN104335801 A CN 104335801A CN 201410423020 A CN201410423020 A CN 201410423020A CN 104335801 A CN104335801 A CN 104335801A
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broccoli
cave
seed
furrow
root
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CN104335801B (en
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秦文斌
戴忠良
吴国平
毛忠良
潘跃平
姚悦梅
潘永飞
张振超
王建华
肖燕
陈智超
王伟
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Nanjing Lihua Agricultural Technology Co.,Ltd.
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Zhenjiang Ruifan Agricultural Gardening Co Ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G2/00Vegetative propagation

Abstract

The invention relates to a method for increasing the seed production yield of plants, particularly to a method for increasing the seed production yield of a sterile line of broccoli, and belongs to the technical field of plant breeding. According to the method disclosed by the invention, seed sprouting and poikilothermic treatment are adopted, a root tip of a main root is cut off, plug seedling is recombined, and a rectangular container with an opened opening is used for breeding; the moisture content of substrates is regulated through stored water so that the substrates are kept moist, which is more uniform and practical than water spraying, and accumulated water does not exist on the surfaces of plants; at the same time, a nutrient solution is combined for use, young seedlings are promoted to grow healthily, the seedlings are complete and strong, after sowing, the young seedlings of the broccoli have short main roots and many fibrous roots, and after transplanting and field planting, the young seedlings survive quickly and grow quickly, and have high disease resistance and high stress resistance. Through scientific management of lands for growing field crops, regulation of the florescence of male and female parents and regulation of interactive planting and density of the male and female parents, and compared with a traditional method, the seed production yield of the sterile line of the broccoli can be increased by about 30%.

Description

A kind of method improving broccoli sterile lines seed making output
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of method improving plant hybrid seed yield, particularly relate to a kind of method improving broccoli sterile lines seed making output, belong to technical field of plant cultivation.
Background technology
Broccoli (Broccoli) also known as Broccoliflorets, broccoli, the mutation that to belong in Cruciferae Brassica genus blue and white colza be product with green bouquet and the tender scape of fertilizer.Broccoli is nutritious, and local flavor is good, and green constant after the cooking, delicate fragrance is tender, suitablely to boil, fries, cold and dressed with sauce, freezing.American-European wait state's research to think, broccoli contains cancer-resisting substance, often edible can anti-cancer in advance, reduction cancer morbidity, is described as high-grade health-care vegetable, sells well.Along with the raising of living standards of the people, constantly strengthen the consciousness of nutrition and health care, broccoli is familiar with by consumers in general gradually, and cultivated area, consumption figure expand year by year.Very fast at China's cultivation development, every Annual planting area has reached 500,000 hm at present 2above, in vegetables year-round supply and the export trade, all critical role is occupied.Broccoli is very strict to the requirement of illumination, but in its process of growth, like sufficient illumination, plant meeting robust growth during illumination foot, form powerful trophosome, be conducive to the accumulation of photosynthesis and nutrient, and make bouquet consolidation fine and close, green in color quality is better.It is 15-18 DEG C that broccoli curd grows thermophilic, and temperature is bad higher than Head quality mutability when 25 DEG C, but only otherwise endure cold evil, bouquet 5 DEG C even below low temperature still can slowly grow.
At present, domestic broccoli seeds is many from external import, seed price is expensive, from early eighties, China starts to have introduced some external broccoli kinds, until the nineties, broccoli cultivated area increases fast, because broccoli has stronger hybrid vigour, the first-filial generation on producing at present mainly utilizes self incompatible line and male sterile line preparing hybrid kind.But utilize the self incompatible line production of hybrid seeds that a large amount of manpowers and time will be spent to carry out parent propagation (by artificial bud pollination), cost is very high, and popularizing area restricts by production of hybrid seeds amount.More disadvantageously parent is long-term degenerates from transaction generation vitality continuously, and the proterties making some excellent can be lost, and the hybrid rate of crossbreed is difficult to reach 100%.Utilize the production of hybrid seeds of dominant genic male sterility system cumbersome, complicated, not easily promote, and utilize the cytoplasmic male sterile line production of hybrid seeds can overcome a series of defects utilizing the production of hybrid seeds such as self incompatible line.When utilizing cytoplasmic male sterile line preparing hybrid kind, not needing restorer, only needing male parent system, as long as increase on hybrid seed production yields, to breaking foreign country's monopolization, the kind tool promoting independent intellectual property right is of great significance.Sterile lines seed making output depends on quality, the field management of seedling, flower synchronization, the factors such as natural conditions, and the direct impact that wherein nursery unsuccessfully brings is economic loss.Existing breeding method is open country nursery and point disk seedling growing, and open country nursery is extensive, difficult management, and soil-borne disease is difficult to control, and sowing quantity is many, and large seedling is obvious, is difficult to cultivate strong sprout, effort of taking a lot of work; Mutually isolated between point disk seedling growing seedling, disease is few, not easily mutually infects, and the Nutrition Soil in disk hole cave, cave loosens, and be beneficial to main root and grow downwards, fibrous root is relatively weak, is unfavorable for the defects such as the cultivation in strong sprout.Because the seedling of broccoli is the system of taproot, fibrous root is less, and be unfavorable for the absorption of root to nutriment and moisture, poor growth after transplant planting, not resistance to waterlogging and root disease, hybrid seed yield is low, of poor benefits.For enhancing productivity, being badly in need of a kind of nurturing staff method and guaranteeing that planting percent is high, improve hybrid seed yield and benefit.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is the defect existed for prior art, propose a kind of method improving broccoli sterile lines seed making output, improve seed production.
The present invention is technical solution problem by the following technical programs: a kind of raising broccoli sterile lines seed making throughput method, comprises the following steps:
Step one, educate before prepare to select physical features dry, the earth's surface smooth, draining is good, and build booth, surface equipment is uncovered in canopy rectangular tank (long 35 meters, wide 4 meters, the upper edge hole of container is about 3/4 of cave dish height, adopt PVC material, have the groove of 1 wide 1cm, dark 1cm bottom rectangular tank every 10cm, be beneficial to draining), cave dish adopts PVC material, specification 54 × 28cm, often coils 50 caves; Described uncovered rectangular tank is put cave dish, is installed into drainpipe, plastic house fly net;
Broccoli seeds is soaked the wet cloth of 55-65min rear surface lid by step 2, seed treatment at 38-40 DEG C, under putting into illumination box 20 DEG C of temperature, cultivate 24-28h, when the white tip of a root that seed eruption 0.3-0.4mm is long, put into intermittent warming at illumination box 2 DEG C of temperature, cultivate 10-12h after take out, cut off the main root tip of a root;
Step 3, sowing, in the dish of described cave, fill up Nutrition Soil and compacting, the seed after every bunch planting one process, surperficial earthing, is placed in uncovered rectangular tank, waters sufficient water, spreads newspaper above, in order to moisturizing;
Step 4, seedling management, keep matrix moistening, fine day about 10:00, keeps the upper edge hole of rectangular tank to be about 3/4 place of cave dish height, after moistening etc. matrix, and emptied of water, fine day general a day 1 time, the cloudy day is depending on stromal surface color and moistening degree; Qi Miaohou removes newspaper in time, and fine day is fully shown in light by seedling, and noon, temperature was higher than lid sunshade net when 30 DEG C, when seedling grows to 2 leaf 1 heart, added nutrient solution once every 2-3 days in uncovered rectangular tank, promotes growth of seedling; Keep in canopy ventilating, to control the generation of disease;
Step 5, field site preparation and fertilization carried out field site preparation and fertilization September 18, Chicken dung 2500kg/667 ㎡ is executed in land for growing field crops, the Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium 50kg/667 ㎡ of N:P:K=15:15:15, plough in conjunction with rake and execute down, mix with soil, when playing furrow, make the flat furrow of shallow ridges, connect ditch and make the flat furrow of 1.3m, furrow ditch depth 15cm, furrow furrow width 30cm, and build booth.
Step 6, field planting field planting land for growing field crops when seedling has 5 ~ 6 leaves, and build booth, every cave 1 strain of male sterile line, every cave 2 strain of male parent system, seeding row spacing 40cm × 40cm, the cave number mutual field planting successively of 2:1 is pressed by male sterile line and male parent system, and earthing, to cotyledon place, waters normal root water;
7-10 days first times fertilising after step 7, nurturing staff field planting, every second time fertilising in 10-12 days, treats that seedling grows to 10-12 sheet leaf, plant height about 25cm, wide about the 28cm of strain, blade is plump, dark green, and stem is thick, and internode is short, well developed root system, fibrous root is many, robust plant, not damaged, obtains broccoli strong sprout;
Step 8, field management, shallow ridging is carried out in conjunction with loosening the soil, prevent the plant strain growth later stage from lodging, later stage loosens the soil and can combine with topdressing, overlay film during temperature 0-5 DEG C after surviving the winter, surrounding establishes apron with frost damage prevention, temperature overlay film rain shelter cultivation when 5-10 DEG C after the beginning of spring, surrounding does not establish apron, sterile owner's bouquet stays 3-4 little bouquet, base portion side shoot is erased, male parent owner bouquet stays 2 little bouquets, base portion stays 4-5 side shoot, and all the other are erased, incision is coated with and touches 400 times of lime sulfurs, removes dead leaf, Huang Ye and sick leaf;
Step 9, blooming period management, after flower a kind of sedge is extracted out, proping lodging-prevention.Bolting sprays foliage fertilizer 2 ~ 3 times to coming into bloom, carries out pinching, defloration, regulation florescence, put honeybee pollinate in flowering stage during flowering asynchronism latter stage, promotes full seed.Xie Huahou, pulls out male parent system in time, and male sterile line plucks tip flower and the new young shoot sprouted in time, to promote full seed;
Step 10, the extermination of disease and insect pest, broccoli main diseases and insect pests is except downy mildew, also have stalk break, black rot, diamond-back moth, cabbage caterpillar, beet armyworm, prodenia litura, aphid and Oeobia undalis etc., to prevent and treat in time at disease initial stage of origination, thank after spending 10 days, booth is airtight to be fumigated 1 time with sulphur 5g/100 ㎡ weekly, and about 0.5h at every turn, can reduce the generation of damage by disease and insect;
Step 11, seed collection when broccoli male sterile line kind pod 2/3 turn yellow, plant grain flavescence brown time, should gather in time, should carry out by stages and in groups, make seed full maturity as far as possible, timely airing, threshing, to bask seeds, can preservation be put in storage when seed moisture content reaches below 7%.Wherein, matrix is vegetables special nutritional matrix.
In described step 2, cutting off the tip of a root is the main root tip of a root long with blade fast shut-off 0.3-0.4mm on the table.
In described step 3, described Nutrition Soil is grow seedlings of vegetable special nutrient soil, and the Nutrition Soil after compacting is apart from cave panel surface 0.8-1cm.
In described step 4, nutrient solution is 100 times of liquid of humus.
Described matrix is moistening is that hand pinches a little water outlet with stromal surface micro-yellow.
In described step 5, step 6, before field planting, carry out field site preparation and fertilization, Chicken dung 2500kg/667 ㎡ is executed in land for growing field crops, and the Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium 50kg/667 ㎡ of N:P:K=15:15:15, boron fertilizer 1kg/667 ㎡ combines to harrow to plough and executes down, mix with soil, make shallow ridges flat furrow when playing furrow, connect ditch and make the flat furrow of 1.3m, furrow ditch depth 15cm, furrow furrow width 30cm, during field planting, every furrow plant 2 row, every cave 1 strain of male sterile line, every cave 2 strain of male parent system, seeding row spacing 40cm × 40cm, the cave number mutual field planting successively of 2:1 is pressed by male sterile line and male parent system, and builds booth.
In described step 7, first time executes urea 2kg/667 ㎡, and second time imposes Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium (N:P:K=15:15:15) 5kg/667 ㎡.
Overlay film during temperature 0-5 DEG C after surviving the winter, surrounding establishes apron with frost damage prevention, temperature overlay film rain shelter cultivation when 5-10 DEG C after the beginning of spring, surrounding does not establish apron, after the beginning of spring, sterile owner's bouquet stays 3-4 little bouquet, base portion side shoot is erased, and male parent owner bouquet stays 2 little bouquets, and base portion stays 4-5 side shoot, all the other are erased, incision is coated with and touches 400 times of lime sulfurs, removes dead leaf, Huang Ye and sick leaf, thanks after spending 10 days, airtight 1 time of booth weekly, fumigate 1 time with sulphur 5g/100 ㎡, about 0.5h at every turn, to reduce the generation of damage by disease and insect.
The present invention adopts presprouting of seeds, intermittent warming, cut off the main root tip of a root, cave dish seeding and seedling raising, be placed in uncovered rectangular tank to cultivate, water is filled in container, and keep full-water level 10 ~ 15min, because container upper edge hole is about 3/4 of cave dish height, can effectively avoid water flood irrigation, moisture is fully infiltrated until surface matrix is moistening from bottom to top, before solving particularly at nursery high temperature season because surface sprinkling inequality causes edge and hole, local because not watering permeable and the uneven and quality of seedling that is that cause the declines problem of neatly supplying water, simultaneously in conjunction with the use of nutrient solution, promote seedling healthy growth, full stand and healthy seedling, make broccoli seedling main root after planting short, fibrous root is many, survive fast after transplant planting, growing way is prosperous, disease resistance is strong, strong stress resistance, through land for growing field crops scientific management, Parent flowering regulation, Parent is planted and Auto-regulating System of Density of Heavy Medium alternately, the more traditional raising of broccoli sterile lines seed making output about 30% can be made.
Embodiment
Embodiment
The present embodiment carries out according to the following steps:
Step one, educate before prepare to build booth, booth north and south seat to, select physical features dry, booth is built in smooth, that draining is good place, the long 40m of single canopy, and wide 6m, levels land, area 40 ㎡, September 10, the rectangular tank that device is uncovered in simple plastic greenhouse (long 35 meters, wide 4 meters, the upper edge hole of container is about 3/4 of cave dish height, adopt PVC material, 1 wide 1cm is had every 10cm bottom rectangular tank, the groove of dark 1cm, be beneficial to draining), described rectangular tank is put cave dish, and (wherein cave dish adopts PVC material, specification 54cm × 28cm, often coil 50 caves), and it is (equal with bottom portion of groove bottom drainpipe outlet to be installed into drainpipe at rectangular tank two ends, tray bottom not ponding in cave after guarantee draining), take to take shelter from rain, high temperature shades and covers fly net, matrix selects grow seedlings of vegetable dedicated substrate, and (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium total content >=2, total porosity is 50-70%, is rich in trace element, and nutrient is comprehensive, is also rich in other active short root material for the Denmark Pin Shi matrix that market is sold, matrix organic total amount >=25.PH6.0-7.0, shock-absorbing capacity is good);
Step 2, when seed treatment September 12 day afternoon 6, be 0511 after 40 DEG C of warm underwater soaking 60min, put into glassware by broccoli male sterile line CMS066 and male parent, thickness of seed is no more than 1cm, surface cover wets cloth, under putting into the temperature of illumination box 20 DEG C, cultivate 24-28h, when observing the white tip of a root of seed eruption 0.3-0.4mm length when September 13 day afternoon 10, be at the temperature of 2 DEG C in regulating illumination incubator, cultivate 12h again to take out in September 14 day the morning 10 time, manually cut off tip of a root process immediately, workbench is about 0.4mm with the blade fast shut-off tip of a root long, single grain fine sowing subsequently,
Step 3, sow and fill up Nutrition Soil and compacting in the dish of described cave, the seed after every bunch planting one process, then cover with Nutrition Soil, surface strikes off, and puts into preprepared uncovered rectangular tank, waters sufficient water, spread newspaper above, in order to moisturizing;
Step 4, seedling management neat seedling on September 16, remove newspaper in time, fine day is fully shown in light by seedling, and noon, temperature was higher than lid sunshade net when 30 DEG C.Be placed in uncovered rectangular tank, general fine day about 10:00, discharge water and enter rectangular tank, the upper edge hole of rectangular tank is kept to be dish 3/4 place highly, cave, after the matrix such as about 10-15Min are moistening, water again in emptying rectangular tank, though fine day and cloudy day all keep the moistening degree of matrix (with the micro-yellow of stromal surface, matrix hand pinches a little water outlet) and determine; To moisture be controlled after Qi Miao, when seedling grows to 2 leaf 1 heart, in rectangular tank, add humic acid nutrient solution 100 times of liquid 0.5 ㎏ every 2-3 days at every turn, promote growth of seedling; Keep in canopy ventilating, keep matrix moistening, suitably ventilate and reduce canopy humidity.September 30, spray 70% tpn wetting powder, 600 times of liquid and control disease 1 time; Humus 100 times of liquid (fulvic acid >=60g/L, is produced by Henan Lianhua Gourmet Powder Co., Ltd. for lotus flower board amino acid water soluble fertilizer, amino acid >=100g/L, trace element >=20g/L, humus >=100g/L) selected by nutrient solution;
Step 5, field site preparation and fertilization carried out field site preparation and fertilization September 18, Chicken dung 2500kg/667 ㎡ is executed in land for growing field crops, the Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium 50kg/667 ㎡ of N:P:K=15:15:15, plough in conjunction with rake and execute down, mix with soil, when playing furrow, make the flat furrow of shallow ridges, connect ditch and make the flat furrow of 1.3m, furrow ditch depth 15cm, furrow furrow width 30cm, and build booth.
Step 6, field planting field planting land for growing field crops when seedling has 5 ~ 6 leaves on October 14, every cave 1 strain of male sterile line, every cave 2 strain of male parent system, seeding row spacing 40 ㎝ × 40 ㎝, the cave number mutual field planting successively of 2:1 is pressed by male sterile line and male parent system, and earthing, to cotyledon place, waters normal root water;
Step 7, nurturing staff first time October 22 execute urea 2kg/667 ㎡, and November 10, second time imposed Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium (N:P:K=15:15:15) 5kg/667 ㎡, and seedling grows to 10-12 sheet leaf, plant height about 25cm, wide about the 28cm of strain, blade is plump, dark green, stem is thick, and internode is short, well developed root system, fibrous root is many, robust plant, not damaged, forms broccoli strong sprout.
Step 8, field management October 25, November 15 combine to loosen the soil and carry out shallow ridging, prevent the plant strain growth later stage from lodging.
Step 9, blooming period management Second Year cut bouquet March 10, and sterile owner's bouquet stays 3-4 little bouquet, base portion side shoot is erased, male parent owner bouquet stays 2 little bouquets, base portion stays 4-5 side shoot, and all the other are erased, incision is coated with and touches 400 times of lime sulfurs, removes dead leaf, Huang Ye and sick leaf.After April 5 bolting, proping lodging-prevention.Bolting latter stage (April 10), come into bloom (April 18) spray foliage fertilizer each 1 time respectively.April 8 carried out pinching, defloration to April 10, and regulation florescence is met.Put honeybee (each canopy 1 case honeybee) in flowering stage to pollinate, promote full seed.Male sterile line florescence April 30 terminates the rear young shoot plucking tip flower and new sprouting in time, to promote full seed, pulls out male parent system plant simultaneously.After thanking to flower (May 10), booth airtight 1 time weekly, fumigate 1 time with sulphur 5g/100 ㎡, about 0.5h at every turn, to reduce the generation of damage by disease and insect.
Step 10, the extermination of disease and insect pest prevented and treated cabbage caterpillar 1 time with bacillus thuringiensis,Bt (Bt) April 5; April 20, May 18 are with 10% imidacloprid wettable powder aphid 2 times.April 12 prevented and treated downy mildew, stalk break each 1 time with 75% tpn wetting powder, 600 times of liquid, April 18 with 75% sclerotium spirit wetting powder, 500 times of liquid.
Step 11, seed collection June 25 to June 30 when broccoli male sterile line kind pod 2/3 turn yellow, plant grain flavescence brown time gather, every day carries out in batches, make seed full maturity as far as possible, and in time airing, threshing, to bask seeds, when seed moisture content reaches below 7%, warehouse-in is preserved.
Contrast experiment
Control group adopts following method to cultivate: separately set up CMS066 (CK) 4 ㎡, seedbed is put cave dish, takes shelter from rain, high temperature shades, cover fly net; After directly sowing in the dish of cave, neat seedling, 2-3d sprays nutrient solution 1 time, and keep ground moistening, other is identical with embodiment method.
Experimental result
(1) CMS066 and CMS066 (CK) compares seedling stage:
Live seedling in the dish of cave, difference in size great disparity, large seedling grows true leaf, and seedling is just just emerged, and cotyledon is not yet open and flat.And hole many (CMS066 (CK) hole accounts for about 20%), and CMS066 Plug seedling almost 100% full stand; Plug seedling full stand is strengthened, edge anhydrous dispersion is sent out uneven and causes Seedling Quality to reduce phenomenon, seedling acrial part adheres to without the globule, without high pin seedling, the phenomenon of lodging seedling, broccoli CMS066 comparatively CMS066 (CK) quality in seedling stage is good, dark green leaf color, seedling vigorous index reaches more than 99%, in table 1.
Table 1 broccoli CMS066 and CMS066 (CK) quality in seedling stage
(2) CMS066 and CMS066 (CK) field growing compares:
Comparatively CMS066 (CK) growth is fast for broccoli CMS066, and breeding time is short, and bouquet flower bud grain is even, and good, other biological character is in table 2; Broccoli CMS066 comparatively CMS066 (CK) growth potential is strong, and downy mildew resistance, stalk break, black rot are strong, and strong stress resistance, in table 3; Broccoli CMS066 hybrid seed yield reaches 75.2kg/667 ㎡, and comparatively CMS066 (CK) is high by 30.1%, and remarkable in economical benefits, in table 4.
Table 2 broccoli CMS066 and CMS066 (CK) biological character
Table 3 broccoli CMS066 and CMS066 (CK) disease resistance and resistance
Table 4 broccoli CMS066 and CMS066 (CK) hybrid seed yield
Can find out that the method is simple by this test, the present invention is a kind of improves the method for broccoli sterile lines seed making output through presprouting of seeds, intermittent warming, cut off the main root tip of a root, cave dish is after planting placed in uncovered rectangular tank and cultivates, water is filled in container, and keep full-water level 10 ~ 15min, because container upper edge hole is about 3/4 of cave dish height, can effectively avoid water flood irrigation, moisture is fully infiltrated until surface matrix is moistening from bottom to top, before solving particularly at nursery high temperature season because surface sprinkling inequality causes edge and hole, local because not watering permeable and the uneven and quality of seedling that is that cause the declines problem of neatly supplying water, cut off the main root tip of a root simultaneously, facilitate the growth of side root, in conjunction with the use of nutrient solution, seedling stage, quality was good, dark green leaf color, seedling vigorous index reaches more than 99%, main root is short, fibrous root is many, survive fast after transplant planting, growing way is prosperous, disease resistance is strong, strong stress resistance, through land for growing field crops scientific management, Parent flowering regulation, Parent is planted and Auto-regulating System of Density of Heavy Medium alternately, the more traditional raising of broccoli sterile lines seed making output about 30% can be made, substantially increase economic benefit.
Except above-mentioned enforcement, the present invention can also have other embodiments.All employings are equal to the technical scheme of replacement or equivalent transformation formation, all drop on the protection domain of application claims.

Claims (8)

1. improve a method for broccoli sterile lines seed making output, comprise the following steps:
Step one, educate front preparation, selection physical features is dry, smooth, the earth's surface that draining is good, and build booth, long 35 meters of the rectangular tank that surface equipment is uncovered in canopy, wide 4 meters, the upper edge hole of container is about 3/4 of cave dish height, adopt PVC material, 1 wide 1cm is had every 10cm bottom rectangular tank, the groove of dark 1cm, be beneficial to draining, described rectangular tank is put cave dish, cave dish adopts PVC material, specification 54cm × 28cm, often coil 50 caves, and be installed into drainpipe at rectangular tank two ends, equal with bottom portion of groove bottom drainpipe outlet, tray bottom not ponding in cave after guarantee draining, plastic house fly net,
Step 2, seed treatment, broccoli seeds is soaked at 38-40 DEG C the wet cloth of 55-65min rear surface lid, put into illumination box under 20 DEG C of conditions, cultivate 24-28h, when the white tip of a root that seed eruption 0.3-0.4mm is long, put into intermittent warming at illumination box 2 DEG C of temperature, cultivate 10-12h after take out, cut off the main root tip of a root;
Step 3, sowing, in the dish of described cave, fill up Nutrition Soil and compacting, the seed after every bunch planting one process, surperficial earthing, is placed in uncovered rectangular tank, waters sufficient water, spreads newspaper above, in order to moisturizing;
Step 4, seedling management, keep matrix moistening, fine day about 10:00, keeps the upper edge hole of rectangular tank to be about 3/4 place of cave dish height, after moistening etc. matrix, and emptied of water, fine day general a day 1 time, the cloudy day is depending on stromal surface color and moistening degree; Qi Miaohou removes newspaper in time, and fine day is fully shown in light by seedling, and noon, temperature was higher than lid sunshade net when 30 DEG C, when seedling grows to 2 leaf 1 heart, added nutrient solution once every 2-3 days in uncovered rectangular tank, promotes growth of seedling; Keep in canopy ventilating, to control the generation of disease;
Step 5, field site preparation and fertilization, field site preparation and fertilization, Chicken dung 2500kg/667 ㎡ is executed in land for growing field crops, the Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium 50kg/667 ㎡ of N:P:K=15:15:15, ploughs execute down in conjunction with rake, mix with soil, make shallow ridges flat furrow when playing furrow, connect ditch and make the flat furrow of 1.3m, furrow ditch depth 15cm, furrow furrow width 30cm, and build booth;
Step 6, field planting, field planting land for growing field crops when seedling has 5 ~ 6 leaves, and build booth, every cave 1 strain of male sterile line, every cave 2 strain of male parent system, seeding row spacing 40cm × 40cm, the cave number mutual field planting successively of 2:1 is pressed by male sterile line and male parent system, and earthing, to cotyledon place, waters normal root water;
Step 7, nurturing staff, 7-10 days first times fertilising after field planting, every second time fertilising in 10-12 days, treats that seedling grows to 10-12 sheet leaf, plant height about 25cm, wide about the 28cm of strain, blade is plump, dark green, and stem is thick, and internode is short, well developed root system, fibrous root is many, robust plant, not damaged, obtains broccoli strong sprout;
Step 8, field management, carry out shallow ridging in conjunction with loosening the soil, later stage loosens the soil and to combine with topdressing, overlay film during temperature 0-5 DEG C after surviving the winter, and surrounding establishes apron with frost damage prevention, temperature overlay film rain shelter cultivation when 5-10 DEG C after the beginning of spring, surrounding does not establish apron, sterile owner's bouquet stays 3-4 little bouquet, base portion side shoot is erased, male parent owner bouquet stays 2 little bouquets, base portion stays 4-5 side shoot, and all the other are erased, incision is coated with and touches 400 times of lime sulfurs, removes dead leaf, Huang Ye and sick leaf;
Step 9, blooming period management, after flower a kind of sedge is extracted out, proping lodging-prevention, bolting latter stage is to coming into bloom, spray foliage fertilizer 2 ~ 3 times, carry out pinching, defloration during flowering asynchronism, regulation florescence, put honeybee in flowering stage and pollinate, promote full seed, Xie Huahou, pulls out male parent system in time, and male sterile line plucks tip flower and the new young shoot sprouted in time;
Step 10, the extermination of disease and insect pest, broccoli main diseases and insect pests is except downy mildew, also have stalk break, black rot, diamond-back moth, cabbage caterpillar, beet armyworm, prodenia litura, aphid and Oeobia undalis etc., to prevent and treat in time at disease initial stage of origination, thank after spending 10 days, booth is airtight to be fumigated 1 time with sulphur 5g/100 ㎡ weekly, and about 0.5h at every turn, reduces the generation of damage by disease and insect;
Step 11, seed collection, when broccoli male sterile line kind pod 2/3 turn yellow, plant grain flavescence brown time, gather in time, carry out by stages and in groups, make seed full maturity as far as possible, timely airing, threshing, to bask seeds, can preservation be put in storage when seed moisture content reaches below 7%.
2. improve broccoli sterile lines seed making throughput method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described step one mesostroma is vegetables special nutritional matrix.
3. improve broccoli sterile lines seed making throughput method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: in described step 2, cutting off the tip of a root is the main root tip of a root long with blade fast shut-off 0.3-0.4mm on the table.
4. improve broccoli sterile lines seed making throughput method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: in described step 3, described Nutrition Soil is grow seedlings of vegetable special nutrient soil, Nutrition Soil after compacting is apart from cave panel surface 0.8-1cm, described matrix is moistening is that hand pinches a little water outlet with stromal surface micro-yellow.
5. improve the method for broccoli sterile lines seed making output according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: in described step 4, nutrient solution is 100 times of liquid of humus.
6. improve the method for broccoli sterile lines seed making output according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described step 5, in step 6, before field planting, carry out field site preparation and fertilization, Chicken dung 2500kg/667 ㎡ is executed in land for growing field crops, the Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium 50kg/667 ㎡ of N:P:K=15:15:15, boron fertilizer 1kg/667 ㎡ combines to harrow to plough and executes down, mix with soil, shallow ridges flat furrow are made when playing furrow, connect ditch and make the flat furrow of 1.3m, furrow ditch depth 15cm, furrow furrow width 30cm, during field planting, every furrow plant 2 row, every cave 1 strain of male sterile line, every cave 2 strain of male parent system, seeding row spacing 40cm × 40cm, the cave number mutual field planting successively of 2:1 is pressed by male sterile line and male parent system, and build booth.
7. improve the method for broccoli sterile lines seed making output according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: in described step 7, first time executes urea 2kg/667 ㎡, and second time imposes the composite fertilizer 5kg/667 ㎡ of ternary N:P:K=15:15:15.
8. improve the method for broccoli sterile lines seed making output according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: overlay film during temperature 0-5 DEG C after surviving the winter, surrounding establishes apron with frost damage prevention, temperature overlay film rain shelter cultivation when 5-10 DEG C after the beginning of spring, surrounding does not establish apron, after the beginning of spring, sterile owner's bouquet stays 3-4 little bouquet, base portion side shoot is erased, male parent owner bouquet stays 2 little bouquets, base portion stays 4-5 side shoot, all the other are erased, incision is coated with and touches 400 times of lime sulfurs, remove dead leaf, Huang Ye and sick leaf, thank after spending 10 days, airtight 1 time of booth weekly, fumigate 1 time with sulphur 5g/100 ㎡, each about 0.5h.
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