CN103736721B - Method by biological restoration water body with soil and comprehensive utilization of resources - Google Patents

Method by biological restoration water body with soil and comprehensive utilization of resources Download PDF

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CN103736721B
CN103736721B CN201410031538.9A CN201410031538A CN103736721B CN 103736721 B CN103736721 B CN 103736721B CN 201410031538 A CN201410031538 A CN 201410031538A CN 103736721 B CN103736721 B CN 103736721B
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water
plant
soil
silver
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CN103736721A (en
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雷学军
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Hunan green heart Technology Co., Ltd.
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雷学军
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
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    • Y02W10/10Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage

Abstract

By the method for biological restoration water body with soil and comprehensive utilization of resources, the method includes: (1) determines major pollutants in selected land area or water body region;(2) in selected land area or water body region, select plantation and/or cultivate the fast-growing herbaceous plant that remediation efficiency is high, fast-growing algae, arbor, shrub, mushroom or microorganism;(3) carry out gathering in or gathering after suitable height or size at fast-growing herbaceous plant, fast-growing algal grown;(4) fast-growing herbaceous plant, the fast-growing algae gathered in or gather is focused on, comprehensive utilization, it is prevented that Pollutants Diffusion;(5) artificial floating island repairs eutrophication water;(6) stable breeding floating plant repairing heavy metal pollution water body;(7) Festuca Arundinacea, annual bluegrass mix up reparation cadmium, Grown In Zinc Contaminated Soil;(8) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) contaminated soil is repaired in alfalfa, Itanlian rye catch cropping;(9) extract from silver-containing waste water rehabilitation plant and reclaim silver.

Description

Method by biological restoration water body with soil and comprehensive utilization of resources
Technical field
The present invention relates to by biological plantation and/or cultivation, gather in and focus on the method realizing repairing water body with soil and comprehensive utilization of resources, belong to field of Environment Protection.
Background technology
Economic fast development, the continuous growth of population, water consumption sharply increases, and quantity of wastewater effluent also increases accordingly, and environmental carrying capacity and the ecosystem carrying capacity of water body can't bear the heavy load, and ecosystem suffers very big destruction.The water pollution degree such as China the Yellow River, Huaihe River, Song Hua River, the Liaohe River are bad V class, seriously constrain the sustainable development of China's economy, and body eutrophication, heavy metal pollution are carried out comprehensive control and repairs very urgent.
One of material base of procreation that soil is the mankind and numerous biology is depended on for existence, acceleration along with process of industrialization, the pollution of soil environment is become increasingly severe by organic and inorganic poisonous and harmful substance (mainly pesticide, heavy metal, oil etc.), and countries in the world all suffer from soil contamination problem in various degree.In soil pollution, especially the growth promoter of crop and yield, quality are not only had impact, and by food chain, health can be worked the mischief by the soil of heavy metal pollution.Administering of heavy metal pollution of soil is particularly significant for the agricultural sustainable development of China and the improvement of environmental quality.
Water body and soil heavily contaminated problem have become the serious environmental problem that the whole world faces.Although people imagine and have studied various technology carrys out repairing environment, but remain without at present and find desirable restorative procedure.In prior art, the open plantation by biology and/or cultivation, gather in and focus on the method realizing repairing water body with soil and comprehensive utilization of resources.
Summary of the invention
A kind of method that it is an object of the invention to provide novel water body and soil remediation;By planting and/or cultivate herbaceous plant and the fast-growing algae of fast-growing at water body and land, harvesting or gather herbaceous plant, algae, arbor, shrub, mushroom or the microorganism being cultivated or grow, then focus on, realize the purpose repairing water body with soil.
In this application, described biology broadly includes fast-growing herbaceous plant, fast-growing algae and shrub, arbor, liana, mushroom, microorganism.
In this application, described heavy metal refers to the heavy metal (silver, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, hydrargyrum, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, zinc etc.) in chemical pollutant, metalloid (arsenic, selenium etc.), nonmetal (boron etc.).
" biological restoration " and " phytoremediation " are used interchangeably in this application, and " fast-growing herbaceous plant " and " herbaceous plant " are used interchangeably, and " fast-growing algae " and " algae " are used interchangeably.
Embodiment of the present invention are summarized as follows:
1, by the method for biological restoration water body Yu soil, the method includes:
(1) major pollutants in selected land area or water body region are determined;
(2) in selected land area or water body region, select plantation and/or cultivate the fast-growing herbaceous plant that remediation efficiency is high, fast-growing algae, arbor, shrub, mushroom or microorganism;
(3) gather in the crops after suitable height at fast-growing herbaceous plant, fast-growing algal grown;The lower part of this herbal and stem is retained during the harvesting of terrestrial herbaceous plant;In water body region when plantation and/or the fast-growing herbaceous plant cultivated and fast-growing algae results, retain a part of fast-growing draft and fast-growing algae plant;
(4) fast-growing herbaceous plant, the fast-growing algae gathered in or gather is focused on, it is prevented that Pollutants Diffusion;
In the present invention, gather in or gather to be usually and mechanically or manually gather in or gather, it will be preferred that mechanical harvesting or gather, for instance using agricultural harvester harvesting herbaceous plant, using filter screen to gather algae, the aquatic swimming plant that swims.
The plant that contaminated area is collected focuses on field and is generally off-site from crops, crops planting area or watershed, for instance at least 1 kilometer, such as 2-10 kilometer of being separated by.
2, the method according to above 1, wherein land area pollutant include chemical pollutant, physical pollutant, biological pollutant in step (1);Water body region dye thing includes organic oxygen-consuming pollutant, toxic pollutant, oil, radioactive contaminant, eutrophication pollution thing, invasive organism.
Chemical pollutant includes inorganic pollution and organic pollution, inorganic pollution such as silver, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, hydrargyrum, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, zinc, arsenic, selenium, boron, excessive nitrogen, phosphorus plant nutrient and oxide and sulfide etc.;Organic pollution is various chemical pesticides, oil and pyrolysis product thereof such as, and other kinds organic synthesis product etc..Physical pollutant is mainly from solid waste such as mine tailing, barren rock, flyash and the industrial refuse etc. of factory, mine.Biological pollutant is mainly with the municipal refuse of various pathogenic bacterias and waste water, refuse and the barnyard manure etc. discharged by sanitary installation (including hospital).
Organic oxygen-consuming pollutant are mainly in sanitary sewage and a part of industrial wastewater containing Organic substances such as substantial amounts of carbohydrate, protein, fat and lignins, these materials enter water body, under the effect of aerobic microbiological, it is decomposed into simple inorganic substances, consume a large amount of dissolved oxygen in water body, cause that in water body, dissolved oxygen declines, and affects Fish and other hydrobiological orthobiosis.Serious also can cause water body smelly, Fish mortality.
Toxic pollutant is divided into four classes: (1) nonmetallic inorganic poisonous substance CN, F, S etc., (2) heavy metal and metalloid inorganic toxic material Hg, Cd, Cr, Pb, Mn etc., (3) easily decomposing organic poison such as Volatile Phenols, aldehyde, benzene etc., (4) are difficult decomposes organic poison DDT, Gamma Hexaochlorocyclohexane, Polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, aromatic amine etc..
Oil pollution mainly enters the oil of ocean and forms one layer of oil film at the water surface, affects oxygen and diffuses in water, thus halobiontic growth is produced harmful effect.Oil film and oil clot stick on juvenile fish and fish roe, make fish roe can not survive or make juvenile fish dead.Oil makes fish and shrimp produce oil stink, reduces the edibility of marine product.Oil pollution destroys graceful beachscape, reduces as recuperating, the use value of tourist site.
Radioactive pollution is mainly derived from uranium mining, ore dressing, smelting, nuclear power station and nuclear test and radioisotopic application etc..
Eutrophication pollution thing be primarily referred to as sluggish flow, regeneration period length surface water body, receive the plant nutrients such as a large amount of nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon, cause the planktons such as algae to sharply increase.
Invasive organism is mainly antibacterial and virus, mostly comes from the sewage of plant, meat-packing plant, biological factory and hospital's discharge that non-sterile processes.
3, method according to above 1, wherein in step (2), in land area, the herbaceous plant of plantation and/or cultivation is: Radix Aneurolepidii, annual bluegrass, Melilotus suaveolens Ledeb., Fructus Hordei Vulgaris, Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim) Benth et Hook f, Sedum alfredii Hance, Thalaspi arvense L., cyperus alternifolius, Caulis et Folium Brassicae capitatae, Sorghum vulgare Pers., Bermuda grass, Herba Bidentis Bipinnatae, parasol dish, rye grass, Herba Eragrostidis pilosae, Korea lawn grass, Caulis et Folium Brassicae junceae, common violet, Herba vallisneriae Spiralis, Herba Acroptili repentis, Herba Lactucae versicoloris, Herba penniseti, Herba Solani Nigri, Arundo donax, Canna generalis Bailey, Herba Lythri Salicariae, Herba Artemisiae Annuae, Radix Phytolaccae, Herba Scirpi Tabernaemontani, swamp cabbage, Radix rumicis acetosae, Herba Chenopodii, artemisiifolia, alta fascue, awnless brome, Herba pteridis vittatae, Caulis Miscanthis floriduli, Herba Typhae, fescue grass, alfalfa, Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim) Benth et Hook f, Herba Polygoni cymosi;
Plantation and/or the fast-growing herbaceous plant cultivated are in water body region (especially the water body region of fresh water type): flame nettle, Rhizoma Acori Graminei, big, Herba Eichhorniae, Herba Spirodelae, parasol dish, Flos Nelumbinis, Pedicellus et Pericarpium Trapae, phragmites communis, Arundo donax, Herba azollae imbricatae, Canna generalis Bailey, Herba Lythri Salicariae, Herba Scirpi Tabernaemontani, Herba Oenanthes Javanicae, swamp cabbage, Flos nymphaeae (Nymphaea teragona Georgi), Mugil cephalus grass, Caulis Miscanthis floriduli, Herba Typhae, water caltrop, careless najas marina, waterweed, hornwort;
In land area, the arbor of plantation and/or cultivation is: white beeswax, Salix babylonica L., dry land willow, elm, Syringa oblata Lindl., PiceameyeriRehd. Et Wils., Pinus koraiensis, willow, Betula;
In land area, the shrub of plantation and/or cultivation is: wing pod Semen Cassiae, Caulis Seu Folium Lespedezae Bicoloris, false indigo, Ligustrum X vicaryi, purple leaf barberry;
In land area, the liana of plantation and/or cultivation is: Radix seu Caulis Parthenocissi tricuspidatae, P. sepium Bunge, Caulis Seu Folium Euonymi Fortunei;
In the plantation and/or cultivating process of fast-growing herbaceous plant or fast-growing algae or in its growth course, and after the harvesting of fast-growing herbaceous plant or fast-growing algae or gathering, regularly or periodically for the fast-growing herbaceous plant in plantation and/or cultivation region or fast-growing algae apply fertilizer, by repeatedly applying fertilizer, quick growth of plant can be promoted, increase yield of biomass, accelerate the reparation to soil Yu water body.
Table 1 below is herbal list.Table 2 below is the list of fast-growing algae.Table 3 below is the list of arbor.Table 4 below is the list of shrub.Table 5 below is the list of liana.
4, the method according to above 1, when wherein gathering in the fast-growing herbaceous plant of growth in land area in step (3), " lower part of stem " that retain has at least one joint, it is preferable that the length 1cm of the stem of reservation~10cm, 1~6 joint, to promote that plant germinates rapidly or grows young leaves;When water body region middling speed this plant harvesting of SHENGCAO, the stem retained should surface more than 2cm or at least one joint, it is preferable that the length 5cm of the stem of reservation~10cm, 1~6 joint;When herbaceous plant or algae in water body region of gathering, at least retain more than 1/3 plant.
5, the method according to above 1, wherein takes burning method, composting process, high-temperature decomposition, ashing method, liquid-phase extraction method to focus on fast-growing herbaceous plant, the fast-growing algae gathered in or gather in step (4), comprehensive utilization.Such as burn Btu utilization, or extract heavy metal from the ashes;After the plant compost of enriching Cu, apply the soil balanced soil fertility that copper lacks.
6, the method according to above 1-4 item, wherein step (1)-(4) or step (2)-(4) can repeat.By planting and/or cultivate fast-growing herbaceous plant, fast-growing algae repairs water body and soil, and to the fast-growing herbaceous plant gathered in the crops, fast-growing algae, comprehensive utilization of resources, be those skilled in the art it is contemplated that.
7, the method according to above 1-6 item, wherein said process includes:
A) contaminated soil (including chemical contamination, physical contamination, biological pollution soil) is adopted biological restoration, utilize biological (plant, microorganism) reduction, the heavy metal purified in soil, pathogenic bacteria, radioelement, or reduce the toxicity of heavy metal, pathogenic bacteria, radioelement.
nullThese devices or system and method are conventional in prior art,As being disclosed in CN1559711(CN200410015561.5) in the plant restoration method of heavy metal pollution farming land,CN1586748(CN200410055581.5) the heavy metal-polluted dyeing technique of Arundo donax (Arundodonaxlinn) phytoremediation wetland in,The plant restoration method of a kind of heavy metal pollution of soil in CN1593797(CN200410027833.3),CN1721094(CN200410020981.2) a kind of method utilizing crucifer cadmium pollution soil repair in,CN1724184(CN200410021546.1) a kind of method utilizing plant of Solanaceae cadmium pollution soil repair in,The application of the utilizing enriching plant in repairing lead polluted soil in CN1887457(CN200610011046.9) and method thereof,CN1919484(CN200610048663.6) a kind of plant restoration method administering lead-contaminated soil in,CN1981947(CN200510134467.6) method utilizing phytoremediation As polluted soil in,The plant restoration method of the soil of zinc-cadmium combined pollution in CN101015833(CN200710020380.5),The plant restoration method of a kind of contaminated soil in CN1528533(CN200310110757.8),The plant restoration method of the lead-contaminated soil in CN1555933(CN200410015651.4),CN1633834(CN200310123407.5) a kind of method improving As polluted soil phytoremediation efficiency in,The plant restoration method of the heavy-metal contaminated soil in CN1640565(CN200510032683.X),The preparation and application of a kind of plant repairing body for contaminated soil in CN1672822(CN200510016702.X),CN101229550(CN200710062992.0) a kind of method improving gesarex polluted soil phyto remediation efficiency in,Being subject in CN101648205(CN200910184200.6) is luxuriant and rich with fragrance、The plant restoration method of pyrene or pentachlorophenol contaminated soil,The chemical enhanced plant restoration method of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-cadmium pollution soil in CN101642769(CN200910184526.9),CN101249501(CN200810030860.4) plant restoration method based on soil polluted by uranium mine tailings in,CN103480642A(CN201310458537.8) a kind of plant restoration method removing soil sulphur element poison in.
B) polluted-water (including the water body of organic oxygen-consuming pollutant, toxic pollutant, oil, radioactive contaminant, eutrophication pollution thing, invasive organism pollution) is adopted biological restoration, utilize biological (plant, microorganism) metabolic activity to the absorption of pollutant, conversion and degraded in water body, reach to slow down or eliminate water pollution, recover water ecology function.
nullThese devices or system and method are conventional in prior art,As being disclosed in CN1480411(CN03139848.0) in the plant restoration method of a kind of eutrophication water,The plant restoration method of the arsenic polluted water body in CN1982234(CN200510126486.4) and device,The plant restoration method of the oil pollution wetland in CN101947540A(CN201010290943.4),The method of a kind of remedying eutrophicated grass-type lake by harvesting aquatic plants in CN102249421A(CN201110156588.6),The plant restoration method of a kind of uranium polluted-water in CN102079581A(CN200910226273.7) and device,The plant restoration method of a kind of uranium polluted-water in CN102079580A(CN200910226272.2),The analog of a kind of removing volatile organic pollutants in underground water by plants in CN201530753U(CN200920210639.7),CN201825784U(CN201020528673.1) sewage treating pond for phytoremediation of constructed wetlands in,CN102989757A(CN201210562073.0) a kind of method utilizing Arundinella hirta's phytoremediation tin pollution soil and shallow water body in,CN103043801A(CN201310011876.1) a kind of plant restoration method to tetracycline pollutant effluents in.
C) to rehabilitation plant comprehensive utilization of resources.There is in rehabilitation plant body higher metal concentration, change into the energy as fuel, then from ash, extract heavy metal;Or utilize pyrolytic rehabilitation plant to produce cracking gas, bio oil, recycling heavy metal;Or utilize rehabilitation plant to produce containing heavy metal fertilizer.
nullThese devices or system and method are conventional in prior art,As being disclosed in CN102517447A(CN201110446997.X) in the processing method of a heavy metal species rehabilitation plant residuum,The processing method of the heavy metal species rehabilitation plant residuum in CN102517447A(CN201110446997.X),CN101700524A(CN200910193694.4) fixative in and the method for the safe disposal of heavy metal polluted soil repairing plant,The method of the restoring heavy metal-polluted soil by plants integrated treatment in CN101704013A(CN200910193803.2) and device,CN1857397(CN200610050201.8) method extracting total flavones from the rehabilitation plant elsholtzia splendens of copper polluted soil in,CN101675740(CN200810013230.6) a kind of repair plant black nightshade seed-soaking solution in and application thereof,CN1800111(CN200610037757.3) method utilizing rehabilitation plant elsholtzia splendens making cupric organic fertilizer in.
8, according to the method for any one in above 1-7 item, also comprise the following steps:
(5) artificial floating island repairs the step of eutrophication water, and this reparation step includes substep:
(a1) with the chinampa unit housing of bamboo stem, trunk composition arbitrary shape (such as triangle, quadrangle, pentagon, hexagon), unit housing junction, chinampa biodegradable fiber (such as palm rope, the rope made of hemp, the thickness bamboo cane less than 3mm) is fixed.
(a2) weaving into net with biodegradable fiber (such as palm rope, the rope made of hemp, the thickness bamboo cane less than 3mm) in housing, biodegradable fiber net is connected with housing.
(a3) in biodegradable fiber net, fill the phragmites communis bundle, the straw bundle that anyhow interlock, thickness 10cm~100cm;First with phragmites communis, Caulis et Folium Oryzae, phragmites communis bundle, straw bundle are connected with each other, then phragmites communis bundle, straw bundle are connected with biodegradable fiber net.
(a4) tie in phragmites communis, straw bundle spreads 5cm~20cm earth.
(a5) chinampa plant seedling is cultivated, when seedling reaches 5cm transplanting carried out above.
Phragmites communis asexual propagation: when surface air temperature is stablized more than 5 DEG C, take phragmites communis root stock from phragmites communis soil, be cut into 20cm~30cm length one section, at least 2 joints above (content 2 joint), to improve axillary bud sprouting rate.By 30~50cm × 30~50cm excavation kind plant hole, after the phragmites communis root stock cut is put into kind of plant hole, earthing 2cm~5cm is thick.Conserve water and soil after plantation humidity, benign climate, and 15d~30d seedling can grow into more than 5cm.Balled transplanting, suitably shades after transplanting, and survival rate is up to more than 95%.
Arundo donax asexual propagation: gather Arundo donax linn stem stalk between April to August, be cut into 20cm~30cm length one section, cutting at least 2 joint above (content 2 joint), to improve axillary bud sprouting rate.Cutting, with adopting with cutting with inserting, inserts in ready seedbed by seeding row spacing 20~30cm × 20~30cm, suitably shelters from heat or light and keep ground moistening, and after 25d, cutting sprouts tender and plumelet.The balled transplanting when seedling reaches more than 5cm, suitably shades after transplanting, keeps ground moistening, and survival rate is up to more than 95%.
Herba Typhae division propagation: between March to May, when surface air temperature is stablized more than 10 DEG C, digs out Herba Typhae together with subterraneous stem, is divided into individual plant, and every strain, with one section of rhizome or fibrous root, selects shoal by seeding row spacing 30~50cm × 30~50cm plantation, and every cave plants 1 strain.
Herba Lythri Salicariae cottage propagation: grow animated period in Herba Lythri Salicariae, before blooming, growth selection is healthy and strong, top branch without pest and disease damage, long 10cm~the 20cm of clip twig, lower clip, from bud 0.5cm~2cm, removes the leaf of bottom 1/3rd, by seeding row spacing 20~30cm × 20~30cm, deep 3cm~8cm inserts in paddy field, keeping paddy field interior edema deep 2cm~5cm, 7d~10d to take root, 15d~30d seedling can grow into more than 5cm.Balled transplanting, suitably shades after transplanting, keeps ground moistening, and survival rate is up to more than 95%.
Phyllostachys congesta cottage propagation: at the long animated period of Phyllostachys congesta, under the umbrella bract of stem top, 5cm~10cm cuts, bract tip is cut off, bract tip is cut off, is trimmed to the leaf dish of diameter 8cm~10cm, by seeding row spacing 10~20cm × 10~20cm, umbrella bract is inserted equipped with in seedbed, making leaf dish be close to seedbed sandy soil, suitably shelter from heat or light and keep ground moistening, after 20d, Phyllostachys congesta is taken root long sprouting.When seedling to more than 5cm.Balled transplanting, suitably shades after transplanting, keeps ground moistening, and survival rate is up to more than 95%.
Papyrus division propagation: between March to May, when surface air temperature is stablized more than 10 DEG C, digs out papyrus together with subterraneous stem, is divided into individual plant, and every strain is with one section of root, and by seeding row spacing 20~30cm × 20~30cm plantation, every cave plants 1 strain.Keep water level to be formed after more than 10cm, 20d and newly have plant.Balled transplanting, suitably shades after transplanting, keeps ground moistening, and survival rate is up to more than 95%.
(a6) seeding row spacing presses 20cm~50cm × 20cm~50cm, by phragmites communis, Arundo donax, Herba Typhae, Herba Lythri Salicariae, Phyllostachys congesta, the little transplantation of seedlings of papyrus in the unit of chinampa, it is preferable that miscegenation.
(a7) dispose predetermined waters on chinampa, multiple fixing anchor, spud pile are set.
(a8) multiple chinampas unit biodegradable fiber is connected, suitably loosen the gap between the unit of chinampa, in order to alleviate external force and to the impact of chinampa unit and regulate water level.
(a9) with rope, chinampa is connected with multiple fixing anchors, spud pile, suitably loosens connection rope to regulate water level.
(a10) harm phragmites communis, Arundo donax, Herba Typhae, Herba Lythri Salicariae, Phyllostachys congesta, papyrus primary pest be aphid, spray with the spraying of 500~800 times of liquid of 10% imidacloprid wettable powder or 800~1000 times of liquid of 40% omethoate when insect pest occurs.
(a11), after entering autumn, when a large amount of withering occur in phragmites communis, Arundo donax, Herba Typhae, Herba Lythri Salicariae, Phyllostachys congesta, papyrus, aerial parts plant is gathered in the crops.
(a12) when phragmites communis bundle, straw bundle appearance are decomposed in a large number in chinampa, disembarkation is salvaged on chinampa, after clearing out of bamboo stem, trunk and needing the chinampa plant continuing to cultivate, make compost.
9, according to the method for any one in above 1-8 item, also comprise the following steps:
(6) step of stable breeding floating plant repairing heavy metal pollution water body, this reparation step includes substep:
(b1) the floating plant growth housing of bamboo stem, trunk, pvc pipe, floating thing, rope composition arbitrary shape is used.
(b2) grow predetermined waters floating plant, multiple fixing anchor, spud pile are set.
(b3) with rope, iron wire, floating plant is grown housing to be connected with multiple fixing anchors, spud pile, suitably loosen connection rope, iron wire length to regulate water level.
(b4) when temperature is stablized more than 15 DEG C, frogbit, swamp cabbage, Herba Eichhorniae are thrown in floating plant growth housing.
(b5) when frogbit, swamp cabbage, Herba Eichhorniae cover with floating plant growth housing, salvage 1/2~2/3 frogbit, swamp cabbage, Herba Eichhorniae;In the growth busy season, salvage once every 20d~30d.
(b6) frogbit of salvaging disembarkation, swamp cabbage, Herba Eichhorniae need to focus on, comprehensive utilization, it is prevented that heavy metal secondary pollution.
10, according to the method for any one in above 1-9 item, also comprise the following steps:
(7) Festuca Arundinacea, annual bluegrass mix up reparation cadmium, Grown In Zinc Contaminated Soil step, and this reparation step includes substep:
(c1) by the Soil tillage one time by cadmium, zinc pollution, ploughed depth 20cm~30cm before sowing, remove the foreign material such as the brick in soil, stone, branch, plastics, and table soil is raked;When soil stickiness is stronger, in conjunction with addition fine sand of turning over, to improve the aeration of soil;During soil depletion, in conjunction with the every mu of organic fertilizer 500kg~1000kg or compound fertilizer 80kg~100kg that turns over.
(c2) warm area spring, summer, the autumn all can be broadcast, and sowing in spring suitable 4~May in High-cold regions, the Changjiang river areas to the south is suitable for autumn sowing in 9~October.
(c3) when Festuca Arundinacea, annual bluegrass mix up, by every mu of tall fescue seed 30kg~35kg, annual bluegrass seed 5kg~10kg mixing.
(c4) before sowing every mu execute thin liquid dung 2000kg~3000kg and keep ground moistening, sowing bonnet 0.5cm~2cm one layer of thin sand and soil of thickness.
(c5) keep ground moistening, within after planting 7d~10d days, can germinate, suitably reduce sprinkling irrigation number of times after germination, be beneficial to seedling and take root.
(c6) as more than height of seedling 5cm, every mu is spread fertilizer over the fields 50kg~100kg rapeseed cake granule pulverized.
(c7) Festuca Arundinacea, annual bluegrass disease resistance are relatively strong, and disease is less;In the summer that south is damp and hot, spray 800~1000 times of liquid of 50% carbendazol wettable powder or 400~600 times of liquid of 40% phosethyl-Al wettable powder, spray once every 10d~15d, spray the generation of 2-3 pre-disease prevention altogether.
(c8) just can gather in as Festuca Arundinacea, annual bluegrass more than height of seedling 10cm, preferred rotary cutter type grass mower during harvesting, first by grass mower, Festuca Arundinacea, the precocious seedlings of cereal crops be cut off, then with harrow, the Seedling cut off is collected.
(c9) Festuca Arundinacea, the annual bluegrass gathered in transport cadmium, zinc pollution soil in time, focus on, comprehensive utilization, it is prevented that heavy metal secondary pollution.
11, according to the method for any one in above 1-10 item, also comprise the following steps:
(8) step of alfalfa, Itanlian rye catch cropping reparation polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) contaminated soil, this reparation step includes substep:
(d1) by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contaminated Soil tillage one time, ploughed depth 20cm~30cm, soil surrounding excavation gutter, it is prevented that hydrops before sowing;Remove the foreign material such as the brick in soil, stone, branch, plastics, and table soil is raked;In conjunction with the every mu of organic fertilizer 500kg~800kg or carbamide 10kg~15kg that turns over, calcium superphosphate 50kg~80kg is as base manure.
(d2) China the Changjiang river is with southern area, autumn sowing after suitable October;North China and northwest are suitable for sowing in spring the 4-5 month;Broadcast in the last week, seed is placed under the sun and shines 2~3 days, improve germination percentage.
(d3) alfalfa, Itanlian rye catch cropping time adopt drilling, broadcast alfalfa seed 0.5kg~0.6kg, Itanlian rye seed 0.8kg~1.0kg for every mu.
(d4) after planting cover the thick one layer of fine earth of 3cm~5cm, after germination, execute thin liquid dung 1000kg~1500kg for every mu, keep ground moistening.
(d5) alfalfa, Itanlian rye seedling growth are slow, weeding in time;Water in time when seedling stage and trophophase sky drought.
(d6) alfalfa prevents downy mildew or 70% thiophanate methyl wettable powder 500 times of liquid spraying anti-smelting rust, leaf spots with 500~600 times of liquid sprayings of 58% metalaxyl manganese-zinc wettable powder;Itanlian rye 2.5% decis wettable powder 1000~1500 times of the liquid anti-smelting mythimna separatas of spraying, snout moths larva harm.
(d7) namely alfalfa plant height 30cm~40cm can gather in, and cutting the height for the stubble left must not lower than 5cm, in order to avoid impact regeneration, later 30d~40d gathers in once;Namely Itanlian rye plant height 40cm~50cm can gather in, and first time harvesting suitably ahead of time, can promote tiller, the yield of several batches after increase;The first time harvesting height for the stubble left must not lower than 5cm, in order to avoid impact regeneration, later 20d~30d gathers in once.
(d8) alfalfa, the Itanlian rye gathered in transport polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) contaminated land in time, focus on, comprehensive utilization, it is prevented that PAH secondary pollution.
12, according to the method for any one in above 1-11 item, also comprise the following steps:
(9) step of extraction and recovery silver from silver-containing waste water rehabilitation plant, this reparation step includes substep:
(e1) in silver-containing waste water, disembarkation will be salvaged by growing plants (such as Herba Eichhorniae, Alternanthera philoxeroides, Herba Spirodelae, Brown algae, thorn Herba vallisneriae Spiralis etc.), after naturally drying, burn till cinder in atmosphere.
(e2) cinder after burning is put in high temperature furnace, and at 500~600 DEG C, constant temperature 15h~20h is ashing into white or brown ceramic powder completely.
High temperature furnace is existing commercially available, existing tens of the factories in the whole nation produce, such as the GP.BF series box-type high-temperature furnace that Shanghai Gui Er plant equipment company limited produces, the bell jar electric furnace that Luoyang Lu Wei kiln company limited produces, the GSL-2000X-25 high temperature process furnances that Hefei Ke Jing Materials Technology Ltd. produces, the box heat treatment furnace that Wuhan Jiahua Furnace Industry Co., Ltd. produces, the 04DC-DB125 type bilayer high temperature furnace that Beijing original creation Science and Technology Ltd. produces, the high-temperature energy-conservation stove that Luoyang China rising sun rel electric furnace company limited produces, the lift high temperature furnace that Shanghai Guang Shu electromechanics company limited produces.
(e3) plant powder of complete ashing is added by weight 1:2 in the salpeter solution of 10%, soak 8h~12h;Silver in soak generates silver nitrate with nitric acid reaction.
(e4) adding the ammonia of 20% in soak, pH value is adjusted to 10~11, the silver in soak and ammonia generate silver ammonia complexing ion.
(e5) extract leachate, filter after being heated to 45~50 DEG C, remove residue;Filtrate continues maintenance 45~50 DEG C, is evaporated completely by ammonia.
(e6) taking, after evaporation, the hydrochloric acid adding 15%~20% in leachate, hydrochloric acid is 1:10 with taking leachate volume ratio, raw milky silver chloride sediment.
(e7) lean for upper strata silver clear liquid is poured out, leaching silver chloride sediment, be washed till neutrality with distilled water;
(e8) silver chloride sediment is placed in baking oven, at 100 DEG C~110 DEG C temperature, dry 2h~4h.
(e9) by dried silver chloride add mass ratio be 15~20% natrium carbonicum calcinatum, 10~12% Boraxs and 8~10% particulate slightly silver-colored, after keeping 30~60mni at 1000 DEG C~1100 DEG C temperature after mixing, take out in the cold water injecting 0 DEG C~10 DEG C immediately, respectively arrive purity after cooling and reach the thick silver bullion of more than 90%.
Biological restoration absorbs mainly by plant (microorganism), volatilizees, degrades, stabilizing heavy metal, Organic substance or radioelement, reaches to purify the purpose of soil or water body.
From heavy metal pollution district, hot area collect rehabilitation plant, be generally off-site from proportion of crop planting district, resident living area and drinking water source district when focusing on, typically at least more than 1 kilometer.
Advantages of the present invention
1, cost is low, utilizes natural plants, by learning Traditional Agricultural industry implantation methods.Technology is relatively easy, wide adaptability, it is possible to large area is implemented.
2, the soil crossed through phytoremediation, the content of organic matter and soil fertility can be improved, and can plant other plant without after-treatment, meet the requirement of sustainable development.
3, environmental perturbation is few, not destroying, the basis of ecological environment carries out in-situ immobilization, do not cause secondary pollution, there is the effect beautified the environment.
4, insolubility water body organism can be degraded to dissolved organic matter, nitrogenous in decomposition water, phosphorus-containing matter, it is achieved water nutrition balances, and improves water body self-purification ability.
5, phytoremediation water body can suppress growth and the breeding of cyanophyceae and the strong mushroom of other oxygen consumptions and algae, increases the dissolved oxygen amount in water, improves hydrobiological survival rate
6, environment is had purification and beautification function by plant itself, and phytoremediation is easily received by society.
7, from rich in the plant of heavy metal reclaims precious metal, direct economic benefit can be obtained.
Specific embodiment
The following detailed description of currently preferred technical scheme, but the invention is not restricted to the embodiment provided.
Embodiment 1-artificial floating island repairs eutrophication water
1, with the chinampa unit housing of bamboo stem, trunk composition arbitrary shape (such as triangle, quadrangle, pentagon, hexagon), unit housing junction, chinampa biodegradable fiber (such as palm rope, the rope made of hemp, the thickness bamboo cane less than 3mm) is fixed.
2, weaving into net with biodegradable fiber (such as palm rope, the rope made of hemp, the thickness bamboo cane less than 3mm) in housing, biodegradable fiber net is connected with housing.
3, in biodegradable fiber net, fill the phragmites communis bundle, the straw bundle that anyhow interlock, thickness 10cm~100cm;First with phragmites communis, Caulis et Folium Oryzae, phragmites communis bundle, straw bundle are connected with each other, then phragmites communis bundle, straw bundle are connected with biodegradable fiber net.
4, tie in phragmites communis, straw bundle spreads 5cm~20cm earth.
5, chinampa plant seedling is cultivated, when seedling reaches 5cm transplanting carried out above.
Phragmites communis asexual propagation: when surface air temperature is stablized more than 5 DEG C, take phragmites communis root stock from phragmites communis soil, be cut into 20cm~30cm length one section, at least 2 joints above (content 2 joint), to improve axillary bud sprouting rate.By 30~50cm × 30~50cm excavation kind plant hole, after the phragmites communis root stock cut is put into kind of plant hole, earthing 2cm~5cm is thick.Conserve water and soil after plantation humidity, benign climate, and 15d~30d seedling can grow into more than 5cm.Balled transplanting, suitably shades after transplanting, and survival rate is up to more than 95%.
Arundo donax asexual propagation: gather Arundo donax linn stem stalk between April to August, be cut into 20cm~30cm length one section, cutting at least 2 joint above (content 2 joint), to improve axillary bud sprouting rate.Cutting, with adopting with cutting with inserting, inserts in ready seedbed by seeding row spacing 20~30cm × 20~30cm, suitably shelters from heat or light and keep ground moistening, and after 25d, cutting sprouts tender and plumelet.The balled transplanting when seedling reaches more than 5cm, suitably shades after transplanting, keeps ground moistening, and survival rate is up to more than 95%.
Herba Typhae division propagation: between March to May, when surface air temperature is stablized more than 10 DEG C, digs out Herba Typhae together with subterraneous stem, is divided into individual plant, and every strain, with one section of rhizome or fibrous root, selects shoal by seeding row spacing 30~50cm × 30~50cm plantation, and every cave plants 1 strain.
Herba Lythri Salicariae cottage propagation: grow animated period in Herba Lythri Salicariae, before blooming, growth selection is healthy and strong, top branch without pest and disease damage, long 10cm~the 20cm of clip twig, lower clip, from bud 0.5cm~2cm, removes the leaf of bottom 1/3rd, by seeding row spacing 20~30cm × 20~30cm, deep 3cm~8cm inserts in paddy field, keeping paddy field interior edema deep 2cm~5cm, 7d~10d to take root, 15d~30d seedling can grow into more than 5cm.Balled transplanting, suitably shades after transplanting, keeps ground moistening, and survival rate is up to more than 95%.
Phyllostachys congesta cottage propagation: at the long animated period of Phyllostachys congesta, under the umbrella bract of stem top, 5cm~10cm cuts, bract tip is cut off, bract tip is cut off, is trimmed to the leaf dish of diameter 8cm~10cm, by seeding row spacing 10~20cm × 10~20cm, umbrella bract is inserted equipped with in seedbed, making leaf dish be close to seedbed sandy soil, suitably shelter from heat or light and keep soil air and earth to moisten, after 20d, Phyllostachys congesta is taken root long sprouting.When seedling to more than 5cm.Balled transplanting, suitably shades after transplanting, keeps ground moistening, and survival rate is up to more than 95%.
Papyrus division propagation: between March to May, when surface air temperature is stablized more than 10 DEG C, digs out papyrus together with subterraneous stem, is divided into individual plant, and every strain is with one section of root, and by seeding row spacing 20~30cm × 20~30cm plantation, every cave plants 1 strain.Keep water level to be formed after more than 10cm, 20d and newly have plant.Balled transplanting, suitably shades after transplanting, keeps ground moistening, and survival rate is up to more than 95%.
6, seeding row spacing presses 20cm~50cm × 20cm~50cm, by phragmites communis, Arundo donax, Herba Typhae, Herba Lythri Salicariae, Phyllostachys congesta, the little transplantation of seedlings of papyrus in the unit of chinampa, it is preferable that miscegenation.
7, dispose predetermined waters on chinampa, multiple fixing anchor, spud pile are set.
8, multiple chinampas unit biodegradable fiber is connected, suitably loosen the gap between the unit of chinampa, in order to alleviate external force and to the impact of chinampa unit and regulate water level.
9, with rope, chinampa is connected with multiple fixing anchors, spud pile, suitably loosens connection rope to regulate water level.
10, harm phragmites communis, Arundo donax, Herba Typhae, Herba Lythri Salicariae, Phyllostachys congesta, papyrus primary pest be aphid, spray with the spraying of 500~800 times of liquid of 10% imidacloprid wettable powder or 800~1000 times of liquid of 40% omethoate when insect pest occurs.
11, after entering autumn, when a large amount of withering occur in phragmites communis, Arundo donax, Herba Typhae, Herba Lythri Salicariae, Phyllostachys congesta, papyrus, aerial parts plant is gathered in the crops.
12, when phragmites communis bundle, straw bundle appearance are decomposed in a large number in chinampa, disembarkation is salvaged on chinampa, after clearing out of bamboo stem, trunk and needing the chinampa plant continuing to cultivate, make compost.
Embodiment 2-stable breeding floating plant repairing heavy metal pollution water body
1, the floating plant growth housing of bamboo stem, trunk, pvc pipe, floating thing, rope composition arbitrary shape is used.
2, grow predetermined waters floating plant, multiple fixing anchor, spud pile are set.
3, with rope, iron wire, floating plant is grown housing to be connected with multiple fixing anchors, spud pile, suitably loosen connection rope, iron wire length to regulate water level.
4, when temperature is stablized more than 15 DEG C, frogbit, swamp cabbage, Herba Eichhorniae are thrown in floating plant growth housing.
5, when frogbit, swamp cabbage, Herba Eichhorniae cover with floating plant growth housing, salvage 1/2~2/3 frogbit, swamp cabbage, Herba Eichhorniae;In the growth busy season, salvage once every 20d~30d.
6, the frogbit of salvaging disembarkation, swamp cabbage, Herba Eichhorniae need to focus on, comprehensive utilization, it is prevented that heavy metal secondary pollution.
Embodiment 3-Festuca Arundinacea, annual bluegrass mix up reparation cadmium, Grown In Zinc Contaminated Soil
1, by the Soil tillage one time by cadmium, zinc pollution, ploughed depth 20cm~30cm before sowing, remove the foreign material such as the brick in soil, stone, branch, plastics, and table soil is raked;When soil stickiness is stronger, in conjunction with addition fine sand of turning over, to improve the aeration of soil;During soil depletion, in conjunction with the every mu of organic fertilizer 500kg~1000kg or compound fertilizer 80kg~100kg that turns over.
2, warm area spring, summer, the autumn all can be broadcast, and sowing in spring suitable 4~May in High-cold regions, the Changjiang river areas to the south is suitable for autumn sowing in 9~October.
3, when Festuca Arundinacea, annual bluegrass mix up, by every mu of tall fescue seed 30kg~35kg, annual bluegrass seed 5kg~10kg mixing.
4, before sowing every mu execute thin liquid dung 2000kg~3000kg and keep ground moistening, sowing bonnet 0.5cm~2cm one layer of thin sand and soil of thickness.
5, keep ground moistening, within after planting 7d~10d days, can germinate, suitably reduce sprinkling irrigation number of times after germination, be beneficial to seedling and take root.
6, as more than height of seedling 5cm, every mu is spread fertilizer over the fields 50kg~100kg rapeseed cake granule pulverized.
7, Festuca Arundinacea, annual bluegrass disease resistance are relatively strong, and disease is less;In the summer that south is damp and hot, spray 800~1000 times of liquid of 50% carbendazol wettable powder or 400~600 times of liquid of 40% phosethyl-Al wettable powder, spray once every 10d~15d, spray the generation of 2-3 pre-disease prevention altogether.
8, just can gather in as Festuca Arundinacea, annual bluegrass more than height of seedling 10cm, preferred rotary cutter type grass mower during harvesting, first by grass mower, Festuca Arundinacea, the precocious seedlings of cereal crops be cut off, then with harrow, the Seedling cut off is collected.
9, the Festuca Arundinacea of harvesting, annual bluegrass transport cadmium, zinc pollution soil in time, focus on, comprehensive utilization, it is prevented that heavy metal secondary pollution.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) contaminated soil is repaired in embodiment 4-alfalfa, Itanlian rye catch cropping
1, by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contaminated Soil tillage one time, ploughed depth 20cm~30cm, soil surrounding excavation gutter, it is prevented that hydrops before sowing;Remove the foreign material such as the brick in soil, stone, branch, plastics, and table soil is raked;In conjunction with the every mu of organic fertilizer 500kg~800kg or carbamide 10kg~15kg that turns over, calcium superphosphate 50kg~80kg is as base manure.
2, China the Changjiang river areas to the south, autumn sowing after suitable October;North China and northwest are suitable for sowing in spring the 4-5 month;Broadcast in the last week, seed is placed under the sun and shines 2~3 days, improve germination percentage.
3, alfalfa, Itanlian rye catch cropping time adopt drilling, broadcast alfalfa seed 0.5kg~0.6kg, Itanlian rye seed 0.8kg~1.0kg for every mu.
4, after planting cover the thick one layer of fine earth of 3cm~5cm, after germination, execute thin liquid dung 1000kg~1500kg for every mu, keep ground moistening.
5, alfalfa, Itanlian rye seedling growth are slow, weeding in time;Water in time when seedling stage and trophophase sky drought.
6, alfalfa prevents downy mildew or 70% thiophanate methyl wettable powder 500 times of liquid spraying anti-smelting rust, leaf spots with 500~600 times of liquid sprayings of 58% metalaxyl manganese-zinc wettable powder;Itanlian rye 2.5% decis wettable powder 1000~1500 times of the liquid anti-smelting mythimna separatas of spraying, snout moths larva harm.
7, namely alfalfa plant height 30cm~40cm can gather in, and cutting the height for the stubble left must not lower than 5cm, in order to avoid impact regeneration, later 30d~40d gathers in once;Namely Itanlian rye plant height 40cm~50cm can gather in, and first time harvesting suitably ahead of time, can promote tiller, the yield of several batches after increase;The first time harvesting height for the stubble left must not lower than 5cm, in order to avoid impact regeneration, later 20d~30d gathers in once.
8, the alfalfa of harvesting, Itanlian rye transport polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) contaminated land in time, focus on, comprehensive utilization, it is prevented that PAH secondary pollution.
Embodiment 5-extracts from silver-containing waste water rehabilitation plant and reclaims silver
1, in silver-containing waste water, disembarkation will be salvaged by growing plants (such as Herba Eichhorniae, Alternanthera philoxeroides, Herba Spirodelae, Brown algae, thorn Herba vallisneriae Spiralis etc.), after naturally drying, burn till cinder in atmosphere.
2, the cinder after burning is put in high temperature furnace, and at 500~600 DEG C, constant temperature 15h~20h is ashing into white or brown ceramic powder completely.
High temperature furnace is existing commercially available, existing tens of the factories in the whole nation produce, such as the GP.BF series box-type high-temperature furnace that Shanghai Gui Er plant equipment company limited produces, the bell jar electric furnace that Luoyang Lu Wei kiln company limited produces, the GSL-2000X-25 high temperature process furnances that Hefei Ke Jing Materials Technology Ltd. produces, the box heat treatment furnace that Wuhan Jiahua Furnace Industry Co., Ltd. produces, the 04DC-DB125 type bilayer high temperature furnace that Beijing original creation Science and Technology Ltd. produces, the high-temperature energy-conservation stove that Luoyang China rising sun rel electric furnace company limited produces, the lift high temperature furnace that Shanghai Guang Shu electromechanics company limited produces.
3, the plant powder of complete ashing is added by weight 1:2 in the salpeter solution of 10%, soak 8h~12h;Silver in soak generates silver nitrate with nitric acid reaction.
4, adding the ammonia of 20% in soak, pH value is adjusted to 10~11, the silver in soak and ammonia generate silver ammonia complexing ion.
5, extract leachate, filter after being heated to 45~50 DEG C, remove residue;Filtrate continues maintenance 45~50 DEG C, is evaporated completely by ammonia.
6, taking, after evaporation, the hydrochloric acid adding 15%~20% in leachate, hydrochloric acid is 1:10 with taking leachate volume ratio, raw milky silver chloride sediment.
7, lean for upper strata silver clear liquid is poured out, leaching silver chloride sediment, be washed till neutrality with distilled water;
8, silver chloride sediment is placed in baking oven, at 100 DEG C~110 DEG C temperature, dry 2h~4h.
9, by dried silver chloride add mass ratio be 15~20% natrium carbonicum calcinatum, 10~12% Boraxs and 8~10% particulate slightly silver-colored, after keeping 30~60min at 1000 DEG C~1100 DEG C temperature after mixing, take out in the cold water injecting 0 DEG C~10 DEG C immediately, after cooling, obtain the thick silver bullion of purity more than 90%.

Claims (1)

1., by the method for biological restoration water body with soil and comprehensive utilization of resources, the method comprises the following steps:
(1) silver-containing waste water region bamboo stem, trunk, pvc pipe, floating thing, rope composition arbitrary shape floating plant growth housing;
(2) grow predetermined waters floating plant, fixing anchor, spud pile are set;
(3) with rope, iron wire, floating plant is grown housing to be connected with fixing anchor, spud pile, suitably loosen connection rope length to regulate water level;
(4) when temperature is stablized more than 15 DEG C, Herba Eichhorniae is thrown in floating plant growth housing;
(5) when Herba Eichhorniae covers with floating plant growth housing, salvage the Herba Eichhorniae of 1/2~2/3;In the growth busy season, salvage once every 20d~30d;
(6) by salvaging the Herba Eichhorniae of disembarkation, cinder after naturally drying, is burnt till in atmosphere;
(7) cinder after burning is put in high temperature furnace, and at 500~600 DEG C, constant temperature 15h~20h is ashing into white or brown ceramic powder completely;
(8) plant powder of complete ashing is added by weight 1:2 in the salpeter solution of 10%, soak 8h~12h;
(9) adding the ammonia of 20% in soak, pH value is adjusted to 10~11, the silver in soak and ammonia generate silver ammonia complexing ion;
(10) extract leachate, filter after being heated to 45~50 DEG C, remove residue;Filtrate continues maintenance 45~50 DEG C, is evaporated completely by ammonia;
(11) adding the hydrochloric acid of 15%~20% in filtrate, hydrochloric acid and filtrate volume ratio for 1:10, generates milky silver chloride sediment;
(12) lean for upper strata silver clear liquid is poured out, leaching silver chloride sediment, be washed till neutrality with distilled water;
(13) silver chloride sediment is placed in baking oven, at 100 DEG C~110 DEG C temperature, dry 2h~4h;
(14) by dried silver chloride add mass ratio be 15%~20% natrium carbonicum calcinatum, 10%~12% Borax and 8%~10% particulate slightly silver-colored, after keeping 30min~60min at 1000 DEG C~1100 DEG C temperature after mixing, take out in the cold water injecting 0 DEG C~10 DEG C immediately, after cooling, obtain the thick silver bullion of purity more than 90%.
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