CN103590831B - A kind of gentle dip is thin-the novel mining methods of middle thickness orebody - Google Patents

A kind of gentle dip is thin-the novel mining methods of middle thickness orebody Download PDF

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CN103590831B
CN103590831B CN201310598485.4A CN201310598485A CN103590831B CN 103590831 B CN103590831 B CN 103590831B CN 201310598485 A CN201310598485 A CN 201310598485A CN 103590831 B CN103590831 B CN 103590831B
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ore
stope
region
ore removal
back production
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CN201310598485.4A
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CN103590831A (en
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王贻明
胡凯建
吴爱祥
黄明清
王洪江
韩斌
尹升华
艾纯明
周升平
玛旦江
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北京科技大学
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Abstract

Gentle dip of the present invention is thin-and the mining methods of middle thickness orebody are that the ore body in a stope is divided into two stope region back production step by step; First, use sublevel caving method without sill pillar to carry out back production to stope region (1), use medium-length hole big gun hole by ore body with the direct avalanche of single segmentation; The scope of freedom of certain dead zone as stope region (2) back production is formed after ore removal; Then, Handling by blast force mining codes are used to carry out back production to stope region (2), fan shaped medium length hole big gun hole is arranged perpendicular to orebody strike, medium-length hole big gun hole decking, charge segment is at the bottom of ore body lower wall border to hole, with stope region (1) back production formed dead zone be that explosion is carried out by row in the scope of freedom, utilize quick-fried power by the ore throwing in stope region (2) in dead zone.This method has merged sublevel caving method without sill pillar and Handling by blast force method, and decrease difficulty and the workload of supporting, operation is safer, and mining cost is low, and labor productivity is high.

Description

A kind of gentle dip is thin-the novel mining methods of middle thickness orebody

Technical field

The invention belongs to mining field of engineering technology, especially relate to a kind of be applicable to exploit gentle dip thin-the novel mining methods of middle thickness orebody.

Background technology

Gentle dip is thin-middle thickness orebody brings many difficulties to mining due to its intrinsic occurrence condition, as ore can not be released by deadweight completely, easily occur in recovery process adopting cut than large, the rate of recovery is low, high in cost of production problem.Exploitation method both at home and abroad for gently inclined orebody mainly contains room-and-pillar method, breasting method, Footwall chute mining codes, filling method etc.Room-and-pillar method and breasting method need pillar in stope, and ore recovery ratio is lower, and directly in goaf operation, poor stability, need to carry out roof timbering, complex procedures, engineering quantity are larger; Footwall chute mining codes easily cause adopting to be cut than the problem such as large, mining cost is high; And filling method complex process, cost are higher, for base metal gentle dip thin-in thick deposit mining, economical unreasonable.

Gentle dip is thin-and the exploitation of middle thickness orebody is a universally acknowledged mining difficult problem, and ore and rock stability difference then further increases its exploitation difficulty.Along with the development of science and technology, domestic and international gentle dip is thin-and the Researching and practicing of middle thickness orebody exploitation also constantly makes progress, is mainly manifested in: the use of the Trackless self extractive equipment that automaticity is high greatly improves the labor productivity of mining; The application of the development of support technology and rock bolting jumbo, whitewashing chassis, anchor cable and grouting support technology improves support efficiency, improves safety condition; The application of sophisticated equipment and technology impels the generation of the efficient mining methods of new type of safe.The present invention introduce a kind of be applicable to exploit gentle dip thin-the novel mining methods of middle thickness orebody, avoid the potential safety hazard that directly operation brings in stope, improve operational security, reduce difficulty and the workload of Stope roof supporting, reduce adopting of gently inclined orebody exploitation and cut engineering quantity, improve the problem of gently inclined orebody ore removal difficulty, use trackless equipment do mechanization operation, production efficiency is high.

Summary of the invention

The object of the invention is to propose a kind of gentle dip thin-the novel mining methods of middle thickness orebody, the method has merged sublevel caving method without sill pillar and Handling by blast force mining codes, overcomes the deficiency of single mining methods, achieves mutual supplement with each other's advantages.

In order to realize object of the present invention, following technical scheme is proposed:

Novel mining methods back production gentle dip of the present invention is thin-middle thickness orebody time, the ore body in a stope is divided into two region back production step by step.

First, sublevel caving method without sill pillar is used to carry out back production to stope region 1.Because target orebody thickness is little, use medium-length hole 10 by ore body with the direct avalanche of single segmentation, the dead zone 12 that after ore removal, formation 1 is fixed is as the scope of freedom of stope region 2 back production.

Then, Handling by blast force mining codes are used to carry out back production to stope region 2, fan shaped medium length hole 10 is arranged perpendicular to orebody strike, big gun hole decking, charge segment is at the bottom of ore body lower wall border to hole, carry out explosion with the dead zone 12 that region 1 back production is formed by row for the scope of freedom, utilize quick-fried power by the ore throwing in region 2 in dead zone 12.

After stope mining ore removal terminates, in stope rock drilling road 5, formation taper ore storage cannot be shoveled out by part ore, this part ore after lower substoping terminates in fragmented transport tunnel 3 upwards sublevel drilling road 5 dig and slip ore deposit The Small Well 11 and reclaim.

Adopt gentle dip of the present invention thin-the novel mining methods of middle thickness orebody time, the technical essential forming stope structure is as follows:

Adopt accurate engineering, described in adopt accurate engineering and comprise fragmented transport tunnel 3, ore removal route 4 and rock drilling road 5.Adopt the region of accurate work arrangement in ore body lower wall adjoining rock stability, fragmented transport tunnel 3 is arranged along orebody trend, vertical orebody trend driving ore removal route 4, ore removal route 4 spacing 12 ~ 15m, below ore body base plate, 3 ~ 5m place is along orebody trend driving rock drilling road 5, and rock drilling road 5 is communicated with every bar ore removal route 4.Adopting accurate engineering tunnel section wide × high is 3.2m × 3.4m, utilizes Boomer chassis and scraper mechanized construction.

Cutting engineering, described cutting engineering mainly comprises slot raise 8 and cutting crosscut 9, and slot raise 8 section 2.0m × 2.0m is vertical or incline raise.Cutting crosscut 9 is extended forward by ore removal route 4.In kerve process, in cutting crosscut 9, construction number arranges upward hole, forms cutting groove with slot raise 8 for after the explosion of the scope of freedom.

The support pattern in tunnel, described support pattern mainly adopts prestressed anchor supporting and slip casting long cable supporting.In situation as 1, adopt prestressed anchor supporting can meet stability requirement, the long 2.4m of anchor pole, diameter 18mm, supporting mesh degree 1.5m × 1.5m, the prestressing force of applying is greater than 100KN.The T-shaped fork top board exposed area that tunnel crosses is comparatively large, increases slip casting long cable supporting, the long 6.0m of anchor cable, net degree 3.0m × 3.0m.If some region rock crusher or occur wall rock loosening by blasting impact wave action, take reinforce support, increase steel mesh, use wooden support or steel bracket if desired.

Stopping sequence, described stopping sequence, to different segmentation, from top to bottom back production, reserves fore-set 6 between upper and lower segmentation stope; In 1 segmentation, every bar ore removal route 4 can be considered 1 stope, reserved studding 7 between adjacent stope; The stopping sequence of segmentation can stope in the middle of segmentation to two ends back production, also can from 1 end of segmentation to another 1 end back production.

Explosion falls ore deposit, and adopt fan shaped medium length hole 10 explosion to fall ore deposit, use jumbo boring, blast hole depth is decided as circumstances require, and is no more than 30m as hole depth 1, aperture 76mm, bottom hole pitch 2.0m, array pitch 2.0m.

Use scraper ore removal after explosion, enter rock drilling road 5 ore removal by ore removal route 4 and adjacent ore removal route 4.In the ore removal later stage, in rock drilling road 5, part ore forms taper ore storage the most at last, cannot be shoveled out, and utilizes and slips ore deposit The Small Well 11 in lower 1 segmentation recovery.

The distinguished and admirable trend of stope ventilation is: fresh wind through fragmented transport tunnel 3, ore removal route 4, rock drilling road 5, rinse after work plane, extract out through return air raise.Dead working face by fan drum blowing/exhausting, to guarantee process air quality.

At the stope mining initial stage, utilize the fore-set 6 of stope and studding 7 to support Stope roof, along with the increase of stopping area, Stope roof natural caving, presses with utilizing the natural caving management of Stope roof.

Gentle dip of the present invention is thin-and the concrete steps of the novel mining methods of middle thickness orebody are as follows:

1, in the firm region of ore body lower wall country rock along orebody trend driving fragmented transport tunnel 3, drift section is wide × height is 3.2m × 3.4m.Tunnel adopts prestressed anchor supporting, and the long 2.4m of anchor pole, diameter 18mm, supporting mesh degree 1.5m × 1.5m, the prestressing force of applying is greater than 100KN.

2, vertical fragmentation haulage drift 3 tunnels ore removal route 4, ore removal route 4 spacing 12 ~ 15m, drift section 3.2m × 3.4m.The support pattern same with fragmented transport tunnel 3 is adopted to carry out supporting to ore removal route 4; Slip casting long cable supporting is adopted, the long 6.0m of anchor cable, net degree 3.0m × 3.0m, slip casting water/binder ratio 0.35 ~ 0.4 in fragmented transport tunnel 3 and the T-shaped fork place of ore removal route 4.

3, when ore removal route 4 tunnels to ore body lower wall 3 ~ 5m place, rock drilling road 5 is arranged perpendicular to ore removal route 4, drift section is wide × and height is 3.2m × 3.4m, and rock drilling road 5 is communicated with every bar ore removal route 4, is convenient to ore removal.The support pattern same with fragmented transport tunnel 3 is adopted to carry out supporting to rock drilling road 5.

4, every bar ore removal route 4 is considered as a stope, and reserved studding 7 between adjacent stope, fore-set 6 reserved by the stope between upper and lower segmentation, with the object of pressing, preventing barren rock to be mixed into reaching control.Stopping sequence is from the centre of segmentation to two ends back production.

5, fan shaped medium length hole 10 explosion is adopted to carry out falling ore deposit.Use jumbo efficient drilling, aperture 76mm, bottom hole pitch 2.0m, array pitch 2.0m.First, use Caving Method with Large Space to carry out back production to stope region 1, construction cutting crosscut 9 and slot raise 8 in rock drilling road 5, construction number row upward hole in cutting crosscut 9, with slot raise 8 for forming cutting groove, for explosion provides the scope of freedom after the explosion of the scope of freedom.Dead zone 12 is formed, for stope region 2 explosion provides the scope of freedom after stope region 1 explosion ore removal.

6, back production is carried out to stope region 2, fan shaped medium length hole 10 is arranged perpendicular to orebody strike, as shown in Figure 4, big gun hole decking, charge segment is at the bottom of ore body lower wall border to hole, as Fig. 4 bold portion, carry out explosion with the dead zone 12 that stope region 1 back production is formed by row for the scope of freedom, utilize quick-fried power by the ore throwing in stope region 2 in dead zone 12.

7, ore removal in time is often arranged after shot hole blasting, for next row explosion provides the scope of freedom.Scraper is used to enter rock drilling road 5 ore removal by ore removal route 4 and adjacent ore removal route 4.In the ore removal later stage, in rock drilling road 5, part ore forms taper ore storage the most at last, cannot be shoveled out, and utilizes to slip ore deposit The Small Well 11 and reclaim in next segmentation.

8, after substoping, in fragmented transport tunnel 3, upwards sublevel drilling road 5 is dug and is slipped ore deposit The Small Well 11, reclaims ore storage residual in upper sublevel drilling road 5 by slipping ore deposit The Small Well 11.

Compared with existing gently inclined orebody exploitation method, the present invention has following characteristics and advantage:

(1) this Fusion of mining method sublevel caving method without sill pillar and Handling by blast force method, overcomes the deficiency of single mining methods, achieves the mutual supplement with each other's advantages of different mining methods, for gentle dip thin-exploitation of middle thickness orebody provides new approaches.

(2) roadway engineering of the method is arranged in the country rock of ore body external stabilization, decreases difficulty and the workload of supporting; Workman is without the need to being directly exposed to operation in stope, and operation is safer.

(3) the method adopt accurate cutting technique simple, be easy to construction, adopt that to cut engineering quantity little, mining cost is low; Handling by blast force by ore throwing in dead zone 12, ore removal route 4 ore removal and end, rock drilling road 5 ore removal, the complete cutting of stage casing back production slip ore deposit The Small Well 11 reclaim ore of upper stage, improve the problem that gently inclined orebody goes out mine disaster.

(4) whole mining process can be completely achieved trackless equipment do mechanization operation, and labor productivity is high.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is gently inclined orebody block mining schematic diagram, and green area is stope region 1, and blue region is stope region 2.

Fig. 2 is the front view I-I of new method of the present invention design.

Fig. 3 is the sectional view of front view II-II.

Fig. 4 is the sectional view of front view III-III, the steel for shot figure of display Handling by blast force mining codes.

In figure

1 stope region 8 slot raise

Crosscut is cut in 2 stope regions 9

3 fragmented transport tunnel 10 medium-length holes

4 ore removal routes 11 slip ore deposit The Small Well

5 dead zone, rock drilling roads 12

6 fore-set 13 ores

7 studding 14 scrapers

Detailed description of the invention

For making the object, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention clearly understand, below in conjunction with the drawings and specific embodiments, the present invention is described in more detail.

Certain copper mine ore body is owing to affecting by fold, and occurrence is complicated and changeable, comparatively mild at synclinal shaft ore body, from synclinal shaft portion to the continuous lifting of both wings, and the mean obliquity of synclinal shaft ore body 15 °, orebody thickness average out to 6m.Ore body roof is argillaceous slate, and stability is better, can form barnyard condition when stope span is little; Ledge is white clouds matter schist, this rock mass structure surface development, collapsing of local easily occurs and emits and slabbing, and easy-weathering, chance cement; The intermediate zone schist ore deposit rock of ore body base plate is more broken, poor stability; Conglomerate and the shale quartzite stability on chassis are better.To sum up, this orebody shape is changeable, and the slanting angle of ore body is more slow, rocks in deposits and lower wall intermediate zone rock stratum stationarity poor, tunnel is difficult to be arranged in ore body inside; Orebody thickness is little, and use when having the mining methods of polycrystalline substance, adopt and cut than excessive, cost is high; When using oper cylinler slicing and caving method, adopt cut journey and be arranged in the stable country rock of ore body lower wall, the exploitation rate of dilution is large.Use novel mining methods of the present invention to exploit this ore body, composition graphs 1, Fig. 2, Fig. 3, Fig. 4 illustrate detailed description of the invention, as follows:

1, stope is arranged along orebody trend, and stopping sequence is from the centre of segmentation to two ends back production.In driving fragmented transport tunnel 3, ore body lower wall country rock firm region, vertical fragmentation haulage drift 3 tunnels ore removal and enters 4 tunnels, the long 25m of ore removal route 4, spacing 15m.Rock drilling road 5 is arranged in the position apart from ore body lower wall 3m.Drift section is wide × and height is 3.2m × 3.4m.

2, construction cutting crosscut 9 and slot raise 8 in rock drilling road 5, construction number row upward hole in cutting crosscut 9, with slot raise 8 for forming cutting groove, for explosion provides the scope of freedom after the explosion of the scope of freedom.

3, prestressed anchor pole pair tunnel is adopted to carry out supporting.The long 2.4m of prestressed anchor, diameter 18mm, supporting mesh degree 1.5m × 1.5m, the prestressing force of applying is greater than 100KN.The T-shaped fork top board exposed area that fragmented transport tunnel 3 and ore removal route 4 cross is comparatively large, increases slip casting long cable supporting, the long 6.0m of anchor cable, net degree 3.0m × 3.0m.If some region rock crusher or occur wall rock loosening by blasting impact wave action, take reinforce support, increase steel mesh, use wooden support if desired.

4, every bar ore removal route 4 is considered as a stope, and reserved 1m studding 7 between adjacent stope, 3m fore-set 6 reserved by the stope between upper and lower segmentation.

5, first back production stope region 1.Use jumbo is holed, and aperture 76mm, bottom hole pitch 2.0m, array pitch 2.0m, lateral opening angle, big gun hole is not less than 45 ° (ore natural repose angles 38 °).Adopt ANFO porous particulated ammonium oil explosive, the powder charge of fanhole(s) total length, detonator hole-bottom blast, every separate explosion 1 ~ 2 is arranged, and uses scraper to enter rock drilling road 5 ore removal by ore removal route 4 and adjacent ore removal route 4 after every separate explosion.

6, after stope region 1 back production terminates, back production is carried out to stope region 2, use jumbo boring, arrange fan shaped medium length hole 10 perpendicular to orebody strike, as shown in Figure 4, blast hole depth is decided as circumstances require, and most elongated hole is 12.88m deeply, aperture 76mm, bottom hole pitch 2.0m, array pitch 2.0m.Big gun hole decking, in figure, big gun hole real segment is powder charge section, and phantom line segments is not powder charge section.Charge segment is at the bottom of ore body lower wall border to hole, as Fig. 4 bold portion, carries out explosion by row, utilize quick-fried power by the ore throwing in region 22 in dead zone 12 with the dead zone 12 that stope region 1 back production is formed for the scope of freedom.Rock drilling road 5 ore removal is entered by ore removal route 4 and adjacent ore removal route 4 after back production.

7, the ore removal later stage, in rock drilling road 5, part ore forms taper ore storage the most at last, cannot be shoveled out, and utilizes to slip ore deposit The Small Well 11 and reclaim in next segmentation after next substoping terminates.

Adopt this invention described in the ore body of new method to thickness 6m, 15 °, inclination angle carry out back production, height of lift is 8m, and adopt and cut than being 10.4m/kt, the rate of dilution of ore is 11.49%, ore recovery ratio 87%.

Above-described specific embodiment; the detailed description of entering 1 step has been carried out to object of the present invention, technical scheme and beneficial effect; be understood that; the foregoing is only specific embodiments of the invention; be not limited to the present invention; within the spirit and principles in the present invention all, any amendment made, equivalent replacement, improvement etc., all should be included within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (7)

1. gentle dip thin-mining methods of middle thickness orebody, it is characterized in that, described mining methods back production gentle dip thin-middle thickness orebody time, the ore body in a stope is divided into two stope regions (1) and (2), step by step back production;
First, use sublevel caving method without sill pillar to carry out back production to stope region (1), use medium-length hole big gun hole by ore body with the direct avalanche of single segmentation; The scope of freedom of certain dead zone as stope region (2) back production is formed after ore removal;
Then, Handling by blast force mining codes are used to carry out back production to stope region (2), fan shaped medium length hole big gun hole is arranged perpendicular to orebody strike, medium-length hole big gun hole decking, charge segment is at the bottom of ore body lower wall border to hole, with stope region (1) back production formed dead zone be that explosion is carried out by row in the scope of freedom, utilize quick-fried power by the ore throwing in stope region (2) in dead zone;
After stope mining ore removal terminates, the part ore in stope rock drilling road form taper ore storage reclaimed by the ore deposit The Small Well that slips that upwards sublevel drilling road is dug in fragmented transport tunnel.
2. mining methods according to claim 1, is characterized in that, the concrete steps of described mining methods are as follows:
1) tunnel fragmented transport tunnel (3) in the firm region of ore body lower wall country rock along orebody trend, tunnel adopts prestressed anchor supporting;
2) at vertical fragmentation haulage drift (3) driving ore removal route (4), the support pattern same with fragmented transport tunnel (3) is adopted to carry out supporting to ore removal route (4); Slip casting long cable supporting is adopted in fragmented transport tunnel (3) and the T-shaped fork place of ore removal route (4);
3) when ore removal route (4) driving is to ore body lower wall 3 ~ 5m place, arrange rock drilling road (5) perpendicular to ore removal route (4), rock drilling road (5) are communicated with every bar ore removal route (4); The support pattern same with fragmented transport tunnel (3) is adopted to carry out supporting to rock drilling road (5);
4) every bar ore removal route (4) is considered as a stope, reserved studding (7) between adjacent stope, and fore-set (6) reserved by the stope between upper and lower segmentation, is mixed into press, to prevent barren rock with reaching control; Stopping sequence is from the centre of segmentation to two ends back production;
5) adopt fan shaped medium length hole (10) explosion to carry out falling ore deposit, use jumbo boring; First, Caving Method with Large Space is used to carry out back production to stope region (1), construction cutting crosscut (9) and slot raise (8) in rock drilling road (5), construction number row upward hole in cutting crosscut (9), with slot raise (8) for forming cutting groove after the explosion of the scope of freedom, for explosion provides the scope of freedom; Dead zone (12) is formed, for stope region (2) explosion provides the scope of freedom after stope region (1) explosion ore removal;
6) back production is carried out to stope region (2), fan shaped medium length hole (10) is arranged perpendicular to orebody strike, medium-length hole (10) decking, charge segment is at the bottom of ore body lower wall border to hole, the dead zone (12) formed with stope region (1) back production, for carrying out explosion by row in the scope of freedom, utilizes quick-fried power by the ore throwing in stope region (2) in dead zone (12);
7) often to arrange after shot hole blasting ore removal in time, for next row explosion provides the scope of freedom, use scraper to enter rock drilling road (5) ore removal by ore removal route (4) and adjacent ore removal route (4); In the ore removal later stage, rock drilling road (5) interior part ore forms taper ore storage the most at last, utilizes to slip ore deposit The Small Well (11) and reclaim in next segmentation;
8) after substoping, in fragmented transport tunnel (3), upwards sublevel drilling road (5) are dug and are slipped ore deposit The Small Well (11), by slipping the interior ore storage remained in the upper sublevel drilling road (5) of ore deposit The Small Well (11) recoverys.
3. mining methods according to claim 2, it is characterized in that, described fragmented transport tunnel (3), ore removal route (4) and rock drilling road (5) are arranged in the region of ore body lower wall adjoining rock stability, ore removal route (4) spacing 12 ~ 15m, rock drilling road (5) are communicated with every bar ore removal route (4); Drift section is wide × and height is 3.2m × 3.4m; The prestressed anchor supporting that fragmented transport tunnel (3) adopts, the long 2.4m of its anchor pole, diameter 18mm, supporting mesh degree 1.5m × 1.5m, the prestressing force of applying is greater than 100KN; Ore removal route (4) spacing 12 ~ 15m, drift section 3.2m × 3.4m; The long 6.0m of anchor cable of the slip casting long cable supporting that fragmented transport tunnel (3) adopts with the T-shaped fork place of ore removal route (4), net degree 3.0m × 3.0m, slip casting water/binder ratio 0.35 ~ 0.4.
4. mining methods according to claim 3, is characterized in that, in described step (5), slot raise (8) section 2.0m × 2.0m is vertical or incline raise; Cutting crosscut (9) is extended forward by ore removal route (4).
5. mining methods according to claim 4, is characterized in that, the aperture 76mm of the fan shaped medium length hole (10) that described step (5) and step (6) use, bottom hole pitch 2.0m, array pitch 2.0m, hole depth is no more than 30m.
6. mining methods according to claim 5, it is characterized in that, the distinguished and admirable trend of described stope ventilation is: fresh wind, through fragmented transport tunnel (3), ore removal route (4), rock drilling road (5), after rinsing work plane, is extracted out through return air raise; Dead working face by fan drum blowing/exhausting, to guarantee process air quality.
7. mining methods according to claim 6, it is characterized in that, at the described stope mining initial stage, the fore-set (6) of stope and studding (7) is utilized to support Stope roof, along with the increase of stopping area, Stope roof natural caving, presses with utilizing the natural caving management of Stope roof.
CN201310598485.4A 2013-11-22 2013-11-22 A kind of gentle dip is thin-the novel mining methods of middle thickness orebody CN103590831B (en)

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