CN101737052B - Sublevel fill-mining method - Google Patents

Sublevel fill-mining method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101737052B
CN101737052B CN200910248871A CN200910248871A CN101737052B CN 101737052 B CN101737052 B CN 101737052B CN 200910248871 A CN200910248871 A CN 200910248871A CN 200910248871 A CN200910248871 A CN 200910248871A CN 101737052 B CN101737052 B CN 101737052B
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filling
ore
route
mining
sublevel
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CN200910248871A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101737052A (en
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苗刚
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河北邯邢矿冶设计院有限公司
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21CMINING OR QUARRYING
    • E21C41/00Methods of underground or surface mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/16Methods of underground mining; Layouts therefor
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21FSAFETY DEVICES, TRANSPORT, FILLING-UP, RESCUE, VENTILATION, OR DRAINING IN OR OF MINES OR TUNNELS
    • E21F15/00Methods or devices for placing filling-up materials in underground workings

Abstract

The invention discloses a sublevel fill-mining method. By utilizing the natural angle of repose characteristics of caving ores and dry mine fill and according to medium hole drilling device-adapted height and the ore-permitted exposed area, space and time at present, sublevel mining is carried out from the bottom to the top in the open-field state and the dry mine fill is adopted for filling in time. The sublevel fill-mining method has the advantages of an open-field method and a dry fill and sublevel caving method without sill pillar, thereby forming a novel sublevel dry fill-mining method without sill pillar, and is particularly applied to ore mines with large-scale ore body and high yield requirement. The top filling of a filling body is realized by the self-weight of the filling body; a vibratory roller or a device special for underground tamping is adopted to apply pressure to the filling body through a lane top plate to tamp the filling body in a vibration mode, so that the filling body generates a certain bearing force to the above ore body or the rock mass. The sublevel fill-mining method is a mining method which has the advantages of safety, high efficiency, high mining capacity, low loss and dilution, and low production cost.

Description

A kind of sublevel fill-mining method
Technical field
The present invention relates to the underground mining design for scheme, particularly a kind of sublevel fill-mining method.
Background technology
Sublevel caving method without sill pillar is that present underground mine is used the most a kind of mining methods.This method is compared with other mining methods, has simple in structurely, and flexibility is big; Do not need pillar, the mining preparation work amount is little, and process for stoping is simple; Rock drilling voluntarily, carrier loader efficiently easy to use, work such as rock drilling, ore caving and ore removal are all carried out in stope drift active workings, and safety condition is good; Labor productivity is high, the outstanding advantage of the big grade of ability.But sublevel caving method without sill pillar also exists simultaneously and covers ore drawing under the rock, and loss late, the rate of dilution are higher, and draw control is strict, operation in dead face, critical defects such as ventilation condition difference.And the most basic applicable elements of this method is that the face of land allows avalanche.When the face of land did not allow avalanche, sublevel caving method without sill pillar just can not use, and its outstanding advantage also just has no way of bringing into play.
Open-stope method under given conditions, can stop the face of land to subside.But, need stay suitable ore pillar underground, become permanent loss.If the goaf has comprehensive utilization value, this permanent loss perhaps also is worthy of consideration.Otherwise filling is carried out in the reply goaf, to eliminate safe hidden trouble.And when bashing, the reply ore pillar reclaims.
In order to reclaim ore pillar, must carry out consolidated fill to mineral building.Cemented fill must have enough intensity.Otherwise the safety that reclaims ore pillar work just can not get guaranteeing.Consolidated fill not only needs suitable fund input, and needs the long time to drop into.Because cemented fill needs the time maintenance.The top that connects of obturation is to be difficult to realize that particularly cemented fill will shrink and sedimentation in solidification process.After cemented fill was shunk, it must be impossible connecing the top.It is thus clear that the consolidated fill cost is high, effect is unsatisfactory.
Dry stowing is a kind of original filling method, it is believed that this filling method labour intensity is big, pack effectiveness is low, of poor quality.Thereby dry filling method is abandoned by people.Needing the underground mine of filling, generally do not considering dry stowing, and more hanker after hydraulic fill or consolidated fill.Yet, to compare with hydraulic fill and consolidated fill, the dry stowing facility is simple, and is with low cost, and filling operation can be carried out mining activity after accomplishing immediately, need not wait for the dehydration of hydraulic fill or the maintenance of consolidated fill.
Summary of the invention
For solving the problems referred to above that prior art exists; The objective of the invention is to need filling, ore and country rock be firm more than medium, tilt to the thick above or extremely thick ore body of gentle dip in the high-dipping; A kind of safe, efficient, advantage that ability is big that had both had sublevel caving method without sill pillar proposed; Can effectively avoid the face of land of sublevel caving method without sill pillar to subside again, loss late is high, the rate of dilution is high, the shortcoming of ventilation condition difference, the technology bottom-column-free sectional filling mining method simple, with low cost that also has dry filling method simultaneously.
To achieve these goals, technical scheme of the present invention is following: a kind of sublevel fill-mining method may further comprise the steps:
A. ore body is divided and the route layout
According to present rock drilling apparatus of middle deep hole adaptable height and ore deposit rock exposed area, exposed space and open-assembly time of being allowed; Mode with reference to sublevel caving method without sill pillar ore blocked out; Adopt the height of lift identical, arrange entry along orebody trend or vertical orebody trend with sublevel caving method without sill pillar; Adjacent sectional tunnel interlaced arrangement; The plan mining body that undertake in every tunnel is the water chestnut cylinder; The water chestnut cylindricality ore body that each plan is adopted relates to two segmentations, three levels, four routes; Tunnel under the water chestnut cylindricality ore body that plan is adopted is an extracting drift, and the place level is the back production level; Tunnel on the top is the filling route, and the place level is the filling level; Two middle tunnels are filling route again, and the place level is filling level again; Because broken ore and dry stowing material natural repose angle are generally all in 45 °, thereby drift interval should be not less than 2 times of height of lift; That is: each plan water chestnut cylindricality ore body the ratio of width to height >=1 of adopting;
B. implement to divide section mining
The mining technology flow process comprises adopts standard, cutting, back production, filling and compacting; The described standard of adopting is identical with the sublevel caving method without sill pillar flow process with the cutting flow process; Described back production is in extracting drift, to carry out drawing back; Described filling is in the filling route, to carry out the protrusive filling, and described compacting is at the filling route and in the filling route obturation is tamped; Described back production, filling and compacting flow process are following:
B1. back production: long and medium hole drilling, powder charge, explosion and the ore removal of accomplishing an ore caving interval ore body through extracting drift;
B2. filling: the ore of each ore caving interval is during by avalanche, and the base plate of filling route will be collapsed an ore caving interval, for getting in touch between filling route and the goaf opened passage; Accomplish the ore removal operation of an ore caving interval at extracting drift after, long and medium hole drilling, the charging that will carry out next circulation; At this moment, carry out the dry stowing operation at the filling route; In the stowing operation,, make obturation connect the top naturally by the deadweight of filler and the effect that rolls of transportation filler vehicle; Along with the carrying out of filling operation, make the filling route base plate that is collapsed be filled with step material and recover;
B3. in extracting drift, carry out in the ore removal operation; In the filling route; Adopt tamping apparatus to tamp to the obturation that connects the top, force obturation to connect the top more fully, and the sedimentation of the filling route base plate that causes owing to shrinking, tamping is filled up;
B4. after accomplishing the filling operation of an ore caving interval, the ore of the next ore caving interval of avalanche then, carries out ore removal to broken ore in extracting drift; Simultaneously, tamp at the filling route; Circulation is filled with the material landfill gradually and disappears this segmentation back production and sand off until extracting drift successively;
C. with back production, filling and the filling segment level that moves up again; The filling route becomes extracting drift again; The filling route is become filling route again; The new development heading of accomplishing is as the filling route above the former filling route;
D. repeat implementation step B and C then, by that analogy, up to ore body all extraction and bashing from bottom to top.
The described extracting drift of step B of the present invention carries out back production and filling route when carrying out filling and tamping operation; In filling route again, from start to finish the obturation of its underpart is shunk and owing to dry type filling and adopt tamping apparatus that it is carried out tamping operation is again carried out in the run off dead zone that produces of filler that back production caused.
Tamping apparatus of the present invention is vibratory roller or special-purpose down-hole tamping apparatus.
Compared with prior art, beneficial effect of the present invention is following:
1. be the advantage that has made up sublevel caving method without sill pillar, open-stope method and dry filling method owing to the present invention, thereby constituted a kind of brand-new bottom-column-free sectional dry stowing mining methods.This method is compared with sublevel caving method without sill pillar, and ore removal is ore removal under the barnyard state under the change covering rock, becomes back production from top to bottom and is back production from bottom to top.Compare with sublevel caving method without sill pillar, because of form of structure with to fell and transport equipment identical, so have safety, efficient, ability is big, cost is low advantage equally; And the present invention carries out filling along with the carrying out of actual mining to the goaf, not avalanche of country rock, also not avalanche of the face of land.The present invention is also compatible, and open-stope method and dry filling method are lost advantages such as little, that dilution is little, ventilation condition good, filling cost is low.
2. because the present invention utilizes the natural repose angle characteristic of broken ore and dry stowing material, ore body is divided and the route layout has constituted diamond structure, and the dry stowing material can lean on its deadweight and rolling of haulage vehicle and connect the top naturally; And, obturation is tamped processing, force obturation to connect the top more fully; And the generation support force certain to top board; Before roof weighting, the Active support top board more effectively stops the face of land to subside.
3. compare with sublevel caving method without sill pillar, the present invention is an ore removal under the barnyard state of " visual ", and its loss, dilution index are the sublevel caving method without sill pillar that will be lower than ore removal under the covering layer of " hidden " naturally.There are not loss of the peculiar spine of sublevel caving method without sill pillar and positive loss.If adopt loosen blasting technique also can avoid broken ore a large amount of " penetrating " to go into the dry stowing heap, ore deposit rock contact area is littler, thereby the loss of ore, dilution also can further reduce.
4. compare with sublevel caving method without sill pillar, the present invention is for deferring to ore deposit rock natural repose angle characteristic, and its drift interval is more than 2 times of height of lift.And that sublevel caving method without sill pillar must be deferred under the covering layer ore drawing spheroid is theoretical, drift interval and height of lift about equally or drift interval be slightly less than height of lift.It is thus clear that the present invention adopts accurate engineering quantity and only is equivalent to the half the of sublevel caving method without sill pillar.
5. new wind of the present invention is got into by ore removal route connection roadway and filling route connection roadway respectively.The dirty wind of flushing ore removal work plane rises to the filling level through barnyard, together with the dirty wind of flushing filling work plane, is discharged by the ore removal route connection roadway of filling level.At filling route again, new wind is got into by filling route connection roadway, washes the dirty wind of filling operation face again, is discharged by the route connection roadway of filling level again.Compare with sublevel caving method without sill pillar, the present invention connects distinguished and admirable ventilation, and the ventilation of the extracting drift of sublevel caving method without sill pillar is the dead face ventilation.Obviously, ventilation effect of the present invention is better, and expense is low.
6. because the present invention has adopted dry stowing, compare with hydraulic fill and consolidated fill, the dry stowing facility is simple, with low cost, and filling operation can be carried out mining activity after accomplishing immediately, need not wait for the dehydration of hydraulic fill or the maintenance of consolidated fill.
7. because sublevel fill stoping barnyard exposed area of the present invention and exposed space are little, open-assembly time is short, thereby, more safer than the stage filling.Simultaneously, because the distinctive flexibility of the present invention, help rejecting horsestone, be easy to realize that the branch of different minerals, different grade ores adopts.
Description of drawings
5 in the total accompanying drawing of the present invention, wherein:
Fig. 1 is the bottom-column-free sectional dry stowing mining methods A-A sectional front view that the vertical orebody trend of extracting drift of the present invention is arranged.
Fig. 2 is the B-B left view of Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is the bottom-column-free sectional dry stowing mining methods A-A sectional front view that extracting drift of the present invention is arranged along orebody trend.
Fig. 4 is the B-B left view of Fig. 3.
Fig. 5 is that the filler of bottom-column-free sectional dry stowing mining methods of the present invention connects the top sketch map.
Among the figure: 1-back production studding, 2-extracting drift connection roadway, 3-extracting drift, 4-are intended the mining body; The 5-medium-length hole, the 6-broken ore, 7-filling studding, 8-cuts gallery; 9-is the filling route again, 10-dry stowing material, 11-filling route; 12-filling route connection roadway, 13-development heading, 14-tamping apparatus.
The specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing the present invention is further specified.Shown in Fig. 1~5, a kind of sublevel fill-mining method may further comprise the steps:
A. ore body is divided and the route layout
According to present rock drilling apparatus of middle deep hole adaptable height and ore deposit rock exposed area, exposed space and open-assembly time of being allowed; Mode with reference to sublevel caving method without sill pillar ore blocked out; Adopt the height of lift identical, arrange entry along orebody trend or vertical orebody trend with sublevel caving method without sill pillar; Adjacent sectional tunnel interlaced arrangement; The plan mining body 4 that undertake in every tunnel is the water chestnut cylinder; The water chestnut cylindricality ore body that each plan is adopted relates to two segmentations, three levels, four routes; Tunnel under the water chestnut cylindricality ore body that plan is adopted is an extracting drift 3, and the place level is the back production level; Tunnel on the top is a filling route 11, and the place level is the filling level; Two middle tunnels are filling route 9 again, and the place level is filling level again; Because broken ore 6 and dry stowing material 10 natural repose angles are generally all in 45 °, thereby drift interval should be not less than 2 times of height of lift; That is: each plan water chestnut cylindricality ore body the ratio of width to height >=1 of adopting;
B. implement to divide section mining
The mining technology flow process comprises adopts standard, cutting, back production, filling and compacting; The described standard of adopting is identical with the sublevel caving method without sill pillar flow process with the cutting flow process; Described back production is in extracting drift 3, to carry out drawing back; Described filling is in filling route 11, to carry out the protrusive filling, and described compacting is at filling route 11 and in the filling route 9 obturation is tamped; Described back production, filling and compacting flow process are following:
B1. back production: accomplish medium-length hole 5 rock drilling, powder charge, explosion of an ore caving interval ore body and broken ore 6 is carried out ore removal through extracting drift 3;
B2. filling: the ore of each ore caving interval is during by avalanche, and the base plate of filling route 11 will be collapsed an ore caving interval, for getting in touch between filling route 11 and the goaf opened passage; After extracting drift 3 is accomplished the ore removal operation of an ore caving interval, medium-length hole 5 rock drilling, the charging that will carry out next circulation; At this moment, carry out the dry stowing operation at filling route 11; In the stowing operation,, make obturation connect the top naturally by the deadweight of filler and the effect that rolls of transportation filler vehicle; Along with the carrying out of filling operation, make filling route 11 base plates that collapsed be filled with step material and recover;
B3. in extracting drift 3, carry out in the ore removal operation; In filling route 11; Adopt tamping apparatus 14 to tamp to the obturation that connects the top, force obturation to connect the top more fully, and the sedimentation of filling route 11 base plates that cause owing to shrinking, tamping is filled up;
B4. after accomplishing the filling operation of an ore caving interval, the ore of the next ore caving interval of avalanche then, carries out ore removal to broken ore 6 in extracting drift 3; Simultaneously, tamp at filling route 11; Circulation is filled with the material landfill gradually and disappears this segmentation back production and sand off until extracting drift 3 successively;
C. with back production, filling and the filling segment level that moves up again; Filling route 9 becomes extracting drift 3 again; Filling route 11 is become filling route 9 again; The new development heading of accomplishing 13 is as filling route 11 above the former filling route 11;
D. repeat implementation step B and C then, by that analogy, up to ore body all extraction and bashing from bottom to top.
The described extracting drift 3 of step B of the present invention carries out back production and filling route 11 when carrying out filling and tamping operation; In filling route 9 again, from start to finish the obturation of its underpart is shunk and owing to dry type filling and adopt tamping apparatus 14 that it is carried out tamping operation is again carried out in the run off dead zone that produces of filler that back production caused.
Tamping apparatus 14 of the present invention is vibratory roller or special-purpose down-hole tamping apparatus.
Facing the course of work of the present invention and beneficial effect down further specifies.
As depicted in figs. 1 and 2, when extracting drift 3 vertical orebody trends are arranged, do not need pillar.Upper and lower Pan Mai arranges extracting drift connection roadway 2 and filling route connection roadway 12 outward respectively, ore removal work by lower wall upwards dish retreat, filling operation by lower wall upwards dish advance, between the upper and lower dish through filling route 9 and development heading 13 contacts again.Connect again filling route 9 as cutting gallery 8 at the ore body lower wall, and then draw back cutting groove.New wind is got into by last dish extracting drift connection roadway 2 and lower wall filling route connection roadway 12 respectively.The dirty wind of flushing ore removal work plane rises to the filling level through barnyard, together with the dirty wind of flushing filling work plane, is discharged by the dish extracting drift connection roadway 2 of going up of filling segmentation.The new wind of filling operation is got into by lower wall filling route connection roadway 12 again, washes the dirty wind of filling operation face again, is discharged by the dish extracting drift connection roadway 2 of going up of filling level again.
Like Fig. 3 and shown in Figure 4, when extracting drift 3 when orebody trend is arranged, the route connection roadway is arranged in the studding, the lower wall arteries and veins is arranged connection roadway along the pulse outward, extracting drift connection roadway 2 and filling route connection roadway 12 separation.Ore removal work is retreated to extracting drift connection roadway 2 one ends by filling route connection roadway 12 1 ends.Filling operation is advanced to extracting drift connection roadway 2 one ends by filling route connection roadway 12 1 ends.If must adopt consolidated fill near the recovery studding, studding.If do not reclaim studding, can all adopt dry stowing.At filling route connection roadway 12 place studdings and plan mining body 4 intersections, connect again filling route 9 as cutting gallerys 8, and then draw back cutting groove.Ventilation form when arranging with above-mentioned extracting drift 3 vertical orebody trends is similar, and new wind is got into by the extracting drift connection roadway 2 of ore removal level and the filling route connection roadway 12 of filling level respectively.The dirty wind of flushing ore removal work plane rises to the filling level through barnyard, together with the dirty wind of flushing filling work plane, is discharged by the extracting drift connection roadway 2 of filling level.The ventilation of filling operation again, new wind is got into by the filling route connection roadway 12 of filling level again, washes the dirty wind of filling operation face again, is discharged by the extracting drift connection roadway 2 of filling level again.
As shown in Figure 5; The present invention utilizes the natural repose angle characteristic of broken ore 6 and dry stowing material 10; Ore body is divided and the route layout has constituted diamond structure; Dry stowing material 10 can lean on its deadweight and rolling of haulage vehicle and connect the top naturally, and in addition, the present invention has also taked following two measures:
1. in filling route 11, adopt tamping apparatus 14 to tamp to the obturation that connects the top, force obturation to connect the top more fully, and the sedimentation of filling route 11 base plates that cause owing to shrinking, tamping is filled up;
2. in filling route 9 again, from start to finish the obturation of its underpart is shunk and owing to dry type filling and adopt tamping apparatus 14 that it is carried out tamping operation is again carried out in the run off dead zone that produces of filler that back production caused.
More than two measures can force obturation to connect the top more fully, and produce the support force certain to top board, before roof weighting, the Active support top board more effectively stops the face of land to subside.
Down-hole tamping apparatus 14 sole masses of special use of the present invention can be much smaller than general vibratory roller.Operating principle is to utilize back that filler is exerted pressure, and with mode of vibration filler is tamped.

Claims (3)

1. sublevel fill-mining method is characterized in that: may further comprise the steps:
A. ore body is divided and the route layout
According to present rock drilling apparatus of middle deep hole adaptable height and ore deposit rock exposed area, exposed space and open-assembly time of being allowed; Mode with reference to sublevel caving method without sill pillar ore blocked out; Adopt the height of lift identical, arrange entry along orebody trend or vertical orebody trend with sublevel caving method without sill pillar; Adjacent sectional tunnel interlaced arrangement; The plan mining body (4) that undertake in every tunnel is the water chestnut cylinder; The water chestnut cylindricality ore body that each plan is adopted relates to two segmentations, three levels, four routes; Tunnel under the water chestnut cylindricality ore body that plan is adopted is extracting drift (3), and the place level is the back production level; Tunnel on the top is filling route (11), and the place level is the filling level; Two middle tunnels are filling route (9) again, and the place level is filling level again; Because broken ore (6) and dry stowing material (10) natural repose angle are in 45 °, thereby drift interval should be not less than 2 times of height of lift; That is: each plan water chestnut cylindricality ore body the ratio of width to height >=1 of adopting;
B. implement to divide section mining
The mining technology flow process comprises adopts standard, cutting, back production, filling and compacting; The described standard of adopting is identical with the sublevel caving method without sill pillar flow process with the cutting flow process; Described back production is in extracting drift (3), to carry out drawing back; Described filling is in filling route (11), to carry out the protrusive filling, and described compacting is at filling route (11) and in the filling route (9) obturation is tamped; Described back production, filling and compacting flow process are following:
B1. back production: accomplish medium-length hole (5) rock drilling, powder charge, explosion of an ore caving interval ore body and broken ore (6) is carried out ore removal through extracting drift (3);
B2. filling: the ore of each ore caving interval is during by avalanche, and the base plate of filling route (11) will be collapsed an ore caving interval, for getting in touch between filling route (11) and the goaf opened passage; Accomplish the ore removal operation of an ore caving interval at extracting drift (3) after, medium-length hole (5) rock drilling, the charging that will carry out next circulation; At this moment, carry out the dry stowing operation at filling route (11); In the stowing operation,, make obturation connect the top naturally by the deadweight of filler and the effect that rolls of transportation filler vehicle; Along with the carrying out of filling operation, make filling route (11) base plate that is collapsed be filled with step material and recover;
When B3. in extracting drift (3), carrying out the ore removal operation; In filling route (11); Adopt tamping apparatus (14) to tamp to the obturation that connects the top, force obturation to connect the top more fully, and the sedimentation of filling route (11) base plate that causes owing to shrinking, tamping is filled up;
B4. after accomplishing the filling operation of an ore caving interval, the ore of the next ore caving interval of avalanche then, carries out ore removal to broken ore (6) in extracting drift (3); Simultaneously, tamp at filling route (11); Circulation is filled with the material landfill gradually and disappears this segmentation back production and sand off until extracting drift (3) successively;
C. with back production, filling and the filling segment level that moves up again; Filling route (9) becomes extracting drift (3) again; Filling route (11) is become filling route (9) again; The new development heading of accomplishing (13) is as filling route (11) above the former filling route (11);
D. repeat implementation step B and C then, by that analogy, up to ore body all extraction and bashing from bottom to top.
2. a kind of sublevel fill-mining method according to claim 1; It is characterized in that: the described extracting drift of step B (3) carries out back production and filling route (11) when carrying out filling and tamping operation; In filling route (9) again, from start to finish the obturation of its underpart is shunk and owing to dry type filling and adopt tamping apparatus (14) that it is carried out tamping operation is again carried out in the run off dead zone that produces of filler that back production caused.
3. a kind of sublevel fill-mining method according to claim 1 and 2 is characterized in that: described tamping apparatus (14) is vibratory roller or special-purpose down-hole tamping apparatus.
CN200910248871A 2009-12-28 2009-12-28 Sublevel fill-mining method CN101737052B (en)

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PCT/CN2010/070251 WO2011079538A1 (en) 2009-12-28 2010-01-19 Method for stope-and-fill mining in sections

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