CN102823357B - Method for accelerating germination of carya illinoensis seeds in late winter and early spring - Google Patents

Method for accelerating germination of carya illinoensis seeds in late winter and early spring Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102823357B
CN102823357B CN201210351615XA CN201210351615A CN102823357B CN 102823357 B CN102823357 B CN 102823357B CN 201210351615X A CN201210351615X A CN 201210351615XA CN 201210351615 A CN201210351615 A CN 201210351615A CN 102823357 B CN102823357 B CN 102823357B
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China
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seed
seeds
apocarya
vernalization
soaking
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CN201210351615XA
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102823357A (en
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李永荣
郭忠仁
张计育
翟敏
宣继萍
贾晓东
刘永芝
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南京绿宙薄壳山核桃科技有限公司
江苏省中国科学院植物研究所
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Abstract

The invention relates to a method for accelerating germination of carya illinoensis seeds in late winter and early spring, belonging to the technical field of fruit tree and forest cultivation. The method comprises the steps of: 1) collecting seeds and removing impurities; 2) soaking the seeds in 3% of potassium permanganate solution for 30min for sterilization; 3) soaking the seeds in cold water for 5 days; 4) laminating and storing in sand at low temperature; 5) soaking the seeds by hormone: soaking the seeds in 500mg/L of GA3 (gibberellic acid), 50mg/L of IBA (indolebutyric acid) and 50mg/L of 6-BA (6-benzyl aminopurine) for 24 hours; 6) treating in a high-voltage electrostatic field (HVEF) with intensity of 30KV/cm for 1 hour; and 7) accelerating germination and sowing, and counting the germination rate after a month, wherein the germination rate is above 96%. By using the method, the sowing of the seeds is brought forward by more than 2 months and significance is brought to the seedling culture of the carya illinoensis.

Description

A kind of method of apocarya seed vernalization in early spring in winter in evening
Technical field
The invention belongs to fruit tree and Forest-tree culture technical field, relate to a kind of method of apocarya seed vernalization in early spring in winter in evening.
Background technology
Fruit tree refers to perennial woody or herbaceous plant, is characterized in genotype height heterozygosis, and the hybrid generation variation is larger, therefore can not carry out breeding of nursery stock by sexual propagation.So adopt pierre on fruit tree, as technology such as grafting, cuttage, stolon, group trainings.Wherein propagation by grafiting is topmost propagation method in fruit nursery stock production, produces at present the upper stock that utilizes and mainly by seedling, breeds.
Apocarya is world-renowned high-grade dry fruit, oil plant seeds and material fruit dual-purpose fine tree species.The thin easy stripping of shuck, kernel is plump, is rich in fat, distinguishes the flavor of fragrant and sweet, is the edible raw material that reaches oil expression of dry fruit.Its trunk is perfectly straight, and material is solid, and texture is careful, and high resilience is difficult for warping and fracturing, for manufacturing the excellent material of furniture.In addition, the large grandness of apocarya tree height, be thick with leaves, and tree performance is graceful, is the good key seeds in upper strata in gardens.It is wet that it is water-fast, plants in around suitable river alongshore, lake and flat area " four is other ".Can do street tree and shade tree.
The stock of apocarya grafting is the seedling of the seeds such as walnut and apocarya.Apocarya seed spring, Qiu Junke sowing.No matter be to sow in spring or autumn sowing, seed is easily gnawed by mouse, bird.Sometimes weather is arid, the seed dehydration, and emergence rate is low.Sow in spring and generally at late March or the first tenday period of a month in April, carry out.But no matter be to sow in spring or autumn sowing, but annual seedling is difficult to reach the degree of grafting, generally need to ability grafting after two growth seasons.
Summary of the invention
In order to overcome above problem, but the seedling that makes sowing then reaches the rugosity of grafting, present technique has been invented a kind of apocarya seed germination accelerating method in late early spring in winter, seed was germinateed at the beginning of by the end of February with 3 months, germinate in advance more than 2 months than conventional seed planting, also increase more than 2 months vegetative period thus, but at the seedling that First Year reaches grafting August, be more than 98%.
Technical scheme of the present invention is implemented in the following manner,
A kind of method of apocarya seed vernalization in early spring in winter in evening, it is characterized by and comprise the following steps, and sequencing can not be put upside down:
1): the seed collecting impurity elimination, gather full seed after the apocarya full maturity, remove broken seed, and according to seed weight, carry out classification, be respectively, more than 7g, 5-7g, below 5g;
2): adopt 3% liquor potassic permanganate to soak seed 30min sterilization;
3): soaked in cold water 5 days, change water every day once, after seed soaking, the surface of the seed moisture is dried, must guard against and can not be exposed to the sun;
4) lamination, low temperature is husky to be hidden, and by sand: seed carries out at 3: 1, and temperature is 5-10 ℃, and humidity is agglomerating for holding, and the hand pine reaches and falls apart, and the time is 60 days.
5) hormone seed soaking, soaked seed 24 hours with 500mg/LGA3+50mg/LIBA+50mg/L6-BA;
6) high-voltage electrostatic field (HVEF) processes: intensity is 30KV/cm, 1 hour time;
7) vernalization: at the beginning of annual 2 months (environmental temperature 1-5 ℃ of left and right), matrix is from top to bottom successively: colza cake (10cm), plastic film (1 layer), matrix (5cm, 1), seed (2 layers), matrix (the same) horse liver soil, vermiculite, peat soil and perlite weight ratio=3: 1: 2:, outside covers one deck black plastic film, then take little shed, the outer covered with plastic film of shed and straw screen or mat, temperature 20-25 ℃; Sow and add up germination rate after 1 month, germination rate is more than 96%.
The described sowing time be annual first arrival in February by the end of March.
The condition that described seed dries is indoor drying in the shade or low temperature drying;
Described Stratification condition is, temperature 5-10 ℃, and the time is 60 days-80 days, preferred 60 days.
1), seed (2 layers), matrix (the same) described vernalization matrix condition is colza cake, film, matrix (horse liver soil, vermiculite, peat soil and perlite weight ratio=3: 1: 2: from top to bottom successively, outside covers two-layer black plastic film, then take little shed, the outer covered with plastic film of shed and straw screen or mat.
During described vernalization, seed is 1 layer or two-layer, and close-packed arrays is put.
During described vernalization, the thickness of colza cake is 8-15cm, preferred 10cm.
Described matrix (horse liver soil, vermiculite, peat soil and perlite weight ratio=3: 1: 2: thickness 1) is 5-8cm, preferred 5cm.
Beneficial effect:
The method of apocarya seed vernalization in early spring in winter in evening of the present invention, compare with traditional method, produced following beneficial effect:
First with cold water, carry out pretreatment before 1 lamination, because the vernalization of apocarya lamination is a water absorption course slowly, it simultaneously is also a process that transforms and slowly germinate slowly, Seed sprouting is relevant to seed moisture proportion, only seed-bearing moisture content approaches or just starts to sprout while reaching capacity moisture content, and the moisture content of needed time of the moisture content that reaches capacity while to seed, starting lamination is relevant, before lamination, moisture content is lower, absorb water slower, reach capacity time of moisture content is longer, and the time of suitable vernalization also can be longer; The inventor found through experiments, and before lamination, seed is carried out soaked in cold water 5 days, changes water every day once, after such pretreatment, moisture content can reach 25%, can be so that lamination just reaches capacity in 60 days state, shorten germination time, and this pretreatment can increase the field germination rate.
Preprocess method Moisture content after pretreatment Germination rate (after lamination 60 days)
Seed soaking 5d ??25% ??77%
Seed soaking 1d ??17% ??60%
Non-processor ??11% ??55%
2 is known in this field, and hormone kind and concentration are to the significant effect of having grown of seed, and the present application people finds, uses 500mg/LGA 3+ 50mg/LIBA+50mg/L6-BA soaked seed 24 hours, can significantly improve the germination rate of apocarya seed, and the single-factor experimental result shows, after adopting this hormone to soak, percentage of seedgermination has improved 17.5%, has greatly shortened sprout time.
3 utilize high-voltage electrostatic field to process seed, have affected the motion of permeability and other polar molecule of film, have improved absorption and the transhipment physical capacity of cell, thereby can promote the growth of organizing.it not only can change the interior of seed, accelerate seed germination, improve percentage of seedgermination, promote growth of seedling, but also can strengthen the premunition of seed, kipeming high yield, yet, utilize high-voltage electrostatic field to process seed, different kind numerical value differ larger, different intensity and ageing can produce different effects, if it is excessive to process electric-field intensity, or the processing time is long, can make plant cell come to harm even dead, and electric-field intensity is too small or the time is too short, can cause again treatment effect not obvious, it is 30KV/cm that the present application people draws for apocarya seed employing intensity through creative work, the treatment effect of 1 hour time is best, percentage of seedgermination, germination index, vitality index numerical value is maximum, conductivity values is minimum, seed vitality reaches optimum state, every physical signs is extreme value.
4 horse liver soil are the distinctive a kind of soil in THE LOWER YANGTZE VALLEY area, and Sha Xingqiang, do and can consolidate root, but wet water conservation, its shortcoming is that water permeable ability is strong, and dehydration is too fast, easily air-dry, and single use can make the base portion dehydration withered.Peat soil has good permeability and larger salt balance ability, perlite and vermiculite suction, ventilative, the present application people is through creative work for many years, screen the contrast experiment, screen from a large amount of cutting mediums the liver soil of going into action, vermiculite, peat, these four kinds of matrix of perlite according to 3: 1: 2: 1 part by weight is combined with, the optimum apocarya germinates, and does mutually mutual induction between each matrix, reaches the effect of ventilative, moisturizing, solid root.
5 carry out vernalization by this technology to apocarya, can avoid seed to suffer bird pest and the plague of rats.Utilize the method can make the apocarya seed in early spring in winter evening (by the end of February, at the beginning of 3 months), ambient temperature lower than 20 ℃, soil temperature is lower than germinateing under the condition of 15 ℃.This technology can make the apocarya seed sprouting in advance more than 2 months, and increase more than 2 months vegetative period, but at the seedling that First Year reaches grafting August, reaches more than 98%.Compare with traditional apocarya seeding and seedling raising, more than its graft seedling growth can be carried the previous year, greatly shortened the time of carrying out seedling-wood breeding by graft technology.
Four, description of drawings
Picture after Fig. 1 apocarya germinates
Five, embodiment
The method of a kind of apocarya seed vernalization in early spring in winter in evening is characterized by and comprises the following steps and sequencing can not be put upside down:
1): the seed collecting impurity elimination, gather full seed after the apocarya full maturity, remove broken seed, and according to seed weight, carry out classification, be respectively, more than 7g, 5-7g, below 5g;
2): adopt 3% liquor potassic permanganate to soak seed 30min sterilization;
3): soaked in cold water 5 days, change water every day once, after seed soaking, the surface of the seed moisture is dried, must guard against and can not be exposed to the sun;
4) lamination, low temperature is husky to be hidden, and by sand: seed carries out at 3: 1, and temperature is 5-10 ℃, and humidity is agglomerating for holding, and the hand pine reaches and falls apart, and the time is 60 days.
5) hormone seed soaking, use 500mg/LGA 3+ 50mg/LIBA+50mg/L6-BA soaks seed and cleans with clear water after 24 hours;
6) high-voltage electrostatic field (HVEF) processes: intensity is 30KV/cm, 1 hour time;
7) vernalization sowing: at the beginning of annual 2 months (environmental temperature 1-5 ℃ of left and right), matrix is from top to bottom successively: colza cake (10cm), plastic film (1 layer), matrix (5cm, 1), seed (2 layers), matrix (the same) horse liver soil, vermiculite, peat soil and perlite weight ratio=3: 1: 2:, outside covers one deck black plastic film, then take little shed, the outer covered with plastic film of shed and straw screen or mat, temperature 20-25 ℃; Sow and add up germination rate after 1 month, germination rate is more than 96%.
Sow and add up germination rate after 1 month, germination rate is more than 96%.Utilize the method to make planting seed in advance more than 2 months, seed seedling (seedling) increases more than 2 months vegetative period, (diameter 〉=0.6cm) reach more than 98%, the invention of this technology has great importance for growing seedlings of apocarya can be used for then the seedling of grafting.

Claims (3)

1. the method for apocarya seed vernalization in early spring in winter in evening, its feature has following steps:
1) seed collecting impurity elimination, gather full seed after the apocarya full maturity, remove broken seed, and according to seed weight, carry out classification;
2) adopt 3% liquor potassic permanganate to soak seed 30min sterilization;
3) soaked in cold water is 5 days, changes water every day once, after seed soaking, the surface of the seed moisture is dried;
4) lamination, low temperature is husky to be hidden, and by sand: seed carries out at 3: 1, and temperature is 5-10 ℃, and the time is 60 days;
5) hormone seed soaking, use 500mg/L GA 3+ 50mg/L IBA+50mg/L6-BA soaked seed 24 hours;
6) high-voltage electrostatic field (HVEF) processes: intensity is 30KV/cm, 1 hour time;
7) vernalization sowing: be successively from top to bottom: colza cake 10cm, 1 layer of plastic film, matrix 5cm, seed, matrix 5cm, outside covers one deck black plastic film, then takes little shed, the outer covered with plastic film of shed and straw screen or mat, temperature 20-25 ℃; Above-mentioned matrix is horse liver soil, vermiculite, peat soil and perlite weight ratio=3: 1: 2: 1.
2. the method for a kind of apocarya seed vernalization in early spring in winter in evening according to claim 1, it is characterized in that the sowing time be annual first arrival in February by the end of March.
3. the method for a kind of apocarya seed vernalization in early spring in winter in evening according to claim 1, is characterized in that the condition that the surface of the seed moisture dries is indoor drying in the shade or low temperature drying.
CN201210351615XA 2012-09-21 2012-09-21 Method for accelerating germination of carya illinoensis seeds in late winter and early spring CN102823357B (en)

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CN104160801B (en) * 2014-06-13 2016-04-27 句容谷歌庄园现代农业科技发展有限公司 A kind of germination accelerating method in winter of apocarya seed
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CN110447452A (en) * 2019-09-23 2019-11-15 江苏省中国科学院植物研究所 A kind of apocarya high position grafting breeding method

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CN102656977A (en) * 2012-05-03 2012-09-12 江苏澳洋生态农林发展有限公司 High-temperature stratification turnover box seedling-raising method for seeds of carya illinoensis

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