CN102644464B - Constructing method for mining embedded artificial boundary ore pillar from open-pit to underground mine - Google Patents

Constructing method for mining embedded artificial boundary ore pillar from open-pit to underground mine Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102644464B
CN102644464B CN201210106771.XA CN201210106771A CN102644464B CN 102644464 B CN102644464 B CN 102644464B CN 201210106771 A CN201210106771 A CN 201210106771A CN 102644464 B CN102644464 B CN 102644464B
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route
filling
artificial
groove
drift
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CN201210106771.XA
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CN102644464A (en
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李元辉
徐帅
刘建坡
王立君
卢栋
张凤鹏
金长宇
杨成祥
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东北大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a constructing method for mining an embedded artificial boundary ore pillar from an open-pit to underground mine. The constructing method comprises the following steps of: firstly, digging a trench at the boundary of an open-pit bottom ore body and surrounding rock as a transmitting road; secondly, carrying out robbing and filling on the ore body in the pit in three layers by adopting an upward drift filling method; requiring each layer of drift to overdraft and enter an upper-wall surrounding rock; after each drift is robbed, paving an artificial reinforced concrete false bottom and then filling; realizing the connection between every two filling units by connecting constructing ribs of adjacent drifts; after each layer of drift is robbed and filled, paving an artificial reinforced concrete false bottom in the trench and carrying out lap welding on connecting drift with constructing ribs of the trench; filling a layer height to next layer in the trench; and finally, forming the embedded artificial boundary ore pillar in the open-pit bottom. The pit bottom treatment is realized by using the method, so that the aims of recovering ore pillar resources, maintaining the slope stability, isolating open water burst, blocking off underground air leakage and stopping the influence on the underground production by external weather can be achieved.

Description

The construction process of the embedded artificial boundary ore pillar of transition from open-pit underground mine exploitation

Technical field

The present invention relates to the mining technology, particularly the construction process of the embedded artificial boundary ore pillar of a kind of transition from open-pit underground mine exploitation.

Background technology

As everyone knows, the ore body when mine buries more shallow or on earth's surface, is arranged while appearing, applicable strip mining transformation.Strip mining transformation has return adopt ratehigh, the rate of dilution is low, output is large, cost is low and the advantage of job safety.But need to peel off a large amount of Tu Yan to disclose ore body because of strip mining transformation, its mining depth is extremely restricted.Along with the increase of mining depth, the strip mining transformation meeting is because more and more being not suitable for the mine production requirement exploitation that need go underground.This first with outdoor method exploitation top, mineral deposit, then be transitioned into the method for by the method for underground exploitation, exploiting the bottom in mineral deposit and be referred to as the transition from open-pit underground mining.Since 20 century 70s, a large amount of metal mines starts to adopt the transition from open-pit underground mining both at home and abroad.Particularly, along with the sharply increase of social development to resource requirement, increasing surface mine all will face the problem of transition from open-pit underground mining.

For the mine of transition from open-pit underground mining, the productive life in whole mine generally will be passed through transitional period and the underground mining phase three phases of strip mining transformation phase, outdoor and underground unitized production.In transitional period and underground mining phase, generally all have the safety problem of Combined mining operation, especially when underground exploitation be that while just carrying out stoping operation under cheating in the open, underground mining can make a big impact to Open pit slope stability; Simultaneously, the seal at the bottom of open-air pit is bad can make a big impact to underground ventilating and water vent.Therefore, at the bottom of open-air pit, must take rational engineering measure, the safety and steady transition of guarantee transition from open-pit underground mining.

According to the literature, bottom, transition from open-pit underground mining hole reason has two kinds of methods at present: a kind of is reserved boundary ore pillar, and the top in the first stage casing of bottom, hole underground mining retains certain thickness ore pillar in the open; The second is by avalanche side slope or backfill barren rock, forms rock cover, to isolate outdoor and underground production.

A kind of front method is multiplex in adopting open-stope method and filling method to carry out the mine of underground mining.The method is calculated according to correlation theories such as K.B. Lu Bienieyite, Plate Beam theories, and the retention thickness of boundary ore pillar is between 10-30m, and according to the size at the bottom of open-air pit, it takies the ore deposit amount generally between ten thousand tons of 15-30.Because the boundary ore pillar belongs to the protectiveness ore pillar; its rate of recovery is lower (being generally 50-60%) usually; loss and dilution is huge; cause the permanent waste of a large amount of non-renewable resources; bring the tremendous economic loss to mining, lost the huge ore deposit amount that can be used for alleviating transition from open-pit underground mining transitional period production pressure simultaneously.

A kind of rear method is multiplex in adopting Caving Method with Large Space to carry out the mine of underground mining.The method is by the mode of avalanche side slope or barren rock backfill open-air pit, forms certain thickness rock cover to meet the production requirement of Caving Method with Large Space.Because rock deposit in this rock cover is loose, the particle inequality, there are a large amount of gaps between rock, seal is poor, certainly will bring following problem to production: the one, during rainy season, outdoor charge for remittance and ground precipitation can pour in down-hole from directly passing through covering layer in cheating, and to drainage underground, bring immense pressure, also to production, bring major safety risks; The 2nd, the wind phenomenon is easily leaked out, runs to the underground ventilating system, causes difficulty to the downhole production ventilating management; The 3rd, winter temperature descends, and cold air directly enters down-hole by covering layer, and down-hole easily produces freezing, and the tunnel after freezing can make the Vehicle Driving Cycle difficulty, and operating condition worsens, and has a strong impact on production efficiency.

Summary of the invention

Defect for bottom, above-mentioned transition from open-pit underground mining hole reason technology, task of the present invention is to provide the construction process of the embedded artificial boundary ore pillar of a kind of transition from open-pit underground mine exploitation, adopt the method to be cheated the bottom reason, reach recovery ore pillar resource, safeguard stability of slope, isolate outdoor water burst, cut off the purpose that down-hole leaks out, stops that outside weather affects downhole production.

Basic principle of the present invention is that the boundary ore pillar at the bottom of utilizing underground mining methods to open-air pit carries out back production, use the filler bashing simultaneously, make the certain thickness artificial boundary ore pillar of buried orebody of obturation and upper lower burrs country rock complete, to reach above purpose.

The construction process of the embedded artificial boundary ore pillar of transition from open-pit underground mine exploitation of the present invention comprises the following steps:

(1) at first from absolute altitude excavation groove at the bottom of open-air pit as transport routes, groove is arranged in the end ore body of hole, groove excavates to boundary ore pillar bottom surface absolute altitude and flattens by the gradient of movement requirement, along the ore body lower wall, pulls open and is pushed into the end wall toe;

(2) adopt Upward drift stoping with backfill to divide three layers to carry out back production to cheating interior ore body, the vertical ore body layout of extracting drift, back production length is that ore body is entirely thick, and extracting drift wants over-extraction to enter in the armor rock; In same level, stopping sequence is " every one, adopting one ", i.e. first back production one step route, then back production two step routes, and back production successively from inside to outside, in varying level, back production from bottom to top, upper and lower two-layer extracting drift interlaced arrangement;

(3) back production of first layer route and filling:

First exploit a step route, after back production, lay the false end of REINFORCED CONCRETE ARTIFICIAL in the bottom of a step route; Artificial false bottom adopts individual layer steel mesh reinforcement structure, and steel mesh reinforcement is arranged in the bottom of artificial false bottom, and the structure muscle of steel mesh reinforcement adopts indented bars, and the structure muscle of steel mesh reinforcement adopts plain steel-bar; There is the structure muscle that connects adjacent route the steel mesh reinforcement both sides, and there is the structure muscle that connects route and country rock at the steel mesh reinforcement rear portion, and there is the structure muscle that connects route and groove the steel mesh reinforcement front portion; Paving is during muscle, by the structure muscle of the adjacent route of connection of the side right-angle bending that makes progress, makes it to be close to two step routes body sidewall to be dug up mine; Make a structure muscle part that connects route and country rock enter country rock, a part exposes; Establish steel bar preassembling in route sealing template bottom and box out, the structure muscle that connects route and groove exposes by this hole, and buries the soil protection; After this, with concrete filling one step route, make the step route after filling form embedded the connection with country rock;

Carry out two step drift stopings after one step admission passage filling; After two step drift stopings, identical with a step route, lay the false end of REINFORCED CONCRETE ARTIFICIAL in the bottom of two step routes; With pneumatic pick, the structure muscle of the adjacent route of connection of one step route curving of above-mentioned filling is picked out and straightening afterwards, overlapped with the steel mesh reinforcement of two step route artificial false bottom; Before two step admission passage fillings, the concrete interface of a step route is cleared up, removed scum silica frost and float stone on interface, and rinse with clear water, filling two step routes then, be connected a step route and two step routes after filling mutually;

(4) after first layer drift stoping and filling, carry out the filling of groove: before the groove filling, first the dabbing processing is carried out in the interface between first layer route and groove, add the planting reinforced bar into concrete consisted of indented bars on this interface, the form of construction work of planting reinforced bar into concrete is identical with the form of construction work of anchor pole simultaneously; Lay the false end of REINFORCED CONCRETE ARTIFICIAL in the bottom of groove, the structure of this artificial false bottom is identical with above-mentioned artificial false bottom; The groove artificial false bottom is connected with the structure muscle joint welding of groove with the route that is connected of first layer route artificial false bottom, and concrete to the second slice drift of a layer height of filling in groove then, complete being connected of first layer route and groove;

(5) the same method in employing and step (3) and (4) is carried out back production and filling to the second slice drift and the 3rd slice drift successively, and to the filling of groove, finally form the false end of REINFORCED CONCRETE ARTIFICIAL of the beneath buried orebody fully of open-air pit, complete the structure of the embedded artificial boundary ore pillar of transition from open-pit underground mining.

For the water burst in open-air pit is collected, in order to discharge in time with pump, the permanent puddle at the bottom of being provided with weathering and being positioned at the weathering slope on the superiors' concrete cement plane at the false end of REINFORCED CONCRETE ARTIFICIAL of the complete buried orebody of described step (5).

The present invention compared with prior art, has the following advantages:

1, lay the boundary ore pillar and synchronize and carry out with ore in the back production hole, adopt means outdoor and that underground mining combines, reclaim to greatest extent resource in hole, the rate of recovery can be brought up to more than 95%.

2, the boundary ore pillar of laying belongs to embedded composite construction artificial ore pillar, and this ore pillar is followed successively by the false end of high strength reinforced concrete, the false end of regular tenacity steel concrete and three layerings of plain concrete charges from the bottom to top.Each layering is welded with the upper lower burrs country rock and is connected by anchor pole, form complete embedded composite construction, its intensity and enabling capabilities are greater than original ore deposit rock, integrality, good stability, can greatly improve the maintenance effect to side slope, isolate well outdoor and underground influencing each other.

3, because the embedded artificial boundary ore pillar airtight performance of composite construction is good, utilize drainage grade reserved on artificial false bottom the superiors concrete cement plane and permanent puddle that outdoor water burst is collected simultaneously, and discharge in time by hole end fixed pump station, thereby reach better water proof and waterproof purpose.

4, because the artificial boundary ore pillar of composite construction can be isolated outdoor and underground production well, make the underground ventilating system not be subject to ectocine, can not run air leakage phenomena, thereby guarantee underground ventilating system normal operation.

The accompanying drawing explanation

Accompanying drawing is the embodiment of the present invention---domestic certain gold mine adopts the Construction Principle figure of the embedded artificial boundary ore pillar of the inventive method structure transition from open-pit underground mining, wherein:

Fig. 1 is the Construction Principle plan view;

Fig. 2 is along Figure 1A-A sectional drawing;

Fig. 3 is Figure 1B-B paving figure (sectional view);

Fig. 4 is step of the present invention (1) grooving schematic diagram;

Fig. 5 is step of the present invention (2) drift stoping schematic diagram;

Fig. 6 is the false bottom structure schematic diagram of REINFORCED CONCRETE ARTIFICIAL in step of the present invention (3);

Fig. 7 is artificial false bottom steel mesh reinforcement front end partial enlarged drawing in Fig. 6.

In figure: the 1-open-air pit, 2-groove (transport routes) 3-hole end ore body, 4-first layer route, 5-the second slice drift, 6-the 3rd slice drift, 7-mono-step route, 8-bis-step routes, 9-connects the structure muscle of route and country rock, the structure muscle of 10-steel mesh reinforcement, 11-connects the structure muscle of adjacent route, the structure muscle of 12-steel mesh reinforcement, and 13-connects the structure muscle of route and groove.

The specific embodiment

Below in conjunction with the accompanying drawing illustrated embodiment, the invention will be further described.

Referring to figs. 1 through Fig. 6, the embedded artificial boundary ore pillar construction process of the present embodiment gold mine transition from open-pit underground mining, construction sequence is as follows:

(1) at first from 1 end of open-air pit absolute altitude excavation groove 2, groove is arranged at the intersection of hole end ore body 3 and country rock, and groove excavates to boundary ore pillar bottom surface absolute altitude and flattens by the gradient of movement requirement, along the ore body lower wall, pulls open and is pushed into the end wall toe.

(2) adopt Upward drift stoping with backfill to divide three layers (first layer route 4, the second slice drift 5 and the 3rd slice drifts 6 in figure) to carry out back production from bottom to top to cheating interior ore body, the vertical ore body of extracting drift is arranged, extracting drift width 4m, first layer route 4m, high 3m, back production length is that ore body is entirely thick, and extracting drift wants over-extraction, makes it to enter armor rock 2m; In same level, stopping sequence is " every one, adopting one ", first adopts a step route 7, after adopt two step routes 8, back production successively from inside to outside; In varying level, back production from bottom to top, upper and lower two-layer route is answered interlaced arrangement.

(3) back production of first layer route and filling:

First exploit a step route 7, after back production, lay the false end of REINFORCED CONCRETE ARTIFICIAL in the bottom of a step route; Artificial false bottom adopts individual layer steel mesh reinforcement structure, steel mesh reinforcement is arranged in the bottom of artificial false bottom, protective layer thickness is 0.15m, the structure muscle 10(of steel mesh reinforcement wears the mineral ore direction) employing 20HRB335 indented bars, spacing is 0.25m, the structure muscle 12(of steel mesh reinforcement is along the mineral ore direction) adopt the 12R235 plain steel-bar, spacing is 0.5mm; There is the structure muscle 11 that connects adjacent route the steel mesh reinforcement both sides, there is the structure muscle 9 that connects route and country rock at the steel mesh reinforcement rear portion, there is the structure muscle 13 that connects route and groove the steel mesh reinforcement front portion, and structure muscle 11,9 and 13 all adopts the 12R235 plain steel-bar, and spacing is respectively 0.25m; Paving is during muscle, by the structure muscle of the adjacent route of connection of the side right-angle bending that makes progress, makes it to be close to two step routes 8 body sidewall to be dug up mine; Make structure muscle 9 parts that connect route and country rock enter country rock, a part exposes; Establish steel bar preassembling in route sealing template bottom and box out, the structure muscle 13 that connects route and groove exposes by this hole, and buries the soil protection; After this, with this route of concrete filling one step, make the step route after filling form embedded the connection with country rock;

Carry out two step route 8 back production after one step route 7 fillings; After two step drift stopings, identical with a step route, lay the false end of REINFORCED CONCRETE ARTIFICIAL in the bottom of two step routes; With pneumatic pick, the structure muscle of the adjacent route of connection of one step route curving of above-mentioned filling is picked out and straightening afterwards, overlapped with the steel mesh reinforcement of two step route artificial false bottom; Will be cleared up the concrete interface of a step route before two step admission passage fillings, remove scum silica frost and float stone on interface, and rinse with clear water, filling two step routes then, be connected a step route and two step routes after filling mutually;

(4) after 4 back production of first layer route and filling, carry out the filling of groove 2: before the groove filling, first the dabbing processing is carried out in the interface between first layer route and groove, add the planting reinforced bar into concrete consisted of indented bars on this interface, the form of construction work of planting reinforced bar into concrete is identical with the form of construction work of anchor pole simultaneously; Lay the false end (structure of this artificial false bottom is identical with first layer route artificial false bottom) of REINFORCED CONCRETE ARTIFICIAL in the bottom of groove; The artificial false bottom of groove is connected with the mutual joint welding of structure muscle of groove with the route that is connected of the artificial false bottom of first layer route, then concrete to the second slice drift 5 of a layer height of filling in groove, complete being connected of first layer route 4 and groove;

(5) the same method in employing and step (3) and (4) is carried out back production and filling to the second slice drift and the 3rd slice drift successively, and to groove for the second time and filling for the third time, form the false end of REINFORCED CONCRETE ARTIFICIAL of complete buried orebody under last hole in the open; Simultaneously, reserve the permanent puddle at the bottom of being beneficial to the drainage grade that collects water burst in open-air pit and being positioned at slope on artificial false bottom the superiors concrete cement plane, the embedded artificial boundary ore pillar of transition from open-pit underground mining is accused and is built up.

Claims (2)

1. the construction process of the embedded artificial boundary ore pillar of transition from open-pit underground mine exploitation, is characterized in that, comprises the following steps:
(1) at first from absolute altitude excavation groove at the bottom of open-air pit as transport routes, groove is arranged in the end ore body of hole, groove excavates to boundary ore pillar bottom surface absolute altitude and flattens by the gradient of movement requirement, along the ore body lower wall, pulls open and is pushed into the end wall toe;
(2) adopt Upward drift stoping with backfill to divide three layers to carry out back production to cheating interior ore body, the vertical ore body layout of extracting drift, back production length is that ore body is entirely thick, and extracting drift wants over-extraction to enter in the armor rock; In same level, stopping sequence is " every one, adopting one ", i.e. first back production one step route, then back production two step routes, and back production successively from inside to outside, in varying level, back production from bottom to top, upper and lower two-layer extracting drift interlaced arrangement;
(3) back production of first layer route and filling:
First exploit a step route, after back production, lay the false end of REINFORCED CONCRETE ARTIFICIAL in the bottom of a step route; Artificial false bottom adopts individual layer steel mesh reinforcement structure, and steel mesh reinforcement is arranged in the bottom of artificial false bottom, and the structure muscle of steel mesh reinforcement adopts indented bars, and the structure muscle of steel mesh reinforcement adopts plain steel-bar; There is the structure muscle that connects adjacent route the steel mesh reinforcement both sides, and there is the structure muscle that connects route and country rock at the steel mesh reinforcement rear portion, and there is the structure muscle that connects route and groove the steel mesh reinforcement front portion; Paving is during muscle, by the structure muscle of the adjacent route of connection of the side right-angle bending that makes progress, makes it to be close to two step routes body sidewall to be dug up mine; Make a structure muscle part that connects route and country rock enter country rock, a part exposes; Establish steel bar preassembling in route sealing template bottom and box out, the structure muscle that connects route and groove exposes by this hole, and buries the soil protection; After this, with concrete filling one step route, make the step route after filling form embedded the connection with country rock;
Carry out two step drift stopings after one step admission passage filling; After two step drift stopings, identical with a step route, lay the false end of REINFORCED CONCRETE ARTIFICIAL in the bottom of two step routes; With pneumatic pick, the structure muscle of the adjacent route of connection of one step route curving of above-mentioned filling is picked out and straightening afterwards, overlapped with the steel mesh reinforcement of two step route artificial false bottom; Before two step admission passage fillings, the concrete interface of a step route is cleared up, removed scum silica frost and float stone on interface, and rinse with clear water, filling two step routes then, be connected a step route and two step routes after filling mutually;
(4) after first layer drift stoping and filling, carry out the filling of groove: before the groove filling, first the dabbing processing is carried out in the interface between first layer route and groove, add the planting reinforced bar into concrete consisted of indented bars on this interface, the form of construction work of planting reinforced bar into concrete is identical with the form of construction work of anchor pole simultaneously; Lay the false end of REINFORCED CONCRETE ARTIFICIAL in the bottom of groove, the structure of this artificial false bottom is identical with above-mentioned artificial false bottom; The groove artificial false bottom is connected with the structure muscle joint welding of groove with the route that is connected of first layer route artificial false bottom, and concrete to the second slice drift of a layer height of filling in groove then, complete being connected of first layer route and groove;
(5) the same method in employing and step (3) and (4) is carried out back production and filling to the second slice drift and the 3rd slice drift successively, and to the filling of groove, finally form the false end of REINFORCED CONCRETE ARTIFICIAL of the beneath buried orebody fully of open-air pit, complete the structure of the embedded artificial boundary ore pillar of transition from open-pit underground mining.
2. transition from open-pit underground mine according to claim 1 is exploited the construction process of embedded artificial boundary ore pillar, it is characterized in that the permanent puddle at the bottom of being provided with weathering and being positioned at the weathering slope on the superiors' concrete cement plane at the false end of REINFORCED CONCRETE ARTIFICIAL of the complete buried orebody of described step (5).
CN201210106771.XA 2012-04-12 2012-04-12 Constructing method for mining embedded artificial boundary ore pillar from open-pit to underground mine CN102644464B (en)

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