CN105888664A - Mining method for extremely-thick hard coal - Google Patents

Mining method for extremely-thick hard coal Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105888664A
CN105888664A CN201610210154.2A CN201610210154A CN105888664A CN 105888664 A CN105888664 A CN 105888664A CN 201610210154 A CN201610210154 A CN 201610210154A CN 105888664 A CN105888664 A CN 105888664A
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China
Prior art keywords
coal
layering
thick hard
layer
extremely thick
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CN201610210154.2A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
杨俊哲
陈苏社
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China Shenhua Energy Co Ltd
Shenhua Shendong Coal Group Co Ltd
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China Shenhua Energy Co Ltd
Shenhua Shendong Coal Group Co Ltd
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Priority to CN201610210154.2A priority Critical patent/CN105888664A/en
Publication of CN105888664A publication Critical patent/CN105888664A/en
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21CMINING OR QUARRYING
    • E21C41/00Methods of underground or surface mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/16Methods of underground mining; Layouts therefor
    • E21C41/18Methods of underground mining; Layouts therefor for brown or hard coal
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D11/00Lining tunnels, galleries or other underground cavities, e.g. large underground chambers; Linings therefor; Making such linings in situ, e.g. by assembling
    • E21D11/04Lining with building materials
    • E21D11/10Lining with building materials with concrete cast in situ; Shuttering also lost shutterings, e.g. made of blocks, of metal plates or other equipment adapted therefor

Abstract

The invention discloses a mining method for extremely-thick hard coal. The method includes the following steps that the extremely-thick hard coal is divided into at least two layers; roadway tunneling is performed on the first layer; fully-mechanized mining equipment is installed in a roadway of the first layer; fully-mechanized stoping is performed on the first layer; roadway tunneling is performed on the second layer, and top coal is reserved on a roadway of the second layer; fully-mechanized caving equipment is installed in the roadway of the second layer; a coal mining machine is adopted for cutting coal on the lower portion of the second layer; the top coal of the second layer is recycled in a top coal caving mode; all the mining steps of the second layer are repeated on all the layers below the second layer. The method has the advantages of being suitable for mining extremely-thick hard coal, high in resource recycling rate, low in cost and high in safety and reducing the probability of spontaneous combustion in goafs.

Description

Extremely thick hard coal recovery method
Technical field
The present invention relates to the technical field of coal mining, particularly relate to the extremely thick hard coal recovery method of one.
Background technology
China typically has high working face to open for the recovery method of the super high seam that thickness is 5-10m at present Adopt, separate zone production, top coal caving and strip mining transformation totally four kinds, these recovery methods have respectively respectively From different features and applicable elements.
The comprehensive large cutting height workface adopting full-seam mining is to use high working face hydraulic support and major diameter cylinder Super high seam is exploited by the supporting fully-mechanized mining equipment such as coal-winning machine.China's full-seam mining is adopted greatly at present The maximum height in high comprehensive mining face is only 8.8m, there is no method for more than the 8.8m coal seam that thickness is bigger real The large cutting height workface of existing full-seam mining.
Separate zone production refers to super high seam is used the method being the most gradually layered fully-mechnized mining, Higher slice to be that manufacture of intraocular vacation top is exploited in lower leaf in base plate paving mesh sheet during back production, Deng back production lower leaf again after higher slice back production.Although this recovery method high stoping rate, but need Sufficiently complex in base plate lapping, production practice, back production efficiency is low, and stoping cost is high.General Adopt 2 layers, every layer of mining height 4-5m, the most domestic precedent the most not adopting 3 layers, say, that at present The coal of domestic separate zone production is thick at below 10m.
Longwall top coal caving is to adopt coal-winning machine coal cutting and reclaim behind certain thickness coal seam with combining, and residue top coal is complete Portion uses caving to reclaim.This recovery method Sub-Level Caving height is restricted, if top coal is the thickest too Firmly, caving ability is the most very poor, and resource recovery is the lowest, causes the substantial amounts of wasting of resources, and adopts It is many that coal is lost in dead zone, brings the hidden danger of spontaneous fire, and put coal excessively after, be vented above support, Easily cause and cut top pressure rack accident.Therefore, the coal seam thickness that this recovery method is suitable for is the most limited, It is usually no more than 10m, and for the thickness coal seam more than 10m, longwall top coal caving method is also difficult to fit Should.
Strip mining transformation is the method by exploiting super high seam after peeling off earth's surface overlying strata again, this exploitation The method scope of application is the least, is only applicable to shallow buried coal seam, and requires that stripping-to-ore ratio can not be too big, and one Denier stripping-to-ore ratio is excessive, uneconomical on cost, and ground surface environment also can be caused serious broken by Lu Cai Bad.Therefore, strip mining transformation can not adapt to the special thick and pole high seam that buried depth is bigger.
In sum, current China all can not for all recovery methods of the super high seam of 5-10m Individually solve the mining problem of pole high seam thick for 11-217m.Therefore, it is necessary to design one money Source response rate height, low cost, safety preferably and reduce spontaneous combustion in goaf probability Extremely thick hard coal recovery method.
Summary of the invention
It is an object of the invention to overcome the deficiencies in the prior art, it is provided that a kind of resource recovery height, Low cost, safety preferably and reduce the extremely thick hard coal exploitation of spontaneous combustion in goaf probability Method.
Technical scheme provides one extremely thick hard coal recovery method, comprises the following steps:
Described extremely thick hard coal is divided at least two-layer layering;
First layer is carried out tunnelling;
Fully-mechanized mining equipment is installed in the described tunnel of described first layer;
Carry out described first layer combining and adopt back production;
Second layering is carried out tunnelling, top coal reserve on the described tunnel of described second layering;
Install to combine in the described tunnel of described second layering and put equipment;
The bottom of described second layering is used coal-winning machine coal cutting;
Sub-Level Caving is used to reclaim in the described top coal of described second layering;
Following all layerings are repeated all stages of mining of described second layering.
Further, described first layer is combined and adopted the coal seam thickness of back production is 3-5m, described second point The coal cutting of the longwall top coal caving of layer is highly 3-5m, the Sub-Level Caving of the longwall top coal caving of described second layering Thickness is 2-4m.
Further, described first layer is combined and adopted the coal seam thickness of back production is 4m, described second layering The coal cutting of longwall top coal caving be highly 4m, the thickness of the Sub-Level Caving of the longwall top coal caving of described second layering For 3m.
Further, combine while adopting or combine and putting back to and adopt, just help along haulage gate to install soft mould coagulation Cob wall.
Further, the step of described supporting soft mould concrete walls, farther include:
Combine while adopting or combine and putting back to and adopt, along the haulage gate at the support rear of stope just Side installs soft mould;
By concrete unit and conveying pipe, concrete grout is injected in described soft mould;
After solidification, then whitewash, form described soft mould concrete walls.
Further, the thickness of described soft mould concrete walls is 1-1.5m.
Further, while installing soft mould concrete walls, to the district of just exploitation on stope Territory carries out gib.
Further, described gib comprises the following steps:
Hydraulic prop for moving suspended top beam, monomer is used to join girder steel and carry out Lagging support in lane;
Caterpillar track travelling hydraulic support, monomer, wood point post and wire netting is used to carry out supporting;
Termination 1-5 frame is taked paving top net supporting, is used for keeping off cash.
Further, before installing soft mould concrete walls, the top board in described tunnel is carried out reinforcement and props up Protect.
Further, while described tunnelling, described tunnel is carried out combined supporting.
After using technique scheme, have the advantages that
The set of the present invention advantage of fully-mechnized mining, longwall top coal caving and separate zone production, and by second Layer and later top coal stablize entity coal seam as the top board in tunnel, it is not necessary to manufacturing artificial vacation top. Therefore, the present invention has and is applicable to extremely thick hard coal exploitation, resource recovery height, low cost, safety Property preferably and the advantage that reduces spontaneous combustion in goaf probability.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the flow chart of extremely thick hard coal recovery method in one embodiment of the invention;
Fig. 2 is the exploitation schematic diagram of extremely thick hard coal recovery method in one embodiment of the invention;
Fig. 3 is the flow chart of extremely thick hard coal recovery method in highly preferred embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is supporting soft mould concrete in extremely thick hard coal recovery method in highly preferred embodiment of the present invention The construction technology floor map of wall;
Fig. 5 is the exploitation schematic diagram of extremely thick hard coal recovery method in highly preferred embodiment of the present invention.
Detailed description of the invention
Further illustrate the detailed description of the invention of the present invention below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
Seeing Fig. 1-2, Fig. 1 is the flow chart of extremely thick hard coal recovery method in one embodiment of the invention; Fig. 2 is the exploitation schematic diagram of extremely thick hard coal recovery method in one embodiment of the invention, and Fig. 2 is exploitation Coal seam longitudinal sectional drawing.This recovery method specifically includes following steps:
Step S101: extremely thick hard coal is divided into two-layer layering;
Step S102: first layer is carried out tunnelling;
Step S103: install fully-mechanized mining equipment in the tunnel of first layer;
Step S104: carry out first layer combining and adopt back production;
Step S105: the second layering is carried out tunnelling, reserved top on the tunnel of the second layering Coal;
Wherein, this top coal is as the stability of cavern roof entity coal seam of digging laneway, owing to first layer is combined After adopting face back production, the roadway layout of comprehensive coal face below upper strata fully mechanized coal face formed mined out Under district, the pressure that overlying rock is formed is released, and top does not exist concentration coal column and avoids down There is the problem of focus pressure during layer driving, also avoid surge problem, advantageously in The Roof Control of driving face.
Step S106: install to combine in the tunnel of the second layering and put equipment;
Step S107: the bottom of the second layering is used coal-winning machine coal cutting;
Step S108: use Sub-Level Caving to reclaim in the top coal on the top of the second layering.
The set of the present invention advantage of fully-mechnized mining, longwall top coal caving and separate zone production, and by second Layer and later top coal stablize entity coal seam as the second back being layered, it is not necessary to as existing Some separate zone productions such manufacturing artificial vacation top.Therefore, the present invention has and is applicable to extremely thick hard coal and opens Adopt, resource recovery height, low cost, safety preferably and reduce spontaneous combustion in goaf can The advantage of energy property.
Seeing Fig. 3-5, Fig. 3 is the flow process of extremely thick hard coal recovery method in highly preferred embodiment of the present invention Figure;Fig. 4 is supporting soft mould concrete in extremely thick hard coal recovery method in highly preferred embodiment of the present invention The construction technology floor map of wall;Fig. 5 is extremely thick hard coal exploitation in highly preferred embodiment of the present invention The exploitation schematic diagram of method, Fig. 5 is working seam longitudinal sectional drawing.This recovery method specifically includes Following steps:
Step S201: extremely thick hard coal is divided into three layers of layering;
Step S202: first layer is carried out tunnelling;
Wherein, the driving height in tunnel is about 3.5m, and during driving, base plate is strictly along this layer thickness end Portion is tunneled, and forbids with in the mind pricking, thus avoids damage to underlying seam, it is to avoid digs lower slicing roadway Enter the Roof Control with back production and bring difficulty.
Step S203: while tunnelling, carries out combined supporting to tunnel;
Wherein, " anchor pole+anchor cable+mesh sheet " combined supporting is used.
Step S204: the top board in tunnel is carried out reinforcement supporting;
Wherein, before installing soft mould concrete walls, the top board in tunnel is carried out anchor cable steel band reinforcement Supporting.
Step S205: install fully-mechanized mining equipment in the tunnel of first layer;
Step S206: carry out first layer combining and adopt back production;
The coal seam thickness of first layer fully mechanized coal face back production is 4m, and such thickness had both facilitated tunnelling It is easy to again combine adopt back production, also helps soft mould concrete support gob side entry retaining.First layer is combined and is adopted back When adopting, along roof back production, mining height 4m, during back production, strictly control mining height, forbid with in the mind pricking, Avoid the Roof Control of lower slicing roadway driving and back production is brought difficulty.
Step S207: combine while adopting back production, just help along haulage gate to install soft mould concrete walls;
Wherein, the step of supporting soft mould concrete walls, farther include:
Combine while adopting back production, just help to install along the haulage gate at the support rear of stope Soft mould;
By concrete unit and conveying pipe, concrete grout is injected in soft mould;
After solidification, then whitewash, form soft mould concrete walls.
The thickness of soft mould concrete walls can be 1-1.5m.
Soft mould concrete walls form the isolation that goaf is caving spoil, and have certain to top board Support effect.So stay new crossheading that lane formed (i.e. in Fig. 4 just at face haulage crossheading) Just can continue as next work surface to use, as the air return way of next work surface.Soft mould Concrete walls achieve without coal pillar mining, as shown in Figure 4, only have one between two Adjacent Working Faces Bar crossheading, tunnelling engineering amount reduces about 50% than existing coal pillar mining, ten thousand tons of drivage ratios Being substantially reduced, cost reduces, and efficiency improves, and coal recovery rate reaches about 87%, About 12 percentage points are exceeded than the rate of extraction of national requirements 75%.
Step S208: the second layering is carried out tunnelling, reserved top on the tunnel of the second layering Coal;
Wherein, along being adopted the bottom driving that layering coal is thick during tunnelling, head-room is 3.5m, Remaining thickness (3.5m) gives over to push up coal, as the stability of cavern roof entity coal seam of digging laneway.Due to After first layer fully mechanized coal face back production, the roadway layout of comprehensive coal face below is at upper strata fully mechanized coal face Under the goaf formed, the pressure that overlying rock is formed is released, and top does not exist concentration coal column Avoid to exist during lower floor's driving the problem of focus pressure, also avoid surge problem, Advantageously in the Roof Control of driving face.
Step S209: while tunnelling, carries out combined supporting to tunnel;
Wherein, operation here is identical with first layer.
Step S210: the top board in tunnel is carried out reinforcement supporting;
Wherein, operation here is also identical with first layer.
Step S211: install to combine in the tunnel of the second layering and put equipment;
Step S212: the bottom of the second layering is used coal-winning machine coal cutting;
Wherein, the thickness of the second layering coal-winning machine coal cutting is 4m, and operation requires the phase with first layer With.
Step S213: combine while putting back to and adopting, just help along haulage gate to install soft mould concrete walls;
Wherein, operation here is also identical with first layer.
Step S214: carry out Sub-Level Caving recovery to pushing up coal described in the second top being layered;
The coal seam thickness of the second layering is 7m, adopts 4m and puts 3m, tunnelling height 3.5m, combines Tapping coal height 4m, residual thickness 3m is as top coal, and top coal can be development end and comprehensive coal face carries For stable Man-made False, and can reclaim after frame, both can improve back production to greatest extent Rate, can guarantee that again the roof safety of fully mechanized coal face.
During comprehensive coal face coal cutting, strengthen visiting top coal work, it is ensured that stay the top coal thickness set to meet design and want Ask, forbid lower bundle equally, it is to avoid the Roof Control of lower slicing roadway driving and back production is brought difficulty. Support should select the hydraulic support with telescopic top beam and face guard, uses a cutter once putting, seeing cash The caving mode stopped.
Step S215: the 3rd layering is repeated all stages of mining of the second layering.
Multi-segment coal push to adopt and can be divided into two ways: one is after first layer has all been adopted, Adopting the second layering again, the second layering adopts the 3rd layering after all having adopted again, the like, until will Pole high seam has all been adopted;Another kind be upper and lower two layering push to adopt simultaneously, higher slice front, under Layering is rear, and the higher slice roof caving such as lower leaf pushes to adopt after stablizing a segment distance again.
It is preferred that first layer is combined, to adopt the coal seam thickness of back production can be 3-5m, and the second layering is combined and decontroled Adopting coal-winning machine coal cutting height can be 3-5m, and the thickness of the Sub-Level Caving of the longwall top coal caving of the second layering can be 2-4m。
It is preferred that while installing soft mould concrete walls, to the region of just exploitation on stope Carry out gib.
Further, described gib comprises the following steps:
Hydraulic prop for moving suspended top beam, monomer is used to join girder steel and carry out Lagging support in lane;
Caterpillar track travelling hydraulic support, monomer, wood point post and wire netting is used to carry out supporting;
Termination 1-5 frame is taked paving top net supporting, is used for keeping off cash.
The invention have the advantages that
(1) new technique, new way are provided for extremely thick hard coal exploitation.In terms of the whole country, extremely thick Hard coal seam employing multi-segment gob side entry retaining is combined and is put without coal pillar mining technology, the whole nation beyond example, this skill temporarily The innovation of art solves the mining problem of the extremely thick hard coal of 11-217m, has certain popularization and application valency Value.
(2) owing to have employed without coal pillar mining, between two work surfaces, only have 1 crossheading, tunnel Excavation work amount ratio has coal pillar mining to reduce about 50%, and ten thousand tons of drivage ratios are substantially reduced, cost Reducing, efficiency improves, and coal recovery rate reaches about 87%, than national requirements 75% The rate of extraction exceed about 12 percentage points.
(3) generation of bump is effectively prevented.All use without coal owing to pole high seam is respectively layered Post is exploited, and there is not coal column after exploitation, will not form focus pressure, thus also avoid impact The problem of ground pressure.
(4) this technology coal recovery rate is greatly improved, and makes the something lost coal in goaf greatly reduce, thus The hidden danger making the spontaneous combustion in goaf is substantially reduced.
(5) tunnelling is about 3.5m due to top coal thickness, takes anchor cable, anchor pole, mesh sheet to combine Supporting, it is not necessary to frame canopy, supporting is simple, and supporting expense is low, and cost of ton coal is low.
(6) have certain destruction due to higher slice after exploiting to lower leaf coal, lower leaf is exploited Time support repeatedly support to top coal also have certain destruction, it is thus possible to ensure top good the emitting of coal Putting property, it is not necessary to top coal is carried out presplit blasting, and put also without carrying out pressure when just adopting Top.
(7) use Longwall top coal caving technology technique to achieve and be just not required to lapping under this special geologic condition Can solve very well to combine the Roof Control problem adopting tip to face distance scope, also eliminate periodic weighting simultaneously, Face pressure is less, has effectively stopped to leak cash and the generation of roof fall accident.
(8) this technology has fully been drawn fully-mechnized mining, longwall top coal caving, separate zone production and has opened without coal column Adopt the advantage of four kinds of recovery methods.Compared with separate zone production, extremely thick hard coal multi-segment is combined and is put without coal column Exploitation need not lapping manufacture of intraocular vacation top, and technique is simpler.Compared with Sub-Level Caving, Mei Gefen The gross thickness of layer only has 7m, Sub-Level Caving to only have 3m, it is ensured that emitting and put effect, the response rate is higher, And avoid and high seam top, pole coal is failed to lay down or be vented cradle top coal seam cause work Make face periodic weighting roof fall and cut the problem that top cannot advance.
(9) the thickness subject range for pole high seam is wider, and this technology uses except first layer Outside fully-mechnized mining, bottom is respectively layered and all uses longwall top coal caving, for the coal that 11-217m is even thicker Layer can be suitable for.
(10) driving is without frame canopy, and back production, without lapping, is mined and driving speed is all very fast, efficiency Height, profitable, popularizing application prospect is good.
The present invention can solve the problem that the safety and high efficiency problem of the extremely thick hard coal of 11-217m, here Hard coal refers generally to Protodyakonov coefficient f >=3, and joint fissure aplasia, the preferable coal seam of toughness.Significantly Improving resource recovery, safety is preferable, and reduces the probability of Study on Protection of Spontaneous Combustion, Provide multi-segment for the extremely thick hard coal of thickness 11-217m to combine and put the new technique without coal pillar mining.This Outward, the present invention can also apply to the exploitation of super high seam of 8-10m.
Above-described is only principle and the preferred embodiment of the present invention.It should be pointed out that, for this For the those of ordinary skill in field, on the basis of the principle of the invention, it is also possible to make some its Its modification, also should be regarded as protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. an extremely thick hard coal recovery method, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:
Described extremely thick hard coal is divided at least two-layer layering;
First layer is carried out tunnelling;
Fully-mechanized mining equipment is installed in the described tunnel of described first layer;
Carry out described first layer combining and adopt back production;
Second layering is carried out tunnelling, top coal reserve on the described tunnel of described second layering;
Install to combine in the described tunnel of described second layering and put equipment;
The bottom of described second layering is used coal-winning machine coal cutting;
Sub-Level Caving is used to reclaim in the described top coal of described second layering;
Following all layerings are repeated all stages of mining of described second layering.
Extremely thick hard coal recovery method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that described the The one comprehensive coal seam thickness adopting back production of layering is 3-5m, and the coal cutting of the longwall top coal caving of described second layering is high Degree is 3-5m, and the thickness of the Sub-Level Caving of the longwall top coal caving of described second layering is 2-4m.
Extremely thick hard coal recovery method the most according to claim 2, it is characterised in that described the The one comprehensive coal seam thickness adopting back production of layering is 4m, the coal cutting height of the longwall top coal caving of described second layering For 4m, the thickness of the Sub-Level Caving of the longwall top coal caving of described second layering is 3m.
Extremely thick hard coal recovery method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that combine adopt or Combine while putting back to and adopting, just help along haulage gate to install soft mould concrete walls.
Extremely thick hard coal recovery method the most according to claim 4, it is characterised in that described Protect the step of soft mould concrete walls, farther include:
Combine while adopting or combine and putting back to and adopt, along the haulage gate at the support rear of stope just Side installs soft mould;
By concrete unit and conveying pipe, concrete grout is injected in described soft mould;
After solidification, then whitewash, form described soft mould concrete walls.
Extremely thick hard coal recovery method the most according to claim 4, it is characterised in that described soft The thickness of mould concrete walls is 1-1.5m.
Extremely thick hard coal recovery method the most according to claim 4, it is characterised in that install soft While mould concrete walls, the region of just exploitation on stope is carried out gib.
Extremely thick hard coal recovery method the most according to claim 7, it is characterised in that described in face Time supporting comprise the following steps:
Hydraulic prop for moving suspended top beam, monomer is used to join girder steel and carry out Lagging support in lane;
Caterpillar track travelling hydraulic support, monomer, wood point post and wire netting is used to carry out supporting;
Termination 1-5 frame is taked paving top net supporting, is used for keeping off cash.
Extremely thick hard coal recovery method the most according to claim 4, it is characterised in that install soft Before mould concrete walls, the top board in described tunnel is carried out reinforcement supporting.
Extremely thick hard coal recovery method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that described While tunnelling, described tunnel is carried out combined supporting.
CN201610210154.2A 2016-04-06 2016-04-06 Mining method for extremely-thick hard coal Pending CN105888664A (en)

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CN110630265A (en) * 2018-12-26 2019-12-31 中国矿业大学 Layered mining method for controlling subsidence of surface steps of huge thick coal seam

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CN110630265A (en) * 2018-12-26 2019-12-31 中国矿业大学 Layered mining method for controlling subsidence of surface steps of huge thick coal seam
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