RU2306417C2 - Underground mineral mining method - Google Patents

Underground mineral mining method Download PDF

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RU2306417C2
RU2306417C2 RU2005121278/03A RU2005121278A RU2306417C2 RU 2306417 C2 RU2306417 C2 RU 2306417C2 RU 2005121278/03 A RU2005121278/03 A RU 2005121278/03A RU 2005121278 A RU2005121278 A RU 2005121278A RU 2306417 C2 RU2306417 C2 RU 2306417C2
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Russia
Prior art keywords
mining
ore
artificial
units
contouring
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RU2005121278/03A
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Russian (ru)
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RU2005121278A (en
Inventor
Юрий Павлович Галченко (RU)
Юрий Павлович Галченко
Игорь Израилевич Айнбиндер (RU)
Игорь Израилевич Айнбиндер
Виктор Францевич Плащинский (RU)
Виктор Францевич Плащинский
Валерий Федорович Пахалуев (RU)
Валерий Федорович Пахалуев
нин Георгий Васильевич Саб (RU)
Георгий Васильевич Сабянин
Юрий Иванович Родионов (RU)
Юрий Иванович Родионов
Петр Геннадьевич Пацкевич (RU)
Петр Геннадьевич Пацкевич
Сергей Антонович Вохмин (RU)
Сергей Антонович Вохмин
Original Assignee
Юрий Павлович Галченко
Игорь Израилевич Айнбиндер
Виктор Францевич Плащинский
Валерий Федорович Пахалуев
Георгий Васильевич Сабянин
Юрий Иванович Родионов
Петр Геннадьевич Пацкевич
Сергей Антонович Вохмин
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Abstract

FIELD: mining, particularly methods of underground mineral mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves performing second working in two stages. The first stage includes forming contouring artificial massif having constant width or width changing towards outer border thereof along ore body perimeter or along ore body zone to be prepared for further second working. The second stage involves dividing resources defined by contoured zone into excavation units by forming artificial dividing massifs. The third stage includes cutting excavation units with the use of technologies utilizing forced ore separation from massif or uncontrolled mineral caving. Cutting order provides straight line of second working movement in area under excavation, wherein the line is defined by diagonals of two or more simultaneously cut excavation units in plane view. In the case of mineral mining in zones characterized by instable ores and rock protective layer having predetermined shape is created at upper undercut level over each excavation unit. In the case of reservoir filled with pressure fluid presence in surrounding rock forming of contouring artificial massif is accompanied by creation of water-tight diaphragm extending from massif border into rock body.
EFFECT: creation of conditions favorable for high-performance mining system usage, as well as increased mining safety and efficiency.
6 cl, 8 dwg

Description

The invention relates to the field of mining and, in particular, to the underground mining of mineral deposits.
A known method of underground mining of powerful deposits, which consists in block self-collapse of ore [1]. The disadvantage of this method is the high complexity of boring drifts, partial and unpredictable destruction of pillars, high rates of loss and dilution, as well as the vulnerability of mining operations from the discharge of fluid-bearing reservoirs in the host rocks (if any).
The closest in technical essence and the achieved result is a method of developing mineral deposits [2]. The disadvantage of this method is the limited scope of application exclusively by tube-shaped ore bodies, the need to leave an ore safety pillar in the crater portion of the tube, the development of which after the extraction of floor reserves by the method proposed in the patent becomes practically impossible, which leads to an unjustified increase in the structural losses of unreacted ore, as well as the absence of a top contouring artificial massif, which increases rock pressure in the chambers of the second stage due to redistribution dividing the reference pressure during the construction of annular cylindrical sections and pylons between them.
The aim of the invention is the creation of conditions for the use of high-performance development systems, improving the safety and efficiency of mining, as well as weakening or eliminating the negative impact of geofactors.
This goal is achieved by the fact that the treatment works are carried out in three stages: at the first stage, the ore body is divided into mined areas by excavating the marginal reserves of these areas with a closed or discrete contouring excavation of a slit shape, constant - with a simple contact of the ore body or changing - with a complex contact, towards the outer contour of the width with the subsequent construction of a flat protective layer and contouring artificial arrays by filling these workings with a high-strength bookmark with a preliminary spruce reinforcement or without it; at the second stage, the mined area by excavating part of its reserves by slit-shaped workings with the construction of dividing artificial arrays into them is divided into mining units, the horizontal section sizes of which are determined by the condition of exposure of the outcrop when using subsequently technologies with forced separation of ore from the massif and by the conditions of exposure instability - when using geotechnology with self-collapsing minerals, with the extraction of reserves within a flat protective layer , Artificial contouring and separating arrays are known methods - storey or breaking sublevel wells of vertical or horizontal workings shpurovyh breaking, drilling out, with the use of layered recess harvesting; at the third stage, the reserves of mining units are worked out sequentially or in parallel with the same methods, and the mining order of mining units is taken so that the diagonals of two or more simultaneously operated mining units - in horizontal section - always make a straight line of the front of movement of the treatment works in the worked out area.
If it is necessary to reduce the start time of the treatment recess, the first and second stages are combined in time.
When developing mineral deposits with unstable ores and overlying rocks, the protective layer, within the horizontal section of the entire mined area or each mining unit, is shaped like a vault or dome.
If it is necessary to drastically reduce the cost of mining operations, the horizontal section of each mining unit is determined from the conditions of exposure instability and the treatment excavation is carried out by layer-by-layer self-collapse of the ore, which is initiated and maintained by section destruction within the thickness of the collapsed ore mass layer in the area of the castle of natural balance.
In the presence of pressurized fluid-bearing reservoirs in the host rocks, when the construction of the contouring artificial massif in ore is associated with the inevitable penetration of fluids - water, brine, oil - into the development of the mined area, the contouring artificial mass is created in the host rocks along the outer contour of the ore body by drilling parallel to this contour one or more rows of wells, hardening and waterproofing using the well-known physicochemical methods of the rock mass around the wells and their subsequent filling with hardening filling mixtures with or without preliminary reinforcement.
If it is not possible to drill in the host rocks of the wells along the ore-rock contact to protect mining from pressure fluids, in parallel with the construction of an artificial contouring array of ore from its outer boundaries into the interior of the host rock mass, construct one of the known methods an air curtain, the thickness of which is determined by known methods.
If it is necessary to solve environmental problems associated with the placement of solid waste from mining and processing facilities in the developed space, the number of extraction units used for this purpose is determined from the condition that the rock pressure is equal and the total bearing capacity of the filling mass, the horizontal section of which is reduced by value of the total area of mining units filled with solid waste from mining and processing production:
Figure 00000002
where N is the number of mining units filled with solid waste;
n is the total number of mining units in the mining area;
γ is the bulk density of the overlying rocks;
H - depth of development;
σ 1 and σ 2 - compressive strength of the material of the bookmark in the excavation
unit and in artificial arrays, respectively;
S 1 and S 2 - the area of the extraction unit and the total area of all
artificial arrays, respectively.
The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows the construction of a protective layer, contouring and dividing artificial arrays during mining of the ore body. Figure 2 shows the construction of a protective layer, contouring and dividing artificial massifs during the excavation of the mined area of the ore body and the procedure for mining mining units within this area. Figure 3 shows the ore mining in the extraction unit by the method of self-collapse and the creation of a protective layer of various shapes. Figure 4 shows the ore mining in the extraction unit by the self-collapse method with layer-by-layer ore destruction in the castle of the arch of natural equilibrium. Figure 5 shows the development of the field with the construction of an artificial contouring array and the construction, in parallel with it, of an airtight curtain. Figure 6 shows the mining of a mining unit by a chamber system with ore breaking by horizontal wells from drilling risers using treatment monorail complexes. Figure 7 shows the construction of a protective layer, contouring and dividing artificial arrays using known methods with explosive and mechanical breaking of ore. On Fig shows the filling of the worked out space of mining units with a hardening filling mixture, waste from mining, processing and metallurgical production, household and other solid waste.
The development system of mineral deposits contains floor preparatory workings 7, an external circuit 2 with local irregularities 3 in the host rocks 4 and an internal rectangular contour 5 of the mined section of the ore body 6, the lower 7 and upper 8 contour rifled workings, contouring the artificial massif 9, a protective layer of a given forms - plane 10, vault 11 or dome 12 - with soil at the level of the upper cut, lower 13 and upper 14 rifled workings and rising 15 dividing artificial massifs 16, contoured E arrays excavation units 17, 18 and fulfills fillable settable tab 19 in such a manner as to move the front sewage works 20 would pass through the diagonal excavation units; each of which has a decorated bottom 27; bottom slash 22, upper drill 23, blast holes 24 for initiating and maintaining by section destruction, within the thickness of the self-collapse layer 25, the ore mass 26 collapsed in the mining unit, released to the delivery workings of the lower horizon 27; an airtight curtain 28, erected by drilling fans of cementing wells 29 either parallel to the contour of the ore body 2 from the bottom 30 and top 31 of the drillings in the host rocks, or by drilling these wells from the layer workings 32 in the presence of the host rocks of pressure fluid-bearing reservoirs 33; mining mining units 17 by known methods with explosive breaking of ore, for example horizontal wells 34 from drilling risers 35 using treatment monorail complexes 36; ore mining within contouring 9 and separating 16 man-made arrays by using known methods with ore ore 37, with ore blasting from sub-floor drifts 38, with ore blasting with cuts 39 from drilling uprising 35 monorail complexes 36, layer excavation 40 using combines, drilling 41 and filling the waste space with high-strength filling mixtures 42, with or without reinforcement; mined-out space 43 of mining units 77, filled with a hardening filling mixture 44, waste 45, enrichment tailings 46, metallurgical slag 47, household 48 and other solid wastes 49.
The method is implemented as follows. After sinking at the level of the upper and lower horizons of the floor workings 7 along the outer contour 2 of the ore section 6 to be mined, closed contour threaded workings pass — the lower 7 and the upper 8 of the contouring artificial array 9. Then the lower 13 and upper 14 threaded workings of each of the intended dividing pass artificial arrays 16. From the upper workings of the threaded 14 and contour 8 erect a protective layer of the necessary form - flat 10, vaulted 11 or domed 12 - the lower surface of the cat cerned roof is threaded at 14 and 8 outline the workings. From the lower rifted workings 7 and 13, the contouring 9 and dividing 16 artificial massifs are started from bottom to top, using horizontal layer technology with a hardening tab or other well-known methods - floor or sub-floor break-out by boreholes from vertical or horizontal workings, hole blasting, drilling, layer excavation with use of combines. For the issuance of ore and ventilation of work along the inner contour of the contouring artificial massif 9, rebels 15 pass, which are then partially strengthened during the laying operations. At the same time, depending on the shape of the outer contour 2 of the mined section of the ore body 6, the thickness of the constructed contouring artificial array 9 may vary due to the development of local irregularities 3 of the outer contour 2 (Fig. 1).
After the erection of the protective layer 10, artificial arrays 9 and 16 in the extraction units 17 formed by them, a cleaning recess is conducted. The procedure for mining the extraction units 17 within the mining section of the ore body 6 is taken so that when conducting mining operations in any mining mining unit 18, the mining units adjacent to it on all four sides would either not be worked out 77 or filled with bookmark 19, which ensures the safety of the sites dividing artificial arrays 16, forming a mined mining unit. This is achieved by such an order of mining extraction units, in which the diagonals of two or more simultaneously mined mining units 18 would always constitute a straight line of the front of movement of the treatment works 20 in the mining section (figure 2).
When developing mineral deposits represented by unstable ores and overlying rocks, the shape of the flat protective layer 10 is changed to vaulted 11 or domed 12, and the power is determined from the condition of its stability by known methods (figure 3).
The preparation of each extraction unit 17 includes the formation of a bottom 21 of one of the known structures, conducting a bottom cutoff 22, and drilling one or more rows of blast holes 24 passing through the castle zone of the natural equilibrium arches from the upper drill hole 23. The process of layer-by-layer self-collapse is initiated and maintained by loading and blasting wells in 24 sections, the length of which is equal to the thickness of the self-collapsing layer 25. The ore mass 26 obtained in the process of self-collapse is discharged through the workings of the bottom 21 to the delivery workings of the lower horizon 27 (Fig. 4).
In difficult hydrogeological conditions, especially in the presence of pressure-bearing fluid-bearing reservoirs 32, there is a need for additional protection of the external contour 2 of the ore body to be mined by erecting an anti-filter curtain 28. This curtain is erected at the stage of erecting a contouring artificial massif 9 from its outer boundary 2 into the interior of the enclosing rocks 4. Simultaneously with the conduct of layer mining 33 in the direction of the host rock mass 4, cementation wells 29 are drilled and one of the well-known physicochemicals methods, carry out the strengthening and waterproofing of rocks adjacent to the layer development 33 (figure 5).
When mining sections of deposits with a local increase in the stability of the ore mass to medium and above average and small diameter kimberlite pipes, the mined section of the ore body 6 is removed using a mining development system with ore breaking by horizontal wells 34 from drilling risers 35 using treatment monorail complexes 36 (Fig. 6).
When mining sites or entire deposits with ores and host rocks above average stability and stable when creating contouring 9 and separation 16 artificial arrays, well-known development methods are used with explosive or mechanical breaking of ore, for example, a system with ore ore 37, a system of deck drifts 38, a system with ore breaking by sections 39 from drilling uprising 35 monorail complexes 36, layer excavation 40 using combines, drilling 41. As reserves are mined within the window ivayuschego 9 and 16 separating the spent artificial arrays space is filled with high-strength filling mixture 42 with the reinforcement preliminary or without (Figure 7).
After the construction of contouring 9 and separating 16 artificial arrays and a set of high-strength laying of passport strength, the mining units 17 are worked out in a diagonal order (see figure 2) using chamber development systems with explosive breaking of ore known for the conditions of development of powerful ore deposits, and the worked out space 43 of these chambers are filled with hardening filling mixtures 44, solid waste from mining, for example waste rock 45, waste from mining and processing industry - to tailings and enrichment 46, metallurgical processing - slag 47, as well as household 48 and other types of solid waste 49 (Fig.8).
Since spent mining units 43, when filled with various types of waste 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, cannot absorb rock pressure, it is compensated by the load-bearing capacity of the chambers filled with hardening filling mixtures 44 and erected contouring 9 and dividing 16 artificial massifs , then the stability of the entire system will be ensured if the number of chambers filled with waste (N) is related to the compressive strength of the filling mixtures in the extraction unit (σ 1 ) and in artificial arrays (σ 2 ) by the following relation :
Figure 00000003
where n is the total number of mining units in the mining area, units .;
γ is the bulk density of the overlying rocks, t / m 3 ;
H - development depth, m;
S 1 and S 2 - the area of the extraction unit and the total area of all artificial massifs, respectively, m 2 ;
σ 1 is the compressive strength of the filling mixture in the extraction unit, t / m 2 ;
σ 2 is the compressive strength of the filling material in artificial contouring and dividing arrays, t / m 2 .
Information sources
1. Kaplunov R.P., Prokopyev E.P., Starikov N.A., Brichkin A.V. Underground mining of ore and placer deposits. M.: Metallurgizdat, 1955, p. 515-561.
2. RF patent 2078209, MKI E21C41 / 00. A method of developing mineral deposits and a superstructure for its implementation / Cherney E.I., Us B.P., Baibakov S.N., Lazarev V.N. - Date of publication 04/27/1997.

Claims (6)

1. The method of underground mining of mineral deposits, including preparatory and rifling, purification work carried out in several stages, including the extraction of part of the ore body contouring and dividing workings, followed by the construction of contouring and dividing artificial arrays by filling these workings with high-strength bookmark with preliminary reinforcing or without it, dividing the ore body into quarries, and of these quarries into mining units, their mining and laying of the mined-out space, characterized in that the treatment works are carried out in three stages: at the first stage, the ore body is divided into the worked out areas by excavating the marginal reserves of these areas with a closed or discrete contouring excavation of a slot-like shape, constant when the ore body is in simple contact or changes in the direction of the external contour the width of the complex contact of the ore body with the construction of a flat protective layer and lateral contouring artificial massifs in these workings, at the second stage the area to be rolled by excavation of its reserves by slit-shaped workings with the construction of separating artificial arrays is divided into excavation units, the horizontal section sizes of which are determined by the condition of exposure stability when subsequently using geotechnologies with forced separation of ore from the array and by conditions of exposure instability - when using geotechnology with self-collapse of the ore, while the extraction of reserves of the marginal part of the ore body and the separation massifs are known and methods - floor or sub-floor blasting with boreholes from vertical or horizontal workings, hole blasting, drilling or lay-hole excavation using combines, and extraction units are worked out at the third stage using the same methods sequentially or in parallel, while the procedure for working out mining units is taken so that the diagonals two or more mining excavation units in horizontal section always constituted a straight line of the front of displacement of treatment works in the mining section.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the first and second stages are combined in time.
3. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that when developing mineral deposits represented by unstable ores and overlying rocks, the protective layer within the horizontal section of the entire worked out area or each mining unit is shaped like a vault or dome.
4. The method according to claim 1, or 2, or 3, characterized in that the cleaning recess in each extraction unit is carried out by layer-by-layer self-collapse of the ore, which is initiated and supported by sectional destruction, within the thickness of the collapsed layer, of the ore mass in the area of the natural arch castle equilibrium.
5. The method according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that in the presence of reservoirs with pressure fluids in the host rocks, an anti-filter curtain is constructed in parallel with the construction of an artificial contouring array from the outer boundaries deep into the rock mass.
6. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the worked-out space of the part of the spent chambers is filled with solid waste from mining, processing and metallurgical processing or non-industrial and household solid waste, while the number of chambers used for these purposes within the mine section is determined from the expression
Figure 00000004
where n is the total number of mining units in the mining area, units .;
γ is the bulk density of the overlying rocks, t / m 3 ;
N - depth of development, m;
S 1 and S 2 - the area of the extraction unit and the total area of all artificial massifs, respectively, m 2 ;
σ 1 is the compressive strength of the filling mixture in the extraction unit,
t / m 2 ;
σ 2 is the compressive strength of the filling material in artificial contouring and dividing arrays, t / m 2 .
RU2005121278/03A 2005-07-08 2005-07-08 Underground mineral mining method RU2306417C2 (en)

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2445459C1 (en) * 2010-07-07 2012-03-20 Учреждение Российской академии наук Институт проблем комплексного освоения недр Российской академии наук (УРАН ИПКОН РАН) Method for underground development of high-ore deposits
CN102644464A (en) * 2012-04-12 2012-08-22 东北大学 Constructing method for mining embedded artificial boundary ore pillar from open-pit to underground mine
CN102979526A (en) * 2012-11-28 2013-03-20 山东黄金矿业(莱州)有限公司焦家金矿 Building process of ore removal trench by adopting filling method in medium-length hole sublevel mining
CN104153781A (en) * 2014-08-08 2014-11-19 西北矿冶研究院 Caving mining method through inverted order sequence excavation and induced-cracking
RU2536514C1 (en) * 2013-09-02 2014-12-27 Василий Александрович Фохт Chamber method of mining heavy, valuable, comminuted ore deposits

Non-Patent Citations (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Title
БРОННИКОВ Д.М. и др. Разработка руд на больших глубинах. - М.: Недра, 1982. с.266-267. *

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
RU2445459C1 (en) * 2010-07-07 2012-03-20 Учреждение Российской академии наук Институт проблем комплексного освоения недр Российской академии наук (УРАН ИПКОН РАН) Method for underground development of high-ore deposits
CN102644464A (en) * 2012-04-12 2012-08-22 东北大学 Constructing method for mining embedded artificial boundary ore pillar from open-pit to underground mine
CN102644464B (en) * 2012-04-12 2014-01-01 东北大学 Constructing method for mining embedded artificial boundary ore pillar from open-pit to underground mine
CN102979526A (en) * 2012-11-28 2013-03-20 山东黄金矿业(莱州)有限公司焦家金矿 Building process of ore removal trench by adopting filling method in medium-length hole sublevel mining
CN102979526B (en) * 2012-11-28 2015-01-07 山东黄金矿业(莱州)有限公司焦家金矿 Building process of ore removal trench by adopting filling method in medium-length hole sublevel mining
RU2536514C1 (en) * 2013-09-02 2014-12-27 Василий Александрович Фохт Chamber method of mining heavy, valuable, comminuted ore deposits
CN104153781A (en) * 2014-08-08 2014-11-19 西北矿冶研究院 Caving mining method through inverted order sequence excavation and induced-cracking

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