Two, background technology
Building construction is one of mainstay industry of Chinese national economy, is the place of building production, life for the mankind.From the platform building yoke tree house of mankind's invention in compacting, to Qin brick and Han tile, the mankind progressively tend to ripe to building construction technology.But continuous progress along with the human history development; Continuing to bring out of new constructional materials; The building technology is also being constantly brought forth new ideas; The mankind begin to stride forward to high structure, long span building, and equipment such as, safe fire-fighting dustproof to the water supply and drainage of building construction, air conditioning, heating insulation, daylighting illumination, sound insulation are also updated, and make people's environment such as inhabitation, production, recreation comfortable day by day.
Current, the method for building construction adopts two kinds of brick mix structure, frame constructions basically.Brick mix structure is meant the structural wall of vertical load-bearing in the building with brick or concrete block masonry, and employing reinforced concrete structures such as post, beam, roof panel are processed, and prefabricated reinforced concrete floor overlaps on the wall, and the weight of floor conducts to the basis through body of wall.Brick mix structure needs a large amount of brick or building block, and the land resources waste is serious, and freight volume is big, long construction period, and complex process, in order to guarantee verticality, planeness, operating technology requires high, and thermal property is poor, and antiseismic ability is low, has not advocated application now.Frame construction refers in the building that major bearing structures such as wall, post, beam, roof panel etc. process with steel concrete, and non is filled with building block or other material; Cast-in-place concrete floor weight is conducted to post through beam, is conducted to the basis by post, and body of wall only plays to be separated and insulation effect, and exterior wall is plastered, and is indoor through living behind the remodeling finishing.Though the building method of this kind building structure has shortened construction period, has saved land resources, improved antiseismic ability; But the steel concrete cast-in-site of the wall of load-bearing, post, beam, roof panel needs a large amount of timber to carry out supporting; After the dismounting of the timber of supporting again utilization rate be merely about 20% to 30%; A large amount of timber are consumed, and a large amount of felling consumption of timber cause the waste of resource and the destruction of human ecological environment; Sound insulation, the effect of heat insulation of body of wall are poor, and the interior and exterior finishes in house also needs the ornament materials and a considerable amount of labour cost of a large amount of timber, costliness, has improved the building construction cost, has stayed disaster hidden-trouble.
Three, summary of the invention
In order to solve the deficiency of prior art, the purpose of this invention is to provide the integrated poured once-molding construction process of a kind of building construction, removed the house from and fitted up once more, improved sound insulation, effect of heat insulation is poor, has saved a large amount of timber, has protected human ecological environment.
Realize that the technical scheme that the object of the invention adopts is: according to the construction drawing requirement; Formulate the construction requirement and planning book of integrated poured one-shaping technique; The prefab form module; The ground beam forms of the good reinforced frame of supporting colligation is fluid concrete then; Solidify and carry out the formwork module supporting after reaching laying above that after the intensity, assembling reinforcement and steel mesh reinforcement, press that construction technical requirement is laid, concrete embedded of configuration, power supply facilities illuminating line, water-feeding & drainaging pipeline, ventilation passage, heating facility etc., carry out integrated poured then.
Described prefab form module comprises prefabricated ground beam forms, precast facade template, inner wall decoration formwork module, staircase formwork module, escalator formwork module; Outer wall template is by outer body of wall decoration formwork module, window mouth decoration formwork module, and balcony, rain are taken balcony decoration formwork module, inner corner trim, the decorated formwork module of external corner, beam, post decoration formwork module are formed; The inner wall decoration formwork module is by inner wall panel decoration formwork module, beam, post decoration formwork module, inner corner trim, the decorated formwork module of external corner; Parlor roof panel decoration formwork module, bedroom roof panel decoration formwork module, study roof panel decoration formwork module; Dining room roof panel decoration formwork module; Kitchen wallboard, roof panel decoration formwork module, washroom wallboard, roof panel decoration formwork module, skirting decoration formwork module is formed; The staircase formwork module is by stair decoration formwork module, roof panel decoration formwork module, and the ground decoration formwork module, inner corner trim, the decorated formwork module of external corner, the skirting formwork module is formed; The escalator formwork module is by elevator doorway decoration formwork module, wallboard decoration formwork module, ground decoration formwork module, and inner corner trim, external corner line template module, the skirting formwork module, roof panel decoration formwork module is formed.
The material of described formwork module is made up of waste or used plastics particle, flyash, sawdust and adhesive, puts into mould after the material mixing through extrusion modling, and the inner chamber of mould is processed different shape as required; Formwork module is by the vegetarian noodles formwork module that has no plating and have the non-vegetarian noodles formwork module of ornamental plating to constitute.The plating of ornamental plating formwork module is realized by the mould that forms formwork module.According to people the inside and outside decorative effect in house is required to have nothing in common with each other, each sub-district is different, and each family is different, and compartment is different, and color and luster is different, and characteristics are respectively arranged, and respectively gets the needs of inclination, and plating is must pattern various.Adopt the job practices of decoration platings such as imitative coloured reason stone that formwork module prints, ornamental stone, decoration ceramic tile, make metope texture true to nature, do not fade, safety non-pollution, class be luxurious.House wall surface leans on supporting formwork module one-time cast-forming, has removed the ornament materials and the labour cost of fitting up required costliness from, has reduced the building construction cost, has removed disaster hidden-trouble.
The described formwork module supporting concrete steps of carrying out are unwrapping wire on grade beam, successively side column, inner prop are carried out supporting, the inner, external wall template support; The doors and windows template supporting, staircase delays platform template support, stair template support; The Lift well mould slab supporting; Rain is taken the balcony slab supporting, and roof panel carries out arching, treats that the reinforcing bar of beam, post, reinforcing bar binding that rain the is taken balcony slab back that finishes takes balcony slab to beam column, rain and carry out template support; Post is touched plate, wall and is touched and will overlap tightly between the plate, when the inner, external wall template support, must carry out the strictness sealing to body of wall intermediate air layer, and lay steel mesh reinforcement in exterior wall, fixes with screw through walls comprehensively; It is tight that beam forms and column template, wall form, rain are taken balcony template overlap joint; The reinforcing bar that the reinforcing bar of beam, post, rain are taken balcony slab is connected firm with the body of wall gauze wire cloth; When laying the roof panel template; Must connect with fastening buckle between the template, to prevent template play influence cast effect, the roof panel reinforcing bar of binding will be connected firmly with other reinforcing bar; To carry out once careful safety inspection comprehensively to the house integral mold plate supporting of having accomplished, carry out casting and constructing again after errorless.
It is to be made into the arching body to the formwork module of roof panel that described roof panel carries out arching, props up guard housing through bar shaped and forms supporting; Its benefit is that it cancels each other the outward thrust of another arching body of a part of pressure and adjacent (another), so it can bear bigger pressure, can also save a large amount of support bars, and arching has stability more simultaneously.
Describedly carry out integrated poured the steps include: and earlier body of wall is implemented concrete pouring; Coupled columns, beam carry out concrete pouring again; Then to roof panel, rain take, balcony slab carries out concrete pouring, and stair are carried out concrete pouring, and the elevator shaft shear wall is carried out concrete spouting.
Externally within the walls, before the outer filling cement mortar, pour into a mould inside and outside metope cement mortar again after spraying the wall face template with the colored cement mortar of particular modulation earlier, vibrate with vibrator simultaneously and tamp; During exterior wall mortar casting and constructing, the construction of the cement mortar cast of metope in starting simultaneously.Can carry out concrete pouring after also will be earlier before beam column, roof panel, rain are taken the concrete pouring of balcony slab spraying with the colored cement mortar of particular modulation.To the concrete pouring of elevator shaft shear wall, must pour into a mould simultaneously or early than beam column with beam column, being connected simultaneously with beam column, roof panel becomes integral body.Spray coloured cement mortar and can make metope beautiful, avoid finishing.
Described body of wall intermediate air layer is surrounded by inside and outside combined wall board and packing bar, and certain thickness packing bar sealing is supported on the perimeter between the inside and outside wallboard, and inside and outside wallboard is erect and is fixed on the beam, then fluid concrete.The setting of body of wall intermediate air layer can realize wall self-insulation, has both practiced thrift expensive wall heat insulation material, and a large amount of heat insulating materials has been saved in fire prevention, heat insulation, sound insulation again.
Guarantee that high-quality accomplishes integrated poured one-time formed key and be: the one, the template selection superior in quality, prefabricated superior rationally, effects such as point, face, line rib, angle are clear clearly.The 2nd, template support is firm, and construction technology is orderly, and constructional materials must meet national requirements.The 3rd, it is stable that metope cement mortar color and luster is allocated even science, do not occur changing and contrast, and the texture true nature, decoration of exterior wall clear layer, aberration are clearly demarcated, set off each other.The 4th, the template ejection technique reaches a standard.The 5th, the sealing of body of wall intermediate air layer must strictness be adhered to program, indispensable, and be careful and responsible, meticulous.Must set up inspection system to the above-mentioned critical problem that these influence construction quality, fulfill one's duties.
The integrated poured once-molding construction process of building construction of the present invention uses prefabricated formwork module, realizes the overall perfusion one-shot forming in conjunction with the arching mode; Outer body of wall gauze wire cloth is connected with beam, post reinforcing bar, and body of wall cement mortar and beam column concrete are bordered, and beam column top and roof panel are bordered on; Make body of wall and beam, post, roof panel, balcony slab form an integral body, the master plate mould has been realized once fitting up effect inside and outside the house, has removed house fitment process once more from; Thereby reduced the complicated procedures of building construction; Save the ornament materials and a considerable amount of manpower expense of a large amount of timber, costliness, improved efficiency of construction, significantly reduced the building construction cost; Protected human ecological environment; Realized the environmental protection of indoor and outdoor, brought easy dwelling environment, evaded and moved in the resident and fit up because of the every household to the resident; A large amount of hidden dangers such as fire of using flammable inflammable ornament materials and causing have also solved the difficult problem of fire supervision department to the bad management of finishing of resident resident family.Simultaneously, the set intermediate air layer of body of wall is in closed state, and isolated outside air is realized the wall self-insulation ability, has played sound insulation, effect of heat insulation.Therefore, apply the integrated poured one-time formed new Building technology of building construction and have epoch-making milestone significance.